ELECTRIC HEATING AND WELDING

ELECTRIC HEATING
• When current is passed through a conductor, the conductor becomes hot. When a magnetic material is brought in the vicinity of an alternating magnetic field, heat is produced in the magnetic material. Similarly it was found that when an electrically insulating material was subjected to electrical stresses, it too underwent a temperature rise (Dielectric heating).

There are various method of heating a material but electric heating is considered to be far superior for the following reasons: (i)Cleanliness: • Due to complete elemination of dust and ash, the charges to maintain cleanliness are minimum and the material to be heated does not get contaminated. (ii)Ease of control: • With the help of manual or automatic devices, it is possible to control and regulate the temperature of a furnace with great ease. (iii)Uniform heating:
• Whereas in other forms of heating a temperature gradient is set up from the outer

surface to the inner core.
• The core being relatively cooler, in case of electric heating, the heat is uniformly

distributed and hence the charge is uniformly heated. (iv)Low attention and maintenance cost: • Electric heating equipments normally do not require much attention and maintenance is also negligible. • Hence labour charges on these items are negligibly small as compared to alternative methods of heating.

Requirement of Heating Material
i) Low Temperature Coefficients of Resistance

Resistance of conducting element varies with the temperature, this variation should be small in case of an element. Otherwise when switched ON from room temperature to go upto say 1200˚C, the low resistance at initial stage will draw excessively high currents at the same operating voltage.

ii)Resistance coefficient Positive • • If temperature is negative the element will draw more current when hot. A higher current means more voltage, a higher temperature or a still lower resistance, which can instability of operation.

iii)High Melting Point • Its melting point should be sufficiently higher than its operating temperature. Otherwise a small rise in the operating voltage will destroy the element.

iv)High Specific Resistance • • The resistivity of the material used for making element should be high. This will require small lengths and shall give convenient size.

v)High Oxidizing Temperature • • Its oxidizing temperature should higher than its operating temperature. Otherwise oxidised layers from the surface will flake off changing the resistance of the filament and giving it a smaller life.

vi)Ductile • • To have convenient shapes and sizes, the material used should have high ductility and flexibility. It should not be brittle and fragile.

vii)Should with stand Vibration • • In most industrial process quite strong vibrations are produced. Some furnaces have to open or rock while hot. The element material should withstand the vibrations while hot and should not break open.

viii)Mechanical Strength • The material used should have sufficient mechanical strength of its own.

CLASSIFICATION OF METHODS OF ELECTRIC HEATING

(i)Power Frequency Method:
• Direct resistance heating, indirect resistance heating, direct arc heating, and indirect arc heating.

(ii) High Frequency Heating:
• Induction heating and dielectric heating.

Resistance Heating:

This method is based upon the I2R loss. Whenever current is passed through a resistive material heat is produced because of I2 R loss.

There are two methods of resistance heating. They are

i) Direct Resistance Heating ii) Indirect Resistance Heating

Direct Resistance Heating:

In this method of heating the material or change to be heated is taken as a resistance and current is passed through it. The charge may be in the form of powder pieces or liquid. The two electrodes are immersed in the charge and connected to the supply. In case of D.C or single phase A.C two electrodes are required but there will be three electrodes in case of three phase supply. When metal pieces are to be heated a powder of high resistivity material is sprinkled over the surface of the charge to avoid direct short circuit. The current flows through the charge and heat is produced. This method has high efficiency since heat is produced. This method has high efficiency since heat is produced is charge itself. Though automatic temperature control is not possible in this method. But it gives uniform heat and high temperature. One of the major application of the process is salt bath furnaces having an operating temperature between 500˚C to 1400˚C. An immersed electrode type medium temperature salt bath furnace is shown in figure3.28. The bath makes use of supply voltage across two electrodes varying between 5 to 20 volts. For this purpose a special double wound transformer is required which makes use of 3Ф primary and single phase secondary. This speaks of an unbalanced load. The variation in the secondary voltage is done with the help of an off load tapping switch of the primary side. This is necessary for starting and regulating the bath load.

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Advantages : •

High efficiency. It gives uniform heat and high temperature.

Application : • It is mainly used in salt bath furnace and water heaters. The arc temperature is between 3000 and 3500˚C. immersion water heaters and in various types of resistance ovens used in domestic and commercial cooking.C supplies can be used for this purpose at full mains voltage depending upon the design of heating element. Automatic temperature control can be provided in this case. Both A. Arc Furnaces • • • • • • • There are two common types of arc furnaces: (1)Three-phase furnace and (2)Single phase furnace.C and D. Generally graphite electrodes are used. As they are subjected to volatilization. Three phase furnaces are used in the production of alloy steels. 10. so that the process is carried out between 1500˚C and 2500˚C. in bimetallic strip used in starters. they are to be replaced. • • • • • Application : • This method is used in room heater. Single phase furnaces are used for the manufacture of gray iron casting also. Indirect resistance heating • In this method the current is passed through a highly resistance element which is either placed above or below the over depending upon the nature of the job to be performed.000KVA and capacities upto 25 tonne. The heat proportional to I2R losses produced in heating element delivered to the charge either by radiation or by convection. The main components of a three phase furnace are: .29. Sometimes in case of industrial heating the resistance is placed in a cylinder which is surrounded by the charge placed in the jackes as shown in figure3. The arrangement provides as uniform temperature. Three phase furnaces are used for power ratings from 250KVA.

generally furnaces up to 25 tonne are in general use. It is very costlier. Stirring action is automatic and gives a uniform product. • • • The chamber in which arc is struck is placed on a metal frame work.1)Variable ratio power transformer 2)Reactors 3)Automatic current regulator 4)Control panel 5)Electric motor and tilting motor 6)Circuit breaker and connecting switches. and are placed in such a way as to be replaced easily or adjusted easily. when a current flows through it and produces intense heat. It is used for alloy steel manufacture and gives a purer product. Although some furnaces up to 100 tonne are made. which is acidic or basic in nature. . The chamber is lined inside with a refractory linning. the furnace is made amenable for tilting. To have a through mixing. which results. It produces purer products It is very simple and easy to control the composistion of the final product during refining process. The electrodes arc inserted from the top or sides of the chamber. in high temperature. • • Demerits: • The arc is struck directly with the charge. Direct arc furnace • • • Merits: When compared with cupola method.

that the metal will cover the refactory lining and prevent it from reaching high temperatures. Indirect arc furnace • • • • Electrodes are inserted from the sides and the heat produced is transmitted by radiation to the charge. This furnace is used for only single phase supplies. Application: • The most common application of this type of furnace is to produce steel. • • • Application: • The main application of this type furnace is melting of non-ferrous metals. There is a primary winding through which an a. In both the type of furnaces. As there is no inherent stirring action. . large quantities of electrodes are used. The energy used is about 500-800kw/tone corresponding to maximum power input. Induction heating: • • • Induction heating processes make use of currents induced by electromagnetic action in the material to be heated.• Eventhough it is used for both melting and refining but wherever electric energy is expensive it is economical to use cupola for melting and arc furnace for refining. the furnace should be rocked.87 and efficiency 70%. Also the capacity of the furnace is limited up to 100 tonne. The furnace is rocked thoroughly to ensure. the power factor is 0. Melting of non-ferrous metals is mostly carried out in this type of furnace. Induction heating is based on the principle of transformers.c current is passed. The coil is magnetically coupled with the metal to be heated which acts as secondary.

• • . This causes low power factor. The current in the charge is very high in the order of several thousand amperes. The charge is magnetically coupled to the primary winding. It consist of an iron core. crucible and primary winding connected to an a. which forms a single turn short circuited secondary circuit. Coreless type Core type is classified into three types. Low frequency supply is necessary because normal frequency causes turbulence of the charge.c supply. Hence the heating of the metal is interrupted. The following are different types of induction furnaces 1. This type of furnace has the following drawbacks.• An electric current is induced in this metal when the a. They are a) Direct core type b) Vertical core type and c) Indirect core type Direct core type: • • • • • • The direct core type induction furnace is shown ion fig.c current is passed through the primary coil. To start the furnace molten metal is poured in the oven from the previous charge. When there is no molten metal. The charge is kept in the cruicible. If current density exceeds about 5 amps/mm2 the electromagnetic force produced by this current density causes interruption of secondary current. therefore the leakage reactance is very high. It is called pinch effect. The change is melted because of high current induced in it. no current will flow in the secondary. • • The magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary is very weak. Core type and 2.

Hence chances of discontinuity of the circuit is less. The furnace is operated from the normal supply frequency. The construction of ajax wyatt vertical furnace is shown in fig. Applications: . • • • • • • Advantages: • • • • High efficiency and low operating cost. Since both primary and secondary are on the same central core. The molten metal in the ‘V’ portion acts as a short circuited secondary. Chances of discontinuity of the secondary circuit is less. For starting the furnace either molten metal is poured into the crucible or sufficient molten metal is allowed to remain in the crucible from the previous operation. It must be closed. It has a vertical channel for the charge. • AJAX WYATT Vertical core type furnace: • It is modified type of core type induction furnace.c supply. Hence leakage reactance is comparatively low and power factor is high. The furnace cannot function if the secondary circuit is open. Such furnace is not suitable for intermittent services.• • • The crucible for the charge id of odd shape and inconvenient from the metallurgical point of view. When primary is connected to the a. thus the crucible used is also vertical. The principle of operation is that of a transformer in which the secondary turns are replaced by a closed loop of molten metal. Inside of the furnace is lined with refactory depending upon the charge. high current will be accumulated at the bottom and even a small amount of charge will keep the secondary completed. its power factor is better. The top of the furnace is covered with an insulated cover which can be removed for charging. hence it is useful for intermittent operations. Necessary arrangements are usually made for titling the furnace to take out the molten metal. The primary winding is placed on the central limb of the core.

The flux set up by the primary winding produces eddy currents in the charge. The special alloy will loose its magnetic properties at a particular temperature and the magnetic properties are regained when the alloy will cooled. zinc. In this furnace there is no core and thus the flux density will be low. tin. So heat is produced due to induced current. bronze. The bar AB is removable type and can be replaced by other. In such furnace an inductively heated element is made to transfer its heat to the change by radiation. current is induced in the secondary of the metal container. Hence for compensating the low flux density. having different critical temperature. Thus the temperature of the furnace can be controlled very effectively. The portion AB of the magnetic circuit is made up of a special alloy and is kept inside the chamber of the furnace. the current supplied to the primary should have sufficiently high frequency. When the primary winding is connected to the supply. I n this type of furnace induction principle has been used for heating metals. Stirring of the metals takes place by the action of the electromagnetic forces. • • • . This heat is transmitted to the charge by radiation. In this case secondary consists of a metal container forming the walls of the furnace. As soon as the furnace attains the critical temperature the reluctance of the magnetic circuit increases many times and the inductive effect correspondingly decreases thereby cutting off the heat supply. The heating effect of the eddy currents melts the charge. Indirect core type induction furnace • • • • Indirect core type induction furnace is shown in fig.• This furnaces is used for melting non ferrous metals like brass. It consists of an iron core linking with the primary winding and secondary. Coreless furnace may be having conducting or non conducting containers. • • • • • Coreless induction furnace: • Coreless induction furnace also operates on the principle of transformer. copper etc.

Fig shows a coreless induction furnace in which the container is made of ceramic material and the charge must necessarily have conducting properties. smoke. Stirring action in the metals takes place by the action of the electromagnetic forces. china clay. • . The container acts as secondary winding and the charge can have either conducting or non conducting properties. The flux produced by the primary winding produces eddy currents in the charge. Therefore for obtaining high heating effect high voltage at high frequency is usually employed. refactory linings are provided between primary and secondary windings. The heating effects of the eddy currents melt the charge.C current. etc. Absence of dirt.• • Fig shows a coreless induction furnace in which container is made up of conduting material. glass. The eddy currents in the charge results in automatic stirring. Any shape of crucible can be used. Accurate power control is possible. Erection cost is less. The dielectric loss is dependent upon the frequency and high voltage. • • • • • Advantages: • • • • • • Time taken to reach the melting temperature is less. To prevent the primary winding from high temperature. Dielectric heating: • • Dielectric heating is also sometimes called as high frequency capacitance heating. ceramics etc are subjected to high voltage A. If non metallic materials ie. their temperature will increase in temperature is due to the conversion of dielectric loss into heat. noise. Thus the container forms a short circuited single turn secondary. plastics. Hence heavy current induced in it and produce heat. This heat produced is transferred to the charge by convection. insulators such as wood.

For drying purpose in textile industry. When A. At normal supply frequency the power loss may be small. Easy heat control. the current drawn by it is leading the voltage exactly 90˚. • • • • Advantages: • • • • Uniform heating is obtained. But at high frequencies.• The metal to be heated is placed between two sheet type electrodes which forms a capacitor as shown in fig. For electronic sewing.C supply is connected across the two electrodes. For wood processing. the loss becomes large. Electric welding: . Welding: • Welding is the process of joining two similar metals by heating. The metal parts are heated to melting point. Non conducting materials are heated within a short period. with the result that there is a inphase component of the current (IR). The equivalent circuit and vector diagram is also shown in fig. Running cost is low. which is sufficient to heat the dielectric. In some cases the pieces of metal to be joined are heated to plastic stage and are fused together. The angle between voltage and current is slightly less than 90˚. Applications: • • • • For food processing. This current produces power loss in the dielectric of the capacitor.

Heat will be developed by the resistance of the work piece to the flow of current. Resistance welding: • • In resistance welding heavy current is passed through the metal pieces to be welded.• In electric welding process. Types of electric welding 1. electric current is used to produce large heat. I= Current in amperes. . required for joining two metal pieces. Arc welding a) Carbon arc welding b) Metal arc welding c) Atomic hydrogen arc welding d) Inert gas metal arc welding e) Submerged arc welding. The heat produced for welding is given by H=I2Rt Where. These are 1. Resistance welding a) Butt welding b) Spot welding c) Seam welding d) Projection welding e) Flash welding 2. Resistance welding and 2. There are two methods by which electric welding can be carried out. H= Heat developed at the contact area. Arc welding.

The welding current and period of current flow depend on the thickness of the plates. The secondary voltage is in the order of 1 to 10 volts. The welding transformer is a step down transformer. t= time of flow of current. Spot welding arrangement is shown in fig.C supply is given to the primary winding of the transformer through a controlled contactor. • • • The fundamental block diagram for resistance welding is shown in fig. wires and rods. . The A. Arc welding: • • • • An electric arc is the flow of electric current through gases. Sufficient pressure is applied along the axial direction. But the current may range from 50 to 1000 amperes. The heat developed by the arc is also used for cutting of metal.R= Resistance in ohms. An electric arc is struck by short circuiting two electrodes and then with drawing them apart by small distance. This type of joint only provides mechanical strength and is not air or water tight. • • • ii) Spot welding: Spot welding is usually employed for joining or fabricating sheet metal structure. This method is suitable for welding pipes. The plates to be welded are placed overlapping each other between two electrodes. In this type of welding the metal parts to be joined end to end as shown in fig. A heavy current is passed from the welding transformer which creates the necessary heat at the joint due to high resistance of the contact area. The current continue to flow across the small gap and give intense heat. i) Butt welding: • • In this process heat is generated by the contact resistance between two components. sufficient mechanical pressure is applied through the electrodes. the molten metal forced to produce a bulged joint. Due to the pressure applied. The welding current flows through electrodes tips producing a spot weld.

• -------------------------------------------------*****----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------**********************--------------------------------------- . When the electrode is removed the metal cools and solidifies giving a strong welded joint. Filler is made up of similar metal as that of metal to be welded.C can be used. The heat from the arc forms a molten pool and the extra metal required to make the weld is supplied by the filler rod.C is usually employed. Flux and filler are also used. • • • • • Metal arc welding: • • • • • In metal arc welding a metal rod of same material as being welded is used as an electrode. A little portion of the work and the tip of the electrode melts due to the heat generated by the arc. If the electrode is made positive then the carbon contents may flow into the weld and cause brittleness. Electric supply is connected between electrode and work piece. The work piece is connected to positive wire as shown in fig.Carbon arc welding: • • In this process D. The work piece is then suddenly touched by the electrode and then separated from it a little. For metal arc welding A. This results in an arc between the job and the electrode. The electrode is made of carbon or graphite and is to be kept negative with respect of the work. The electrode also serves the purpose of filler. This type of welding is used for welding copper and its alloy.C or D.

both A. Group drive and 3. Inspite of the advantages of A. For obtaining electric drives.C system sometimes it becomes essential to use D. They are • 1. • • • • Electric drive • An electric drive is defined as a form of machine equipment designed to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and provide electrical control of this process. It is easy to maintain the voltage at consumer premises within the prescribed limits and it is possible to increase or decrease the voltage without appreciable loss of power.C and D.ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL INTRODUCTION • An electric motor is a better prime move for driving mechanical load than hydraulic.C motors are used. However A. It is classified into three types. The utilization of electric energy is always advantageous as it is cheaper.C energy as industrial drive. steam or diesel engines as it is possible to control the performance of an electric motor is quite easy. Individual drive 2. Multimotor drive Advantages of electric drives • It is simple in construction and has less maintenance cost. .C system is preferred.

It has high efficiency. It requires less space. Disadvantages: • The initial cost is high. If there is a fault in one motor other machines will not be affected since they are working independently. He can vary its speed. Thus no load losses can be eliminated. which results in better appearance. Individual drive • • • Individual drive consist of single motor is used to drive one individual machine. It has comparatively longer life. Most of the industries use this type of drive. Each operator has a complete control of his machine. In some cases the motor. Advantages: • • • • • The machines can be installed at any desired position. cleanliness and safety. if necessary and stop while not in use. along with its control equipment. may form an integral part of the machine. Continuity in the production of the industry is achieved. Transmission of power from one place to other can be done with the help of cables in stead of long shaft etc. .• • • • • • • • • Its speed control is easy and smooth. Efficiency of the system is high. It can be started immediately without any loss of time. It is neat. clean and free from any smoke or flue gases. It can be remotely controlled. It can be installed at any desired convenient place.

It is not possible to install any machine at a distance place. Noise level in this drive is quite high. Eg in case of an overhead crane. It is also called line shaft drive. which operates a number of machines. different motors are used for hoisting. • • • • • Advantages: When compared with the individual drive. It has low power factor. Only less space is required. The driven machines are connected to these pulleys and belts for their required speed. If most of the machines are idle the main motor will operate on load with less efficiency. long travel motion and cross travel motion. The line shaft is fitted with multistepped pulleys and belts.Group drive • A group drive consist of a single large motor. The fig shows the group drive. The motor is mechanically connected to a long shaft. • Its initial cost is less. In this drive all the operation can be stopped simultaneously. Multimotor drive • • In multimotor drives separate motors are used for operating different parts of the same mechanism. Speed control of individual machine is not possible. • • • Disadvantages: • • • • • • When the motor fails all the operations will be stopped. . It requires little maintenance.

Size of motor and • • • • Continuous rating Intermittent or variable load rating Over load capacity Pull out torque d. While selecting a motor. Electrical characteristics • • • • Running characteristics Starting characteristics Speed control Braking b. Mechanical characteristics • • • • Types of enclosures Bearings Transmission of drive Noise level c. Fig shows a multimotor drive. paper making machines. rolling mills.• Such drive is also essential in complicated metal-cutting machine tools. • Selection of motors • An industrial process needs a particular electric drive for its successful and efficient operation which in turn calls for appropriate selection of the driving motor. Cost • • Capital cost Running cost . the following factors must be taken into consideration: • a.

the economic factor overpowers the technical factors as the correct choice of a motor is one which gives the required service at the minimum overall cost. traction work etc.C motors only. E. • Starting characteristics • • • The starting torque developed by a motor should be sufficient to start and accelerate the motor at its load to the rated speed in a reasonable time. but in any commercial organization. The magnetizing current and power factor are to be considered in case of A. losses. It is essential that the motor characteristics match with those of the load for stable operation of the system.g motors driving grinding mills or oil expellers. two torques come into play. Starting characteristics of D. there are conflicts between the technical and economic factors. At the time of starting a motor. Since the load on a motor is an integral part of the drive system we study various types of loads. magnetizing current. Some motors may be have to start against full load torque.C motors .• • The first three are the technical factors and the last one is the economic factor. • • The torque required to overcome the static friction and The torque necessary to accelerate the motor and its load to the desired speed.torque or speedcurrent characteristics. efficiency and power factor at various loads. Many a time. • • Electrical characteristics Running characteristics • The running characteristics of a motor include the following speed.

field flux Ф α Ia Hence T α Ia2 • • • After saturation. The torque of a D. ie T α ФIa upto saturation point.. i.• • The starting characteristics of D.C motor is proportional to the product of field flux (Ф) and armature current (Ia). the torque current characteristics is in parabolic shape.C motor is the relation between the torque and the armature current. Hence up to OA.C series motor. hence after A.e. the field winding is connected in series with the armature. Hence the starting torque is directly proportional to the armature current i. (T α Ia).C shunt motor • • • • In DC shunt motor.C Series motor • • • In D. hence field flux and armature flux also same ie. Фse= Фa. T α ФIa Where Ia= armature current Ф= field flux D. . the field current is constant from no load to full load. the series field flux remains constant. Therefore the field flux Ф also constant. the torque produced is proportional to the square of the armature current up to saturation point..e. Hence the torque is directly proportional to Ia (T α Ia). Hence the field current. D. Fig shows the torque current characteristics of D.C shunt motor. armature current and load current is same (ie Ia=Ise=IL). Since the series field flux is proportional to the armature current upto saturation point. the torque current characteristics is a straight line.

lifts and hoists. and the starting torque of D. the series field flux opposes the shunt field flux. Cumulative compound motor 2. Starting characteristics of three phase induction motor Squirrel cage motor • • • During the starting period. Differential compound motor • • • In cumulative compound motor the series field flux add with the shunt field flux. So the torque developed in this motor is more than that of shunt motor for the same armature current. So it can be used where large starting torque is required such as in electric trains.• • Since the starting torque is directly proportional to square of armature current.C compound motor There are two types of compound motor namely. . • Double cage rotor • • The starting torque of a cage motor is increased by providing double cages. Hence the total flux is lesser than that of the shunt motor as shown in fig. the squirrel cage induction motor has low starting torque and take high starting current. The outer cage is made of high resistance metal bars whereas inner cage is made of low resistance copper bar. It is not possible to increase the rotor resistance on squirrel cage induction motor.C series motor is very high. Hence the total flux is higher than that of the shunt motor. cranes. D. Therefore if the rotor resistance R2 increases the starting torque also increases(since T α R2). 1. The condition for maximum starting torque is R2=X2. During the starting period X2 is higher in compare to rotor resistance R2. In differential compound motor.

Pony motor(small I. This gives a high efficiency of the motor. • • • Slip ring Induction motor • • In slip ring induction motor. The main winding is of high reactance and low resistance. iii. Hence a high starting torque is produced. Provide damper winding on rotor. extra resistance can be added in the rotor circuit during the starting period. During normal running the reactance of the inner cage decreases (since rotor current frequency f’ is decreased) and hence the rotor current flows through the low resistance inner cage. An extra winding known as starting winding is provided on the stator. They are connected across the supply. DC motor coupled to synchronous motor.) coupled to synchronous motor. In addition. • The following methods are used to provide the starting arrangement. i. with the result that the starting torque is high (since T α R2). it also limits the starting current. Starting characteristics of single phase induction motor • Single phase induction motor is not self starting. The starting winding is of high resistance and low reactance.M. At the time of starting. Fig shows the double cage rotor.• • The inductance of the inner bar is higher than that of outer. the motor induced current is at the line frequency and hence inner cage has a high reactance(X2=2 f’L). ii. the rotor current will flow through the outer cage. Starting characteristics of synchronous motor • It has no self starting torque. It runs at synchronous speed. Therefore. • • • . It requires some provision for starting.

C shunt motor decreases with increase in armature current due to loading. But due to armature reaction. The magnetizing current and power factor are to be considered in case of A. the flux is weakened. The starting winding is connected in series with the capacitor through centrifugal switch and connected across the single phase supply. When the motor picks up the speed at 75% of synchronous speed. efficiency and power factor at various loads.• This type of motor is called split phase motor. When the supply voltage is constant.C shunt motor a) speed current characteristics • • In any D.C motors only. Such an arrangement gives a high starting torque. • Running characteristics of D. the main winding is connected directly across the line. in DC shunt motor Ф is flux is constant. The variation of speed with armature current characteristics is drooping slightly as shown in fig. • • .C motors D.C motor N α (Eb / Ф). a centrifugal switch is open and disconnects the starting winding. magnetizing currents. The percentage of speed change will be about 5% at full load due to armature resistance drop. If a capacitor is used for spilt the phase at starting then it is called capacitor start motor . • • • • • Running characteristics of motors • The running characteristics of a motor include the speed-torque or the speed-current characteristics. N α Eb N α V-Ia Ra • This indicates that speed of D. In permanent capacitor motor the capacitor remains in the circuit during starting and running. This motor has a very low starting torque. losses.

These curves are namely torque. D.IaRa)/ Ф • When supply voltage V is kept constant.C shunt motor. speed decreases as shown in fig. • b) Speed-Torque characteristics • We know T α ФIa and N α (Eb / Ф).current characteristics • Consider the speed equation N α Eb/Ф N α (V. Therefore the shunt motor is considered as constant speed motor. each plotted against output power. (N α (Eb / Ф)). Performance curve • Fig shows the performance curves of D.C series motor a) Speed.• Hence the speed will increase.(3) From equation (3) we know that. • In shunt motor field flux Ф= constant T α Ia Ia= KT N α Eb N α (V-IaRa) -------------------------. current and efficiency.(2) ----------------------------. . This increase in speed compensates the drop in speed due to Ia Ra drop.. the speed of the motor will be inversely proportional to flux N α (1 / Ф).(1) • Put Ia value in equation (2) N α V-(KT)Ra ---------------------------. when the torque increases. speed.

• • • • On the light loads the flux produced will be weak and therefore the speed will be dangerously high.C series motor.C motor N α (V-IaRa)/ Ф • If IaRa drop is negligible N α V/ Ф -------------------------.(2) (since Ia α Ф) • Substitute the equation (2) in (1) N α V/√T • From the equation. . Hence the shape of the curve will be hyperbolic. trains etc. speed is inversely proportional to torque. after saturation the flux remains constant. For small value of flux Ф. Ф T α Ф2 Ф2 =T Ф2 = √T ------------------------. lifts. Hence the characteristics curve is hyperbolic in shape. • • Performance curve • • Fig shows the perfoemance curve of a D. This is shown in fig. Therefore the speed will be constant and low at heavy loads as shown in fig. These curves are namely torque. current and efficiency each plotted against output power. the speed will be very high. In D.C series motor. Hence series motor is suitable for operating cranes. the flux also increases.Torque characteristics • In any D. T α Ф Ia T α Ф.(1) • We know that. When the load current increases. as torque increases with decrease of speed. b) Speed. speed.

it is called differential compound motor. Compound motors are of two types. Hence the speed is greater when compared to shunt motor. T α Ф Ia • • • Hence torque of cumulative compound motor is greater than the shunt motor. But the speed increases with reduction flux ( since N α (1 / Ф)). If the series field flux opposes the shunt field flux. (since T α Ф Ia). In the case of differential compounded motor the field flux decreases when the armature current increases.C motor. If the series field flux and shunt field flux add each other. In any D. In the cumulative compound motor. which reduces the torque. in comparison with the shunt motor. The speed Vs armature current and speed torque characteristics of D. Since the speed is inversely proportional to flux N α (1 / Ф) cumulative compound motor has lower speed than the shunt motor. it is called cumulative compound motor.C compound motor Speed – current characteristics • • • • • A compound motor has both series field and shunt field.D. • • • • Running characteristics of three phase induction motor • • Running characteristics of squirrel cage induction motor or speed torque characteristics In cage induction motor Torque (T) = KSE22 R2/ R22 +X22 .C compound motors are shown in fig. Hence cumulative compound motor has more flux than that of shunt motor. the series field emf increases with increase in armature current.

Hence at lower value of slip.. Hence the running torque of the motor depends upon the rotor resistance.f induced in the rotor R2 = rotor resistance X2 = rotor reactance • • • Under normal running condition the rotor frequency (f’=Sf) is small. T α KSE22/ R2 • • • • Since the supply voltage Vis constant.Where k = constant S = slip E2 = e. the increased load on the motor will increase the slip and on the decrease the torque.e. For various values of R the family of speed torque characteristics shown in fig. Hence the rotor reactance (X2= 2πf’L) is also very small. The torque increases with increase in slip upto rated load. the motor slowing down and it finally stops. the rotor resistance is very low. Hence the rotor reactance (X2) is neglected. After the rated load. increasing the running torque the rotor resistance R2 should be very low. The stable operating region of the motor lies for the slip values S=0 and that corresponds to maximum torque. The operating region is hatched in fig. when the load on the motor increases the rotor speed falls down. Any further more increase in load on the motor results. T α K1SE22 R2/ R22 i. Then the slip value increases. E2 is also constant. The torque will reach a maximum value at slip S=R2/X2. Hence cage induction motor has good running torque.m. From the above equation the running torque is inversely proportional to the rotor resistance R2. Since the cage motor rotor is short circuited. • • • • • • • .

Performance curve • Fig shows the performance curve of three phase squirrel cage induction motor namely slip. efficiency and speed each plotted against power output. . After the motor has picked up its full speed. Inner cage has high inductance and low resistance whereas outer cage has high resistance and low inductance. • • • • • • Running characteristics of single phase induction motor • • • • • The speed torque characteristics is similar to three phase induction motor. the torque can be increased. vacuum cleaners etc. since f’ = s f). refrigerators. the frequency of rotor current becomes very low. Fig shows the speed torque characteristics of single phase induction motor. current. Because the frequency of rotor current is very high. It has no self starting torque. The speed. At the time of starting inner cage offers high reactance. By introducing resistance in the rotor circuit at running. Hence most of the current flows through outer cage where resistance is high. Hence at running.e. hence frequency of rotor current f’ increases. • Running characteristics of double squirrel cage induction motor • The motor is designed to provide improved starting characteristics (i. power factor. Therefore most of the current flows through the inner cage. Separate arrangement is provided to make it self starting. Single phase induction motors are used in domestic appliances like fans.torque characteristics of double cage induction motor are shown in fig. The repulsion start and capacitor start motors are the most common types of single phase induction motors. Running characteristics of slip ring induction motor • The running characteristics of slip ring induction motor are same as squirrel cage induction motor. (since at starting slip=1. Thus more starting torque is developed. high starting torque with low starting current). copper losses are reduced and the efficiency of motor is increased.

Running characteristics of universal motor. To avoid danger to the worker or damage to the products manufactured quick stopping of motor is required. • • .C or D. the speed can be controlled by following methods • • • • • • By changing the supply voltage By changing the supply frequency By changing the no of poles of motor By injecting emf in the rotor circuit By cascading of motors By injecting resistance in the rotor circuit Braking • • When the load is removed from an electric motor and supplied to it be disconnected it will continue to run for sometime due to inertia. The braking system should be reliable and quick in action. • • Speed control In D. sewing machines. It is done by braking. The braking torque must be controllable. There are two types of braking. portable drills and other small power drives.C supply.C motors. Its speed torque characteristics are same as series motor speed-torque characteristics. • • Universal motor operates on either A.C motor the speed can be controlled by following methods • • Armature control method Field control method In A. Universal motors are used in vacuum cleaners. Fig shows the speed torque characteristics.

water. insulation etc are to be protected from the surroundings contaminated air. 1. the mechanical characteristics are also taken into account. In an industry the air surrounding the motors may contain metal. • • a) Open type • • • This type can only be used where the atmosphere and surroundings are free from all contaminations and surrounding air completely dry. The following features determine the suitability of the motor. But this type is rarely used since there is no protection to the motor parts. also accidents may occur to persons coming in contact with the moving parts. Noise 4. The advantage of this type of motor is that the cost of cooling is very low.i) Mechanical braking ii) Electrical braking Mechanical characteristics of electric motor • • While selecting a motor for a particular drive. b) Screen protected type . The different types of enclosures are as follows. mist. Bearings 3. Transmission of drive Types of enclosures • • All the major parts of the motors such as windings. dust inflammable fumes etc. Therefore it is necessary to provide proper enclosures. dust. bearings. oil. Types of enclosures 2.

But larger bodies and big insects cannot enter into the machine. f) Flame proof type • These enclosures do not communicate an internal fire to the external environment. Hence these motors are used in coal mines. d) Totally enclosed type • • This type of motors has solid frames and end shields but no opening for ventilation. Such motors are used in damp atmosphere. E. coal handling plants and stone crushing quarries. • • g) Pipe ventilated type . the ventilation ducts are provided in such a way that drops of liquid or solid particles reaching the machine at any angle between vertical and 100˚ from it cannot enter the machine. oil refineries etc.g saw mills. gas plants.• • • In this type of machines openings provided for ventilation are covered with wire mesh screen. E.. This type of enclosures does not protect the motor against dirt and dust. where the risk of fire is more.g Pumpsets. c) Drip proof type • • • This motor has ventilating opening provided in such a way that drops of liquid or solid falling on it vertically are prevented to enter inside. • • e) Splash proof type • In this type. These machines are used for very dusty atmosphere. This type of motor cannot be used where inflammable dust particles are present in the surrounding air. In this type machines no dirt or foreign matter can enter and block the air passage. They are cooled by surface radiation only.

Ball or Roller bearing 2. where clean air is available and forced to cool the motor. Sleeve or brush bearing Ball or Roller bearing • Ball or roller bearing consist of an inner and outer race and cage containing steel roller or balls. Bearings • • Bearings are the parts of machines which house and support the main shaft.• • Large sizes of totally enclosed motor employ pipe ventilation. Hence the friction of the shaft is minimized. It is used for chain. The rotating shaft is supported by bearing component and is rigidly fixed to the frame of the machine. The outer race is attached to the housing(end cover) and the inner race is attached to the shaft. It provides free rotation of the moving parts with minimum friction. It is used in three phase induction motor where smaller air gap is possible. . • • • • • • Sleeve or brush bearing • • Sleeve or brush bearings are normally made of bronze. There are two types of bearings usually employed in motors. • 1. the steel ball also rotates. But the initial cost of ball and roller bearings is high. belt and gear drives. When the shaft rotates. Air is drawn through pipe from outside the building. It occupy less space. It has a longer life and maintenance costs are low.

Direct drive 2. The mechanical power wasted due to slip is about 3 to 4 percentage. It is lubricated by a metal ring freely rotating on the shaft carrying oil to the bearings. Because of larger wear of bearings. Rope drive 4. Gear drive Direct drive • • In direct drive. Maximum power of 300 H. 1. It can be used where driven and driving machine speed are same. It gives noiseless operation and their life is long. Belt drive 3.• • • • It has self lubricating properties due to capillary action. It is more efficient and requires minimum space and it is the simplest method. this type of bearing is used in larger air gap induction motor. Chain drive and 5. • Transmission of drives • Various methods employed for transmission of mechanical power are described below. motor is coupled directly to the driven machine with the help of solid or flexible coupling. It is mainly used in direct coupled drive such as fan and universal motor. Advantages . belt is used to transmit the power from motor to driven machine through pulley system. • • Belt drive • • • In belt drive.P can be transmitted through this drive. Flexible coupling protects the motor from jerks.

It gives convenient speed ratio thereby high speed motors can be utilized. It should be kept as low as possible in the workshops. vibrations. magnetic pulsations and faulty foundations. It is more efficient and transmits large amount of power. The noise may be due to bearing. It is mainly used in lift and cranes. A number of ropes run in V-grooves over pulleys.• • • Greater flexibility in the original design of a plant is possible. The advantages of rope drive are negligible slip and ability of taking sudden loads. It can be used for high speed ratio (upto 6:1). • • • . Noise is the another important features to be considered while making the selection of a motor. journal bearing may be used in place of ball bearings. • Chain drive • • • Chain drive is very costly in comparison to belt and rope drive. To reduce noise. The motor should be mounted on a heavy concrete or cast iron block. The coupling between the two is through a suitable ratio gear box. • Gear drive • • Noise • • Gear drive is used when high speed motor is to drive a low speed machine. The tendency of slipping especially under heavy loads is reduced because it will absorb a portion of the shock of suddenly applied loads. sliplesss and smooth in operation. when it is not possible to employ belt drive. hospitals and other domestic purposes. Rope drive • • • This method for transmission for power is used. It is noiseless.

This rating is applicable to drives like fans. Continuous duty. textile. 3. The rating of a motor is classified as follows. Intermittent periodic duty with starting and braking. 1. Continuous rating • • This is the rating or the output of a motor which can be delivered continuously for long periods without exceeding the permissible temperature. Intermittent rating or short time rating. 2. Short time duty. Continuous duty with periodic speed changes. Continuous duty with starting and braking. Such motor is loaded for short period of time and is then put off for sometime. 5. Continuous duty with intermittent periodic loading. Standard rating of motor • The rating of motor is the amount of power which it can deliver without becoming unduly hot. 8. Intermittent periodic duty in the starting. mills etc. During that period the motor cools off as in mixies.• The electrical connections should be made through flexible conduits. Classes of load duty cycles • As per IS 4722 – 1968 various load time variations are encountered the eight standard classes of duty. Continuous rating. 1. 6. 7. Intermittent periodic duty. Selection of motors for different duty cycles Continuous duty . pumps. Intermittent rating or short time rating • • • This is an output that a motor can give for specified short time without exceeding the permissible temperature rise. 4. which operate continuously for long periods. 2.

The load time and temperature time graph are shown in fig. sluice gate drives. drives for household appliances. Short time duty • It denotes the operation of motor at constant load for short period followed by rest to cool down to the original starting temperature. . 60 and 90 minutes. conveyers. • • Intermittent periodic duty with starting and braking • This is the periodic duty where heat losses during starting and braking cannot be ignored. a period of operation at a constant load and rest period. 30. In this duty. Intermittent periodic duty with starting • • • This is intermittent periodic duty where heat losses during starting cannot be neglected.• • Continuous duty denotes the motor operation at a constant load torque to reach steady state temperature. centrifugal pumps and fans are some examples of continuous duty. cutting and drilling machine drives are some examples of intermittent periodic duty. in this duty heating of machine during braking is considered to be negligible. • • • Intermittent periodic duty • • • It denotes the operation of motor a sequence of indential duty cycle each of constant load and rest period. The load time and the temperature time graph are shown in fig. Pressing. Short time duty timings are generally 10. Thus it consists of a period of starting. Fig shows the load time and temperature time graph. The operating and rest periods are too short to attain the steady state temperature in one duty cycle. Crane drivers. Its characteristics are shown in fig. valve drives and machine tool drives are some examples of short-time duty. drilling tool drives. mine hoist drives for lift trucks. Paper mill drives. compressors. Some examples are metal cutting. heating of machine during starting and braking operation is negligible.

drives for electric suburban trains and mine hoist are some examples of this duty. .• • • Thus it consists of a period of starting. The characteristics are shown in fig. Thermal equilibrium is not reached in one duty cycle. a period of operation at constant load a period of electric braking and there is no rest period. Blooming mill is an example. There is no rest period. Thermal equilibrium is not reached in one duty cycle. each cycle is having a period of running at one load and speed and followed by another period of running at different speed and load. • Drives for different industrial application 1. Continuous duty with periodic speed changes • Operation of the motor has a sequence of indentical duty cycle. a braking period. • • • Continuous duty with starting and braking • • The operation of motor consists of period of starting. Paper mill. This duty is distinguished from the intermittent periodic duty by a period of running at constant load is followed by a period of running at no load instead of rest. Its characteristics are shown in fig. a period of operation with constant load.Synchronous motor A paper mill requires a drive which must fulfill the following requirements • • To manufacture different thickness of papers it is required to vary the speed of entire series of rolls. each consisting of a period of operation and a period of operation on no load. Its characteristics are shown in fig. Relative speed of rolls should be constant otherwise the paper may be tearing. cutting. Its characteristics is shown in fig Several machine tool drives. Braking is done electrically and is quick. • Continuous duty with intermittent periodic loading • The operation of motor has a sequence of indentical duty cycle. Pressing. and a rest period. shearing and drilling machine drives are the examples.

It should have strong construction.• It is required to adjust the speed at any one group of rolls relative to other in order to draw the paper. 4. fan cooled. • Hence three phase slip ring induction motor is used because it has high starting torque. 2. The motors employed must have high starting torque with constant speed. Hence totally enclosed. c) Rotary driers – Slip ring induction motor • The cement slurry is dried by blowers and speed of blower is varied depending upon the amount of air required to blow. Rolling mills or steel mills – separately excited DC motor • • Separately excited DC motor is mainly used in rolling mills. high torque double cage induction motors are used. the raw materials grind in powder form synchronous motor are used for this process. . The motor required for these mills should have high starting torque about 2 to 2.5 times the rated torque. • • 3. Cement mills • Various types of loads available in a cement factory and the motor used for them are given below a) Hammer crusher – Three phase slip ring induction motor • The lime stones are broken into smaller sizes in the crushing mill. The ward leonard speed control of D.C motors or slip ring induction motors are used. • For this purpose high starting torque motor is required. b) Ball mills – Synchronous motor • In ball mills. The motors used must be totally enclosed and moisture proof to prevent entry of dust and moisture enter into machine. Textile mills – Double cage induction motor • • • • In textile mills group drive is employed.

high smooth accelerating torque of 2 to 2. D. Double squirrel cage induction motors are used in belt conveyors. In the case of grinders.C shunt motors are used for machine tool application like planners where rapid reversal. It requires a high starting torque so as to accelerate the load for transport. d) Slurring pumps and agitators – Three phase Squirrel cage induction motor • These are used in the wet process • Three phase Squirrel cage induction motors used for slurring pumps and agitators. Hence totally enclosed surface cooled motors are used. • • 6.C shunt motor or 3Ф Squirrel cage induction motor • • • The starting torque required is less in most of the machine tools since they start up light. Machine tools – D.C compound motor and three phase slip ring induction motor are used for lifts and hoists. Belt conveyor – Double squirrel cage induction motor • • • • The conveyors are required to transport bulk materials like coal. 8. Lift and hoists – DC compound motor or 3Ф slip ring induction motor • The essential requirements for a lift are high overload capacity.• Hence slip ring induction motor with pole changing speed control is employed. and wide speed control are required. 5. Different speed operation is obtained by using two or three speed motor with suitable gear combination. Ship – Synchronous motors . • 7. totally enclosed motors are used to prevent metallic dust getting into it. Therefore 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor is used for machine tool application. are sand on either flat belt or bucket system. D.5 times the full load torque at starting and maximum degree of silence.

At starting the torque required is less. 11. . Repulsion motor is used for various industrial machinery air compressors. Reciprocating pump • • A reciprocating pump requires two times the full load torque at starting. Rotary printing • • The rotary printing machinery requires variable speed motor. Hence totally enclosed motor is preferred. 12. The liquid handled by the pump does not enter the motor. • 9. 3Ф induction motors are used to drive compressors. Single phase induction motor is used for small air compressors. 10.C 3 Ф induction motors with rotor resistance control are used for printing machineries. D. Hence 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used for centrifugal pump.C compound motors or A.3 Ф Induction motor • • • Air compressors are used for pneumatic drill.C cumulative compound motors and A. Pumps Centrifugal pump • • • • • The load torque varies as square of the speed in a centrifugal pump.• • Three phase induction motors and synchronous motors are used for very big ships.C 3 Ф slip ring induction motors provided with fly wheel are used. Air compressor . Punches and shears • • For punches and shears D. A double cage induction motor is suitable for reciprocating pump. A three phase alternator gives the supply to the synchronous motor. The prime mover used for the alternator is steam turbine by varying the voltage and frequency of alternator the speed of motor is controlled.

Ventilating fans are used for circulating fresh air. 14. A. Conveyors require a high starting torque. A 3 Ф slip ring induction motor with ward leonard speed control is used for winder.• • 3 Ф slip ring induction motor is also used for this type of pump. conveyors. so a double squirrel cage motor is used. Ceiling fans • Single phase capacitor start and run motors are used for ceiling fan.C supply is available. ventilating fans. 15.C 3 Ф slip ring inductions are also used for cranes.C series motor • • The D. 13.C shunt motor is used where D. compressors and pumps. The winder consists of two cages and a rope for transporting material from bottom of the mine to the surface. The single phase split phase induction motor has shunt characteristics and so the operating speed is almost constant. A 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used for ventilating fan if no speed control is not required.C series motors are used for cranes because they have high starting torque. For starting and special adjustments proper graded rotor resistance is used with slip ring induction motor. Because they have high starting torque. Acceleration and braking operations are repeated. D. which helps the motor to reach the speed in a short time and also prevents the motor from stalling in case of heavy loads. Mines • The various loads in a mine are winders. • • 16. Cranes – D. • • • • . Draught fan • • The single phase split phase induction motors are used for draught fan.

The dimension and. Domestic appliances – Universal motor or Single phase induction motor • Small universal motor is used for various domestic appliances such as for domestic refrigerators. mixi. • 17. therefore. Choice of drive • Choice of drive is governed by the following factors: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) • • Speed of driving and driven machines Convenience Space available Clutching arrangement required Cost The choice of motor speed is the most important factor as it not only affects the performance of motor but also overall cost. In case of induction motor. It requires shunt characteristics and so 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used. Centrifugal pumps are used to pump out the water falling through the rock layers. vacuum cleaner. so for the some output kW the cost of a high speed motor is less than that of a slow speed motor.• Compressor is used to provide compressed air for pneumatic drills used for mining operations.. the first cost of a motor for a given output are approximately inversely proportional to the speed. cloth washing machines etc. It requires high starting torque therefore a 3 Ф slip ring induction motor is used for pumps. shavers. the efficiency and power factor decreases with decrease in speed. Thus for a low-speed drive high speed motor using a reduction gear is usually found cheaper than a low-speed direct-coupled motor. Continuous duty and constant load: . • • Power requirement calculation 1.

N = Speed. and η = Product of the efficiency of the driven equipment and that of transmitting device.m. r. • Equation (2) is directly applicable in case of hoisting mechanisms. • In case of linear motion. • In case of pumps. T = Load torque. it should be modified as follows: P = F x v/2 x 102 η kW The velocity of normal passenger lift cabins vary from 0.5 to 1.p. m/s. Kg.(1) Where. P = F x v/2 x 102 η kW -----------------------------------. F = force caused by the load. the rating can be determined from the equation given as under: P = TN/975η kW ---------------------------------. the rating of the motor required is given by. It is also suitable for lifts or elevators.(2) Where. kg-m. the rating can be determined from the following relation: P = ρQH/102 η kW Where. kg/m3. ρ = Density of liquid pumped.5 m/s.• For most of the applications. . and v = velocity of motion of the load..

the efficiency η may be taken as 0. 2. m3/s. F = shearing force. Q = volume of air or any other gas.Q = Delivery of pumps. m/min. • The rating of a fan motor is given by. P = F x v/ 102 x 60 η kW Where. • The rating of a motor used in metal shearing lathes can be found from the relation. η varies from 0.6 and for large power ones it may reach a value up to 0. and H = Gross head (static head + friction head). v = Velocity of shearing. Motor rating for variable load: The following are the commonly used methods for determination of motor rating for variable load drives (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Method of average losses Equivalent current method Equivalent torque method Equivalent power method.8 for centrifugal pumps. Method of average losses (Qav) .8 to 0.8. P = Qh/102 η kW Where. kg. and h = Pressure in mm of water or kg/m2. and η = Mechanical efficiency of the lathe.4 to 0. m. m3/s. For small power fans.9 for reciprocating pumps and from 0.

the motor will operate without temperature rise going above the maximum permissible for the particular class of insulation.• • The method consists of finding average losses Qav in the motor when it operates according to the given load diagram. The average losses are given by Qav = Q1t1 + Q2t2 + Q3t3 +………. + Qntn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +……. • • • • The loss diagram of the electric motor is shown. The disadvantage of the method of equal losses is that it is tedious to work with and also many a times the efficiency curve is not readily available and the efficiency has to be calculated by means of empirical formulae which may not be accurate to work with.(1) • • • The average losses as found from eqn (1) are compared with losses of selected motor at rated frequency.+ tn -----------. The losses of the motor are calculated for each portion of the load diagram by referring to the efficiency curve of the motor. in case the losses differ considerably. . However. These losses are then compared with Qnom. In case the two losses are equal or differ by a small amount the motor is selected. the losses corresponding to the continuous duty of the machine when operated at its nominal rating. another motor is selected and the calculations repeated till the motor having almost the same losses or the average losses is found. This method presupposes that when Qav = Qnom. The rating of the electric motor can be found from method of successive approximations. • • Equivalent current method • This method is based on the assumption that the actual variable current may be replaced by an equivalent current Ieq which produces the same losses in the motors as the actual current. Qm = Qav / Aλ = Qnom/ Aλ. This method is accurate and reliable for determining the average temperature rise of the motor during one work cycle. In this case.

Ieq = √(I12t1 + I22t2 + I32t3 + ……+ In2tn) / ( t1 + t2 + t3 + ……+ tn)

The heating and cooling conditions in self ventilated machines depend upon its speed. At low speed the cooling conditions are poorer than at normal speeds. The equivalent current as found from eqn should be compared with the rated current of the motor selected and the conditions Ieq < Inom should be met. The machine selected should also be checked for its overload capacity. For D.C motors………….. Imax/ Inom < 2 to 2.5 For induction motors ……… Imax/ Inom < 1.65 to 2.75 In case the overload capacity of the motor selected is not sufficient it becomes necessary to select a motor of high power rating. It may not be easy to calculate the equivalent current especially in cases where the current load diagram is irregular as shown in fig. The equivalent current in such cases is calculated from the following expression:


• •


Ieq = √ [(1/1∑n ) t∫∑t i2 dt]

The value of the integral may be found with the help of integral. The current values obtained by this method are sufficiently accurate for practical purposes.

Equivalent torque and equivalent power methods • •

For the selection of suitable capacity of the motor it often becomes necessary to use torque or power load diagrams. The equivalent torque or power is found in the same manner as the equivalent current. Assuming constant flux and constant power factor, the torque is directly proportional to current and, therefore, the equivalent torque is:

Teq = √ [T12t1 + T22t2 + T32t3 +…. + Tn2tn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +……..+ tn]


The equation for equivalent power follows directly from above eqn. as power is directly proportional to the torque. At constant speed or where the changes in speed are small, the equivalent power is given by: Peq = √ [P12t1 + P22t2 + P32t3 +…. + Pn2tn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +……..+ tn]


The “equivalent current method” is the most accurate out of all the above methods discussed above. This method may be used to determine the motor capacity for all uses except where it is necessary to take into account the changes in so ‘constant losses’ i.e. the iron and mechanical losses. The “equivalent torque method” cannot be used for cases where equivalent current method cannot be applied. It cannot be used for selection of motor rating for cases in which the field flux does not remain constant like D.C series motors and for squirrel cage induction motors under starting and braking conditions. The disadvantage of the “equivalent power method” is that it cannot be used for motors whose speed varies considerably under load, especially when dealing with starting and braking conditions.

• •

Power factor improvement
Apparent, Active (True or Real) and Reactive power and Power Factor • Every circuit has two components (i) (ii)

Active component and Reactive component.

“Active component” consumes power in the circuit while “reactive component” is responsible for the field which lags or leads the main current from the voltage.

In fig active component is I active = I cos Ф, and reactive component is I reactive = I sin Ф. I = √ [(I active) 2 + (I reactive) 2]

(i) •

Apparent power (S): It is given by the product of r.m.s. values of applied voltage and circuit resistance. S = VI = (I x Z) .I = I2Z volt-amperes (VA)

(ii) •

Active or true or real power (P or W): It is the power which is actually dissipated in the circuit resistance. P = I2R = VI cos Ф watts.

(iii)

Reactive power (Q): A pure inductor and a pure capacitor do not consume any power, since in a half cycle what so ever power is received from the source by these components the same is returned to the source. This power which flows back and forth(i.e., in both directions in the circuit) or reacts upon itself is called “reactive power”. It may be noted that the current in phase with the voltage produces active or true or real power while the current 90º out of phase with the voltage contributes to reactive power. In a R-L circuit, reactive power which is the power developed in the inductive reactance of the circuit, is given as: Q = I2XL = I2Zsin Ф = I. (IZ) sin Ф = VI sin Ф volt-amperes-reactive (VAR) • • These three powers are shown in fig Relation between VA, W and VR W = VA cos Ф VAR = VA sin Ф VA = W/ cos Ф VA = VAR/ sin Ф

• •

Power factor (p.f) = W/VA = True power/ Apparent power

• •

The larger bigger units of apparent, true and reactive power are kVA (or MVA), kW(or kW) and kVAR (or MVAR) respectively. The power factor depends on the reactive power component. If it is made equal to the active power component, the power factor becomes unity.

Causes of low power factor
(i)

All A.C motors (except overexcited synchronous motors and certain types of commutators motors) and transformers operate at lagging power factor. Due to typical characteristics of the arc, are lamps operate at low power factor. When there is increase in supply voltage, which usually occurs during low load periods (such as lunch hours, night hours etc.,) the magnetizing current of inductive reactances increases and power factor of the electrical plant as a whole decreases. Arc and induction furnaces etc. operate at a very low lagging power factor. Due to improper maintenance and repairs of motors the power factor at which motors operate fall.

(ii) (iii)

(iv) (v)

Advantages of power factor improvement • The installation of power factor improvement device, to raise the power factor results in one or more of the following effects and advantages: 1) Reduction in investment in the system facilities per kW of the load supplied. 2) Reduction in circuit current. 3) Reduction in copper losses in the system due to reduction in current. 4) Increase in voltage level at load. 5) Improvement in power factor of the generators. 6) Reduction in kVA loading of the generators and circuits.
7) Reduction in kVA demand charges for large consumers.

Methods of power factor improvement

Thus if condenser is connected across an inductive load resultant quadrature component of the whole combination will be difference of leading component of condenser current (Ic) and lagging component of lead current (I sin Ф1) as shown in fig. • • • • • • Advantages of capacitors 1) Small losses (less than 0.• The various methods employed for power factor correction are: 1) Use of static capacitors. 3) Easy installation.f of the whole combination is improved from cos Ф1 to cos Ф2. • The above methods of power factor improvement are discussed below: Use of static capacitors: • • It is known that static capacitor/ condenser takes current which leads the voltage by nearly 90º. when connected in series with the line. 3) Use of phase advancers. are called “shunt capacitors”.5 percent) or higher efficiency (say 99. 4) Use of phase compensated motors. 5) Long life. 2) Low initial cost. and when connected in parallel with the equipment. The capacitors. 2) Use of synchronous condensers. Series capacitors are used on long transmission lines as they provide automatic compensation with the variations in load. are called “series capacitor”. 4) Little maintenance. In view of reduced magnitude of quadrature component of current.6). Power factor of the system can be improved by placing static capacitors in series with the liner as shown in fig. plants and also on transmission lines. p. Shunt capacitors are used in factories. Capacitors connected in series with the line neutralize the line reactance. .

2) To reduce voltage regulation of the line. IL = current taken by the industrial load. capacitors are employed to perform the following functions also: 1) To reduce losses. thus overall factor is improved from cos ФL to cos ФM by the use of synchronous condenser. Power factor can be improved by using synchronous condensers like shunt capacitors connected across the supply. the capacitance reactance of which depends upon the motor excitation. 7) Flexible in operation. transformers and transmission and distribution network.f improvement. It behaves like a capacitor. From the fig we observe that angle of lag(Ф) is much smaller than ФL . I = Resultant current and Ф = angle lag • Synchronous condensers are usually built in large units and are employed where a large quantity of corrective kVAR is required. • Advantages . 4) To utilize fully the capacities of generators.6) Greater reliability in service. ФM = Angle of lead. Besides p. ФL = Angle of lag. 3) To meet a demand for reactive power. 8) No restriction on the choice of site for capacitor and can be installed in relatively small banks located near the load. IM = current drawn by the synchronous motor. Use of synchronous condenser: • • • An over.excited synchronous motor running on no load is called the synchronous condenser or synchronous phase advancer.

Shunt and series type of phase advancers are available according to whether the exciting winding of the advancer is connected in parallel or series with the rotor winding of the induction motor. Possibility of synchronous condensers falling out of synchronism causing interruption of supply. During operation noise is produced. Inherent characteristics of synchronous condensers of stabilizing variations in the line voltage and thereby automatically aid in regulation.C. due to losses in rotating parts and heat losses.C. supply mains. Comparatively lower efficiency. Improvement in the system stability and reduction of the effect of sudden changes in load owing to inertia of synchronous condenser.• A finer control can be obtained by varying the field excitation. Increase of short-circuit currents when the fault occurs near the synchronous condenser. For starting synchronous condensers an auxiliary equipment is required. It may be improved by equipping the set with an “A. because exciting current lags behind the voltage by 90º. • • • • . exciter” or “phase advancer” which supplies this exciting current to the rotor at slip frequency. Use of phase advancer is not generally economical in connection with motors below 150 kW output but above this size. Possibility of overloading a synchronous condenser for short periods. Use of phase advancers: • The p. except in size above about 5000 kVAR. Such an excitor may be mounted on the same shaft as the main motor or may be suitably driven from it.f of an induction motor falls mainly due to its exciting current drawn from the A. phase advancers are frequently employed. Higher maintenance and operating costs comparatively. • • • Disadvantages • • • • • • • The cost is higher than that of static capacitors of the same rating.

Power factor improvement of the system is achieved by the use of phase compensated motors such as torda. As such these motors are chosen when we are sure that they will be loaded to rated output for most of the time and that they will effect more saving in the energy cost due to higher p. the use of phase advancers may not be economical for induction motors below 150 kW output.f than the additional expenses incurred on them.Use of phase compensated motors: • • • • As mentioned earlier. -----------------------------*********************------------------------------- ELECTRIC TRACTION . These motors are however very costly and require more maintenance than plain induction motors. osnos and scharge motors.

.C supply. supply. Examples: i) Railway electric locomotive fed from overhead A. ii) Tramways and trolley buses supplied with D. Requirements of an ideal traction system . These are further sub divided into the following two groups: a) Self contained vehicles or locomotives Examples: i) Battery-electric drive ii)Diesel-electric drive b) Vehicles which receive electric power from a distribution network or suitably placed sub-stations. broadly speaking. Electric traction has many advantages as compared to other non-electrical systems of traction including steam traction.• The locomotive in which the driving or tractive force is obtained from electric motors is called Electric traction. can be classified as follows: 1. 2. Traction systems • All traction systems. Non-electric traction systems: These systems do not use electrical • • energy at some stage or the other. Examples: (i) Steam engine drive used in railways (ii) Internal combustion-engine-drive used for road transport. Electric traction systems: These systems involve the use of electric energy at some stage or the other.C. Electric traction is used in: i) Electric trains ii) Trolley buses iii) Tram cars iv) Diesel-electric vehicles etc.

• The requirements of an ideal traction system are: 1. In this type of drive. though losing ground gradually due to various reasons. 1. Minimum wear on the track. It should be pollution free. Speed control should be easy. 8. it is still the amply adopted means of propulsion of railway work in underdeveloped countries. 6. 5. It should be possible to overload the equipment for short periods. • . so that high tractive effort at the start is possible to have rapid acceleration. Steam engine drive. of high efficiency and low initial and maintenance cost. 5. Electric drive. High adhesion coefficient. 9. Internal combustion electric drive. 6. 3. Braking should be such that minimum wear is caused on the brake shoes. 4. the reciprocating engine is invariably used for getting the necessary motive power. 2. Internal combustion engine drive. and if possible the energy should be regenerated and returned to the supply during braking period. Different systems of traction • The various systems of traction commonly used are. Petro-electric traction. 4. The equipment required should be minimum. 7. 2. 3. There should be no interference to the communication lines running the track. Steam engine drive: • Steam engine drive. The locomotive or train unit should be self contained so that it can run on any route. Battery electric drive.

Steam locomotive cannot be put into service at any moment as time is required for raising of steam. Since driving wheels are very close. Simplified maintenance. hence more concentrated adhesive weight is required. Easy speed control. Simplicity of connections between the cylinders and the driving wheels. It has strictly limited overload capacity. therefore. Steam locomotive requires more repair and maintenance. it is not tied to a route. Bigger sizes of running sheds and workshop are required. power-weight ratio of steam locomotive is low. Extensive and costly auxiliary equipment. It is cheap for low density traffic areas and in initial stages of communication by rail. Low capital cost as track electrification is not required. Due to the reason of low adhesion coefficient. • Disadvantages • • • • • • • • • Low thermal efficiency. Internal combustion engine drive: . speed is limited. The locomotive and train unit is self contained. No interference with communication network. Owing to high centre of gravity of steam locomotive.Advantages Following are the advantages of steam engine drive: • • • • • • • • Simplicity in design. Operational dependability.

It is self-contained unit and. No modification of existing tracks is required while converting from steam to diesel electric traction. Various examples are buses. • • • Advantages • • • • • Low initial investment.C.• This drive is widely used for road transport. therefore. Higher running and maintenance costs. Operation at any but the normal speed is uneconomical. Disadvantages • • • • • Limited overload capacity. The life of propulsive equipment is much shorter than that of electrical equipment of a tram car or a trolley bus. It is cheap drive for the outer suburbs and country districts. Internal combustion electric drive: • In an I. This type of drive is finding considerable favour for railway work and locomotives of this type are being widely used. • Advantages • • Low initial investment.C engine electric drive the reduction gear and gear box are eliminated as the diesel as the diesel engine is to drive the D. generator coupled to it at a constant speed. Very simple braking system. it is not tied to any route. It has an efficiency of about 25 percent when operating at normal speed.. cars. A gear box is essential for speed control. trucks etc. The motive power is derived from petrol to diesel. Easy speed control. .

Loss of power in speed control is very low. In such drives. Higher dead weight of locomotives.• • • • • As the locomotive and train is a self contained unit. Disadvantages • • • • • • • Limited overload capacity. Can be put into service at any moment. due to electric conversion.C. shunting and traction in industrial works and mines. • Battery electric drive: • • In this system the locomotive carries the secondary batteries which supply power to D. Petrol-electric traction is employed in heavy lorries and buses. Comparatively costlier than steam or electric locomotives. It is available for hauling for about 90% of its working days. Overall efficiency is greater than that of steam locomotives. it is not lied to any route. Battery vehicles are started by series-parallel for starting and running at the speed upto half maximum speed and in series for running at full maximum speed. • Advantages . High running and maintenance cost. motors employed for driving the vehicles. Petrol-electric traction: • This system. therefore. more axles required comparatively. regenerative braking cannot be used. There is a necessity to provide special cooling system for the diesel engine in addition to motor-generator set. The life of the diesel engine is comparatively shorter. This type of drive is well suited for frequently operated service such as for local delivery of goods in large towns with maximum daily run of 50 to 60 km. provides a very fine and continuous control which makes the vehicle capable of moving slowly at an imperceptible speed and creeping up the steepest slope without throttling the engine.

this system is healthier from the hygienic point of view.5 km/h/s as against 0. Low maintenance cost. The vibrations in electrically operated vehicles are less as the torque exerted by the electric motor is continuous. Limited speed range. By the use of electric traction high grade coal can be saved. In electric traction system it is possible to use regenerative braking. since electric locomotives can be fed either from hydroelectric stations or thermal power station which use cheap low-grade coal. it is possible to achieve higher accelerations of 1. its maintenance time is also much less comparatively.6 to 0.• • • Battery driven vehicle is easy to control and very convenient to use. Electric drive: • • Here the drive is by means of electric motors which are fed from overhead distribution system. Electric equipment can withstand large temporary overloads and can draw relatively large power from the distribution system.5 to 2. An electric locomotive is ready to start at moment’s notice against about two hours required for steam locomotive to heat up. The maintenance cost of an electric locomotive is 50 percent of that of steam locomotive. Hence. The drive of this type is most widely used. Advantages • • As it has no smoke. Disadvantages • • The major disadvantages of this type of drive are the small capacity of batteries and the necessity for frequent charging. Absence of fumes. • • • • • • • . electric traction is most suited for the underground and tube railways. The motors used in electric traction have a very high starting torque. Owing to complete absence of smoke and fumes.8 km/h/s in steam traction.

electric traction becomes uneconomical. the electric locomotives have to do it at an extra cost. Hence. The speed time curve gives complete information of the motion of the train. By avoiding the flow of return currents through earth. 1. • • • • • • • Speed time characteristics • • • • It is the curve drawn between speed of train in km/hour along y-axis and time in seconds along x-axis. This curve consists of five sections.Disadvantages • High initial cost of laying out overhead electric supply system. series motors regeneration is not a simple process. Additional equipment is required for regeneration.C. A typical speed time curve for main line service is shown in fig. The electric traction system is tied up to only electrified routes. Communication lines which usually run parallel to the power supply lines suffer from electrical interference. The distance travelled by the train during a given interval of time can be obtained by determining the area between the curve and the time axis corresponding to this interval. Unless the traffic to be handled is heavy. Whereas steam locomotives can use their steam for heating the compartments in cold weather very cheaply. In case of electric traction provision of a negative booster is essential. In cold countries a service locomotive is required to run up and down the line in order to prevent the formation of layer of ice on the conductor rails. starting resistance is gradually • cut so that the motor current is limited to a certain value and the . In case of D. these communication lines have either to be removed away from the rail track or else underground cables have to be used for the purpose which makes the system still more expensive. This curve gives the speed at various times after the start and run directly. Power failure for a few minutes can cause traffic dislocation for hours. it curtails corrosion of underground pipe work and interference with telegraph and telephone circuits. Notching up period (0 to t1)  During this period of run (0 to t1).

time curve is a straight line (OA). the full voltage is applied to the motor. 5.  Now the acceleration gradually decreases with the increase in speed and finally reaches the required torque for the movement of the train (at time t2). 4. 3. .voltage across the motor is gradually increased and the traction motor accelerates from rest.e. Free running period (t2 to t3).  Due to train resistance speed of the train gradually decreases.  Now the torque decreases and speed increases according to the speed torque characteristics of the motor. 2. Types of services • There are three types of electric traction services.  During this period i.  The rate of decreasing of speed during this period is known as “coasting retardation”. also during this period power drawn from the supply is constant. Hence this period is called notching up period.  To cut the starting resistance.  During this period speed decreases rapidly and finally reduces to zero. Acceleration period (t1 to t2)  When all the starting resistances are cut out. Braking or retardation period (t4 to t5)  At the end of coasting period the brakes are applied to bring the train to stop. Therefore speed. Coasting period (t3 to t4)  At the end of free running period supply to the motor is cut off and the train is allowed to run under its own kinetic energy. the starter handle has to be moved from one notch to another. t2 to t3 the power supplied to the motor is at full voltage and speed of this period is constant.  The acceleration is almost uniform during this period.

Main line service 2. between 0. • • Speed – Time curve for urban or city service • • In city service the distance between the two stations is very short i.1. The time required for this run between the adjacent and retardation should be sufficient high. Acceleration and braking retardation required are high. Sub-urban service 3. The duration of acceleration and retardation is small.5 km to 8 km. Urban service Speed – Time curve for main line service • • The distance between two successive stations in main line service is considerably more (more than 10 km). The coasting period is also small.75 to 1 km. Free running period is not possible and coasting period will be comparatively longer than urban service. In this service free run is longer duration. It will be seen that there will be no free running period..e. • • Tractive effort • The effective efforts required to run a train on track are (i) (ii) (iii) Tractive effort needed to provide acceleration (Fa) Tractive effort needed to overcome the train resistance (Fr) Tractive effort needed to overcome gradients (Fg) Tractive effort for acceleration (Fa): . Fig shows the speed-time curve for urban or city service. Speed – Time curve for suburban service • In this type of service the distance between two successive stations is in the range of 1. Fig represents speed-time curve for sub-urban service.

Fa = Me x a = 1000 Me x α 1000/3600 = 277. i. Tractive effort required to overcome the train resistance Fr = M x r Newtons Where M = Mass of train in tone r = train resistance in Newtons/tone • Tractive effort required to overcome gradients (Fg):\ • Consider that an electric train is moving upwards on a slope as shown in fig. i. condition of track etc. • Force required for acceleration = Mass x acceleration. Me = 1. Dead mass of train = M tones = 1000 M kg • Acceleration = α km/hr/sec = α x 1000/3600 m/sec2 • • • When a train is accelerated in a linear direction. the train has to overcome the opposing force due to the surface friction and wind resistance.• • Let M is the dead or stationary mass of train in tones.1 M • Let the effective mass of train = Me ton = 1000 Me kg. Therefore the accelerating mass of the train is greater than the dead mass of the train. Generally the effective or accelerating mass is 10% more than the dead mass..e. size.8 Me α Newtons Tractive effort to overcome the train resistance (Fr): • • While moving.e. . its rotating parts like the wheels and armature of motors have to be accelerated in an angular direction. The train resistance depends upon various factors such as shape.

To overcome this effect of gravity.81 MG Newton Positive sign is to be used for upgradient and negative sign for down gradient. Gradient G = BC /(AC/100) = (BC/AC) x 100 i.81 x G/100 Fg = ± 9.8 Me α + Mr ± 9. tractive effort are required in opposite direction.(2) Sub the value of sin θ in eqn (1) Fg = 1000 M x 9.81 MG Newtons. Braking • Braking is very frequent in electric drives to stop a motor in a reasonably short time. G = 100 sin θ sin θ = G/100 -------------------.• • • The dead mass of the train along the slope will tend to bring it downward. • Total tractive effort (Ft) Ft = F a + Fr + F g = 277.e. Tractive effort to overcome the effect of gravity = Fg Fg = Mg sin θ tone m/sec2 = 1000 Mg sin θ kg m/ sec2 = 1000 Mg sin θ Newton Where g is the acceleration due to gravity = 9. .81 sin θ Newton ------------..81 m/sec2 Θ is the angle of slope. Fg = 1000 M x 9.(1) • In railway practice the gradient is expressed in terms of rise or fall in every 100 metres of track and it is denoted by G % From fig .

ii) Electric braking • In this method of braking. iii) Adequate means be provided for dissipating the stored energy that is kinetic energy of the rotating parts. • • There are two types of braking: i) Mechanical braking The motor in this case is stopped due to friction between the moving part of the motor and the brake shoe that is stored energy is dissipated as heat by a brake shoe or brake linning which rubs against a brake shoe or brake linning which rubs against a brake drum. The essential of a good braking system should be i) Reliable and quick in its action. iv) In case of a fault in any part of the braking system the whole system must come to instantaneous rest or result in the application of the brakes. The motor can be held at stand still. Various types of electrical braking are: • • • • • . ii) The braking force must be capable of being controlled. Electric braking is superior to the friction braking as it is fast and cheap since there is no cost of maintenance of the brake shoes or linning. In other words the electric braking cannot hold the motor at rest.• For example a plannar must quickly be stopped at the end of its stroke and sometimes must quickly be stopped at the end of its stroke and sometimes it is necessary to stop the motor in order to prevent accident. the kinetic energy of the moving parts that is motor is converted into electrical energy which is consumed in a resistance as heat or alternatively it is returned to the supply source. During braking operation a motor has to function as a generator. Thus it becomes essential to provide mechanical brakes in addition to electric braking.

At the end of the braking period the supply to the motor is automatically cut off.f remains the same even during braking periods.m. 1) DC motors 2) Induction motors 3) Synchronous motors Plugging applied to DC motors • • To reverse a DC motors. it is necessary to reverse the connections of the armature while the connections of the field are kept the same.a) Plugging b) Rheostatic braking c) Regenerative braking Plugging • This is a simple method of electric braking and consists in reversing the connections of the armature of the motor so as to reverse its direction of rotation which will oppose the original direction of rotation of the motor and will bring it to zero speed when mechanical brakes can be applied. • • . The direction of m. While the motor is being braked. This method of braking can be applied to the following motors. When Eb = V then the voltage across the armature is 2V and at the time of braking twice the normal voltage is applied to the resistance in series with the armature at this time in order to limit the current. • Series motors: • The arrangements of connection before and after the braking are shown in fig. Shunt motors: • • The arrangements of connections before and after braking for shunt motor are shown in fig. the current is still being drawn from the supply. Total voltage of V+ Eb is available across the armature terminals which causes a current I to flow around the circuit.

(5) • In view of equations (2) and (5) TB = K Ф[(V + K1N Ф)/ R] .(3) Eb = K1N Ф • Where V is applied voltage Eb is back emf of the motor. R is the resistance of the motor N is the speed K1 is a constant • --------------------.(4) Substitute the value of Eb from equation (4) in (3) Current I = (V + K1N Ф)/ R -------------------.• This method requires energy from the supply for its action and not only the kinetic energy of the motor is being wasted. Speed and braking torque • Electric braking to torque TB α ФI ---------------------------. but this energy is also being dissipated.(1) TB = K ФI ---------------------------.(2) • Where K is a constant Current = V+ Eb / R -------------------.

The point Q represents the torque at the instant of plugging one can notice that the torque increases gradually as one approaches the stand still speed.(8) • Apply the results obtained to the series motor.(10) • • In the case of shunt motor since flux is constant. The rotor current I2 can be calculated during the braking period from the following relation and is plotted as shown.(11) Wherever there is a load on the machine the load will also exert braking torque due to it and then the total braking torque (T) T = Electric braking torque + Load torque ---------------.(6) -------------------.(12) Plugging applied to induction motors • • • In the case of induction motor its speed can be reversed by inter changing any of the two stator phases which reverses the direction of rotation of motor field.(9) • Then Electric braking in series motor. where Ф α armature current (Ia) ------------------. Different values of rotor resistance give rise to different shapes of speed torque curve in order to give any desired braking effect.(7) Where K2 = KV/ R And K3 = KK1/R --------------------. so Electric braking torque TB =K6 + K7N • ------------------. • • . Actually at the time of braking when the induction motor is running at near synchronous speed. = K4 Ia + K5 Ia2 -------------------.= K ФV/ R + KK1N Ф2/ R = K2 Ф + K3 Ф2N • --------------------.

. the motor is disconnected from the supply and run as generator driven by the remaining kinetic energy of the equipment that is the energy stored in motor and load which are to be braked. In this type of motor. with the only difference that the field on the rotor will be rotating in opposite direction to that of the rotating field on the stator with the synchronous speed and the relative velocity between the two will be twice the synchronous speed. the field.f.(13) Where E2 is the e. The following drives can be braked by the rheostatic method: • (i) (ii) (iii) Dc motors Shunt motor • DC motor Induction motor Synchronous motor. a synchronous motor provides satisfactory braking. winding remains connect to the supply as shown in fig. induced in rotor at standstill R2 is the rotor resistance X2 is the standstill reactance of the rotor and S2 is the percentage slip Plugging applied to synchronous motors • Plugging can be applied to the synchronous motors. • • Rheostatic braking • In this method of braking.I2 = SE2 / √ [Re2 + (SX2)2] • ------------------. This will meant that there is one synchronous motor torque but the same will be produced by the induction in the starting winding. the armature is simply disconnected from the supply and is connected to as resistance in series with it. Since most of the motors are equipped with starting winding.m.

there is no braking torque because of absence of the field. The motor after disconnection from the supply in made to run as a DC series generator.(18) • • While in the case of shunt motor since flux is constant Electric braking torque = K4N ------------------------------. Series motor • • • • In this case of the connections are made as shown is fig during braking operation.(15) • • Substitute the value of braking current is equation (1) Electric braking torque = KK1Ф2N/R = K2 Ф2N --------------------------------.(14) Hence braking current of equation (14) and (4) = K1ФN/R ---------------------------------. In the case of failure of the supply. Braking torque and speed • • • Electric braking torque is given by equation (3) Braking current = Eb / R ---------------------------------. The resistance inserted in the circuit must be less than the critical resistance otherwise the generator will not be self exciting.(17) In the case of a series motor the flux dependent upon the armature current Electric braking torque for series motor = K3Ia2N -------------------------------.(16) Where • • K2 = KK1/R -------------------------------.(19) . When the series motor is disconnected from the supply the direction of the armature current is reversed.• • The braking can be adjusted suitably by varying the resistance in the armature circuit.

C motors Induction motors • • D.f is induced in the rotor conductors. . the machine will operate as generator.C motors Shunt motor • In a DC machine where energy will be taken from the supply or delievered to it depends upon the induced emf.Rheostatic braking is applied to induction motor • • • In this case the stator is disconnected from the supply and is connected to DC supply which excites the windings thereby producing a DC field. there by dissipating in kinetic energy in the form of losses in the resistances. if it in less than the line voltage the machine will operate as motor and if it is more than the line voltage.m. When the short circuited rotor moves it outs the steady flux produced in the air gap due to DC current flowing in the stator produced in the air gap due to DC current flowing in the stator and an e. The rotor is short-circuited across through resistance in each phase. • Rheostatic braking as applied to the synchronous motors • • Rheostatic braking in the synchronous motors is similar to the rheostatic braking in induction motors. Regenerative braking • In this type of braking the motor is not disconnected from the supply but remains connected to it and its feeds back the braking energy or its kinetic energy to the supply system. In this case the stator is shorted across resistance in star or delta and the machine works like an alternator supplying the current to the resistance. The satisfactory application of this method is applicable only to the phase wound inductor motor where external resistance can be inserted in each phase. This method is better than the first and second methods of braking since no energy is wasted and rather it is supplied back to the system. This method is applicable to following motors: (i) (ii) D.

the regenerative braking is inherent. The under frame is of rolled steel sections. one at each end used for controlling the tramcar. Regenerative braking applied to induction motor • In the case of induction motors. complications arise due to fact that the reversal of the current in the armature would cause a reversal of polarity of the series field and hence back emf would be reversed.f exceeds the line voltage and the energy will be field into the system. • • • • • .C. This will quickly decrease the speed of the motor and will bring it to rest. It receives power through a bow collector or a grooved wheel from an overhead conductor at about 600 V D. It is provided with atleast two driving axles in order to secure necessary adhesion. Seats are either in transverse direction or a combination of transverse and longitudinal arrangement is used. they have suitable interlocking arrangement to prevent their being used simultaneously. since an induction motor act as a generator when running at speeds above synchronous speeds and it feeds power back to the supply system. Though these controllers are connected in parallel. This method is however very seldom used for braking but its application is very useful to lifts and hoists for holding a descending load at a speed only slightly above the synchronous speed.. start it from either end and use two motors with series. • Tramways • • The tramway is perhaps the cheapest type of transport available in very dense traffic.f induced in turn depends upon the speed and excitation that is when the field current or the speed is increased the induced e.m. the running rail forming the return conductor.• The e.m.parallel control. The main frame of the car body is made from high tensile steel. Two drum-type controllers. • Series motor • In this case. Aluminium is extensively used for bodywork. No extra auxiliaries are needed for this purpose.

speed control and regenerative braking. Regenerative braking is usually not employed in trolley-bus drive because of difficulty of ensuring that supply system is always in a position to absorb the energy regenerated.C supplied from a motorgenerator set connected in parallel with a battery. a single motor is used. It receives its power at 600 V D. this is overcome by the trolley-bus drive. The trolley bus can manoeuvre through a metre or two on each side of the centre line of the trolley wires. A D. Since the body of the car is insulated from earth on account of the rubber-tyred wheels.P. The vehicles are usually provided with secondary batteries so that the vehicles can be manoeuvred in case of emergency. ii) Undesirable effect of track on other road vehicles. hence. electro-mechanical drum brakes are used.C compound motor of output of 50 to 100 kW is normally used.C. Foot operated master controllers are used so that drive may have his hands free to steer the vehicle and apply hand brake.• • • • The equipment is similar to that used in railways but the output is considerably smaller and does not exceed 60 to 75 H. One pedal controls the starting. it must be properly checked for adequate insulation resistance lest it leaks and causes electric shocks to the passengers while boarding and • • • • . only a single driving axle and. from two overhead contact wires. For normal service rheostatic and mechanical braking are employed. Trolley-Bus Serious drawback of tramway is the lack of manoeuvrability in congested areas and noise. if any and second pedal control rheostatic and compressed air brakes. • It is an electrically.operated pneumatic-tyred vehicle which needs no track in the roadway. The lighting system in the car is low-voltage D. Also magnetic tracks brakes are used for giving better retardation. iii) It is an economical method of transportation only for large cities having dense traffic. This traction system is losing ground to trolley bus or internal combustion engine ominus system due to the following reasons: i) Lack of operational flexibility in areas of heavy congestion. For mechanical braking. Speed control is obtained by field weakening method. Since adhesion between a rubber-tyred wheel and ground is sufficiently high.

trolley buses. A popular car pair used in modern electric traction uses the pulse width modulation inverter principle. of rotation with a fully static device. The three phase voltage now fed into traction motors has a variable voltage and frequency. • Trolley – buses have more passenger carrying capacity. The pulsating inverters invert the three phase voltage. The PWM inverter produces a symmetrical three-phase output voltage. Fig shows the main circuit of a class EA locomotive. higher acceleration and braking retardation than oil-engined buses.alighting from the bus. These are. whose amplitude and frequency can be controlled continuously. Recent trends in electric traction Three phase AC traction drives • • • • • The advantages of AC propulsion drive are good reliability due to static power conversion equipment. • Class EA locomotive • • • • The class EA locomotive is a multipurpose locomotive used for fast inter-city trains. Hence the speed and torque of the squirrel cage induction motor used for traction can be adjusted in monitoring and braking. The PWMAC drives covers subway railcars. used for medium traffic density as obtained in inner suburbs. as well as in both directions. The important component of the AC traction is the three phase squirrel cage induction motor. on the other hand. LRVS. The system can be used for regenerative braking. The four quadrant controllers rectify the AC voltage from the transformer to 2800V DC. . are used for outer suburbs and country side where there is low traffic density. that is no operational contacts are required. diesel electric and electric locomotives. The insulation resistance is checked at the end of the day. Oil engine buses. therefore.

There is a powerful electric brake on the class EA locomotive. • • Locomotive electrical equipment • • • A typical scheme of locomotive used consists of eight diodes and twenty thyristors. The locomotive has a transformer suspended under the locomotive body. Hence there is no need to fear unbalance in the system. Fig shows the block diagram of a locomotive. Here a natural physical phenomenon is used. giving ample space for switch cabinets and equipment in the locomotive. .• Three auxiliary converter feed the three-phase fan motors for oil cooling and traction motor cooling. which is also of infinitely variable regulation. the motor itself piloting the converter that supplies it. The current flows from one to another without any stoppage. for rectifiers as well as the lubricating oil pump for cooling compressor and pneumatic compressor.

(ii) Refining of metals (e. ELECTROLYSIS – THE BASIC PRINCIPLE • When a compound formed by electrovalent bond is dissolved in water which has high dielectric constant results in the weakening of the electrostatic force of attraction between the ionized atoms. are based on the principle of electrolysis.g.. zinc. chemical and other industries..).).ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES Introduction The processes based on the fact that electrical energy can produce chemical changes are called Electrolytic processes. chlorine etc. All the processes mentioned above. aluminium.). copper. Consider the case of a copper sulphate (CuSO4) dissolved in water. (v) Building up of worn parts in metallurgical. potassium permagnate. caustic soda. gold. (iv) Electro-deposition of metals including electro-plating. though they appear differently in apparent detail.g. silver. These processes are widely used for: (i) Extraction of pure metals from their ores(e. magnesium etc. • . copper. electroforming.. nickel etc. This results in the charged ions to lead an independent existence. (iii) Manufacturing of various chemicals (e. electro-typing.g.

The whole process described above is called electrolysis.e. the sulphuric acid attacks it forming copper sulphate and liberating hydrogen: H2SO4 + Cu = CuSO4 + H2 • • Thus the copper of the anode goes into solution and copper from copper sulphate is deposited on the cathode. The sulphate ions collect at the anode and react with water giving out oxygen: 2H2O + 2SO4 = 2H2SO4 + O2 • • • Oxygen is liberated as gas at the anode and H2SO4 is formed. I = the steady current in amperes. • FARADAY’S LAWS OF ELECTROLYSIS • • Michael Faraday (an English scientist) formulated the laws governing the electrolytic processes. which are stated below: Faraday’s First Law: It is stated as follows “The mass of a substance liberated from an electrolyte in a given time is proportional to the quantity of electricity passing through the electrolyte.• • It dissociates into positively-charged copper ions (Cu++) and negatively-charged sulphate ions (SO4--) moving freely in the solution. If the cathode is made of Cu. CuSO4 solution) and one of them is made positive and the other negative. If two electrodes are placed in the electrolyte (i. and similary each of the negative-charged sulphate ions (anions) reaching the anode will give up two electrons to it and cease to be anion. the positively-charged ions travel towards the cathode and the negatively-charged ions travel towards the anode. During the process there is no accumulation of charge at any point in the circuit and the mass of copper deposited at the cathode is exactly equal to that removed from the anode. Each of the positively-charged copper ions (cations) reaching the cathode will take two electrons from it and become a metallic atom of copper.. Z = A constant called the electrochemical equivalent. Thus the copper is deposited at the cathode as metal.” That is m α Q α It m = Zit where. and .

The current efficiency is defined as the ratio of the actual quantity of substance liberated or deposited to the theoretical quantity. TERMS CONNECTED WITH ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES • Following terms are used in electrolytic processes: 1.). The S. as calculated from faraday’s laws. Theoretical quantity of substance liberated or deposited • The value of current efficiency lies between 90 to 98 percent. if electro-chemical equivalent of the metal is known. t = 1s and Z = m Thus electrochemical equivalent. Current efficiency: Due to impurities which cause secondary reactions. the masses of the substances deposited are proportional to their respective chemical equivalents or equivalent weights. This is taken into account by employing a factor. Energy efficiency. of a substance is defined as the amount of the substance deposited on passing a steady electric current of 1A for one second through its solution. called the “current efficiency”.t = Time (second) for which current I flows through the electrolyte. Current efficiency 2. . From this law it follows that the constant of proportional to the chemical equivalent.I. unit of Z is kilogram per coulomb (Kg/C). Z. In certain cases this efficiency is very low.e. Actual quantity of substance liberated or deposited i. Current efficiency = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------. If I = 1A. • Faraday’s Second Law: This law states as under “When the same quantity of electricity is passed through several electrolytes. the quantity of the substance(s) liberated is slightly less than that calculated from faraday’s laws.. Voltage 3. For example in chromium plating it 12 to 15% (app. • The theoretical value of current required for depositing a given quantity of metal and the time for which this current should be passed through the electrolyte can be calculated from the Faraday’s laws.

Owing to secondary reactions. ii. Theoretical energy required i. in many cases. therefore. Energy efficiency = __________________________________________ Actual energy required Application of electrolysis The major applications of electrolysis are as under: • Electro-deposition i. For example dilute sulphuric acid is added to copper sulphate bath in copper plating. desirable that these drops are made as small as possible. iv. by adding special conducting agents to the electrolyte to make it ( electrolyte ) a good conductor. It is. The voltage that is essentially required to pass the current through an electrolyte depends upon the potential drops at the electrodes and in the electrolyte. 3.2. • • • • • Electroplating Electro-deposition of rubber Electro-metallisation Electro-typing Manufacture of chemicals Anodizing Electropolishing Electro-cleaning or pickling Electro-parting or electro-stripping . Voltage. the voltage actually required for the deposition or liberation of metal is higher than the theoretical value which increases the actual energy required. Energy efficiency. iii. • The normal voltage required to pass current through most electrolytes is 1 to 2 V. This can be achieved..e. Energy efficiency is defined as the ratio of theoretical energy to the actual energy required for depositing a given quantity of metal.

electro-forming. • Factors on which quality of electro-deposition depends Following are the factors on which the quality of electro-deposition depends: • Nature of electrolyte: The electrolyte from which complex ions can be obtained provides a smooth deposit. dextrin etc. Electro-extraction Electro-refining Electro-deposition • The process of depositing a coating of one metal over another metal or non-metal electrically is called the electro-deposition. electro-typing. • Addition agents: The addition of acid or other substances to the electrolyte reduces its resistance. decorative and functional purposes and includes such processes as electro-plating. It is used for protective. higher current density can be achieved. • Conductivity: The solution of good conductivity provides economy in power consumption and also reduces the tendency to form trees and rough deposits. which is necessary to obtain uniform and fine-grain deposit. dextrose. electrometallisation etc. • Temperature: A low temperature of the solution favours formation of small crystals of metal. large crystals.i. • Electrolytic concentration: By increasing the concentration of the electrolyte. • Current density: The deposit of metal will be uniform and fine-grained if the current density is used at a rate higher than at which the nuclei are formed. ii. and a high temperature. gums. . Addition agents like glue. The deposit will be strong and porous if the rate of nuclei formation is very high current density. electro-facing.

coherent and uniform deposits. Due to irregular shape of the cathode the distance between the various portions of the cathode and anode will be different. The electrolyte deposits are crystalline in nature. rate of metal deposition is also increased upto certain limit after which electrolyte surrounding the base metal becomes so much depleted of metal ions that rate of deposition does not increase with increase in current density. To give reflecting properties reflectors. To replace worn out material. of course. or Electroplating is defined as the electro-deposition of metal upon metallic surfaces. It is done to accomplish the following: • • • • • To protect the metals against corrosion. This phenomenon is called polarization. This hydrogen evolved. To give a shiny appearance to articles. • Polarization: With the increase in the electroplating current density. the resistance of the current path through the electrolyte for various portions of the cathode will be different but the potential difference between the anode and any point on the article to be plate will be. blankets the base metal which diminishes the rate of metal deposition. If current density more than this limit is employed. For this purpose. The crystals must be very fine in order to get firm. • Throwing power: It is defined as the ability of the electrolyte to produce even irregular surfaces. suitable electrolytes should be used in the electrolytic bath and current density used should . it will result in electrolysis of water and hydrogen deposition on the cathode. be the same and the result will be that the current density will be more on the portion nearer to anode and it will cause uneven deposit of the metal. Blanking effect can be reduced by agitating the electrolyte. Due to unequal distance. this prevents it to have large growth and thus deposition will be finegrained. Electroplating Electroplating is an art of depositing a superior or a more noble metal on an inferior or a base metal by means of electrolysis of an aqueous solution of a suitable electrolyte.Influence the nature of deposit. The crystal nuclei absorb the addition agent added in the electrolyte.

Details of preparation of solutions and current densities employed for deposition of various metals are given henceforth. hot alkali solutions. Cleaning operation includes the following: • Removal of oil. buffing etc. polished and degreased.have an appropriate value. by polishing. Operation involved in electroplating: Various operations involved in electroplating are: 1. To accomplish this mechanical abrasion and polishing are used.. or organic solvents such as gasoline or carbon tetrachloride are used. Mechanical preparation of the surface of the metal to remove the deposited metal. or other organic material. • • Deposition of metal: In all types of metal deposition processes. or other inorganic coatings adhering to the base metal/ work piece… To accomplish this various acids. article to be electroplated is made cathode. oxides. the deposit formed may not be well adherent to the base metal and is likely to peel off. soaps. To accomplish this. . solution is made up of salt of the metal to be deposited and anode is often of the same metal which is to be deposited. • The articles to be coated with nobler metals should be in as high a state of purity as possible. alkali and salt solutions are employed. The temperature should also be maintained at a proper level. Cleaning operation 2. Copper plating: Copper plating baths are of the following two types. Deposition of metal Cleaning operation: In case the object to be electroplated is not cleaned. Removal of rust. scale. grease.

c. and temperature of 35˚ to 50˚C. 25 to 37 gm of H2SO4 per 1000 c. Copper plating is used (i) (ii) For iron articles to prevent them from rusting As undercoat for silver and nickel plating. 6 gm of sodium carbonate and 6 gm of sodium biphosphate per 1000 c. • Cyanide bath consists of 25 gm of copper cyanide. Deposit obtained is thick and rough which requires polishing. Current density used is 4 to 150 A/m2. Current density employed is 200 to 400 A/m2 and temperature of 25˚ to 50˚C. 28 gm of sodium cyanide. anode is made of copper.cc of solution.• In acid bath. anode employed is of copper. This gives thin and smooth deposit. • . solution is made of 150 to 200 gm of copper sulphate.

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