The Java History Timeline 1991 The Green Project Begins MS DOS is the dominant operating system Cell

phones weigh half a pound "Biosphere 2" project begins "Oak" is the language *7 Debuts "Duke" is featured in the Interface Johnny Carson signs off "The Tonight Show" on NBC The Green Project becomes FirstPerson Mosaic v1.0 is released "Cheers" ends an 11-year run WebRunner released ² the first browser that supports moving objects and dynamic executable content The Apple QuickTake 100, the first consumer digital camera, goes on sale for less than $1,000 "Friends" debuts on NBC Java technology released to a select group on the Web site The San Jose Mercury News runs a front-page article about Java technology Name changed from "Oak" to "Java" Announced at Sun World -- Java technology is officially born The first JavaOne Developer Conference JDKtm 1.0 software is released Chess computer Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov for the first time "Dolly" the first cloned sheep is born Over 220,000 downloads of JDK 1.1 software occur in just three weeks JavaOne draws 8,000 attendees, becoming the world's largest developer conference Java Card 2.0 platform is unveiled 43% of U.S. families own a computer JDK 1.1 release downloads top 2 million Visa launches world's first smart card based on Java Card technology The Java Community Process (JCP) program formalized "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?" premieres in the U.K Java 2 platform source code is released JavaOne draws 20,000 J2EE beta software is released "Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace" released Over 400 Java User Groups are established worldwide Java Developer Connection program tops 1.5 million members Steve Jobs joins Scott McNealy on stage at JavaOne to announce a major commitment by Apple in support of Java technology Heavy Metal band Metallica sues Napster for copyright violations First international JavaOne conference in Yokohama Japan Over 1 million downloads of the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) SDK Google Inc. PageRank search algorithm patent awarded "The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring" is released J2EE SDK downloads reach 2 million 78% of executives view J2EE technology as the most effective platform for building and deploying Web services The Euro is introduced "The Osbournes" becomes a surprise hit on MTV Java technology runs in almost 550 million desktops Almost 75% of professional developers use Java programming language as their primary development language Commercial Voice-Over-Internet (VoiP) phone service begins "The Da Vinci Code" is published Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition 5 (Project Tiger) is released The Java technology-powered Mars Rover (Spirit) touches down on Mars














and file-access restrictions.5 billion Java technology-enabled devices are available in 1. These new versions brought enhancements. Sun open-sourced Java EE components as the Glassfish Project to java.) The newest version. from a list of random words. (Intermediate revisions were labeled with a third number .x. Sun renamed new J2 versions as Java EE.2 in December 1998). Sun released much of Java as open source software under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). Until recently. Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest is released.[13] At one time.5. Run Anywhere" (WORA). aside from a small portion of code to which Sun did not hold the copyright. despite their proprietary software status. making all of Java's core code available under free software/open-source distribution terms. providing no-cost run-times on popular platforms. In 1997.5 million developers use Java technology Over 2. The NetBeans IDE 5. but it soon withdrew from the process. Sun Microsystems approached the ISO/IEC JTC1 standards body and later the Ecma International to formalize Java. In 2006. where x reached up till 4. utility programs."[15] Since its introduction. also went by the name Green and ended up later renamed as Java. initially called Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling's bundles the Google Toolbar with the JRE download Rich Green announces at the JavaOne 2006 Conference that it's not a matter of when Sun will open source Java technology. the primary distinction involves the JRE's lack of the compiler.4.Sun Java Studio Creator is launched Java technology celebrates its 10th birthday Approximately 4. new capabilities and fixes to bugs.[14]Sun's vice-president Rich Green has said that Sun's ideal role with regards to Java is as an "evangelist. however.[10] Gosling aimed to implement a virtual machine and a language that had a familiar C/C++ style of notation.[9] The language.[11] Sun released the first public implementation as Java 1. Sun generated revenue from Java through the selling of licenses for specialized products such as the Java Enterprise System. for marketing purposes. but how. Sun distinguishes between its Software Development Kit (SDK) and Runtime Environment (JRE) (a subset of the SDK). .net. Major web browsers soon incorporated the ability to run Java applets within web pages. J2EE targeted enterprise applications and the greatly stripped-down version J2ME for mobile applications. On May 8.x.1. On November 13. Fairly secure and featuring configurable security. Sun made most of its Java implementations available without charge.[12] Java remains a de facto standard. For example. Java ME. is called Java 5. Sun has released a new version of the Java language every two years or so. and Java quickly became popular. respectively.2. new versions had multiple configurations built for different types of platforms. 2006.y . controlled through the Java Community Process. J2SE designated the Standard Edition. It promised "Write Once. the versions were numbered 1. and header files. and Java SE. Sun finished the process. it allowed network.0 is released. Java SE and ME initial components are released as open source.0 rather than Java 1. 2005 2006 History James Gosling initiated the Java language project in June 1991 for use in one of his many set-top box projects. With the advent of Java 2 (released initially as J2SE 1.0 in 1995. 2007.

etc. and hash maps.3: o 76 packages .1842 classes o Performance enhancements including the Hotspot virtual machine. or Standard Edition (SE).1.1520 classes o Code and tools distributed as The Software Development Kit (SDK) o Java Foundation Classes (JFC). o Collections API included support for various lists. Sun split off two other more specialized branches.0 of the Java Development Kit (JDK) was released for free by Sun.Below is a timeline of the different versions of the basic. of Java along with some of the new features that each one introduced.1: o 23 packages . 2002: Version 1. now included with the core language. One is aimed at small.2991 classes o Improved IO.504 classes o Improvements include better event handling. based on Swing. improved JVM.4: o 135 packages . and JVMs from different versions. for improved graphics and user interfaces. 2004: Version 5. This edition contains the core language packages (the name for code libraries in Java) and is aimed for desktop programming. or editions. VERSION OF JAVA 1995: Version 1. inner classes. XML support. 2000: Version 1. sets. 1999: Version 1.2. of Java.0 (previously numbered 1. o 8 packages with 212 classes o Netscape 2. embedded applications and the other for large scale middleware applications: .0. o Microsoft developed its own 1. Other Editions of Java In the late 1990s. over 3000 classes o Faster startup and smaller memory footprint o Metadata o Formatted output o Generics o Improved multithreading features y y y y y y We discuss Java 5. o Many browsers in use are still compatible only with 1. 1997: Version 1. compilers. also called the Java 2 Platform o 59 packages . o Microsoft and other companies licensed Java. See the Code Compatiblity page for a discussion of issues related to dealing with codes. compatible Java Virtual Machine for the Internet Explorer.1. o Swing packages of greatly improved graphics became available during this time but not included with the core language.0-4.0 included Java 1.0 further in this chapter and examine individual features in later chapters like those listed above.5): o 165 packages.

x. and the various other tools available for working with the language. Also. and less of other types of nonvolatile memory. terms change such as Java Development Kit becoming Software Development Kit.4. The developer will choose from different configurations to suit the capacity of a given system. SDK 5. y Java 2 Platform. J2ME replaces the Java 1. and J2SE 5. Enterprise Edition With the Java 2 Platform came a separate version with enhanced resources targeted at enterprise applications.Java 2 Platform.and not worry about all these historical issues. and J2SE 1.0. and other services. The Java 2 Enterprise Edition now provides a wide array of tools for building middleware software such as for database access applications.2 but we have now converted the codes to Java 5. JVM.x interchangeably and similarly. you can just use the latest version .0. online storefronts.based on the Java 2 Platform.based on Java 1. y PersonalJava . For such systems Sun offers slimmed down versions of Java. Individual packages. It also usually means a smaller display or perhaps no display at all. classes and even methods in the core language can be thrown out to make room.1 for 32 bit system with about 512kb each for ROM and RAM. This course was originally developed with Java 1. y JavaCard .0.Java 5.0 . Naming Conventions All of these editions and version numbers can be a bit confusing for newcomers.extremely limited Java for systems with only 16kb nonvolatile memory and 512 bytes volatile y EmbeddedJava . Note that we use the terms Java 1.x.based on Java 1. Micro Edition (J2ME) . however.Micro Java Embedded systems such as cell phones and device controllers typically offer reduced resources as compared to desktop PCs.8 for larger systems with 2MB ROM and more than 1MB RAM.1. for Java 5. We also will occasionally refer simply to the "platform" to indicate the whole Java progamming environment provided by the compiler.0. This means substantially less disk space or no disk at all. For this course. . SDK 1. J2EE .1 based systems (EmbeddedJava and PersonalJava but not JavaCard).

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