Input data

:

P := −25000

9

Layups

6

6

Xc := 689⋅ 10

 0.00025

0.00025

t := 
 0.00025
 0.00025

 − 45
− 75
θ := 
 − 45
 − 75

ν := 0.25

G := 2.6⋅ 10

Yt := 41⋅ 10

6

Xt := 380010

L := 0.300

9

E2 := 5⋅ 10

9

E1 := 236⋅ 10
Strengths

R := .0255

6

q := 3⋅ 10

for i ∈ 1 .. n
tt ← tt + t

2 E2

T( θ) := s ← sin ( θ⋅ deg )

E1

c ← cos ( θ⋅ deg )

 E1 ν⋅ E2 0 
 c

c


 ν⋅ E2 E2 0 
 c

c
 0

0 G

 c2 s 2 −2⋅ c⋅ s 


 2 2

2⋅ c⋅ s 
s c
 c⋅ s −c⋅ s c2 − s 2 

 0 0 0
A ( n , θ , t) := A ←  0 0 0 


 0 0 0
Q ← Q( E1, E2, G, ν)
for i ∈ 1 .. n

( i)

Ti ← T θ

T

A ← A + t ⋅ Ti⋅ Q⋅ Ti
i

Maximum stress failure criterion:
FMS( σ , Xt , Xc , Yt, Yc, S) := w ←
1

w ←
1

w ←
2

w ←
2

w ←
3

w

σ

1

if σ ≥ 0
1

Xt
−σ

1

Xc
σ

2

2

2

Yc
σ

1

if σ ≥ 0

Yt
−σ

if σ < 0

3

S

if σ < 0
2

t0 := tt ( 4 , t )
i

6

S := 69⋅ 10

tt ( n , t ) := tt ← 0

Laminate Analysis
Q( E1, E2, G, ν) := c ← 1 − ν ⋅

6

Yc := 117⋅ 10

Laminate analysis:
Q0 := Q( E1, E2, G, ν)

a := A

A := A ( 4 , θ, t)

( 1)

−1

Tα := T θ

( 2)

Tβ := T θ

Load case 1: Axial compression:

 P 
2π ⋅ R 
N1 := 
 0 
 0  
εx1 := a⋅ N1

Angle of twist:

 −1.560343× 105 


N1 = 

0


0

σx1 :=

N1
t0

 −1.560343× 108 


σx1 = 

0


0

 −0.018275 


εx1 =  −2.775555× 10− 3 
 −0.018839 


ρ :=

εx1 ⋅ L
3

R

⋅ deg

−1

ρ = −12.698637

Lamina 1:

T

ε := Tα ⋅ εx1

 −1.105926× 10− 3 


ε=
−0.019945 


−0.0155

 −2.340732× 108 



Tα⋅ σ = −1.534755× 108 


 9.253424× 107 

σ := Q0⋅ ε

 −2.863086× 108 



σ = −1.012401× 108 


 −4.029883× 107 

 0.415542
FMS( σ , Xt , Xc , Yt, Yc, S) =  0.8653 


 0.584041

Lamina 2:

T

ε := Tβ ⋅ εx1

 8.95874× 10− 4 


ε =  −0.021947 

− 3
 8.56511× 10 

 −7.799532× 107 



Tβ⋅ σ = 1.534755× 108 


 −9.253424× 107 

σ := Q0⋅ε

 1.842371× 108 



8
σ = −1.087568× 10 


 2.226929× 107 

 0.048483
FMS( σ , Xt , Xc , Yt, Yc, S) =  0.929546


 0.322743

Load case 2: Internal Pressure


N2 := 



1
2

⋅ q ⋅ R 


q⋅ R 
0 

 3.825× 104 


N2 = 
4
7.65× 10


0

σx2 :=

 3.825× 107 


σx2 = 
7
7.65 × 10


0

N2
t0

 5.840722× 10− 3 




3
εx2 = 2.305678× 10 


 8.085749× 10− 3 

εx2 := a⋅ N2

 3.032512× 10− 5 




3
ε = 8.116074× 10 


 3.535044× 10− 3 

Lamina 1
T

ε := Tα ⋅ εx2

 3.818956× 107 



7
Tα⋅ σ = 1.980733× 10 



7
 1.167369× 10 

 1.732476× 107 



7
σ = 4.067213× 10 


 9.191115× 106 

σ := Q0⋅ε

 4.559148× 10− 3 


FMS( σ , Xt , Xc , Yt, Yc, S) = 
0.992003 
 0.133205 

Lamina 2

 5.210434× 10− 4 
 1.326736× 108 




T
ε =  7.625356× 10− 3 
ε := Tβ ⋅ εx2

σ = 3.88295× 107 
σ := Q0⋅ε




 −5.234942× 10− 3 
 −1.361085× 107 




 3.831044× 107 


 0.034914

Tβ⋅ σ = 1.331927× 108 
FMS( σ , Xt , Xc , Yt, Yc, S) =  0.947061




 −1.167369× 107 
 0.197259


Effective elastic properties of the laminate

Ex:=

νx:=

1
t0⋅ a

−a
a

Ex = 8.538078× 10

1, 1

1, 2

1, 1

9

νy :=

−a
a

1, 2

2, 2

Ey :=

1
t0⋅ a

2, 2

10

Ey = 4.706875× 10

Shortening

1

Column buckling

I := π ⋅

σx1

−3

1

δ = −5.482531× 10

δ := εx1 ⋅ L

( R + t0) 4 − R4
4

Ex

−8

I = 5.523705× 10

−3

⋅ L = −5.482531× 10

2

Pcr := π ⋅ Ex⋅

I
2

L

4

Pcr = 5.171873× 10

Shell buckling

2

Nx :=

t0 ⋅ ExEy

R ⋅ 3⋅ ( 1 − νxνy
⋅ )

Pcr := Nx⋅2⋅π ⋅R

4

Pcr = 7.783921× 10

Tube twist angle due to axial compression P as function of 2 winding angles

 0 0 0
TA( α , β) := A ←  0 0 0 


 0 0 0
Q ← Q( E1, E2, G, ν)
θ ←α
1

θ ←β
2

θ ←α
3

θ ←β
4

for i ∈ 1 .. 4

( i)

Ti ← T θ

T

A ← A + t ⋅ Ti⋅ Q⋅ Ti
i

a←A
N1 ⋅ a

−1

L

1 1, 3 R

⋅ deg

−1

Tube twist angle due to axial compression as function of one of the 2 winding angles while the other
is fixed
β := −75, −74.. 75

gm75( β) := TA( −45, β)

gp75( β) := TA( 45, β)

15

10

5

gm75( β)
gp75( β)

0

−5

TA
− 10

− 15
− 75

− 62.5

− 50

− 37.5

− 25

− 12.5

0
β

TA

12.5

25

37.5

50

62.5

75

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