Some Worlds about

IMY flA,RMO'NY BOOK

'B,'!{ E ILtIIO'lT ,CARiEIR

"[b~s f:On~(t~on o:fchorils" Ilfl,@'a[~~ COJ" ~l'Ii)1 CI'I'I'lil use, bl't,gal]~ to ~ilk~ ~'iha!ffil<l! >iir,oiLllud ]~96Cl ~fter I h:i!d errrph:.)J'ed ~,I/IO, ;iI~[".jm~f\~I! <j-notcc:'i:HlH~:'5,. ~,!Ihich ,~ ('.a~le ~'~]'{Jn by ~h~n(;e ~~~~hil~ tffimc ,<lnd,\i!~l'i,ch ,f:Q(l,'m,ed, ,i!!~~1:l for 'lJ:ruc [)Q'ohik (;@int!til\t~~rlid SiLii'iu.g 'Q~J,r((t,N0. 2. WT:hUc pl;.-rf1J!Ujll,g th~ PiliulJ;o C:[I:i1!~~tftl)! (~,9Gi5,) , I tra~d Ofll( [~'!!or,{i orless aJtt ]Cim~~om Wl"iiQ]~ on;ltlbilljl,~OfiS and spac~lll~ o:f <aIDl (be $:n,Q!(~ dl(H'ds,!Ii!nd m.hi$ ~ed me ~o trya~d deal\~'i~b dll~nl 'i~ an o!rd('lIi~ ~~y. Tbe resuhs ru~' !the eh ~r:tlii on pp . .5~7 of Vo]ume U oithe m;:uHJulCrll[pI' fpp. 32~51l of this 'eldlti.eu]" Lremembered .AiI0lS l;;![:£ba's, N~~.llarm{Jfif«Mhffl; ,~hi.c'h rather l'lnsl"s:[ema~:i!rlll.Uy listed all ~or1l. .. ufcho!r(i]~. and m.edil:ol1nli! iUll1iOI1e-helpC11l'l phm. ~:.'luMJted.[hen:~{l)~, Mtby blt, alO needed for my tiOI11~por;~ti!n\w; (often not a,<:; ,ord:l;'rlya. .. rn w(i1lJldl~t~f .1 ~ave wished) 1\0 ,eia'll!:). :rn,t!e dlllS phmin desrnltmr :momel.lLb,memorilillg the uLUll1iberin~ of the chords as '[I!:aey w:e~e 10 be ltsed.AlfiolUlIdHHi1, I had gel 3:r.oilUllid to ube' c~note' !(;boln::ls :and their !1~.ote mmp;l~

'-me- .~~.~ ~~: ... j ""utL"I"'r- '(J~'.", •• "", ~ 'n ....... ' ·~"f",;1 .~ 111"'-'1"" "'1m' ,1)~"n,en, ';"'1';L"I"~1 - .[ ~:I' "'>fO ~'.~ __ I ,leO-· ~r m'! ~'"''''''''['.''''' , I. ,!L.o.~~ ~[!' ,1_~-,-;t.I,I;~ ~'JjO ~U,..." . L"" .• J~v'li""":r ~.;.,F. JlVlil-.:.., ,o_~,n ... l .~1IJL"'U II!,;;;,. ..... I!,;;_ .• L l~-""I..!I' .; ~1~11i,..;]i" _,"!II Jl [, ."",l~~. . l~ ~1""'iU 'IU!~, J. _- .·11 L "J !!G~I,iIJ,,"-"""'" - I!;U

forOre'heS:!t'd. (]'969),

TIleU,. :ina :s;i rna il',I]: W·.i\}', m ex,pll()lft:d. dH:~· o.,n~~te ehcrds, u;'Ied he:fe.u~d lhe re iu m;,. S:m~lIg ('l\llilHn:et No.3 n,g!'7ll. A:it:er Ic1.lIat, !l.h[sbo~k fu['nlshedhi:lim~omic ide~~" which I.D wo.rik. .. of dUle~e~ili'l~ ~llls(n!ilm.e:ntllti,o~!leKpanded m [he use of .al~~nten<1tl,ve:rdcal!'i~'\I:li'meui,ei1l[chords,.

"'''''rn· ... ted '[-;-r"'m-· ",I",,,,, '1:1' "'t ",,~'in) "','. "',' ~ If enzel 1.", .. -<:1" and ~c""''''.''' 1)11"~;"'t· ·t ;~'''. J-)-4'i""'.'~''''<' ",f'1lo f:... •• ~"I',,,,,,.",J,

''''-'"f1J.Ji!: '..:: !L-~ _' .. , 'V.I 11lJ[~,~, '_ ~_" u~ .. lILi"'Ul .... J~l .. ,~~J.~~.It; , Il~Lh",,!IJ ~ ,O_IL~, 1 .~:, :1. ~Jj I."""," r'" cL~.I._ UJ u.iiJ ~.-~fI'~I:E>I.;>-L.~'I)'l'iLl! Uj' r[''II'-bu'.l' ~I'~.JI ~t...;I,,~- "

as in Nig/l't ,Fmntwin (ISiS!]I)," Ttl'f:ru. ]ohn. Unk produced by c.o~npu[:e:r a ~,~s'l of aH·intenOilI] l2~ note dl0!IUs ili:hii!J c<Q!I!Iurinedi, as <lc1jacl!::n t i:n~er\'a]:s ~.notJe chord [aIO. 35, wmposed Cl.f ;~U the 3- no~'e chords, Th(~1'i-e ,~hord.", pruved to beliit'ry lW:-l(~fl_d ~n, ~aiEMe'5t-ale ,,"'olfk~" Fro[l];1J ~,1~tU]~ ~ 990, [ hiil!'!,'t; reduced ~y V{JC((bldilry t~f !Ch(]!irdi!l,mOrefu~dmo~e ttl' the r~WQUle chord 11.0. 35a[~d the 4- ID~OI'e (:ho:rd~ ID1!(D~" lEI and 23, It\(I~~(;h (.;I1I,(iu:rrapil-SS <]U the in!cn- .. d!i.

" ~"'>i~~!'(,\I~,fii~I.~,rg; ioIild Mehin, :F~~j~''l}. ~'O:r1 [h:,'''''Ii·I;r'H~n.,j T\~t'l.~Tm'il R,-"'!!," ~!k'!l~ <1'!~ o"l~~:\, tKo, 2 H9iGI;i).: ~~IO:l,

Cvpyr ghl d malcria

Editor's Preface

IBY N~ClhlOILAS. HOPKtl NS

"'~(h~n ~igl!'li:J.lg 6~1L as M~ll~gtnglfid,ito;r of Carl l'lscb!.';lf,. on~ ,~f .my :fi.n:t[~SiPG''Uiibm~ d~~m!L]d]j to my dd~g'1II!:Ca[lIid ~P]d~ll:i!Qtl]Jl=~ the p,rep~l:ion {!If EUrnon G1:ili'ter's F./i(1r'tIIJ'umJ1' H~('brp:lll!billiC3:rj:O~,1. The p:]]hlisIH::ll" h.rnded mea hU!1l:tl' 1P~]e of o\l,fl!rs:i:z~d m'l.lsi.cp~ per;\1rttruaUy ,m1'ery p!3ig:e iOf \'I'hi.ch W'3S eeveredwtth ~nl],skal notes, graphk symho]so 3ndi. ,,\j!bat <lippe~n:~d lobe s~rib:bHng ofV<b:Ii()il[~, klnd:s.lIMid. Ithe simp,I'e (Hre>c~i,,'e I~{) ,., ., •• mal;,~ sense of thi!'l." nIi,l1~, 1l;S I 'CaRle ~Q,r~ilJe, the :\i!e.r~!."-~'.I!ogiC!l!mJ mdel." '!i.lI\l:.re~~~r,ea.dy~bere,~:ly tnoSJ., in the £OnQl!·\ri.!'rugt1i\'Q,~nd o.rne-hlil!lf YCi1I,!f,:!> o.f 'Ii~i'QIrk (]in th:i$ book \!i'a,'> n~e]"eiy to, bring' them to tb:~ stu:f~1.C~.

The :li,1!j,'!!(lIgnph llliam_1script ,~fQmr~!IT,!f~'!S: .lJ(M"hj""~y .B~js \ .... riu~n on W7unbQ'IJ:nd5b~cl;.$ ·of h:,dgev .. siZle~h1l11m'usfuc: p~.p~r" ead~of,~!hi,ch >co~iP!ri!~~iiifi~ln('!e1.!JJ $UlJ."'~:'i" l'~li~ ~dill,ml. '~~ plJ",~p@'i!",~d fi:t'li~n ~ phol()(;fJ])}1 or In:w~:iil mi!lf~t1~;(ript. The orig~na] o~)'p~Qf this j),\jt~,ogr.ilphis; now p~rMaJ!J'J!'~ntly hOl~lled i!l1 the ~ii_d Sa.;he:r Stif1l,u!JlIig bl~ B~el, the 8-wiss, i!:l~tihU'(; thar p:rQvicll~i} .~«}:j.1~g:e f~dHIi~ for, all 'QfC~rt(;jt'~;; ~itiil.:I;.$k"rclliM.~d ~m]a,t~rii.~m~. A bhli;[Jri.tH c,opy, (-on~im~hig "'"!:line. 'QU!, atl.w,gl~'h ]\(S"isIQ~)~al~d.'1)"·!:t;:ti()~i).. R~~~n~ ~n. Q'i;".-!IiC:r':i! pl:lt55~~~Qn. fln.di lili)l1-! c;n~,· "ir!f"~ alsGl 'OOll!!~rlt~dfCi!r [.hi;; pi!."~i'l~iU ~dil!i(m.

TIlle'H~r:iIii(.t:ti!' .~·ise$Senl):ial~~!· a masslre en'qrclopediia d:~j{H~d to '~~iP'i(lr~ughar~ R1I:O![lk: re.I1[[[ons'h~ps. In :l:i:lisscnse" it is not truly <II, ";.harnllon( book, i:!ilt lCi1l.'lt in the ,,.ay o'[be.r :si,IiIDl~]ii\dy 1U!000med bi]'OM are. Ql,Ii~elf~i~i;IlS ~ckl;1im,,]edg~d dl<llit du; liarm:tm:jBllOkh'm'il. plmned aru1 dC'\I'C]ope-d '~o 5,et"l.!e olnmy a<;i ,<I ~O(II [(l,t' hL'I cOlnpo~'iti.'©!ua!.~I'Jli),r~.,I~dd U~1f d~;<IJ~~ ~ !ill resource [hli pU:blk usage) (;h:"Cnrue rn akC"up ~~ld O~rlj:ti,l!tiltl!]! of il.hc manuscript. ~i~i.,,; evilid:e !'!IiI.: th~th(; :ne",,-er~~~sJlI~d elf inwndedtMlat~b~ I·,~td~s of trisfind~Jlgl!l '~!(mild be uli~d ina ped;;lgl'jl<gk~] ~:)i!fjll()r (~'!"bidl jj lIlo:t l'Q say W.:l!t dlC)!' ,t~!lO~ be] .Forthis fi~ls.o",., Cu_rter. ,nn:ided nn 'l';nttt'fl l]otef! ,o.r~r!$tructiQn~ of ~:i1r kil1dc~n,erning the use ,of th~ book: l.t 'I!~~ ~1f.:rdC':!ie~t:i:al, a[lj,d 'be (;1~1.dr kn,tw'how to pUll h ].iii) pnJ[!)~r' use,

Yet l!b~s~ factors ,cmurihl.J1im.~d (o(ti'n~in pliobl~mLli in tl u~~d~~nriill~ pmt::t:'~, :DUE E};OOfut" ~em11l hl, pturt.i:cular ibejng ithe o'l!(,;'::!,:all ]a~'Qut~md org~l!i i!;{In:i;on of tilHl: l[~~tnm.cript Can:t:~' dh1'k~ed the Jla;niU1//~~ HooJ.\i.lI1ito [11\,0 'vo.lurne:.ll, the fi~t of whid'l he uded "S}'l1Im.!le~D~" •• u~d tbe secend ·'}mllll~:s;i$". EaeJru ,00f tb~~'!roillu!l1!~ :I~ ,de~dJ' di$ti~gll"li~s]loo by a ililll~ page that WW [i$ood dle CjD1lIli:,el1li~. \\'elmth tIDl.Be two dilflS]ons :<Il'O,ne.lbeoookWOliil umrwieiJdy 10 [he ulllinh'i~:l,ed. reader: d~e ,lncatlGlI], oif h!i maierials and. ehe :Iogic of Its de\ie~op:me',ru, welle: both orn£~~rer]. For dais r,easoorn~ ~. ~nlrool'loedl afllodlerle,-e'~ of orga.m;i~cii(lnby .snbdiviidi rng: each 'i.;Q:hm:1l.einto ~,~mlnb!!!1 of cJru~,ter:ll •. e.ightruor '\/(1:] l1lTile rn ;:Iud .fiive fbi.· Vhlul:m~ IL':l CI ~ill,)tel~, Uilnd 2 areemlded '~C.;a~ ro,g:u(':""--tll.'c dtl!c Ilrnt Ul11!er gaVle 1tiQ> Chapter ru beeaase wcy e'Clmprise ClflUIlI'lJf:lildo:ll'5l ef ;5p~dEic hel!IIS\lli:th ~'$temJi<1ld.c a1Uln~menl5. ~fiI1,e' lirst presentsall '~he2210 hue nrals ~nd ,[;bl)rds

, ~ "1,1i~' ,c"jmb~M Nt ·u~' 'Ell 1~11.1, (~f!ler'1l, l~~~J· ,~' ~-w, 7·42, ~ml '"f.lUim. (A, LOj!" 'Jlli~ i.jJ_";li~, I,~~, I'f(~ ~ ... ~

PI)' ~n·~>.'!'.5_ .

:~ (~lUr >!PiPrrrn'~Ql, of ih~~ dWJP~e1' ~~IimkJ;M (hm'~r I!) HI.;': ~H'O(Ifl'.

Co r ght ..., lcr!a

a,~aUabJe' :ll'.Ull::Ji 'lWO ~O< ten notes.whleh are used as mw' materials ~n :0111 suoceeding cltilpite:rs of tllile' book. Chapter 2 contains the a~l,·ii!teTvrd12·[iI{ne ,chords,~i!'hi,ch ha~re beeerne stap]e, :features in vl1llil:r!!!~l]~y.dl of c.'1.ner':!i~\'orks s~m::e the eady 19'i{l$, Me~ely one 'ldjulilmem[·~ m<lic1e j,m '~'\ihalwo\lld. beooillelfle' fle[l],il,im~ng :!iix dmpLen o~ Vo~ume I (9,yntheslis .~~ViI): drue entries filr 1+'2",3,. 1+3:;::4, 1+4",,5, and 1+5: .. 6wer,e meved Item the oorndud~ng posimon of 'Volume I to the opel.':JIing (Chap'ler 3}. The ILOIUents .o~ Vol,ume n i(j\:na]YSI,s I~V) are 3JI'"rnnged <IS It.heyi'!l~e i,[1 the m~mllScrilpt.

The absence of gu,idelines and i[lstru,ct!.o.lu posed i!I!n addltional prllhl,em.wll1]ch was remedied by Ico~:pi.l:ing .31 number of\;,o;ri [~el1l essays to ,e:xp];l!wn~e meehaaisms .of ithe 000];: .. JOhrul Lh~k p:rod~lced ;;trninu"Oduc:m:lOll that eharu dl.e de!"elo[,l:me'll,t of the HanlUJf1)" .Book and cites sorneesamples .of In,o\'\,' Caner h<lS appH'Bd illlls resesreh ~o his 'll::om:pG'Shions, 3J50 .illm~t:r:atinghmv the H'a;nmJ'u)' .110(}li. has evo~i",ec] i.1:li ,eonjum:LiJo:n with Ga:[9tel~'S nllJsk. Dr; Lfu[lk <lildiltio.llaUy conduetedae i.lI:Jiwn.4.cw ,'i1,~h t]H:: OOll:1lJpos.er,\'\,bk:h co.ntal!l!1i:!i i:ll\l!'i)luolhl.e, tlirst;hal1JJdinf'onml'lio!1lI 01] Carter'suse of these materials, I assembled !Bi!lil ,css~y lor each (I.f il:he thirteen ch:l!r'rrfOfS U) acquaint thareader wi.'1II the proa~dlulWi ,of the chap~:r. Tlll~!itl eSIii~j'iii' :JiireinwndonaHy br:iief, senrin,g as poil1llfi:$; of dE'PilJrlLlr~ from wbich much ~dditlonil ~nforUThation can be d1Cl'rb'ett .AIS/!] Included !l\!ere a gICs:lklT)' of terms for spedfruc aheoredcal '~!}pics in the book and three ~pp!l;ildiceK. OD1iJt:GO iupp,k:nu:nl[ the iuronnation in CI:ru~IP~el!" L ti1!!C ether to "'l!ppk~e!til tllle irnforWl'lJati.Oll in Ch;1!pocr 2~. TIle t11!1~rdi.l:ppend:ix reproduces Carter's dia.gnum of the numbcli Ofiil1!:IOOeil1ll for CilIC]) choed from threeto twern,,'e notes, WI.1HlI:, was origina.lly the ope:f.ili.ng p<'lgc o[ the HartOOt:l:, Ji'OOk .. lasill)l. I added .iWI 'eN!pl~ [I]<1o.on of iIJ:JJe siglill fnrms that IQirte.r developed il!O ~dentif)lltle' ]iI1t.en,dls <lind chords inthe e atalog1ue, and. the "Consensus of Forte and Gm1Je'r", a ]isung that ccmp.u"es the :sy.s!IJems, of Fone.uld. CaneL

An ;1ldditlon!l] edhorial wl conc!!:.rrilcd sections ofdi1e ~oolk.~h~1I) were mdtiocomlPkil(;, Gi~11li tlili)it Canelf PJliJ!<duced thlii;, OO'!)]" fc;r his own reference .... ¥iill)h no rnliloont 'Ilrpub~iUllti~r~.it 'ivoil)dd Ibe '~Np~cted th3Jt he E~lt ["iJJQsped.:lli] urgenc}i'to "fiU ln the notes" ln ian ~nstaf.loes througl:~" out tbe book, The a:b~fJilce> ~iil the music become ~$peciaUrap[~;Ilr~!1Ith'ithinlfflrtilJJ~choKl",. ~m 'lill,!'hkI1l ~:Wi} levels .of infomlali,o[l were ~~,quif'f'd!: fine for prime fomltS .• the other for ln~ ... erred [onus" Oneil" Uhe ]~U:e;f\!,Q.~ not coni!lp:k'lf'&ffi,. and it i~5. pi1obabl~ I)h;,n.C~fOOi: cau:ld ~~dily c:a.kt~~a[e the one on the rtmsgs or the ml.le.r, for wbkhrea.som its phys!lcal(:omm!i.tmeni~ w' !p~!per was 110'[ .,dW<lj'S nCi!:c5:Si<lI1'. l~.~.ow,e!!!l'ell:, omissions of t'iJ:Ill' Jci.l1ld shourud nOot 'C.Oiil:SJtjt~:t(l 3 iP'ubHsh('de<d~tiQn, For this reason I 1 coifop:lewd these parts 1iJr fiilnmwDg the' eousse thalli. Caller h~tdalr~dr p!li'o1i.vjd!~{~.ait'lid ] !~.:k~r,~sp()f!sihililY ~or any m]!ll~.ke!i lha[ mary ~e found! ill! sl:lch

. - - .. .

secilens,

The nil al ~t~ge iIlf(,d~~~-~rii~[WOiifk on~h]~, rn"f!~nIJscli])t~w~lm,'fHr~' wnys the im(l~l d~u~u~ rnng 01:1JJ(;~in;'!fol\i\(,':d! the uotatien of charm" or l,fpit.ch in ~!l.et<d, Carte.rrlSSemb1ed the eenltietlJ~ or ilI1i:siboot ov,(l'r a period ofrnore than tV.'(:f!l;yye@!:f.}j al1!d.. int-:vi.tl!b~y, certain dj~~lepiltli· eles arosein the \V<illy ~]1 w~':ikh chords ~~l'Ci.'iin.oDlIi(Jed" A iifn¢~IIii'ii]S~~r ~ma!:'lid~:td:il.alti(i!!]JII~"~~ thm necessarylu iUhe imerests of consistency, "'~ithoUI[ resuldng ~:n ch a nges 00, 'tb~ com,e.fliil: ·of 'I:h~ ibook. The €,ulh ,,1,:\7i og l1cm;venuor!!:i were pan of this s,tanda:m]z4!t:lon:

·~, the noU'!!tti·on of <!I1ill ,d~N)rd.s in pri me form, the wl'iuen ~orm. that repr-esents a, spcdflc anf<'Hl~:rn'~oit'ii:llfit.~ corn:pon~'f~~ based on th~ most rompact'ord·~ring .• .or the "~om}:;l!J! order". S TIlccrireO:.ilJ ~(!Jir determinlng pri~e form ;U',~ those ~~Jb.. llshed 1),y Allen Forre ]u Th~ S;~rnaH'f!t of AJ~(.!lMt~it;.

2, the rlOl;;)jhon of chords 3!!], $imHh:aRef.m~ (i.e .. , stadJedl) 0:1' ,}~~CC'I:S~iVle, III this i.:!d~1joth iIi~~ (;btJt~i:;, of !lh:j',~~ .lnd fOiii;ir uotes ~:rf~ H.otliwd ~, !ili~~till:1'~l!'!:ilie~~ ~W] 5- note eherds are !n:ota~d 3!.S si."J,iI.:!~la!lei~k'S\yh:e!l:!ic~rpo!is~b~e. ~~1(I:: ran cbords of ~~x Of more notes are ~h~lr.i t1iQ1tO)\lrod sutte~:i1!r.riI.r; The one hWiI[PO!tulit C:K(~ption to m]~ is Chapterrn.. itl Winidll all charm are o(H."ued$li:!ICCeMi.¥eLy for ease (If Legjb]~~ty;

3. the iIlOl71UO]) of enh,l!lill1om:ks .u::oord:ing 1·0 traditienal pl1ilct:ioe. The' cheice of emharfl:1:onics for :srurn!l;lhiUle01i.:l!:! chords is geneFdUy that whic]l <tHaws th>e' n:UJ.st I,egib~c: II'clTIidil,iio:n.. ·oft·entime:s, rounded! 0111 a ImL"l:ll!l;lre of 5h<'lrpSiu:~d flats, The Illoi(auo:n fo], suecessive c:holldls ~-:OUOl/!\l'SlffiH~' tradidonal ap:proach b~!· li1iS:t:ng sharps fo,r ~ce:nd~[Ig fbrtml a nd! flats rOI' desct:ncli.l:rug. This gl"e~tly[\elihl.ces. the need (or 1i:I<J:llllrJll :srnps, and a]]ol¥s for nlOIN~ ]egiMe J1emdidclJl:S:. Onegenernl ex.cepdom ~o thils mom ism .... dein the mnleJ1e!lt ofa,li,i\@iidi.ng ilu~mJe:n~ed and diruiaislted intervals. Thus;

5. .-

• I-

NOT

..

"Ol,~e'\~e(. all:£,'U~en.ted ~md di,miimished Ente:""'<lJb arepermissible if lj),e"Y pred~de the need for a !:tatum] sign. Thus:

__ ., I- • -4

Gnrti~l; d~d! net hes:hatoe 10 use d10~.1 ble :sh<'lTps! and deuble fl<'llli, if theyaUol'!!ed for it .!l!I;;:"ckcd :n:ot3!uol1: of Oli c:horcl. th:~n cm~~dothel1i,~!.i~ ro~J:t be, Ti~c!'!ie ~law: b "c[n ~nLr,l)duo~d! ~r:Ji oe:rliN~l1 inst<llnl:es "I:' 3-notei.limd -l-note chords. which areal I1IIiO.sr!; i~"~riably !itac~d, Thus:

4. NiU!lJr:"d~ ~igmlsare netusedat :a:rwy point in tibi~ edition, Theyoc'Cur in. dIe manu$cript.~lbe~tir~ftequer~!J,y! gC!IlerO\1![ly I~:O cancel a sh~q) or tIlat[rn~aIUlp~)~~rn e-arilil;:!Ii ~[ilfir(i' "measure" .. GlJn..'!~qii.'i~nt1y,. all i~Qdd~r~t~~il :i~l tb~ 1~la1'lIi:fffj~' IJatJh rtlIect onl.y the ~QI~ theyimm(;di~ltel}' pre~~de. de.~iP~~ du~ rnc:~ ~~~~ Q~fI;er H(;\;'(;r ~d{}P~1;;d thisco.n"'~ntionbn hiIsQ'\!,11Ji m~sie~

Co yr ht "l rla

5. Cafi,c~ nOl<ut:d all e!}t<an~p~f;:~i.ll lht;: i-luxm(my.l1ook in trebille def, <lErthough. a def ~s nel,1't"r:' H,hoe'B in the m::u],u:'l!bftp1L. This {'o]1'!ll'erniollJi hasbee:n retalued in t!llh> edhiQu, '!';'~1!~l the' ex('..epdol!1 ()ir the all . .!.intier\j"",;l,~1 ],2'-mlotie cb'~}rd~. hl Chapter' 2. whose vertical not<iltiofl. required both a treble and a bass del;

ti Wid'll l!b~'ex.(je[Cldom of ChiilPllC'l: 2. all, 1?l]it.'he:.. are noll'lt'eldl~,."rhh:in a il1>~~cl.a\!'!e lm,~:~g,e,. fa.1Jim (~Ii toRi):

Tltls limited. iJ!";j"Ifli.ge pf~s,i[i.'d'lll:1led, i1:he majo.r:ity' ofd,lf: PJil:cht"S 'lNilhi.n the smff"

An:.r (]tt~l~e r ~dh.orial. ~m,ldi nGllit~IiLS :.tl"t: .I,ment:~oncd lin ~ihe £cssa:y.:; that ~n t:roonoc tlhe d:ruapters.

Co r ght m ri

S• '1 19.a

111!C term "'$jg~i)I~' in 'tllil:is edhilion mif~rs t'O 'n1'1~ :s'"jtrn'oo:ls tI!~.'tCarle]"'d~'~~op~d i~l;~idm;~lily the 22ij il];te~isiIlJud dl':iiords dl:ffiughoiILlt all of ~h!e .1:l(1ffl~Q'R:)1 Jl{)Q1l. ('JB,fOO!fililltrodu:!C~~ ¢@jchof these ~rmoo!s ~rJi. the diagmm 0'.1:11 the~~t1e [p!Sige oftbe ,Hi:1.rm{H~' Book. (see ApiPendix 3) .. How~'!.Ieilr; at no ]Xliim ~n. d~!ll book clneslll!C p!i~mde ;!,~ex:pliil!:l !lOon of i1J1!Jf!~r :;.~gni:llc;!ince. :3!hhnugb th~~ can l'iOQlfl. beil~.r~!:r'e('] fI,'OII11 '~n~I.J'7jngthi!i. d.i~l£:r{~~n or !ri.n!l,i~;!!~~).'!tH;Y ~l'il!C .Oil U~e m=~rtll,-~ :sc,''-i,pt. A.cld~dnnally. :i~, rns, ev.idcnt I~~~~i[{~t·~?r b~~~~]~ I(luiu: fm]Jf~?~~[?h: w:i~~ tile dcsig~~'~i!QU!; ofthle~1fl S}l11IbQ~!i. I~\Q d1!e '~N:I1!e:I!iJ~ (d Cmpl,Q}'1tilg; [hcit1I';I Jill :s;kCK!il'e5i ~IJir It~t:3 m~~~ll(;,'

The :s~gJa l~ll;JIl1i!tdiic~n(lchmds of 'Iflro~ Il'(); si~ n:1)!oo.~ !l!f'~ d~ig;H~d ~, pO]~'g@!!A!!;:> intn~~ CJf;::[IMrel!" Qf\~h:khis pl<1!cCldi t11IQh· nmn¢ri~~ p!I)$itioll jn~be (:~u;ah},~.e·, Tb~ numlb.e'f 'o:f ~ide~ of file ~)Q:~yg~)f~ {~orrt'Jjp;(}nd~ ID;f) lbemullbe:r.Qfnot~ in thecherd: tlrus, ;;] Hi~log!,en"'pr.e~enL'l.:a.3-~}!llHC; chord, ~. (sq~~.}re a: 4'~i1o te ,chonl,il pem:itgml ~ ,5,no~:e chon:t and .. h'~llmgonit o..note chord, Fu:r ch{)(I:ds, ohevetl ot rnore notes, d.l.es;igla aH;~: ,drd!ec~ lIAil1h ~'il:il!pencnp(ed 1~~.Hnl:>el"s lI~~t !ljg~~inyili~~Hmlber of notes in thecherd, ~g.dn. with their m~nll.erilca[ PQ51~iol:il! ~lll[le oeneer of the eircle, Car~.e~t m.o"$t H:~e.ly ;:td,optccl tbi!; a~p:roiJJich becaase polygons wmpooed of ~oro ~~af! iSm. sidi;ii; migb!~. be- dJffi(.ult~~) dffitifJb~]fiha_~d dra'l!,' in t_hili: m~niUJ!it:;ript.il' In lW~ ~n~U1!~l,ceJ:I~ C!iI!rrer d~i$t"d ~eue~~ ~tber ~ha~':I ~h~~.pc:~~ iiU.'ii :'!igID.,,~a~) cUpp~I.~5~ "N" @() ]fidi~;t~ a l>~nR~·e 'nQtil,'.' {~!bkh ifli Qrn~'f' 1I.1:'1.€1{~ 'I r~ the tahle of (if)Ot'ent5In e-aeh \"ni.lUTIlic [md S(~ct~(lin h.eaf~ ings) .. ~nd! ~.lo'\~ rcase "'i" to, iTu~~~n~~ ~n i ~l!t~",tl]. The c'iig[a ~I;!!a~ are usedi n !i'b,~~ l1'(lrnl{my l'JooJi ali\e,

r!(ll'~

if:l.t'Cn"il~ 3-!!lfited~ ~~~

A}

,

0_;11

,

(J

fMlOt~;(,h!Ofil iH!(Cj~:(l(ll ~)!'d

elf)

"

I~] Ili';l~ li;diikon. s~g]~] arc' di:!iliAga~l~hcd !OiI'lI three ]c"I'lld:ll .liS primiHl')i';, seo(Jrncl.u)'amd. testk~lj~, iJ:[~hQ~gh these rne'il'Cl~ are treated :=;orL~cw'hat dilllerend.y in the S,'tlthlC05i:s ~l!1d 1.lilrmlys15 p:trl)c.(!~e5 .. In :s}'ntb~i~~.th~ priOlJJ~ ~~gb!. ~iitdi~~~lt~ U1.¢ note, hM~.:i!,"'i.ll..!Qjj',dlOro ~h~~t ii ~dcl~d ~u an(il~h(l:r l:1io~:e" h1i'~~",'iiJQ!: chord, .~pN&er~~ed ~ylh~ !It:>CoOt'J!dtlfJ{ ~igh~J to ~~ii'od1il:ci(l' ~ditiv~ d~ol!"'ds. f(':P!i"~·$~u,~d Ii,ry. ~h~ ~1!!i~l],' ~~g;I~, 'n~l!,:!s;

~. ((1)[ (,Hlllpk,,;t R,~titl1ion '1)'~'~r'~ ~mtm d1wu for'Strinri: QrIJlT1l:el.~~:~ In D:nid &hifr; T:,w,.MM.!U! <Jf{!tJIn'N~, 8O~1. b!l;I;:H)1~ngly. ~~~,r' !!(lo~ . .l!J!ilL~ bflitlt)J:;tl nfld!I!;!~~~'''IJ:\I.~):: .iil:!Ot'"iNtllnIJo;lJ1tt1,g: "flltOf'(!j ~.:MjOtYJU!i n,&llu .il·I1CI""'ti"-iI~ "'J!k~t l!Jii,rut, 'b~![~~ t~~ Q:",~~r. in I~ic .I.ltmlf!m;" &.W. .• 1ilK! s;e~ (:artcl!~ pr~{M~' ·Srn'!l~ ~~~ ~~1!11~ M~' .U.fiJ'AQJ'!J .lbJ!:" po, i:I;, of th~ ~l1ti(m,. in !li.ihi.;h h~ ~.;~~mi'k(I~ Q~~ ",lfnrl. ~~ (3i'f.rIU'~iWI~:!! i~l~~ ~;.mi}<~b! 1~} !!f!"'1.ni),1~

• ~II '~~ QJIiI~fI~ ifllltl~Ii!I._~Jl~I,'!CTIrjl. CaJt(:r~!Md kt~ hn~rl ~ll?drn .•. l~ in LI~e~._'!i .. iii,:!. !cl(t:h!OOid~,~.>l"~~1 m m!Jrc: ItIUI!::!. r,iLn:NoImpl~. in !j&t\':;'! {Chilrl(\'!' !$l,'~ !lo\atl'd.il1'! ")Ii:" in lhe ~,Hm~. h;I'JI'I:([)J!: '~·il;~~ .• NI ;; U 'I" 01 ~.ma~'!I~'H ,. iL!ild 1 I'!! '~h(t ~jllg!iIU'n Ir!l'.p!"llo(t~b:;:.l,'j~ ill t'\~tttx , ("Tg~] Nmrloor qf(ilwnh t'latl..,illa!, ".lIliiin :[ik;1l Towl ,~tt:~'~. ·tiiC IQ~!I ·t~ (i.e., t\ ~·.I.·" tU, .:'''" tit). :Iu, ~h~ oiliticin" (he drdl!' hill'> iIJor.cli'IlI!imd ~1iI :n.lllurnM.·ulCn(" !iiIlI1C ~t ill !h4~ ~~ ~tt3t~CK'Cll~ ,~"fur du., Imajmil}"'flf 1fM:. time,

Copyr ght

~ rin

& @l

I"l£ii is. 1

In(ht s esample, ~n.m,e eherd n'O,. ,w. ~.5 GO:l]JJh~ned \lIitll.V311.0US Itrnnsposi~ji(]i!11S, afdrue S)~1COiUlcl!ar:r ,~llot!echOfd.s JliOS. m, 2. g,. OIInd 4: ~o prl}dLIDCerrbe t'<.l!'ilii."U,)!, Q.W1'Dte ~bordsnlOiSi. 1,2', 21" Sand 23. lfl! am:dysis, the pri~~::u'Y Siigla ~nd!ka:t~ ~h~(bord dun .1$ bro!llte:~ do~~~ :itlit'o nO~~$. intervals or .ch!)rib, re~H"e!l~lM;~d by (h~s~cQ~da:r;r sj,gla. 'l'ertii~[)' !i]gJa ilre ~,Ortl'!S'~d Lml ~}1'£Ls. 1iI1US':

Sr.ootrodu.,. ,,1I<,mI ••

In dnds examlliP'1e, f-note choed nOi. 2' ;~s broken d.owll late the secJOndary 3-lm~echoMs, [I!Ii):. '7 (f,nul' ti.mes} a:nJl;] drue 11ltcn'i1~j Id"'hr,scs n" 15 ail1ld ~6.

Mil sig~a ~n i[ffi:I~ llafflw1'(II'HMJt ar,~nteP!rodlliOed in th~ "L(lil1l!itlH:Ililllll, '(!If f'O'fi~ alrlJd Qwoo;r-~' (pp.2J-;26". ChO,l!iP~elf .~~ ,(.QilLal01.ruel[JfliOtel~.:ll~ <i!ndGholf&~ pp. ~.<j . .J58)~ a/I.d! Appe,(!Ddix l(llsll: of I:n.~er\"a.~s. Chue'd. .. iillllfW 5igbl, pp .. S5:2-l:i),'i).

CO}ljr ght ~ lcr!a

'!'

The Combinatorial Art

OF

,BOOK

IE l L II O'TT'

CA R,T E II" S

BY JIOIHIN f. UINK

The pubU,cation of .[nEou, COI,neli's Hlumm,1)1 .Book makes, 1j.videl~';nl" .. iJ:IlOllib~je ~or dn~ first dme the oompQSeii~s O\'P.lll h<'!J:ndbook ofharmorrle 1,11aredals <li~'}d !l1daliornsll.i.ps •. eemplled eve'I' a period of I,nare than. twenty ye.'lrs:, ,1U1Id used run the co~pO:'l;hiof'll ofl.leaiL}, aIm ofh!s~'!'orrks, from the ,~a:r]}'mOOill ~,o the mid"IDMOs and b~}1'()'ndL For yefliTS. in articles and Int~IJ'!!~,C"'rS, rnntali.zing gU:ll1Ipses of ~h(l'Harm'(Jny .Book h~ld Ol!]'[ the possib,iH'll\' .of ::11. skeleton key to Cartee's comp]m: harmenlc 1ilIn~I~~ .IEmhILUJ,l3;S~ s inl!lgili1l~d a o~n~cdl]il1l of 1!I!W][!OS'i: :rny.sl!:ical donml~iI1~]Ut~ .Pros'peru"s bC(l].t~~\viiiil:ll thepOll\!er [0 u~lr:ru~e~, cartel"s ~u'l:lDoni.'C: Inagk 111e l"'ea~:ily ls, o:f (QlIJrse" less :sc;[!sallonaJ. In fac't. the l-J(;~rtif(}n)i flack h:,'1is selved Ctuneii pliilTlari~)r asa LinlC"£aJ\litlg refei!ien.o~o ernC}1\(;~opedia! Q:f PQ~"jbj]~tie.~ de~,lgoed to poo\!ide quid and dear anS'i"'er:li~O qUe'stiiol1$ about 1ulr:mcmjCr(lmi.lJtiQn~lliliPl' thatarise dUJr:ifilg~l!!'l process of compos,ing.

The FI~'1l" B'~ b~gfuns \\~tI!I ~.lis:t of chords, (inum(i~tlling [li~~~h~'(;(I:~]~CitiQIHl. of U'\iO ro tern notes poss~b~!ll gh'C:Il il:hel"\'ii'C:~V!ll cI:rullom,attc p~tch dm.sses of !lJle'\;\r~S!mern ilmdiej,o[JI, and colLlnting as equi'ilill]ent Ithos~l:h:,u:1H"C 'Gnspositioll!> and/m' inversions of: one iU10lI:hli!r.M'Il1sic theorists, ~m~llhese ml1ecl;.i:OIIu, "set d!~es!" but Ol!rter ,!refers []be mo]',e fami1:i:li!l" i~el.1l1 '''chord. "1! l'!l~(JlOro.'l ail tl~~I~gffin !1~~g of ilb~ flanJW'llry B'Qok~H"(,: the ill~~k bl~j~di!1gbIQcb of C.4!lrt~'r'~ h~u"mOtlk J¥!ngrtl~g~, They are arro~ged" for eac~icr ref~rem:::~. nll);(:ording: to thd]" stn~c~!'tll1!.l pro~rties, The first fi~ s..rmw chOi!"ds"srnx:te:e~'l 4-rlQ~e: choa., (~li:oep~ ~Q .• 7). ~'ilH11~~rIi 5·rnot'lil chcedsare nil]'!]c·ifi'i,1erub~e; ·the rest are :not;:lo AJ:m ofthe 3-!:1!ore chords ex·cept no, ~, ~U1.d any (If <I·note chordl~ 1- 'maybe cOrn1!b~l!led v.1Lh tw:4n$pO:li]ti:oi!~~!l,ndb)ir if'!'!i.feQ]o:ns (If therr.J!lelves~:Q exjl~U''tt the twelve w:!Qi~ .• , A,J'U1!,o!!lg d'le fj..!'lIO~ie chords., !'wil.W_,20 ~l~lfe lr.i,~~p(K s ido]1s ~:!1d/or

I ()!r'l!1" .h", ~~,~.:"~m'~ m'~":!'i;;,:,1'S h2i1/1i' ~dl1!~ l:in:::lri~r'~ :lm~ph ffilllli .. ri>a1J, illlduillllg ~n~ i'lollfii'i""JI'.1'bIIl ~.:, :~m CltIlimpic • .I1o:oothm ~,l:Ik-.II'Il'ilRI. -E11totl. Qu:tcr; C!rnurU>jlw.QnM~ ~ :I~)," in the m[tII~ ulld:Jc t:::dnibilioll S,m1iil'lg.'!I'M S~ .\~UjK .~J"jjlij!M~~./ffiIl!ti'u'I':ii!iil~~d~Uitm,~l !!Ile Pim~!U MO!W"4.'i:li tii1A~-y, ]!!J.!I~~ iW~~; ~9J6, ,~d- Veri:;; !lo~~ {Mm!ll! S[jhfr1i~.I!»8.);.~11~~a::Jj1jlm Ji'. Link. "The CotnpM'iillmll11rF.]]jOlt G.u1Ii,:r'li; .N"lflu Nllloli'JitJ..· Si:m<w l4i_RO, 2 (S,(;U::l.ll'g I~"): 1_',,7~ lllID'id &hifl',. ~,~Jmio; '1f.~ wkr" (~lm~Yort:·~ C!~.r~~~I.9M,)" f1:v.~ed,~ltll! !ltlh.l~ln fL-nrut:m: f;lJ~,; ]IDiotC"a, NlIf.: ("..oIJiffl~[ 1I~i'!.'~,,"~!y!~~, ~99~n; ~Jl1!I~ Si;o11!J1!,!;Jt, ":~W<'l~!!,!pjIJ!.!i!lli! .f!;:;;; m'I~~irnl~!lIi1~ n~Ir.l.!~~ IDjt,[ ~'lkif=n i!~i !1Jli[)~I, QL~~fll ~1r_[['1 :lluT,idnquiJl1rtl. lind ~~in!:' tIl~!lIlft:lic"thlt'lii AlJti,el~1l in de~ll iSJldlc.n .?{Ierr Jilhrt1li," (iE.mii:llripill~on ilIf lIIuslOlJ dil>Cl.Jt!i.i"~':::

Thl: S~~i fm-lL';!lli!1ln·Cartetr'iIl Silr.ii!'!'6"~<J11i'l /!o'fJ., :::!'ilmllli5; t~lTiil'iiGl.'l,I\uM"'" ~1iI ~'i!' il;aoJrl'~)I, ~!nJ,lIl~~ ~.8ltl<rlfkMJlllJ~UIIII!I .:%'r"!Ii!'Ji.liJw>tJiIltl;!1'Aiffi~'.Kullir~ M, '['..'illf!1lJ[I'w!iIl'\I\\<igtli!<I' (SttmS"'lruJ S., MJ!;!iJ~I:m:s)" ~0!b!18:,.~lId J.\T:ini!! Sjil'l!fII~r:, "T.MI! tim;: Mmi:c- ~oo.m:'" F.i1[imt ~ "11"i!:;W oftil~ iC:l!pim'(! lro:m, I'm,~ LilmuJ''''fQm,~.' .II~ Ii. Mim;or· .. n ·!U.lrh ifI [4rt;:l(" til-I {·..:~n). ill! Q,tI<'!'ll':ll!llllfaJ:<!" 11, gd If~~ M~)'gf {\'o\"~!lJ~I!!fi'h~~!': A!r!I:ldl!~\'~rI:I~ lOOS)I, '~~-53,

~ c.'1£iIJ~'- h.~ ~ thill' 'iron!, .. ~~ ·ill &~r.::flt;,g~ lim. dilJi:~i'il ro.n~JiID. lln~ i'lo}1l!:-"i <i.ffthl:' ·'dill'iil~l, ('!i~. iii h~ ~;j.Ii,!l'!

GcIllIi~!)ID; (Ii:Jr_~iPle, i!i1fC!h:Ed UIII ~r. ·~1tullcaJn~ "lIln!IfOM!Clk: cbo.r&'" .~rI du: .flanwm}.&M: are ,=e.ulilial~!I>I:t d~l. (~I:

S!'l:p!n~I:!ci(I}e:~n. ·M~'(.w:c Il'n(U~~· in Flllim~ Q!!_fter~ ~_m!1"1 c;.)~!~!'I!JI,~ Mj~fu,~ ~ J'grd Sr,¥J~sr,p-~ng [,. (ApfDI ~!lI])~ l'~"'~ J.'i.il~!1 ~~oo~';b· ILB!_mll)' n=(c~ ro .iI ooll~lli"m m !mL"Il't~ ~l!mrJi~.r;;: '5rl'lM!L~I2L:I].em:L!lr •. ·Guier l:L~i,t. tlJj 1I1J.e:1tlll ml,}' l~o!)r.ll <l:l'li'illif~'-!K:'-U ()f:~Y.Ch 01, ~olJooOO!n, Sel:JonalJ~.Ol_fn, Bem>!ru,,· An ~m!i(;,f!i,1""""widl ~ktll·r.o!!LIt(;[;~ ,p,.,~t~.i;f"N~iHwit; ~i!.. 110.. ll: ,(Summ~,r ~1IDO~: :tlD,,~

, A,·C'h(iu;;! iI,. .. nolt-i!l\"W!ibll!; ~f~ffio.'l·trnll~.~il!(i1i"i ![if~~, i!f\:i;11iifirl! I~ Ih~ I;hnl'd !b~Jf, fi11'~, m~~ ~~JI~ 1lI1t."9I:I~i.:;!!' Ilflihi~,~mllTh"ll!1i:o' mfinelfiL:!prl:i:1;si ci'nllU5U:i.lI!id tnro:~ see .\llI:n Fr.1l1e.1~ S~nlttll!ll'li AII!mal M~ ~ Nnv H .. ,~1c'\ru: y"Jit 11m1~\'It'ndl)' ~Iim, l.97:'i~; C.mi':pjc '!"o!l'fL~" .~{"~pg."~ ~J:i.!f ~l~~ {Be.!~ UJl~!(!!, IlfC.:!.!irflm~ ~ !.9o:i!) ,j:rI!iLJn R.lilrull. 8aJit' AIm1aI n_, (i\11!'1>'¥or&:: :I.or.li~:rn. I ~JS(l); imdJC!5l:'ph N. Sln'lUl, i!.rp IrnlnMlUli_ fll,flld:MlU!i Throry (~l~~ ailf~. M; PI1'!.'IIIii(~' fi~~1'(, 1,"IIlOl'.

c

~:il,Ver3;iOiIL~ of .t~~cln$eht:s'lSCOll)pk:'m,em:s.~ ,~nd~os,,, 2m.-50 have d~frt;unt;!lict cl~es as their comp]e:rnenit'fJ. &n,ut.eG:ho;rds DO"k :2;,i,-Sd are non~mce~rti,blie, .• end nos, 8~50 aile' 11I0~.

The :lielll,a~II:]dlt"r (jif d ... e l:lf"rnro~lJI JJ~jtJii, dh~(]ed Inl~,f~' l'!NO 'iI'Oh;l]nies; :is 1.Jirge]y a C!OlDp,eIl,~ dhl rl.1, of':1 nfor:nmti:m~ ~ bout the ('.hnrd~ ~~st,edat. the hegl:Hn~!IIg. J "Volu rae I, "SJ?ill tlI1!eiii~s." e-oiIdCl. chnl'din ilum serves asa kernel, to wlrll,ch [p;mgressivcJyl:il:rg:er co~·~ecdons. 0,[ notes <1Ii~e a[illd.ed. The ilre!!!uhi'-l. at t,monomy of supeneL'I of each chord, armllged. :fro'lu 3ml<lille5~ 'ruobirge:r;Lh begLfl!:5l.'~~~h Oil [i.sdn~ of the .3·now chords fm",IJ];oci ~. ~ddrnmg ;a~lng;i'~'note tn an ~nl~n'a~ and OQn:~ion,cs ,rid'l. ]!I1ten.ab: pillS :iH~c:rv:!l~!s.hltel:'!io:\J]!:l. p~llIis3"'rnot.e chords and s'Qi on mp to ifli:~ef!i.'ab p]b:~!)"nme eherds ... c.'1:I::rrer builds 4no[c W j·nme chonis fro:fl.l ~he g.'Il]cQi[e cn.ords, 5;.:nou~ and fi.~l!jne cbords fmillli (he 4L~~c:~e: c:ho.~'dll. IJ..no'tea~ld 7:·norech(1!rds frDm 'I.be .5~l:lol:.e 'il:ll.oro.s, ~I]d 7·n(jJ!t~ d~t~nls [i:xmli [bit:' fjo..]l~J'~t::: d~!U!n:I~, .h~ ~1 se:Cliuu ~·Htd!e;d ~atr:r (iCh:,ll)J!~er .3 of d~js ,~cl~i~O!li) Cant::if d.yr~ibl~ l~cl<.. !l!ddh~g nl.ii"~!;. [t~:tiir:. n'\l'I;',!t~~(l ~]~ rnl'~l.I,"l!ii ~!('~ ~i~~glc;: :nut¢:> i~~ (gnn ~,..UOltii. ~ iflGJ'ic. ,6-mot~ and! 'i"'~l{JPchord~,\,:uh,i!i1(~e II of the flf1innmi~ lJoolt, ,cx~ititJcd "t\!]~~J~~~;"lis~ ~he subsets ofall ~:rf ~Ile d.1iotm fro,m three toe]gl!i.~ l1otC:8:~bein~:et'l!'i!i~, ~n cacb3-no[iC: ehcrd, ~:lller'li'l~;5 land 3-,]'i,ou:: chof1dij), kll each "~.·]lote cl1io.rdi. and :!lie) on.

'WidTl i~ hUll::l!dred~ of P'~"f!8. of chord charts i~1(~ Harlwlm;'Y .&mk: ~eems ali 6,I~lW be nothif~g ~~o~~ ~h~~Jll :01 :~t~lht:ic~1J 1~]'Mt' of cn.ff~hhliil~or~;1~ rru~'iihUitl~~, ~h~ pf!lldl.!l:n ofa~~ :lIJ(;IU,nary rnth~r Ih~n .an ~mti!ll., lE;'i!("l~ of th~ "'\~h~~~nn~1!t ~h~~~rds. tw~~~I,Y"!l i~oo~ 4 ... ;!Il0hl; chnirr]~! .;:;~:~'t(;fl\,. ~~ .!ly~:ru~roc~aU(;!am~' di!)''''CtC:itl{..''{['_-~--l!t~ !!;Upcr&~t.'l s~,[li'~br;;s,i;n;:d~nd ':'i)1[II'Ii.~.eI;;'l. a!!alr:liedl_b~:!tth~t1? i'fl rnothiliUli.g [;0 .~ugg:e5t bol'!i' tn is ,~Ium_ilnous statistEcal SlL~~,..:]if:e I,"e]ai!~es 10, I!he mercurial low d:a!3:~ S(D stron g~y eharacterizes [dmmt ("~<'!l)'p'i!l!!(.e by Oil"~iC'.I:. B'Illil. 01. ,doser look :L(,e,,'Cal~· deep,con:CiecuQTilIS; ~hc altllijuy O'Ih,dli d~c afili5t tum out: to be llll'O OppOf;~l'C.ly th~n'ged d.e'.ITI,e,iI'iI.ts of ~. s;i~e mi.L5!,I!:<l!] ~magi.J1JO,!!tion.ii.!:1;d ~heir '~Q~~~i'jio!L'l:'i p~o'l!ide du~ ce:me:~')' dl.u d:rUJ""e!l (':alli!;er's !l'Ii!l!SLlii;:.

C-:'U'krbegan cOllilp:iling thematerials thatIater IJt3cam~ du~r--1a~~~ B(JfJ/, :'l>o:melilll1l~ ~m~ thelate l'~'51~)s or early ] 9lJOs.ny Hlid·~N(n~e~nherrn~l!:a .he~.v.L\j;<IIt wnrk ull. h~sPia~~Q 'Ooln~ certe, "md hl:r;.!>,k,elJChes ,:ih.n,w he hil(~ ~~:rt~<ld).' Cloluplrned i.'Illdllurnli1Jbered! a list of ~h~ nve]lio'e ~ .note cb(),.lXb:'Uldt~:~sinves11igating dle~r lntereallic aOr.l~cnt. At.thl'l:[ u.mchc had no irnerntio:nlJ ofroaki!IJg ~n ,e::o;:hfm~wi'ii"C ;s;tmly of h"'fmiOIi1l}~. lts [h;ee:xp]<li~[l!cd to Jm':l;f:Dd~:Jln8ernIlm In :~g90, ime ,Harmon} Bf)M "' ••.• (:rept up on me bh. by bh.iL';; rn. found ~. l!'~ lmti Ilg mit Ol/'er and O'l.ieir" O(I]JIlOCl1lllp5 ofpapt:ruhe ~me li [de p~Jb:lem·sktetdmei'i ... ~!, G"l rter beWIJIJ to,.\iid.~'r.I ~he scope ofhh, !harmonic: r,!;"..'seudl Wbetl hereturned to Ihe' Us. ffomiEtdEf! ~n 1965. lJe oompirned.1l :s)~udy of dlie ,c{l[rn.bi_u<l!]or]~~l pm)1u!'1:iI ies of I~hc ~i'in!}te' eherds, them work~d! cut 'lirn,e 'IJ1LOiI~y.sis and SfI1d-rue!sis of the 5-nf)t1~' cJ:'Hl!tds ~U:'H'l dl{! ,an~~l~ic~ flnhc~r 7·ft!!o~je cemplemenrs, t\simirn<l!!:1 $~.udi}' oHI1ic 6~:nlQte d~Qrd-s c(lm!p~~~ed tb~ ~m;,!:tlC'li;nIl~. n~_rtf~li' ~"s(l[f]1ble,fl in :(~adr m974,. und:e!lt thcmhric "Har::ntOiInili:' .Book M As.econd edition, ~argd.~:' :tUU[Thg hl. th~ g:;IP~ ~~il i.~~ the n~~. V.1l~ ;J:dd~d inlate 19'7',

ThE ~learJ!y ~W',i;jjll\,;~'(:"1lJr :\lpan duriJlg ~""Il~ch U1C .li~'fJTi.mjV .i1li:tJk took ~Ilr~[)e Cl(:Ji~_iW"eides· '\d.~h ~hl:: g1"ellil h'or~:s (;f IW:l!iJ~mllligh I. hI;' 'e~m~cd ('4ir~:ew':'i. "'m~i'~d]~' JiI'eriod'"' Thes~ .i:rndude the p~ a~~o Cmu:>cril~"). Con (e!'~:I!)' for Ord~c~tm, ~md 11 S§mphu~)i fJj'TlirtJl3 Ol'rhesl!1fas; the St rilDg Qu.iilrtel No.3, Bli':'d.'\\;.'l Q~II~H~l, ~nd Du.o .br ViomjfQ. i:!.!uill p~~~~o: and trn~e fi.rnt ,uf~hc ~iIi~re--:s(;a~e1j;uU'l~

·1 '~-t!o:~ co ~!~I)kln II' ~lft;'I""" d!,,~ ~ m:;l,.i\!· "';!J ~oo'Q.J!'f~itj;, "-~,. (~!!t '''!J!lUI'lt-m~!~I'' i!l'!' no<, ~'l!!1 ,._~ lH~~NGI'I", ;;md m:.s;. i,ll,:'i" ~,'l'I., , .. mi. ':;: ~n~ nt!u.lil,¥;;:ifl~rr!lC. ,~t! =J I""h .~mlJ!l~,r'lt~ln,t"" ~lliI)' b~ f!l:'!(ntYd;end ·~i!iR-"iIi Ir~n~Joiil;';iti,u;rH Ur~m1!;TMmg,

1.\\ '~~!rl. "'I rlt~ni~',,- 'gil!, .. !!"""""'_'" th .. imA'~'ii!""o01 ~'nl !Jlfis: (~~liii,<¥I1" TJP' ~7",:'!r;;.

Co yr ghl ...., ria

w![Jr'krs ,of the Hli7lJ:s, .A Mimn on~Wiitl'l: t,o Dll.~tJ. 'Dilrf£r hiM> d!C:~rilH:.d tbe han.l~olluy .0,[, ~JKm;y (tf til~C: 1;rorli:s ~!1 ~e:rrns ~if c:ho~:d5; of ;a.~'C~1 :~ize" af~dtJh,e il1.C,-ooa!lin,g :;~ze and CQ.I11[J,]exi.I:jr' Qr the '!J:;b,OJrd.'5 h~w~~ L~:~~:s:tA~ltiJ~g (~fid r~c{ilroin:g hl!th~ ,fl~fm1 Btwk) corresponds mug'h·~r '~(li '~h!J! ,eJ!.f'Qrll}iQgf Qf his (Q~npQ$-tt'iQnf:O,tle used ,~nQ~e Il;hQ:r:d!s fbf' the P.!i~no 'CQncC'NQ (ljOOl1lrnde~~d 196i;?i)j a(]d,,~ 4n,uW ~~~d ~lS-tlOu.o· chords fO'f the Con(~rtI~ i1t~r Oroi,:h~llJ'it (I:o;m, .. p],et:l:dt96'9'}f' then. used 3.nm,e and 4.,;n:o~:t: dl!O[Fdsfr~!f the String QU~1fi!)I;,"~. N'Q, 3 (om~'!· pmetc,d UJljl'),~ 2-ill()tc to 5 .. note cherda fiOlt: ,the Dl.IO fOOlt' Vio]]naltd P~.ru!ll(D, {('llim[d(;,;!i~t~ ]97~:),

aed •. '1 n rC,; •• n .."nA q "',"'it,'" ,r·b",'7iI,., for ", ."\,u.,f'~"<>Ji,"'1 ''''~ ',~-I • ._. ,OT,_];"'.,., .... i'r,t]I'm- m.~I",.,o">.,11 'I ~1j6'~- l ... ·,"""(-·"'f ~_u_..,, __ . ~" .'!JIL~ ~,JjI.UJ U!"~_~u,~;~ !luUIJi~f~ L v,~ ,~~, i.~J-.~I"'"IMJ!L =$ ~l .il' I!'lIJi!'~~ __ '~!ii-!I"t![.:;JI • .!"I!_ • .Q \~!IJ.I'].I ,~!..IlIJ"",!l;~U . I •. _ . i= 'Il;..;i!In .~;

.b~ >'l;iid,b~5 irru,,'Csuglil,tkH'Ii of &-.l1at'C' .and 7·iL'iIo~c dlord!:S\"mSIn:otill\~red" [n p<irt., by the de5~ie lO 'l~orile oocbe:swd ~I1.usDC :for th,e COiIiiice:no fOr'OI"ltheiU.'3, thoU d~,d lilot; rely O'n, d:le OC.lI.VC douh1:ing,s: Qtf Tlliildit[ona] c:ochies'u!'ZI]\\TI!tlng;(l i~li1ld the harwlionl,,: Org.ruoiZ<b:llon. of dlie String Qua:net No. 3,. h1J~~~hiCh Duo II plays brgely ten<tdlorda]. h.u;'mQoJ~~es'J~,.hi,l:e Due Ipbys the dgh t lIloites!eft ofli!\~r:,m~rron'o th;ru'~. of C~1Ii~lpu:;r mg, of the tli'U''i'UlOR}i 800ft. In whlch 4.!,mllte c:hOli,ls~fe an<l!~~~:lied ~n U~Tm~ of their ~noLe C:{nI.n~pleme!l!t'!O.";' Tfl.e lfamll('}1lY BOrlA:- and (1!I:rte.r's; c{lJmiPo5idon,s.itl1Ii~S de'\!el!olP~ in. a mutmdly oone:lldal ,&yrnb!ouc reladonship:l_he pieces mQ!,],.,.cated ffilanu'O'ni.;; ~'Ii~e<lr£h linto t!be cb(u:ds of l:al.iom:l~,llX:5" ami!! the results ~f tlml re:s¢3!r.,d~ $~d bilck hno m~ ,oo'm~itiiQn:al P~~C~S$,.

'DDl!lsaipprQa;dTh. \\ilth ~i~ 'QP~G:o;~ti:on of!l~~tem~occOnlpil!l:tiion ~]]d 1m''l.gi!nati,"'e de;pIJ),}' .... ~'!llIe.n~, ~s. i!lilidk~!l.i\l\e 'OifGal't!!el:',s,h~llldli:ng'QJ h~:rmQ;nly ~md n~,lLI!S:k~d e~f1l: til ~!lon.mnal 'U~i\lo~rse. 111 :lldd]'!.~f~W!i tob~in,~ based on(ho~ ofp.lrIiCl~lar S:i~, most ;flf'UJj~~' '!i.\i'ork<i: ('(:liffjlp01l~d '(]~ldug ~h('l period [n w;h~d~[h.t'! ,flarmQ~J! B(w;;: ~1lS 'l:ompiLc.ti! ~h3~' anaestheele (lfdraH~;;l!!lk Q]jPl~5ir

~ _' -

d,(Wr~=='Of in~trnrneil11u 'or h]&m~f~c.nlil g:li1(J~l!p~c:!lacting human (O,:nnk~ail]d (:-QU,gJ.bGI~il:i.Oir:I1"

.~~ke the ,dtarncl"C~ on a sli.l:gc, In. order fot the dmma to, be ~!I:!oo]~]gi.bl:e~ dl.einllirnmenta] ,d~~]:ti~c~elljm'ust hiJ.¥f: <Lucltib]y H:C'O'g1\iizab~.c jdc;mtitie~. COit1Cf effl~i.II[l",cs th~ttht.." dio l:'JIy di".id~ii;H; nile toml '~~nive.!~e ohmlsilcal, m:'li'[e_da~s a'l5ernbmedi for irbe l,i,ec.eamor.lg· '~hem so 'lha,t e;;lJch b~]L5 wtS own .I:l::'peI9OO[lIie olfh.am:un~~e,s,ul!ld rhJl1l.hmk, til"J.o::mi::-<1Jl, ~nd d'~'I~amic :pa,lmier:n~, H~rm,ony,il~ dllis '~vodd, is eitber genetic-'plllln of the u n~que s:au~lId werld th.M. (iQ'n:Sl~t:1!.ileS :11 ch~n~(;~i~II'S. ~lIlmi,cO!l~i:deil'll~~ori!i~'£E",M.th.<lilPparenl SPO[lt<:lilll,e::itr as ~he p:Fo<dm:l. of group ~nJe:nu:tru(H'l.

- '" - . '" ~-

1thcrcOllic no, !Dlotm;ad"t:progrC',~,tionr; to' guide dilc' o~·¢rn.n~Mmonic d.elire]o.:pn:1icitl:L. Stability", .. ,

epheme:"i]~ (1[' uf;'le~~alfilld the' mJ.!I$[ca] argumeat consta[f)dy ,s'ntge~.i:iIl r:!ewa[)jdu1F!JI,~_}l:pe'l!;;ltcdl d]i~i:!ccions.

,Ahhongll ~~ wuuldlbt: possl.b!:em oons!~i,mle e<u::hgrtm;p's, fe'IP,eiftoire ml,j,q,udy ll';il~lg ,,~, subset ,o:f <IU. p05;'OiMe !Oombri'llilt~O:n:!l. (~nlJer: genenlUy pm'e':fe~':S a rCornlipJ.ete parnj,lio!.n" Thi S Pi:,JiCdoe enSlILlI.'eS m<1llXlmllrll wdely., bUiI: ii[ ~s. alro rtI1JOd.lii7l100 by am aesthetic o(combilliunrial eomple-

.'1""1"1 ~:", '1ic.!L']''''~ the reallaati ...... ,""'fe ""1'] .. """"~~n, .. tlons ~i'n .. ~']'ik,t ... , ,.ri·'i-'I"' "lII gi" ...... , ,rji."]d' p' ''i''''.,: .... ~ .. il:.iV"IIJ:!'! 1Io~1. 'lfldlLI '!!i..~:ILI. ra.·,IL",-, ,.,!!..oiolLlIJ;[jj.R-~"'""'\Jj_~. !U", ~!L-~ rJLv~!UOltll\UI'ii."l.!.IL_!.U_o;Jj II,j)!V~ !WI\!J'!i..-. rr'IJLI!UI.I,iIJ !l'!.lJ b~l'!t'''''::':''' •. u!"'"",. __ . =' __ ~'!J'~ .• )U!lfu.i(:.11 ~J

.. legro~ ()I'f fonooud b\!dlru1"!~~ toa '\vo:r~. C~t1Iaill :P'i!5">(~~ byl3~dll [tI'Ji '\Yhi~h 'fi:h.c\ll)~!c,~~ lU i:l. u'~IP]e ,c:<:l!unttlfIPo]ut O~Olr jm ~f~ ~o:~ibleregh;tra~ omedllJig:sJ!, 'O;F th.~Uise (lfaU t!i!i1erntf'fonr mmjnF aru:i nlinoll"k.e)!,s ~n the l~~~il~ nm~~l CflWi'lff' or' the Choipiin P]1e[ud,es are ex;<tn1ip:~ei'1 :fli:-o.ru 'e.lllrli'er

o!J See~!e jn:tI:1"11 ew :~[]; th~ Cdilioll, or' "iI .

. ~, ~ iMri,(Iirr;,~' M~ .. d, "['il!:'il S1.]'I~'1.UI'll' i~lI,f.IIl<:Ju ('.ilinl:f~, ~crnlfl: Qi,:l:anl'L :Niffi.'.'· ,i~_-PHJM"tif .... 'ow M'~i,;2)!, 'iim,. 'I ,( '~~:!i). !U-i.lO.

Co r ght [T] rla

PClf'hlds".!iI, Com'Mn<l(OlFt,d ,(;ompl,c;tiiion~$ also ~, gu~:din,g'pr:indp~ei:rll[l!le ~us;i,c (if .s~~'e:.,d of ,Q]fH: r's t)tltf~lte[npO~lI~'I(:ij, UIOi\t nOlubl.f~[i~IDoi:1l Bafurn~iu~, 1W'b{l~~~'9i;8 Cr!mtH)~i~i()r,jfiJrr .F~r .l~ .ilml'l1li'1tH is ~t p"lI1iinllarly ~t~'ilUng f:.x~!mpl~.Q Crmli'l,u:rDfltO!l'i;al Co.!1I1ilp]~in:in!lI nflC~lfll; ~:lli!rflilll.ghol,Jlj~ (~n~r\ r~M~!'iik flf !h ~~ 19(m~ ,!\~~d '70~L 11!~<; ~'1{p01l~ti,Uil1 ,~f ~h~ DQubl~ Concerte ]S ~n pMt~n

" -

,~~x:po~~iJiou of the ~JH?l!I:t! rials fffi~(u;i!.l!(;ed Wi] th '~fld~ ~n:!litn~~ill'~~ ulin g!:1l]!Ur): hi1! ~lot, fOi!"~~nf

_' _-' ~ ,

complete nntil the last in~:en"iJI]/speed pll~r (me m~jiolf Uwiid at MJ\,~: j5) enters in m.36~,

pmmpcing I~'he ,climax lh,H ()(leurs nin,e meanjn~s: later. v;i!lijdl 'h'il. tllun, 1;trl~a~l~oc-s !l:l1e ,end of the fi~,t k~INl: 5t}ai0~':1 of il.Jh:l~ piece, SiiiJi1i'latl~~ ii:'li Ute Bti!lis:5 Qttintet the tC<l11:TI1J ,or the

.~ i· "I !-I"~' d L _ u d lr - .!Ii _ ~, .Ji f' ~I

Clmc:.iUi[~~.nH :,,!(J~¥ (,I~tI:I[7.1 e ~s 5~illJI:te.re c_ lll~~' me no ~)~,l'n~~Dpe-1 all:Uii t('Om UJlUle;. lli.l,'ilJeii.tril,a~ co.m-

bi.n<l~0d<~~I;ypo8s~b!,e dIH'!I.ml]: yt!~ [).e-.ud, wlllk:h bdnW', tll'];!.~ p-le,ce' 10 <lr,-i:liucm~$ ead, And [he Swing QU'Mrlt:'~ No,.!'! U."lH~I'~eS <II :-;!,ngle ,cyde I:.hil1G~l~~h au' il:1:~ep'f,,~!ble -co:wiJinaDun-s of tbe n~~I' duos' movemems, <IIml a gai.n the. Hllal. piILidIllg is Uh,e ;[;,]tal::r.ot 1l111:~l1ipites till-eo eeda ,iti

\\ih~~e Lh~ .cQ~li]h~~l~h",mi.tl ~.ogic fin~~It; Hutmt).'Iri Bao$ibN~,l!,d]~renc.:;t. .. C:ai:1!er'S i~'~Clj!'I~!ts and aesthetic ol::l'[1nok, its main plLlrpOi$'C ~:s. p:m:cl:icarn., BOUl ~he '~S}'rruljbe\iiti"3:nd "An~[},'si-s" ~iC" [10m •. pr'O",idc U:Se'nl~ Il:1fonlKll:tOrn to. assist ithe oOUlpaSf:iIf ]]] the r,eal:imilico!i:l! fif:!li:pedfi.c ha~rmo\l]:~C ideas, five me<'l,SiUJi(J:'J, i,ID10 the £od;~ of eitner"'s rlltl~I;g.r~ fur "'10]0 ~dur {m .. ~3!H. <It g;r:iu:ef'ilIL] arc of Sc~ngl~ notes 111,~_rod~;B_:es a :i~ru(;res$km of harmonles all based 011 I(i.:n.ote dlloru.no.311:i, [n,t ,2',1/7,8). whlch (:n~'Hi~~'~liei> \11!th.rokeu ~~ d~(;'!end ohhe piel!:;e',

• ~ lJ.ill~i~!1 !'J,ml";Ji)" ~:SGIll<]' ·",!,~gll' rr(Jj;l<~fl!i.~' 'Jf'l1irlc(;:"Jl)n"~"1:foQiJll;~t 4n':I~kJr'Inihi\i:no]C ,"r! (..~ml'l!.'lci!1'!)u~ brll';,S" ~~_ti;)!ll<~ p.jil~.'!I.\:fN',,[f T~!!, 1i.~. IIW, l {~, '188) ; ,]jj;..,HI"

[l 1l~~1" :firt~7n ~1J_~;'11!F.~'" 1r.i!f:~lh~~1'i'(~ij, p~~~111 ~ln:'iAJ~~t~~]' ~~ ~ ~TJh4~ ~J~~~IJt~~~~i~1~l.iil,~r Qg~_:;,. ~'~~\o I~tl;.-~, oo~J i[~I!iii.J:j·lf~~rLJ.~~~~.][1J~,

til r~F'ith~ ~,)...luu!k· G!mm!:itl!. ~ I':nkm. Oil. u~(, "1111!' Orih'l',m,,,,D ('''(lillpi!''.irO~!'i l~t~tllll 'fi~rVii.:"Vi;,·' in ~'D",MwRl. C.-'!t!Iji\r:vl":i J'bj_l'li !lJV'_' 1':11."-,,' "," 'l:i'-''Nt,,":\br.Jffi{~ory .u".,-jr.,Il;!' :1'fo,,,,, UlI", Wrrf.foor.ll, ef!.lII..:lh.,n :'l~~'!'1i!l~5, (N~;JI~, OK; 1Jrnj\lg.!llty QfO~.mOfii"~, ~m1l!~, :l'J;,'Iii~., tll!iprnllllf'd in "f:Jw.> ~'i~rili.!l&:3rf liW{jj~ ,L;',:u'1:I.l':, oil, E;l~ ~t_m'li~ :ma, .!illrt Stooc {llkKtmingtl1lf11:md, m!'odoo: In.~1lIfi I()nim ... t"ji~' 1':1'0''''". I U<77} , '~'1!.,3fl'!}. "JliJ, ~i! [\lmt>~! Caf~Iii,I', -Cti\r~·!\'U r~f!>j~olp:!~·t~ ~ 9J7:"19'1)}. ~~,l(~",uh,m ~"d {~(or'~r:: lltih'em:i r>1 of Ikodi~iln" Ifu:M, I ~1.}7" '~50, .F~lr ~h~ :r5c:lIu 'Quillw.~. Ire- :Emiatl, CmrtC'l', '"lJ3.L";IM. Ql.Iili:l!tct,,~ ii:1iJ nlilinp,~-2__5c. Rl.!p!~mI.Q'" ~lr' ~tIf,s:!~lll" 256-58L fot' l~h~ ~T~~~g Q.tt;l;!:~~~ No,. 3 ""~ FJlOoH Cjf~~. ~m~ fln M)!i~_:! ~-J!\I;li:_1filil'l~·.[,.j'-FJllo:~C,~, s!!i~I,i:" Q,!mru~ .1'\.1\. ; {C._;:~tlmbh~ ~1 3!l7:~~·. r<!prh~11.I:,[I in n':'ilii!\C> citO(i-22.

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The first t1M',~e SU'lte'iUlH!'1'D, to) f:lif th~lj 'G-r~n:~~ ·r.ho«t ~Ii~~~r,e t111~ ~(Jlle~ rJo" n, ;;l,'IH~ :!B. all soun d~ng in !the cd'ilVC below mMd[c: C (the senre ,SUUliU::]S au octll"li'C' rnOh'~:r ti1iiil:n'l'>nut'f.I)', ITllrd. ~n fac~ ~ru~!;!])C h:ann'!)l1IlCS in the codaare ~:ru~~ked. bY' ~wn er more c~(ml!rl1lon t!on~'S {:s.IUW'':!l iIlS open no~~n the ~~p;l,e). This kind oLh~nnOltjJ~ m~uon, itli wi1!J~diJj some notes Qfi~ chord r,C'rlIDam,iilii,crt\,;hi]e' otlli'llen move,,~!.lil eerusal stI:"dt:CID' in\"e~'~r:m [rn~l~c~.~Olf!a~ ilc5 'VI"C]l .~. rl·on· i[OUIi'li~. A,s, tbelll~""''' ,i:Jj,ot.es w,und t1H'!y pr'miide <li ne'!'l!' C"~J1I'~ext ,rn:r d1!e old oaes, ~har!l!gjl!ig tb~i.f (iol'l),r andftu:1!ctioin (sometim~ dnlr-f1:El,t~cilrn~y) alilld bilivwng' ~henl. ~mpOrlalilil '(~]J:iili] ;ref;eren()f;~. The tensions l>etl:!!!'ee'flI these of [en DOflltrndi,cwryf:rnmes Q,f reference gene',[:'"tlte' mOim.em:um, thorut;ca:n ~h;:rupeeven the ~3!rgL-:s~a~e fOilfm ,(lira ,mmposrudoTa ..

Tl:o:e coda of Cfum:w.J: is <ll~.espe,d~~:)\' de<!iD' and. ruTecclng ClilO!llllph:: of C,'Qr~:U:llOn!"]jOl,1Je progression >on a .. ~~ore r~10de-;5;I. :!;CiiI]e:. Hl>e~re" Ca:r~!f:l.r·s de("is[o[~ $'0 me on~y insraaces or i~note chord 3S.il,1l~O®€d5iiP~~3!i! cOl.'1ls:tn:iui:S on. h~s, !(;hoi.,c(l: Qfluu~[ll!o>n~es" These ,c.o:n.!llJ!.rn~!Il.ts,Dnoti~ \'::tt~ by the paTtil(:!I;]rnM sound a:l]:d :lie(l~~ing he \\~nil.e\d theceda to hl'lv(l,<atiso mis.ed t~du'!JJmcal q'\l~~tiiOi!1$,rGrtw~e Ch~pl!r'li;;lQda, 'Q~'e~m,pl~, Carter m~gh~ h~1!'~ wo!]:d~red ho~,\( lllaoy dirn('~f". em ~UspO~[~;Qrn:s alld/ori""''e:rs~om of6-~~{llte chord 35 Qou~d be produ(~d by ~uJ!d~]Jg dll:(:j~ motes totbe chord P,b-(;,:,Bj j:~:sdfan inst~m!.:~," Qf g..W!lot~ ,Wmrdno, 1 [O'~A~8,]. 'n]t~ Ha'1'fflOrrj Roo1J' ~13f m:he ~lJl:Si\.vel·. Lookilling up ~nGte .chorel mo. ] 11ll. Ilbe '~Synil:he8is" ,'Olu me, C.;aner l\ifH;!ld have ~(li'u[ld tl,lI<t1l: h. C<1iTI1 CCOm:JI~ bine 'Wll:ith six o:fhe:r' S.mo~e d:m'.rdis (duree i rn'l'e:r~tedand. three ~rnn~po!'ied, .forms of3-lI1olte ,c:h:G.rn, ~1.0. '71[O~,m~6]) to plflOduce G-nme dllo:rn no, 3c5.'~

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In. ronm, 135-37 of Clj,c:j!n.p C:..JrtI!!er 'U!~ed dilc 6-iluu: chu:rds, g~iIil!emu,:d by the s[](!h, lhird,aJ1!i(l ffi.Btofln.~se adided. 3-n,o[c dllonh flaibe.lcd, a, b, and e in thcCili<limp;l,e.~j.lm!l~Jl'~~r.d dm,ma

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111c "'AI:1I,~JJ}'J)i9"~rol,ume' of the llat1R,()'fJ,J Jjodk, ~I'I, lUr1l:!, w!:u.ain~ hriLpruli~~foffi1!atl!on ~ibout[he $.rihSiet(ontetU of 6-~,':!}t'lite cherd 35. This dt~Hl rnl~'IS pEayed a s!poe:e[aj role in (4li~i-'~ musie ~in'(;:e ,me m:i(I-:~,9iOs m:ain.[~'be(;iJi~lJlje ~t. i~ ~he O~l~y &~!lo'~:e (br~rlJ th~~.l\On!l~jn8.aUl'l!'i!d!.~ 3--. ~ -t'" ,-1c,.~,~,I:S. .-~, ,-'I-e -,.~ 'U"'"e> ,1-:- ~'-l,"')I"·--,~ ... -c:-;-'I·<it:'F" ~,- .. 'I - -,-1,. -1"-~- ],°1',11'1']46] 'fd <')3 ['" 13 :<]no .1: CdGlfl:.t,- .~, S;U ~ .. ,", - ,1:1..1.:: .d,e nV>l._ 'h, U11,~,,"r\\Ol, "II, ,~O.le ... IJllih'l! ~,[L. _,OYP'_". U __ l. ~, .'},c.,' ",I' "

n~)"Ie :a:U.<~riich'!JiI11 !6-tl,otechorrd cUD~:ains ;,tIt l,eMl: one ~n$tan,cJe of >each chord 11'P't~ of a 5nTI!~I~e]" !!b;e ~m 1!lI'!1 ~"i1y rud~ncifi:ab[e and ~Qmp~ct pi3.(bg~,'fl~(:'iars:~l)~ ui'h::.b{~!rdrd ~~~uUl"·~ of the ,!C'kI.'Utgt!$ !Qodill '~'xpl.k:~dy f:"ilQke~ this P.~"l'.;IPflrt¥; as dp~ the fr~quent Irepetiuo:n ,of ill ~motie 'Il:':hord ~dt1h diJI~mn~ 3-[JI,Qll;l ,I;:horrl p~rlnlS. TllI~re <!in;! ten comllil~nato["i:3l~ passM)i~~!lie'j t;or dh.iiling oJ. ~note' cboro. ~n'to p1lllfS of g.·no:ted.1Lor-ru and. these are ~~s~edin VollJlm.e U of dle .flar:mQc'l':J Book.

! ~ lll.t' dl~ril:!j ~ bbdC'CIJ mlhr: ~mpl~m'bttg (!:Inc.r's. ;rj,jc~Iog'fI.tlmIJoN!!, C\1!d~~ ~.n; i)l:JJ;rJ~)II!!' !.OJ' inriK:M~ ~il.t: t<1""~',()le<*,,,'b t;!nt,.rt!; ~r:@!rtJ;l~ rl(;i1:'~~t~ !;:!m~. :~;p;I;;1~ :r~' """Oi(! ~!1~,;lrl(i. ~Q"":~ Ih~ '~I1I'lI1y!'Or "~gja~, P1P" lr,.....6 o{ihi~ ~dlii~jm,

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For the C~/'(m~~ c~ld:~! (' .. ::u1il.Or lIl1~d s.~'''''~~] uf ~hc ~1Iipakin~ that p.rodlu.(:t:: 6--nol!~ dLlord 35,. :sulu:ruding, ten of the u ... e:~vepo.s$iMe ~·H .. H'(; chords,

Of cO!u~c, th,C'n~ ~s. ~tUrn ifl.V-itStk""<J,P frem the <:~lbll:lr.Jlct rJ~~!ch classes ofrmc 1-1armt!fI'~11!Jook to the fll]J]shed. u1iusk of (,'jt.an~. In addinen ~o rnrefu:]~y choosing the order of me 3~.nore cholrds.and i&noLechords:,. c,,'1ner had to eensldee rtthe :r.h}"dun" :register.; texmre, dyt~:lIm]csj and l'II.fticlll~:1Ii~i!o1l of II:I.The p'.lSS""...tge. aswell <IS the :s:ped<l~. rte\chm:ic~lI dem<l:nds oho~cing the chords for' me gui,tar. And, of course, there :is~he broader question of ho!!W tfue cod;!! OO<l1i11:ibUl.eS !liO dle o, .. rcl'3~~ wuskali effect of the pleee as 1DI whole, Ne .... ertheless, the HarlniJrlJ IJ'fJ)f).k Is ~. bclp,ful tool" quickl.}1 aI1si\.\lt:I:iimg· ~mporl,amD '!ri,ues·l.ioI1lJs alb01(lt ~un'[il]o:ni.'~ 5DElu:lure ~hail!. 1I,~m~~d he tedious ~o calculate, and freeing up i:IDmc and im:a:gi[l'Jl:I:hv.e cl'ruc'rgy tor tI.1J.e .mo~e 'impo:rmn~ <'lind mw~.· cally ~e"!,'i'aIX.Urng issues of how~~oSle rnIOJ1l.er:iab mny best bewoven 'l.l::IIt'O dlle fabrk: oh cOl:Wliposi'UOIll.

caner has. made two SUh(!1:t'UII~:i:,d addltions to the HlWlflfflij' ,Book, .:dlflocl;: dill.:: ·''S}';nthesi.:s'' <!lnd"A:na]}'~:is" 'vo~lumes ""ere COI.11IIpleted. Aroun:dl1980 he added two type8 ,~r a.U··]:n.terval U!'norte dto~ru-dmi.rd:'il consisting of <lI~ tl!'re~ve pi tch classes .uTarnged :50 that bebvcen CQIflf>eC[Iti",e!ilo~e.s (;,iich of ~b:: (:Wev.e:i'i,iru~!,,".~~s. from (i!!Ii~Q!: second 00, milijor seventh '[J.t;CiUS txii:!clly once, Tlsese chords j!l,1ie ,essenurn.Uy 12'·~,on.e IfiO'\!l'S ar:rnred 'IiIel,"!icaU}' ~n registral spare :1,'1lther. l!na:n '1IJJriIJOITh~':Uy ]:n time. N]col:OlS Sionimsky pub~.i.'ihcd se>I,~enu.l ehcrds of this type' Will his Thi!".r!1'l1.nl>~fJJ Str.l,t~li {~1:it:l McbJdlf:Pal,I'lI1"1M; (' ]194i)Lf.!, rn:l!U Lilf1[,ern- b~c-~mci merested i,n lJj'N;r~ j~fle:r r..::~dir,:g :fl~~ flnD~'i!l,:' ~[)r S~!C!fa~l B~u!l,::I';,M(;!.1]gl:lb~rg ~J'ld M..::Mn F!;:[!!I!'~!!Q;l 'ii\!hkh dt;;1lc!!!it~s <iI!:ll <:lJrn,p

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rH'h.m ~y\¥hkh. all pessibleall-interva! H~~w·nerm~'S may be generased.!' Usl.ng' ;it COInputer.BaueI'".~'f.e.I.1gelb~rg· and Fer,e:TII[llbund 1.928 aIl41:n'enml 1:'(i~/o''S and o:W:e:['ed to-send a printY)l;littof du~~.Q 00' i:r.I!~er~ood readers, G'lrte:r, who .kn.e-w· Ballllll!lr·Men~Ibe:rg,QbL,1lli!"i~d a co~~~lI]jd began i~Q lyrire out '~rn~c OOrW'$ as dlQl.m. pelJ'haps jnfli!let1:o~d by the <ll1i~We'~ fiOO"$t eL"1:mp:l,~ in ~\1hi>l:h <it s;all~p:h~ 11'0\'1' is 'v.rhten ·Oln. asa !>eli'i~s ofatlCl"'Olul:ing not~,~. hUi~ alse foW~lm>!,l~ng hi!> ov.:'u pl4l!ca~~~ U:n '[rn~~ D:f~Hb'I,~ Cnn>l,:erto afld!P[1Ii~Hl Gfa..Hc~rlo. J~r ,~~mple)of U1!hlg ]~r~ ,d~o!!"d .. 'i •. !;\p.reail QU~ overlh~em~!!"~ regisl:1li"aJ i!i!p~oe (if i.!J. W~~]pltt:$itiio]l. U) ~~~ ~iI$ l-e:fcre'utimll ~{nl!oriU(l!l,. C~ute!' lI(I!\ied an ~~~·jm:en4i rn2·~otl,; (ll.{)l!li fbI! tili~~[ pun'po~efi>r ~hil.l: fi~~ rnm~ im th~ S!rlit1lg Q,;tli,Uil~T No. {I (l~n). ruJld since NW,ht l''Qm~ (e,amposed UI,78- 1'96'0) th~s~ ,~ho~~ h¥{Viep~a~~d a ·1!;(lml1lJ! roll,; in d~e hf~mmrnie (li~lf.4:nw~io~ of m(l(~~Qf ["l!..is; '~Q1J1PQi$,i1;~Qn$.

C;1l't>e'r evell.mrd]rfm~nd.n~o !.ypes ();f ·311.·-i~1iten~a~ 12·noi~echoni:ij U'iU e!!pce,d;flli[y :i ni~ef' I,;~t~d hhn. :fu the firnt,. ~il:l!k11 he ~Iirn~ used ~[I~ Nl~~ faf!iatits. imre:rSionally fe~ale{l.i.t:lfe~.5 fan Ot~~: on uppreite :side:s of a central mitone; in the ooco:m::i!. used ~1i1 .~nt"MJ,de i'I[lJd many ]ailier work5. ~iIl.\~e;['S:i.o.nruly related h:li~crvab~ OCCIlIPJ p:al~]!ern pmidO~:5 ~.i[I each ha1f of i[]:rue !ChOlid, and agtll[] tbe mu~ne :15 in the r[l]i~d.dle. t1 Cancl!' bepnwl!ng ill. mird. !amU1' of a]J..iIlli~e~,!!<"3'1 eherds ~1Il 19>'!J2,[:ad~~~'~ed by a ]is;thllg tbeilil!lil:hof ga~'e h[IWI oflbo$t:: ~ha[ mUuUn !~-Jl.otc clli.lo:rdSl5, as a c-ondguou,S subset, Theseare 'I:I.lIe· "l.;imk" chords mentinned by Diav:id Schiff in ·c--'Ol!lrH~ct'~OI[l \~l:hSJ~pJm1'I:j"a anl1'll. several other l!torb .of the ru '990s,,'~ti The- "Urnk~' ehords ~r~ I'C[p!mdu,',"ed. !1i1 AppeDdix 2: Oir tbus. mlul:n:Thf:.,.

1111. Uloot of Cafle!!"s musie of the' UI~,o.fi and glls. aU·:in.lel!1f:al 'll'\:'eke-nme CbOird:s gu~de both tbe I:egis~~ :space' and hi!u'mony o.fOl. COn1ip;QiS'i~i:O:ll .. Because Lbe:}' c,on!aiJlf.i~.~. tI'o'elw; pitch. ,~J~ues, ~.\y l~u1l1:0~i.c Clo!n1!b~~~:!Iti>Qi!]! is pOll$ibl,c ~i\;i.th1r~1 'rlle'il:, S]XIn,.~\lbHe thif;.i:t· u.!:rulque spadal!l!f:i;an;genu:!nil:, 'c(D,ve'l'ling' [m,~ and 'on~haIF Q(W~~S, gfu"~'ii eaeh one ~ lu!.iq~ill ~Q~nd .. Their su.c(essi,@lm.~n wbich SQ!me ~!i~tesrc!1noon ~n [:u~!,.~d! :r~g;is.tersa_M!d ,others jU!!m!,p by 'QntC: ormlo!n'·e oc.rn:l.'es,can gurud.e hi.l<rH1o~k: ~lotion ()in a ]j~'1:ger scale, Me"~trrl.~ :1 M}-123 t~fNigl~t l'(:m,(asrr.J ~re itypi~ uf ("4"!r~!!':r'J! 1i:L'li!:.:' of ~h~!'Lf;' dlord~.

~,. S!ld~n l1.J.llC'r~:n~irn~OI~I1¥.ill"!~~ !Iii'~l\~ln '!"~n'l:, '~(}.fl·fJ~"":n.!!nt~IY.II":l\.~I~~1;)Jl!EIlo:I'I\""''' ~~ af.,~ MIJlu.r.~'I:m. 2 (i9(~~: 9~1!i.!~

j~1 F!IW mOIllI! 'OI!I Ih .. 511'1J.('lt~ Q{:3ilI.i I'lliI!'n~ !.~fllr "ogm~ ~ :~III!'r.('I.mp.ng"l~ll!. I!KI·F!I!~I!IQ:r,. rI!.p. t:il .. , and Mn'~rl Mori ~OO

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I' &c Thl.\~d Sc'ilaitEl', ,}"lu;.,~ltru.:.ctiJ~BlJdj !-~, ~t'(:omi ~~I.im1 .~ Idli:J:= Chn1 IiJnirerlloilyrres5;. t.oI1.riI!a.tJ.: fabci;. ]9flS):' 4f1.-1]. 3 U~

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Here', iin :ill, sih:ig~e d:rarnatk:ally 'extiendl'!'d phrase, ~,nlt':n"als and3-:rUJID~c'l:nfoms leap foom one regl.:slc,[" (0 fiimi@i~he:r. b:.tll:sftQil,iIl11lIiga :rlilloo ef bold decl<'11rnlton Into one of q'ttiel, rt!nection. Tbe ex!lIT';i~nt. ~!e3Jp's\ve:ai'l{t::: ,;l ~oullte'rpoffint of tlll'O ¥o,ices,. The ~:rnt i,s ,;U1:k:Ill~tJed, by 'q:u~lIltuplellt beat d:hdsiO'n5 ~nd. tine SCOOl1d by ,elghtffilsilolllid sh;:!~eenth:l;" iii! ,;!ocolldlOlrireC lr,hh the two stt,e<t~5 of 3, 1il)'ilg"1F<llJ1lg!e ]J'I'l;lynbythITI: tIDIl['1U;I[b,$, the:I,{l::llgclil of i~he !p\]eCie.,l~

Tbe itWO voices are i'lho distinpwledbillU1lliOn i:Ii:a~:l~'; In this ~Ige lih,e [m;t voice seuads ill 5IJ1ClC€;:ssi,QI1I olf biBI![mQ~lde$iOOisedi onmajo[' thirds u~ld minor :'lbr~!hs (~<Jibde:d "14" in wmpl(6) ~ ~h~ seoQlrl.cl pEars perfeet fourehs and. rlftlu {l3hd,c;di "i5'") ,

1;1, ~JQIII~, F.'l;JtT;L'k; "W:I'!i"Ra.lge :H'ri.¥fhyduJ:~ i",l!]~~IJi,QmJ!;r), ~Ill MUl!~, H,r,h,~'. (t~" 'Oilly (Jnln:rni~1 o~',!'>i,~,yCJI1:.:! 00<1, :10]~OO.

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All ~n the (;lttn~(od;l!.I~iWi['Hjnk ~~1('1Ct;;~i(ilrt (l'Ptl~~S oninJj~tip:llel~ve1si ~h08tl:rfac_,e (otln~C'!!'+

P~·o·",.~ ",1""",,,',,, ... ""~,'''';I~. and m' " -l,--d.", """",' ... sr -p- ".r ..... t J· ... --_,I~ .. " .. ,,-'I .f:l'.IC.'~" e '." A"'f·~1t w .... """', ........

~. lJ"" •. ';',1, ":"'~~'"'~' unrns ...... ', ] ' ~.X,U,I~" "'~,.,Jh,,-iS . :_"'. tl;;";. ~ : ro l!.lIil!~r.'l:!· U,~,·l!I. U~U;,k; ~.,. u",\,UJ/~ ';'..,,"''''"'i..' ,""",'

'Prodlilc~ a :L1lroj[ed repel1.'Oi:re. ,of ~r!iQ1~ to ,I}.;notle cbQ:!:'&, lll:\ii;l deiPruo~cl'tlt oisf!lalll.'l!:" 'choFdis i!l1 this ]~~~'l::is gUided by the 5~0'I~'er~~ccess~o!!l or a]J·i(~tel"1;~ m2-·[~o~e (ho[ds--mer(~n","es (!Oinn'~~ir:e:d hy :comm,)n ·oon·f's-:\¥hich ar,esho~,'111:11 o,n U'rue bOl[iOim:naves 'of the elli~UTI,pc-~e.,

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fJUmill. Caner"s HarnumJ ,Bar&. [s one olfl'!:1IOlny e:ifolrts made by (IOm])'OiSie'l:5 ~:nd thefJ'nsts ~n the twenl~ieth ,century to come to g.np5 l~dl. pO\Sll'lona~ harmony: Uke ScJ1l0nbelrg"l1l 12·:tol,1e mc:lhodl.i.tg re "'!i¥ out. of[~e' pi~cU!cal n!eeds of an ~rtive <1ludi.esn:abUshed compoiS'er seeklng 1:0 consoUdate the S!Ll'!L':C-!e.SSe:l. of iii ~)ec:eJ1ll: period ofboM! I.numm:tlon. l\:nd, Ukc~~Ic:nry COil\\'eU'~ l\itij) l\ilrJhf.it'~Jl'~mm;;e~~ <t!l'ld Jme[CIoh SCh]mngel~'s: TIt!! &1~iUi11P- S}!sbm~olld~uit.al ComPMJUOO, l1i::iS [l'1oO!tedi.I]] !the avanr,.,gnrde ::1jp~rit of thefirst dec:ad~, of the twc:;:nru!eth Cle,I!1II~:Uiry:> ~I{hkb ¥',e:!l'lll.rfaced ilIftef the Se~ond Wor.ld \l\lr. nts ~tfOIDge~L affiui.ut'S, hl()~~~ve!;':, are ]'0 a I!i",~ of wDrks. ~hat ~ue1l1:pt !~O tabt,mlille 'lh~ c{l!m,pm~~~ :r.'!n'g~ ,of ~lllnu,a!!l,h; p!l5SibiIHrnes m!1I'! du~ \V(»t~km of ID2·not~ ~(iu~l lef~qH~!i"il!nH~r!t JU. earlyas 19H E:rn:;t RDlCOl1l had (:O'l1ilpi~eclJO!n

1· f' I' " .. 'I • (" • • ~ 'k " • ] •

. ~(;(I;~r>ll~' ~~~:t O~ C~U--!!5e;;, OJ( ~~~rmOnl(~m'j;.'i~~rromg '~I~n''!PQ1i~~10M~1 ... m: nm l!l\!C~m~1!~cqut\1"J,·

~ ~ ~I 'I . ,. ". ] .. ~I'·'J ..;,,;.., .. "1 ... . mel' .... . '/i'l'.' . 'Hl··· , ........ PI' .. A~ .. · . ·H·-'~·

~crH';>i;:i, ai:Wu ~i1!n.y m ~(i~;inC oomg ~ 05Cw, l'lD~aU ::l!lilS ,~ ~~.u~.r! ,If ott .~, :e:i i1i:ncur:\.ll:e~n. NO!;$',. ~!~~ •

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:JIU~~ ~CJil 11ng:er-n;u;1 c.e.~ .!l:D:.,rru ;ar ,eID:Y!menHJOrn!S,~ ~.t ~ 'i,carymg o.!!!ebrr~es !(~! " '(lOmp~(ltero;css :amlCl

da_rjty" liutbe fo~~om[lg d"eCi!d!e~,i"~y W 96~1,~,\·he.i:l Cail:1ie'l: ,"' .... d5 i!1Ii ,!Bedi_in lvdting hils, P~~D'I) CI)~"'~rCj·u .G·"'·~"nr<~ '~'''1'1''- 'H'·~IiJ"'·-4 -N': ansen, ~-1'""""il,!l' 'I':~"''''l'''''''''~ and j;Ulle- 'Ill '~""ir;'i'''' ",II 1f. .. 7i m-o' t~

I;,,;i'-_ ~L~_~~ .• '.~Lt. -_~ """~"':r;J""" ,Ill' "",. J.jl;"'-~ ~_. v .~'o_ll_lE.JL _.e Al _.,,-:fJ_~~'~~J~1 w.J.!!VI~_Y" ill. J:~,w~"JtL_ ~ 'IIJY~I ,tUJ:IJ-_ '1I.'lIillJ_ .. 1 ir,~.lltJt;",. '~_III __ ~, W,I~ .~_"._ .. ~

W]shed eirlter ~he i!m:ru.1 rUJmber of ~s:eil: elasses fi~1 the .rrwd!e.m. l~eI:1iS~) of ea.ch si~e. OJ.!.' ft11,

~'.' •. -,., .. It' •. L . HI

expm:'Il l.'iil: O~, '!l.lUem,.

n!le.rei!ino quell1ol1i dl~n ,caner \v:1iS ~nnuencied brat lease :some of these' :au:dmlS. ]':1'1 OliJil UI.HmOllted.l}1?es.-c:rip!l:, nO'l\l' inthe mmiott Cuter oollectiorn <Qif the Paal Sacher F01l:lndanoln. (larler' dcs(-J:i!ibes hO~l I~he' H(j,"i~I)"~J Book.

v-·~I·~-'I-.--·I ,.,,::..- .. ~ .lrc· ~f .. i~,- .\1- "'I~··i::I.- ",.Ie . ~·I---~~.t .• L .. ~I(C-'-- ,.~-. ' ran- , ... ,;:._t'II(I~~· !o.,~

:;(.JL$'u:t:.:1;';. 0r:)Cy,i'llI'~Cl sm,y:I,~5!J .1II,I.C./'Il.I.(l(~. :l<ilI.ll<l,.r~'nl.t.'.iI, .t:!l1'i'WQ$1_11i\'. st:e till)' ,(jopypp. ;:t"'-Uiill,JI"' I, .. ~"

H~llj~~tS, film; .• \4~ ,MIl" Paum (~e rnn)f t':OP'l" p. I 2) and i01F I:tU:! 124mle~ec:h1niq~le by &ll~JTilbe:rg, Rk;h~ H[I~, lILe~b@l"iu', D2!bb~u. Ma_ru-'-l1o. i\JIDe~] PQ!:1£1 ~~d 'Geo~cPede.AA;~!Ually th~ mrll(,ter badl~il:I:1, OIlI,fI1I}' mil'ldc:'\!~t sincc;m ~d n:he'H~;m;":T and lIillJa hocks in iD.h1t (;;;]T]Y 30j ilnd $POI''a;l;HtaID1li' tlicd 'IDowOJk 'Of!! '~heh' ide':~c. [iO'~\"e\~r. wJ: ~:in_gm.e aJ!l.mten,iil [reu:a) tbom i:d~~ ~II, tb~ li5~. 'Q,ual:it:t in '~95~ ~][lililin a dlffif.~re~lt h'2Lrin du: .'lJrJl~Mo!! ,Cl:r~i\:l!<tIld the 2:wd Q.tI:~rIi~t I ~~(idc,d ~o C':!>'?"!i:ld l.ileciliH)m .... -ocab!l]~~ry <'Iud smnOO dneilOping the (~iS wh~c;h tool:l!l:awpe.ru; Ilbi$gtJlJwi.n.g '~a iIInrlOill)l book", .~.l'ClM'·;\ITd ~ny MMd),1 of U.iiball~U'!. iug.iied my o~'n :n~Jl]jbel'illig ~"iiu:;n~ of e:hmdll Qif 'l.rn,pi.'!i I::itii~t Oi] ~he lJilliJ~ of dHlejjflli:t Sltiiflhlg POi,il'lliS"iIJiilill. ooii'ill'iliifi~I[lg ;S;im~Ii,j:i' iPlilttl:ms.l~

If "rh~' WI~':i11<;~ iilrOl' ,~I~'ll~(j I,m ~m:tlI.~ ~~~1: by J!.IiIl~lhi'Lri ~~, hi M. y,iilu:lMe !!Imdy of'I~Ii.': 'iF.ArIy 115m'I1' Uf':Ii!'I. '1iI1;f(~ry; '·C!1J~ru', C'i1tI~[i.;m. ::mc' s,,:, in 'TWerlllif:lilirGI!.]i1ltir1rry1'J;'tC"1CI")j:· oinlHIllU: ~~]i 'i,~ CJJj-Pl t.l,iJ.~;, e.:l..J~m,"s M. 'Hliaker, P0,~1d W. ~£h. j:"I'I;ll,~;!n V':'Bol;~ t~h~~\"l': UIlIt~I¥OrRo{h~I.t'I"~, lOO';'). I. nl':'!H" t(~.fII_er ~'il:'iifed Pili' S€kiIli'¥.i'l'f $y#ii'1!'l ,!¥.~:f~l ,~rnpmiJifJfI {:t'ii'cw'lc'bl'k::C:Jd ~~~h~ ~'(i",.6) fur lI:.!u; ~kldknil M~ .)i!'!t~ ill ~9,,6. nqtrt'lg its ~R~aillr tlll~n:g''i.'QmMU£b!lUcIl~· i!ll ~~, ~oli~q:of;ji._j'j: ~~~;;;, ~(;.lili! .. [.l~~ ~ [[Jl~I~I~: a.:ft~; '''f,\iiU~ .oo;1!ji;Me~hiigii;l!e '/\:,~I] ,. ,i~L~ M~k2:.-'!:."®".'!I, f.lumml':1" 19~(}).~ :m-;3iI,.~p,rlnted ii.1ll! Wrifti'l~'. ! U~--2:t, :l!:l'iJd in ~(I'j &!~ii'~!l~ ~~wn; ]l}-~6-.

'!" C..;>!~['.;:.rJ'~ "'Jj'hc :~.ib1.1!' Cho.iW iUl1i'Y>1:~'I:·:rQlU: lokillko;" 1!~~'~IJJ j!"~U, ~~ne9' (m!!oI},i -"1.-!SiS. W1\::rh:, s."ial~i1~ Hrn..-,mi. H!tI'l;l.1llfl.N4P'!M..W "tit~ r1.M~. j~~~: ~~ r{/M r-~rm S?1lft (t>o~1>i Y!JI~ AGlP~ctll!&~I"q;:rC~~. ~I!' .. , ~900)," :[)'(ii!~11I ,~:t."ii1h''''\' "f1J~~: Mro~'s.:.t ~lJ.l 'i ~,i\;~r>:'~le fQ.~I~m;".fo1H_4M~j.,!k'~)"!!! U.~I.).: 2'ltl-'J3. ,'i.Ut;ii ilfic'~, "'''' Thf?>'lf1' .... t5(;t't~mp~e!;fM Ml~ok,- Jr;if;i~'~M!ll!~:n~a, n!l'! ~!9ta4} :1:\'1(j....8:~. FOri!,')" ~~~!m' !ljArM!lI.~Iit!~il~

" ~t"'[1 i f:i :Dr!rlc ~J[I1i.ih,,·[~ ·bCJnl:1"lklL'il'ioor.' ~;rtl~,«tISi: 0If1il JliJ'w H\iSbi!, ,AlJlm~ll1ii:f ,i!]i .Elliotl ('~ril:lTI!I ·H<liImiKm)' .lkI.oll,· ,~lf~i[1\(I'ti ,dtf'~!d ~~ .'It.fP"' .. g~ '{M."I~b 19\!I"}: 39,

Co r ght rJ 1criE1

Culer has <Ih\~~lyS ke'pl in close ol}[I!i:aen h~th mnlll:!i.in[ de'rdo~nU~Hit'!ii m f\m[l~ .:1c<lOllilld i;\brOilld, 50 ~i!: COm(liS M no &UrpdS.{l l'h<'lt hi!s01i~11 .. h~rm,o~ic pr'Qjec(; wouldbe :inful",m,c(W by the w'olrill;; (If bispn~dea~$!iion .alilld '[ontenlporari!($. In 19G1)...f;1 Callier was '~(!j~tirrug p:!",(ilf~~~r ~jt Y~e Urn~ ... ~:r:i~il.y,lwIThere Domdd M,;;wl:j,I]Jo 'Vf~a.", pre:p!<Iring h 1[0) ~lrtid,e "The Mn:m;:le' Setand ~tlI ,t\gg;rega:re Fnnnaticns," and A.Uelfl. Forte ~~ d<e~~~hJ,p:.ing h]~ ow~n approach t()! rnlw.lOll se~ theory,Funte's 'IJie S(nJ'l~flr.rn (11.A{Qnal.M'l:u~!t '1 .. zas p'li1li~i~hed bTl! 19'3,. dlC p::mr ~:f(lrt' Caneil" .fIrnt brought his 11I'l:'l'iIlml,onk; researches togethel!' as U;1e' .Harmo~~,f! Bf!J@n. Ca~"t,er'!> 'llwr:k also shares some impOi!"tamO:lS5~mpti.QfiS\".;ith its pit1;delCe~~(D~" It dl'~ll~CB SIei,·dw llf.H~JalQ,bef8bip ~:n temls o.f j~.I1spo::loitkm;i:ll af!1diorill!v~f$i,o~mll ~!qui,\!<ll~n(~~.nd so mt .. con~i~n~ '!ll:jU:d~. thlt c:a.l.ilogs ell" .([<'IiIlSOn, l\Il.'1I'illino, and Forte chord forc:hord .. oo

B~l;~> Caner m~~y ru.H ~)'lvekJHjii.!ii~'lI :.1ii,b( l\l{ ~flme of the' \liH •. .k tu!iil1g dorne in m.lto;;ilied, se~ Inheory; mna~~ ]nt~I'Vkw I)t~b[i,!$illl~d in n 9'90 1 ie $~kW h(: h~tl J~e'!~J" &~e~~ Hm\~i!r·d I fausou's HQcI'" ~J'l1Qniic Matel'liaiS of J~loder,Jl ~\fI1'Mic, <lind iCtm,\<l:liplayed ~hei,I:lIf!.l~en<:e of Foete on. .his 0\\':11 WOI:.k.2·1 And whil<rt ('~~ter !r~(l;\' 1\;[\1.(;, benefited :r:!'1l)m~~ tltc !',\,'(~rkl he d~d ()i)t!~"itill:, he (']e-il:rID}r found ~'hem i.n<ild.'~qUlate, o:thef!l'li~~ he never '!I-,,"{iIu~d ~l~JJ.ve ~i.:nldt':I"M~~n rhe l~\hf)['knltm."l{ of comp:iling rn:Th'lie i-la"?fm'j B(J'~. An.i~conod'l'!aic de~ire to. Si'~ .his O\!i'm~~f<ly, mayha\,l; beenp[lc. [[!Imi,,~u~g t~~nli[", plil:li.lalla]"ly~,vl,;oo~ hii.1! j,M~t;rnpb to dl~t<mfc; i~m:~!,;.lff!!j'om Iht:· 12:-tom' p["'.t(l1]cr.; OfEblbb'itt. M:Iiliihno;. and others in the ~.96o.!lann 7()~.Bu~(:ar~.e'r had o$lIer~ea:so~ all w-em •. One bas ~~ do !J.,rith his l'\lor."ingm(~I~~:;lOds. ('4tfU~r !'ik.el~,che:;; L[lCe:;;s;1nt])'" ni:!L<e'J1l [J:iI'lkira\g~ th.ousand lOr morre' :pa~es of ,~~~ t(hc!i. fora :s~ngk twent;'l,m,i~~tuC w~npt: ",itl~O~l, F~·e~[u~nt]y he vd]] r6~oPf a p~'),j~ ~~"~r.d times as. ittakes shOipe, pl1efe' ... riing U) plU: on paper dmng:eS~]<'Il he couk'll ~eas-ny k0~~~ trnil;:k ('.l.r in bb;hell!d.iL:]fl.ki og th rn·mgh Cil!1~i!"!'O m~m Ufi(rirH~, one gc;;~!\' ~belR';!~lingl:J]un. duo :ll!CIt. ofputruin.g rni~l.sknl idit'llll un papcr=-of m.o!!;.11:ng the p>Ctl.dl i:'IiCiIi1I:l&~l:b(i pa~.iiS hI!> piXfcEWOO. ~ucth~d ·C](f

.".n<t(·]·' ..... 1'!' ""0 ·~··n,,,,,,., ~~'" ' ........ '·e·..i,,. ~,., ",·n"'] "''1'' irn p' <>''''(·''11[> ,. ""[" "",.,.,~"", ·(0,0' .. i.,~" ·]·'m .. ai· ... ·"·~i,,,, .. , ·~l!ri.i,·:i,." {;Ii' """"L ,.1"1'" O'!i....11l; . Jj ~'IO III. _' lJ:li.Jj ~,~'~ lU~w..:JI, I ~I~~ _ - .1. lIJmlUJ!", "'""Ill ~,~ !I'" .... ~ .... ~ ,J J ·UiII "_L' .. ~.I,!I., OJ U,l1i11uj~IIi., .. a ,u-- iJj. 1l!.ll,,;:]J ...... ·lg.,II;~.::IIIU.U,I,illlll '~1~, ,. ~Ucl.ILCI U UJ - 11l,_ l~"'"

Ich.mxl:o of iJ]lt: l=.larmr:my' BUM lI:h~]~,if "!J~}' halve served a sirru~~~ar purpose. ,givling C'.arte.r ~he (lppOn1.U:1IEfy' to beeeme fl,1.0il;l)lIgbl.y fam~~[a_!"w:i 111. ea.ch dl0J·f] ~Iu(jugb the precess .of \'~idllg

out mts subsess andsupl!n\f:'ts, ~

YrtlC'l" <11:5,0 ~lJI01iy have found. the pJrC-5ent<i!tI,(l'[l; ~n.d (l~njzatkrl!i. (;lfe<l.rUe~" ~l;)ltm(lirik: carn]o~inlprn.(;il:k:.~~. flios '01!\:'rn'fl'artlUJ1'l)i flookls \WI:liiu.en enm:ire]y. ~n. n]~]si,c r.Jiotatkmrnil:he.r than the 1m'leg1er l1Io~:a.dol!l fa'!i'Dred bv M arl~~lQ <Ind. l~onJ!:: .. '.fbe use of in1'ege'.r:!l, n,cO'!lcly <),vQ]d:5 tl.lIe aJtibig1),ljd~!i Q~ i!!ldi.ca1ung a p~tdh d~""idl anetc on thl;l ';;;'~!' but for Oa._"~r dti;!! CQlu~d~t~~ ::Ilion. mUM. hot!\ie been ou~;ei,!ilbed! lly the hen~([t. s of tlsing the more fa:m11bMr'lndpure·rn}f :m:usiiciil :i:'i.ottat~o~1<'ll]5yMem.CtiIiiC'I' a~i5o iltloedied. a eat .. tl~g dl:;]l~ !i"~ ;jt:i'rnrl,~d to .r:fIiC~~~.t:ucCa(in,pmi(ioon rather ~[:Ulm .,maly:s:is . .lFmte's sell c1as$e.lla~e !lo!r~:ed 1n :em order nut lli(mglll!~!~.' fomm~'!i. lheilf prime {om1S.(the $.nll):te l1:ihord.s, fo~ eJ!ianl'l[)~e, begin f,O.L211• 'IO.l.3,,~, [0,1 ,'n. etc .. .),. '11.1i~51. arrnngcme~t makes if easy to look up rth~ pr!jJ:!l.~t~)r:m ·of~. set ,dla.,~$ f1c(uniug' i.n a pleee ·o:f Hunk to bt:'lJin.dyzed. l .. 4U"!·t:lf :neecled a lisdn:g that W'a:." d(~.\!~:~,ed to ~lt: lIiSeds:ynthei~i{;<li~~' r;:;atbcir· IthOli1l. :i1!n<'l.ly1]\ctlJl!ly •. The chords Win. the fl'ar:mt;JJ!:~lll00krufe ,grou]'~e"l. byt].l)C., so ~b~~cho«ts ~\'-'lh si,mili~af proll'1ierties may be ~~de:rHined ,flnickl.v,I"el:rnrc]];es.."> .oflhe;ir nl.ime forms.

. ,~;r.. ~ "~,.~ ,0''''' IC"

Of ll'UUfln: ('~;'!!l!t(~t ~'Th5 not. alene in ~~~~<lfdling iii_)[" .w;m[.m~il·~o.rml<l!pplic:.l!~ioil:1i..s, fot h~s.

haI11l\rlJfn.ic ¥e-!>e~rd~. Jj]5e-ph Sdlm~ng~1i" ~:N:p~kJtlI.,., ~LI~d! hi'ibnoJ.;; a "~Y$(etl:lll. ofro'!.!!5ic@l~ I:;QtUI;JoDSi~ don," <Inc:!: .~'Io"\".<Ir;d! ll.ntson. wh:~~e i'H::know]edg[ng ~dth f:~d:5!~ ;modesty the potendaliin~]])I~k::lI~ ~pp! iiC3i~i~nJj, of lIDiis'~l);rk •• asserted uevertheless i[li~at "~~~!} ~iexi W.<lll ·WI.-.ilt~.~n rnliriim<JJri~y ['Oir the oQmpo~~r .... ~ Ih.1t d~iIJ" p~d;]lgQg1~J~ :ifu;f;ln~ of b<nh of t!]ies.e bOQ:klJ:~:@ini\~$ '\.<oirth w goQd. deal (If

i!l [1'1" f!liI'l1'['J_~· (1lrt~~ ",wi F~,nt: t"ho~' t1i!f~r't:u •. ptinm l'ko;l'iIlH. klf[~, ~~> fhi.~, Fnr ~m,iJk F!llr!~'~~ [rU.,.~.fi:~ i. rlJ,_I'l~"i In,] ,:1.,7:,,9]. [:b'l !Ii!~. f?\~~, !l.~~"~' ~~!" !l'fI"'!ElT! 1!li\lJn" l!J'nn. ",-rei' I.n '~1~1~,"'r,1~~ :"-"1, f;~lI.~

~ ~nl~f~,'"AjjIII1LI~n~',~2!~I'I,

I'jI iH'1Ufl<;olm. 1llln;q.:rl!l1lf AJiwmaJ", 11>i,

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b<l;gg.'lge., Pn::·~-OIrll::~i!i.~OO ideas O!Ili:U.JllU.wl,1!l!It ~p~ nf :mus,k shollli~d resUih ~rom, iIJ,lIei.r ~pp~k~l~ ti,(nln. i!lnd tbl!i~1'i.I,y ,~J!tlildl. music shO'uhi be \\i'd~~ej]J. S!~rjomly oo~prom:iSl~ Imtl'w~rtilD~~ of bod1i beeks, Th~flm'lM'I'lyB'IJ(jh" Olll: the other hand, UruI, neeerhuersded .<IS a work of .~IilI~ ,stl'u(:u:l(Uni. Indeed Crute[' nel.'ell' t1:mwgbt Dt '\w,t.ddbe a;ppUcabllie to any C10n1,pOser'Sl!¥Oifklb~t his O\'otf! .• l)'a!rndQ~jcMLy; thi,$ narro''''U($']i of pu~ooel-.ept d1!e H~n~~J &rik fmc: ()ifid~orno,gir Gil and histonlC';:l]b~ ~ud m~k~s mt 111 nH~ch n~ore gel~etany Iilti~fu] .~re:r'e~u:::!I!(hanits ,~x'c p]:idliJ:r iusU'"liJ!c lilianal. p'l"eclJI:r:sOf5.,

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,(,In~l.Prtu;tim Edl, james M,.B~kJc.t~ .D~'!.'1IdJ 'W:. B!.':~ch. Ja:Jim~tlll",:ij, W. B~rn;~ rd. Rocbe,uer; Un1-

\'e~~lJ {If RochesreT Press, ~.99i7. -

" "'EJliou: ('..am:~·: Ccmcem./M On'1w.I:tm {]9~(9),~' ]~'l the ,c.u:3J[o,g !Df ilbeexbiibi,tlioill! &t~ i:li:~.g ,N'ew Srmm,: .lilIJU£i.c ~'¥laR'1;J$IT£p~ jr.lJm ,tiM Ptnd &wl:u!T FQI!I!.r.ldm'iqr~.at; ~he Plcf]pom, MI~rg;arn "Ubrnry.~3 Ma};~SijAu.~t l008~ ~d.~·;el:ix M~'(':[: Maiil1l:l! Scl~IOU! '~998.

~Jfte['. Elli01.Jt. '''f.:!l~aq' of the M'c:chO'lni~Lk .Approadl. "Maflm,l.M~ill1: 2g, no. 3; ,(Suimm.er 1946) :

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,~~.~, "' '~The Oll".ch'~j;trrnilll 'Co!mpOllef'·sil?.oint ,af Vii~tM. ", lrn TfliJ ()trhntf(11 Ql.!lJ~n·$ P!:lilfl:~' ,r)f~w;' J~a)l,~ ali, 'i~ieU-t.-~C.alury1: .i~Jwil:·bJ "l"h()$f! lW~I!:l,'j~~i!1Yt!.'! l:~,. ed,.I:tQb.e'rt S~ephM, 'H~ne;s .. N'(n."llillll!ln" O.K:: Ulil;i\'tlrn~ of O:kla1ton'iliJI.P~~. ru.91'O. rteprin~le>d in~f1~ irtH~j~~ ojElli'()$i. Q;lIrf;~, and in Calteck(l EH~s and IU'~w\!£,

_ IN··. '0-"-' .11"",.,. .,oc ".n..:ll - rdin IJ!' ",,·f· 1:1'1·1''''t·~~· r' ·."'· ,,_ 'f".; .• ~1l!" [~, , l·lV,. ~:O'_ <1"-'!. "m.' ~ ""~"', 1\Ji ~(I;"'fl8 _

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"l~pnl;1lt~1,i!I ni! :~ ir,~g' Ir:~:i'~~~~ OJ cl!)~ );[lit I ~ artotJ,'l";

, ~. ",lBrrL~~ Quwme~." la:~ The Wrilti'lg;£ ql ,tlliio!J (;art.er~ ed. ,iElr~e' Stc;~illie andKun Stcne,

EUoo:mi nglQIrI. ,arnd Lomlol1i:: Ind~<l.rn"', U:rn~~rersi~y Prl."'Sis" 1977. Repriared :i IJ E]~~on ~n:e'I:" ('.iQtJecw,l. E:s;s~l,jl ,a\lul ~lilJf~ 1 f)3'J;_19.95. !Cd. Jo:natham BC:HlI<litd (llG,,!hec:ii~r:r.; U:ni,Vo~I1iity of RII](hesoo·rPress, 11 997)..

GO\~n. Uern:ry:; N~' 1\'br.fil!:'tl'J &"Qu~;r~, Ne1,'\! York; .Knopf. 19:30:. n:.epdn,t, ~d~<l prcefuceilfild nlj)t~ b~J05()dy~~ 'Godt\dn~ Nl':'l'!tYork_;: So:ml~tld~)g Ebe P:~, UI69. It·eprin~ with no[~ and

~~l ~(;iQ~)~~~p~nyi~~g C$8<lY by Dav,id NkhoUs~ N~w YQr~; ('~n'):b:r,idge. U'nivertli:t)" P.!.~l 1006, Forte, A!llen, ~l,:\, T.ilt:"ury' of SdKCAi ~mp~,l~xe~ ~i)f MX~'ii:(." Jrmm~l: ()li~l~jit 'nUlU~" ,S~ no, 2: ![rn,'9~1) ~~ [3(}-;8?1.

__ . 'fhe Slil1ldunr of Atm!al. ,Mu'!";i(~ N tlN~;~;}Vi!:n ~nd [.~'Hll{]o:n; Ya1e UllliM~I'l~il)'Pr~,,~. 973, HoruUS'0I,1Ii. Howard . .H(lT1lrwJ.li'G J~fait1'rirm' ojM'M'I!n'1 ':\,:lwi'e: ,~~WJUI!'fS 'rJf~'if:mIJ1:1T-dSC~, N,~\'Yo:rk; i\lpple()lJ!n·CclfltlJl]~l~ofu, h~c., 1960.

,ll-IaF.liiiSOn, Il)anteL "Some Gl'mlp P'M[()enrl.,es ,of Ti;I[pJie Ga'e.u:1li!1e~poi:nil1, :ilno Thei,I'I:l'lf[lLI:e~lCe' (Dll C~mposi'O.ions by]" S. BacJIt. '" 1ftl~ mal of Musi(" 1'hcotJi 32. ao, 1 ,( 1'9188): :2~1'9'.

~le"]]]em.mn" ,~i:I;ephen. "Mclodk: Practlcein E~liotl Ca[l~er's 0 arinee GonEe'l:1I1o." A4'.i\iteilft~~TI' ,fia' Pmli'l' Sacher S:'iflu.~g 1 ~i (Apr,n :2(01): 'W ~22.

L .. lrllk.Joh~~ F, "L!l~g·'Ib~lg~ PO]j'il'h}'~h~ns ~m ~mnuCan~I"i5, Re£:~lilt lI,,'I'uc!;h:: .• " 'Ph.D. diss .• City Umlh'~rnitlr' ofN("Wytlri:;, 19,94,

__ , "'rrn~e (4¥r!'l1~)O!>li!inlJi of ,EmoU !Ca_ilfwr~l~ ~'#gkl' JOtM1Mf.~t" Sonu.~ l~.no" 2 (Sp\I~,ing m'!}94):; '6>'7-8·0,

,~l:;u,ti~o, ~Uo~~~(L ""[he Source SC[,iM~d its Aggw'l~~t:e ~~(JIj\l:!il~ltiO,[t~," Jail/Rial f)f.~!l~~fC 'I'lUJfJ'rJi 5 (191),1):: :22~ 13 .

. Me-Old, Aru:lrew,. "']l'Dtch Structure !1'1l El1i.ou C"1Mier'!il S\lr]lIlg Q.~]an;et No .. 3." Pm~'F~J1M~' ojNew Af:I;.t~Ir,22. nQ.] (lli9&~)~. a,rn~f)o.

c~:$om!>. Ro'ben and D~U1~C] Sl<i1in:."Ybe' S:n~!lu::(;llI re of Ailll~WI]!~lelF'!.~'id Serie_s."'JI)~,~~al ~M~~i~ '''n~ 18, no, 2 (Fall 19741) :361-89.

,P,er]e., !George .... Yhe Possible Chtdrds in Ti.\\,d~r.e·lhille Musk.'" T1'wS~orc (ii11ti l:lt:f.,t M.iI~ilit.9 (19,54): .54~5!S.

. Smial {~m,flruitikm and .:1.lmuJ1lti:.'I'. Beriele\:': ,'nl:vefti!]1)J of (~Hfomit] Press. ~ 962. 'Fitth

'--.r ~'.'J ~l .:'

f'd~~k~r!I. Hlg 1.

:~hn. JrJ'~:I.n.Btl.'l k, ,A/tlnal ':nItrory;, N'~'l¥' Y()wk~ Long~iI'.!~u, 19'80"

&hilI;, :O,ni.d. 1"/vl ,\'k<l~~jitt QjfJit{}u ,(ArJ!er; NewYork_; Da !C~$lO P:m:o;s.. 191B;l,. iteV.k'>!l;;-d s~Cfl!I~d .;:(1Jdon. Lon{kl'n~ Faber: hbacll. N~: Come~ill 'i"ni!;'t'I:5~~1 Pt'C55. :E.99S.

St;hilJing~l:,.Joseph.. '1Jt~ ScMlliqgu ,~)i.i:1Gm oJ.f\1i~i(;a! (:Ocmpruiif,;ioi!~ NCi;.V'"¥i:ji.I.'ki iOltd fi$d~r;::r:" ]:9'46" Set.!lu~dll" lJl]6nc, "D'a'i . bt:mc.rj(;e~~wer~c 'nr~~~re~5c an ,:\IDQi$ Hd~. ~mc:rkllJng ~uEH !:I)itm (Jail[, en; ']-f,u:mouy IB~J~.t·." ,!t,~!in'eil~dllg,"!~ Jet ,r.~ul.sat-1WfSt~~~~l~:g'[5 (l\IkU1::h 1993,),.; :3f!.:....iJJ2'.

~, "Em.lf!roiip~liQn d~m l~8ibnoch~n Oi!!.ku!l~(:s; Dil;; Skil:~~f!I~uEUi(au C.lrtet'$~'e~teJT~ SHl:;:khqllalth~u ·~u~d S~!~F1"'! ~h.t;:O:ttll;l;i~~l(;!I~ j\.irl:H;iwn. l,llll d!ilCl :lol!fi]lt~n 5I}(:rJ~l~Il" (lE:cn ~10n, of [_~~~l!:fi!(.;al d]"()OUf;o;Ci The skeocbL"$ nJf Eml~Qu (','afloom:'s S'ring Q:rl4rt~t~ ./Nc, 2' and ~llco['etii.e~d W~l!'ks hg the ~!l!~C 195~).,.I:fJjJa}niJUJ,:}~ ,(kr> '¥.41,mliid:~, Jns~i'ffl~'jfirMrni~/iu::rchtt~g .l'mij1ut~(!r.Kullt!~iu. ed, Gfu.~It..he:r' Wagf!~T, Sll;illttgart:J.:8. ,MI(lt:d~r; UI9!5.

ShriefJilc!I:' AiUlc."'iGh'!!: l~heMu~kR,()om! i EmiouQm:.c:r.;.'V:i.t."\~rof tb~Capiro] fr(l'lll theiljib~raI'l" of C,f~1 ~.gl'l~~'I&' fI!l!ll'> i\ .M{ rnJot all. Mi71 !(}l M! .DmlX" {In G(:iI'In:a!lI~. In Q!i~lutli.er~ll~ ,Bdl. felix:

M~~~r; Whu~rdmr! Aj:f!;nd~~l~V~rblg, W 993.

Sku li,m;ii!Y. Nh:(]IJ~~,. Tl~_;StW~~ l!/S,;altJ.'I t!:nd lIrlfJJiJ(./i'(;/Pm~J, N'ew'YQrk ClliWk"S S("lib:I1·~rls, .&Jin~:, 1947,

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7·1 is [0.11 ,2'. :t:5,6.:~]

/\:;;::1 7 [0,.] ,],4,5,6,.9] 7.z:18 [{I.1.~3.S,8.9] "·.1 '9 [{I"11 ,I, 3,6. 7;9]

7·\l!Q ~'O,!,'1,2"'<l,.:7,[:l.;9]

'·11 [0,,].,,2', ~~ .• 4, 5,,6]

7·2 [0:,'] ,1.3..4,~,,7] "·3 [0,] ,1,.3,,4 •. 5,,81

Co r ght

0531i1G

5>-21' lU.l.4, :li,i!!,] 5,,22 ~:O.'~,,4, 7"S] 5,,2:3: rO,~, 3,.5,7] :s..24 110,1,,3.,5)1 S4:S lO,2,l,5,,:8~ 5.26, [.0,,2,4,.:5,8] S·2]' ('0,1,3:,5.:6.1 S.2:!!, [~:,2~ 3.6,8:J 50-29' [®:.1,3Ai,rs] :)·30 [Il) 1 ,.4"6,,i8.] s;·:n [S'.l ,3\,6.9] 5· 3<2 (~'.1 ,4,6,'£':l s-rs (!l,,1.4,,~,:s.]: :50·34 [m..,:l;".4"i,9], $-35 1[®~,2~,~,7,9], :S·Z3i,!, h>J .l,ilJ'1: ~.137' [[J~,1,4,,!l,;EI.] 5·:&:38, 1[(1\ 1 ,2:,5,8]

o

&.1 ,[0,,1,,2,1,4,5]

Q.,2 I(I. ~ ,,2', 3,,4.6]

6,:23 [(1).2,.3:.:5,,6] 6·~;4 :~:O.1.:2,4,:$,,6J ,Ei·5 ,[0.1,,2, ];,6,;. 7,1 6.l~ l'(l.l.:2,$,~, 7J 6·7 [O.l,.1,el,;r,gl ,fI.:B[O.2,J.,*.S.,I] ,6).'9 ,[O~],2.J,S, 7j .IS·Z.10 [.0;,];3,,4.:5,1,1, !!!i·Z,11 [0:,11 ,2"<!1,, 5 , 1'1: 6,l1TZ [ij:,'~ ,;2,4,6, }'jl ,G·;lll [O:.'~,l."I,6,.lll ,6·1'1 [0,1] ,,3;.0'1,5-,:811

7 ... 21 I.tl. 11,2,4,.,;5;,8, 9~ 7·,72 I,O.,UI,r2,5,6,a~91 7·23 [O,2,:3,'l·,,5.i!',9J i\2"1 ~O. it ,2', 3,5, 7',.9']1 '7 ·,25 [O.2,.3,;<lJ,5.7,.51] 7.26 [0. "] ,3,,<'l,S, 7,,9] 7·27 [0.]'.2.,4',,':;,7,9]1 7=28 tOil, 3.,~,6, '\9] 7-29 [0, '] ,,4,~,6.j1'/;I] 1"·30, (0:,] ,1,,4,,6,8,9] '.)] [~.]. J..ili,,6,7/jj 7· 32 (0, '] ,.J.i4(,6,8)~] ;r·~]·3, [Q'.1 ,.:i!.o1(,6,.8,,'il Olj :7·34 [0', 1 ,.3,'11,6,.8,110j :7·35 10',1 ,.3,S,O,.8, ~ 0:1 7-H6 [I)" 1 ;2"l,5i~,,8] 7·l37 I.O~1,.1I.i4.,S.,7,~] 7·Z3a [0',1,.2,,4,5,.7,8]

o

6436 ~Q,,'~,,2,3,,-'!I)iJ ii'!·.zJ," :~'O"1.2,3,,,*.8]

,6·Zl9 l"O.l,,·~,·4/5,I3J 6-Z40 [Q.'~,.2,],:S.81 ,6 ... 1::4,1 [O;,],2"l,6,Bijl ,§·,Z:'Il [O,,].2..,~,6,9]

,6·l;S ~Cl,l,z...:I.S'iS~ ®

(H,6 (~';l,-lVli,6.6l lSI

€'ill

,6·J;;]" 10, '1.:2.4,.7',8~ (;-1 a ,['0,.11..2,5,.:7 ,8.~ 6·2:~ 9' I~:O,.' .3A,.7',g~ ('·l,{lI I~:O!!' l,4.$ •. 8.9~ ~-l1 '~'O.1.;~.4,G-.8D 6-2'2 'lO,11,,:2,4,.6·,8] (j·\UJ !~:O,2.:3.5,G,a~ 6·2::24 '~:O,.11.~,.4,.6.,8D 6·2:25 I~O,l.3.S,·~U] lhZ26 I~0.1I.,3,5 • .7~a.l 6·i27 1~{!,:~.3.4,6Jj!J 6·.2:28 1~;(I,J,3,S,.6.,9'J 6·2:29 I~O,.~·.:l.6AI,9] 6·31i,1! to,.l,3,6,7,'1 &-:31 1~:O,.1'.3,S·,,8.9] 6··~\Z ItO, 2l~.5,.7)~] 6·:]3. I[O,2,.3,.5,.7,9J 6·:34 I[OI,l .• 3,5".7.9·J &ltl· 1[{I,2,4,6;,$,;m]

,6·2145 [O,,~,~,4.,5)~!'1 6·:246 to,.1,2,4,,6,,9'] ,6·Zo'!1 [O,l,2',4,7,9'J 6-2:<'18 [0.1.2.5.7,$11.1

6·Z49 [0,1,3..'1,7.9] 6-&50, [O,1,,·1l,6,.1 ,9'J

Co -.yr gh [ I"l ri I

27

IHIS

HARMONY

John Lit,i: lbu 1unle' ,~aid lkat the H.lmlon:r 11m)k JtarlM j~J..ft' p.i'K;£ by jJ,i'oc~j!':~ht'r l~ .~~;~ .co,'~d"$ivtt'l wta.ltig~«t' at lh~' ,b.~:I'II!t~it~l?

EIlllo,u 'GKter::No, [lif~lt, at all, :~ !litarled. I rnhil~)k,. aru.~·r iil~e n(~~b~t' COf~Ceil!'to,. wl~ell I beg.m. itO de'.d~,rith in]:rue f~aru1lo C;orm:ertQlImd tile eon(:M.."!:r~:(lI for OIf'C:i1t!5trn. And ~kept fi~:!ldirng dll~t I wdS~mdng th~s;unre. 'IL-bard pl.a.I]S, O'\!lerO!ud over again. im orner to find dle lldauomihil}S !beu~ee'lw dU:~ml. Alld ::10 [d~d.deril ~~) wlille (llut flo:tnethirngtlh.at '>\!<IS more erless penm;t!luemn. (lIju!cli orgarl!~:i!ed SQ, I ~'Pll~ibl'tha\'t to 'OOIIHliLantly ~' lila!::!;: and. do it Q\\\er:md Oli'e:r a,~!IIl.

J~~ your P.i(l~j(J 'Ur~~cen(j!rU1LdJwltjJf'()'m lj1Jmtl ,196.l l'iu;J'8 arr. stw<lit-s fl!the J.:IiI:a1'e riwrdJ. Th.nl.·~,iFighll. Th~y rnfMilst ha1i.~ ~n 'nbes..£:h~l!'·FOIi:ll'i!d;a[io" lo~of ~~uJ~ ej(amp~es o!tw1m!ll I willi~vor]df!g {~!U~, AI tel it lW'il!i!l '~hat Unit le{~ In~~H; idea of d.~v~~ol'ing I!iriJl~ook, Att'hM tlll1ll!: '~. '~F~ a ,;is~ l'i.'ng pr'l(Ji[te-S50:r i.l!t,Conl!ril~ U nJ~~n;,Hy {in 1967-68], :~, ~~:s<o!d~!Q ,go 'Up I!,Q ~d!Ji~.(:~;D!:nd in (girder to ~:ln O!!J!t .M.}' time :~. ~~<JiS Kdti;[lJg ~l'ilifi ibQok.£m'ljuC'l,l'tlli'y on the trod p. wfuHe [''W!illi. up [h~:r~·,n didn,'I!:~~k!c: i~Q~f1.g i~f~"a~1ikl}l~ It bQn~d 1;ll~ ~I;,'nibl~~, bTJtl :;iI:S;1) ii;H;!.ud ~~. s;impUf:i,~d my m;~ 'O~,(~ it w-:a:.'! d~ne-" So d~e i[!J!(;(!lu,l~ve ~/If~ there to do- i~ ~'en fhQU;gh i!~ t<r.U~tfQSiOmi(l' to wn[,ei.[ Oll.~~:.

D'ld )00 ,d() .~ft,e S,m}~~$.u ~:ija Iii!: .A.fUi!y;JtS wul~Wi~ 4t rh,t ~~uw .~~mt':i'

[ realized that ~, 011. lliJelpw, ~llr"Self I would need lllile,se t..!fD diffeflernt ~ec:t5 ofthe saliJlle thing'. Ulli!l.~·~ d(![[ "1 remembee ~'['liI~JU 1: di.\;jded the ~.I:rI!ade d'le S1i'Illhesl.'l ilI~]d ehe M:anysiis i.[1I. separate mists. ~. ,I[]]on"t th~m.k ~IIT. CW'31i und~.i!iJfl.e;r theP.i:anoConoellfln, n~iaybe even after the GtlJwerw for Ooc~'rueslra.rn remJil.~d Illut. \\i'ha~ 1 had IiJO do l\f<llS to identify the eherds.so that .~. ·coculdl>:.el::])' trn]emallstraiglltI~t.e each ,chQrd i:l HIlAllh~r. The !).;nQt~ dli~rd:li eachlt;tl\',e a nu!]~be, l~p to ~wcl\\e" and ~Q ~~rth. ,!IIndm decided to t.t'ie the saTIlt;'~~:nnbef$ for ~:he ~m:\c;:iI:" ;S~01ru;.

;SQ oil" tlliC Pj:,a!!MJ' C.oor!cffl'o f:~jfi'"ishM m,!d)'Q.~. J~(J;d dQ'n~1' .~~. j.J1{J~ !i"}jlQ"T(!~. th.ef~y.o~ ~u (,1,111 (u'itd (Ui14·~()M and ;'"'n~ dwrns fur iir,t! ,fYom;~rl'fJJ()T' .(JiT!UJtm :~.

Th<lIl1i!!.~ a 1:-e~l1!l~ uf·i,!i d.es.i l"em t;:lIpalrnid th~"ue~lb'Ul~l1l of 'Cb@<I~". i';,:s. )'o1;l~m.en]iber[mm ~bc d~":l>lCliptinm of.l'n:l~,v th;;'IJtpi!!:t'C ~~'il:'~ \!'\'r:i'l:~ell!~:, the' 5.-u(lite chm~ ~Ilim~ :a1:'JJ~~:yJjed as (ulilit.nl'llF hlg 4';!:!QW (J-liO~ :i.'lnd ~]l{]]Jt(: dl!Ord:!;, ~Q th1liJt I h,adl. :a]re~di.)' dft\\'~lop~d O~i!$~~!hQrue Sy'$tern up ro 5 I1L~Uil.~ t)~, d'lic' ~m.e .1 began ~o \,vlit'C dle r:i~mo (;Oi!l(:e'n:o,

r~;:r~~nI~l~ CQ~'tl;(J'fOO" Or(t~trn:?

! Thi~ jl!l:tmil~ 1t.1O)ik. 'r~ on A,l~~~.!t ,~·t. lm'. ~n &:MJlnlmry, f~\!mu::tdUlt.

't $m!:: :Dium ~h.lf;[ Tholl Millie .r:/.f};JJ,iHn' GIr,.",., '2"~ ed, r(1;th:K-a~ (:.omdl llllIllr.."c\lflI,it); [ .. ~ ~.o:ndon, F:<i:her~I993).~"

Co yr ght Pl ria

\res, the: 'Con(:eno fQr Orchcsoa, bcc(:'.]osoC d:lt~fial1o' (';.o:nC>C'fil<!l l~ wuilW:l:1linR~rJin m~lJy $0 il:ha!l:.i1L was Hot-i[ .hadn.'t developed thalli. very far; The Piano Oonc:e:ril:o used! tll~',~~nQW dlQ:u:d5,. B11:lt rn th:inl:o:. it was ~:fii.er I got ~IOt"[l;~ f'l"OtHiBl!rl:in im • B5'IDO'86, lbe~;1!,n [jll) ~.xp>i~~d ,this li\1ib(ll~ p,kr:l.u~ OiIDld find 01l1t abour hl~"" th[~tf;llo:IJ~ {.hor(b;ffu~~ng~th~r ll!~H:!j Wh<lll3~!1!(Hi~ Ichords l!,l,Ie:r,e e~)R,~~in(;d i 111 lhe4-!~o~~ ehords O;li:nd~(J' uin .. Ycm ~t'(~!~le bi,g iP'~J b]crfl iii:! ~jlrjt~ng ~O!r @tthc:mrn: is liha[, one needs a '!f,ery :tlmpl£~ ,:;;on:nd iII~ t~mne~ •. and 1 '~hotlgbl ~~: ~1)l.dd. he int\Crestin,g eo ba~'ll: tbe P'](,;C(l built 'On 5· i!1til;l7·nQlJ3: (l~otd~, b~(;al~ 1: ~'!ta[!,t~dl,Q \~~ the en,tirei]ireb~trn !r,eq;l~cr.ul1l~~

,i._ ~ 'I . . 'b. -" .. .! "ill.. 'd' . . ILn .. k

,,:"lU ~;('" as "Wi:t~ artnat u me ~te'I1' COWlCe:meu~vl.t~]. 3'!l''O'1 . ,Ins: oct.'t'Wcs. ~ !O<W(I[JJ.e hllen :rfi;m'es, m

ort:h.e:'lH'l~ IJl[lMi ~hil.t eovers the .specMFum from h,lg,h to lc)."v DOI.es \'!>itlwut.;)iiny oc:tai~I.'es became It very irntelliel>tin.g .u~d <I&SO dcem.'u:lcli:I1ls:p:rnohlem. Ai[ld om:' of !l:he S.olUI~(Jin\'l '\I\\'3i!l itou;se 'f~ :;md !5~ nole chords,

And ,th¥!1~ ltd ,ihe J~IUilllff ~e3Qlmt$ n/llit S(:rl~'ig'Ql~nrl!l1'J' No, 3 [1971. 1)"00, u)cnt badtf} 4-C!l0'$e clw.,cfj? y~~, that's righ~.

dnd l1:lm afl'tT t~ J'iIj:rtl Quartet,. r'od:~,rIM ~n!t"tpi#':Cf! Mat lLW tl!¢~' ()I,(:)n:el~illt IJwl WllJi is A Symp~~.cny of l[,hrec Orcbesrras; in :tflli:kh ym~ tWNW llJiJ/l 6-t!Q,tt: Cb(Jl'fi;S'.

'rhat'~r1gl'W~. D~tt to other ~'!ta~ I \v-ib'i (o:!u;~~m~d! "",itb the :!i~lJbd!i""1i;5]ons; \wtat1'h 1!..itnd 3·nore eherds each O-rmil.e chord cemained witb~n it and! t\lh~l! i.~:te~~lb: it: ,n;o~n~ilJ!liedj :sotha,t 1~ .. '1i.i'S able wmake I,nt~ of (;Qmll~n;at~(}n~ ~n lil,ih:kh,I:e't: us !!ay~ there w'O~]d be ene +Dl:OiLe du)m ee ~,;bkh t.~,~o notes we;r'e;u1de{1 ftH' onf::'l1::ind ofch..:t<l:cte:r andllnol:h,er '~\10 mOleS,\,\leri! <ldded for m~l)d,~c:,r, P:U'>!:J duci.ng mmlll'Y' d]ffC:'fcnt krnmds of o.illIO[C ehorrls b~~~ ha.~iing asaeere o~lIeg;roIJlP o.f .Il,myhe Ih fee 0:1' i!'I')Ur notes.

"'!.l,lcl ym'l. wo~ht lor'lk ir~ au: ."I)ntlht~lcJlm1Hm\il'i' of flu ~ 1i:1J;m:liouyB'!"]o:k fiN tlw;; 1mk t4J tIlL, 4 .. fJotg c.'i!!om (jJ'~J it~~'~ sa Whli't 61mrlt cll(,~'d~!'oulti 1M nunk fi,()71t .i1?'

TIw~l':$rigIM.,~~.

1/"7im a1~lilll:t fbI! ;h!(jgy~fi.lllm/ll,tfU'? Ji.fW ,do )lUM typt.(xdl~ til!" ,Ule A.n~.i)~j':is oofurfJ;t~which lifts tit/, Sr.WsW;i~ TIli~ ~~i'$ someth ing ~b ~t]~'~rri,~}d 01i.UilQ thai I ,wuM k~H':I!lV ~Wiij.\l[cU!uh~~[e~,'~ ~)l~ :ti].~}dulii,\te [r~ )~~Ui O~,!I;;: !'iiQ~ !rId of h~f!n~ )~Thy u~, .;uHJllhl;-f. ~.vh~]", ~~~1!ti~ll~iuing Q~~e, tWIJi, ~hf,ge. ur fuur notes ••

S~ for f1x(J'I'lIIIl'W :t!lith. a ~l(Mr chmriyou, m~g/lt flllfl(:l~ _;"lJote chard lYitMl~itto' '~ (!;f a se:. O'j COlj1~!W,~ tOil1(".~tfj mt~d~dllte tQ in'lfJI'lm: ..

Tihaf"'~~ght. YE"'S .

. 1Ji~t)()t~,fim:l~'m~'rJelfu1JhrfJ .bmfl tAt! ~)!'1jfkesi:1" llrlcli:ne .j~,r'G~!s:iJ'volum'!1S.~tl"qunifyl ill}~n JOU ~Ih.~ u'-'IJldJlg'

Oh,ye.s" ,cef~O!li.nliy. But ~ \~lrU, ])[) .I'i<'ly-, .. The' 4n.f:H:e s~:;et~on was 'I.'Wi.Uie[l .f:irs:~" ~~nJo]j~h ]~, comes 10U Ih~~ end of th]$ book [C~:~~~wJr ~.31.

,U lI:.evt!:ry nul fIjtM,~ txduwo j'tH: /.itJ1J/! ,~w')~· (:Ilortl~ difiitkd ,£,110 4 piu;~4.

Copyr gh I d..., tcri a

Th::at\\W.wnlm:em filn;t" Tli~8~rJatt cMffh~~aJ 4 plU:s 4 ~

I drudl1J'( IlfIin!k of dJienlu '~.Olfl ClruOId.s umnlafte.['dll\l].i~ten li.het~fho~e 'lhln~. I tfu.ougJu: of It as "hm", do these 4note eherds ()almb~[Ie' together:;;

'Wtl''nl' 1~I'J!:~w ,a~' p~p 58 If)fth't:ma'n~rnJl~ [p~ge 329 ,of ih~$' editiQn~l,

Y~5" tffi1:at 'h~ 'til!1'~ ,e:arlie~:t p~~.n.Afwr I' d WQl!"lI;~d .c)1J~. the .3·tl.l~lt~ cbi(llrds. this, is th~ ]l~t I d!d:\lr;:~opcd!, atgre'at ~e:nglh. B';;IClli.u~e ~.t,,,,:r'e a.r,e~~ny pii(!lclC~ dh.HitlJ!gth~~ pcrwQd !l!.!hicl~ I based entirely ~Ii!i one ,moii'dtl WitS ,,'ery ir~ilie~t.td :ti:'i! how }!()ijJ QfJ'l.wld. h;a\~~ !;;ii,v{iI sers uf4n'llite d~o,rdrno. U! [(J~].,,4,,6]~ al:!d what ~he residue ·\·'!'ciY!~d be and 5<00 forth • .AlId ~:he't'!l! hue!:' I began ~I) dew.:lop" ,or any 'it ill] out te 3i~~ sons ,of differ-.ent li:jnds of ChOil:tl.s, Btu: '~ didn"t tn:h~n'k ,of dtis Iistas bewDI ,S-a:liio1ie cbolfd!s untili~ latt:'f.

S,t) l~iU ,rhoiJ.ght ,~,i,~ as ,how ,m~ ~uJ't!' di,(ftd a~:il: iIXi:mM~i,e ~Ih t~~ (}:l"i~t 4-'ilaf,c ,tJiotd':$ t<l tMIli' ~/1J' (f[J. ,twrn,re nCf4.d

Thall's, 'riig;hit,. )'e:;s, You. must :n::aI!~ze tb<l!l~ I never Ii.Il0ugml't abolUl~ t:hi:s oook as becm:aTDlwlng OOirne(hrunl [perlagogtcruJ" Dec:!iwseh, isn':l~ I.n~vhat IW'01!t:kl! ba!!'e' oO~lsi{.h~IJ'~a r~.tUy ~ogilc<lirn o~der:. The basktbing :th.u .~.!IN<1IS IIilnbappy aoout, fIDlf .i.l]Js:tarn~e" WillS dl~'~ the chOirns ,l.IDla~ con.U'I~n selllliil!.~l]Jcs: aJe~!u:rHb(1l~~d ~n differl~n't\'!~Y!i~ dle chQJdQFili'\,e :se~T1itQn~'!!i$O nortn'!,llnber~d ~he S;lIll1C "Way as d'ru~'cI:ruQ:rdl 'oE d~~~~ ~em~il!Q11CS. ~ It·'S DIGit ina S}lS(emaLil!lcd Omeli' <lind tb::llt hother.e;drne. so ~. n'~~r want~d~a1]y to :~how ~It to :;,!I.urbo(IDy.~: 'WO~ld lik:~ 100 ~l~~h~d th~ time, sud, rl~:!Jruruy., didn't h.aveeno!lg,h LlTh®e";f(l'St ro r~©!rgatThru:l;e it.

.And .,tliU ,prob:4" also pJ tum, flo ~'h~ ,(jliiC stl of :l'mmm. Y~I tha.!U':5 ri:gbl,.

l)Q }'Ctl ~~ w~i ur~ ~~, (J.fl;,~ ,r4b: ~eaWl'!'? I th:in.klflen the 5on:otlechoirm.

ihuj'tk.en .}'Cl'U did th4 ,koJe d;~ ajt{j'(' #l~' 5·~,~tt" d'iv.rd.f' 'Yes.

CaR 'Wfj ,lOOk a;t ~ txiJm/Jfl7 lA:t j~~t t'~lt, Q/MJmm ,rht ,S}'ilth~i,t tJ\{i~t'tmt.;"

i2

! •

~ Tb~ ,,ghMd nf ~6,,,~, ~miwl!i~, i~ ~!1QIJtl; (~Pfd ~, 1 (0,1 ,!!,l,'!]; t!li~ ,;:!lillrd, Q:f dll'~d!! ~~iIA:l'I'!'~!. i~, S-iI!llQ~ ;:;1i(f(N:1 IlID. 'i ~O.~;2J "

Co yr ght na cna

TIU~I,"!f:! [poi.ruil'DIld ~~ ,sbm,~s wh..tt the ee .• men roaes are' .. These i!I[lie dll!:(;Om.lBon eones, ;ru.nd these are all the d~ni':'re:ru: OlIdd:ltion:s o:h\"i'o notes ·r.re:.at you can 1ti<'!i,'I"!:: '[!hat would pmdluce all the different !}.not:e chords ... Wih<ll''''i(]I,uld lm:ppe'.n is }~OU ean St£:lrt: lI!lritJl, sil)!,3.:no®e cbord ne, :[1 ~md }IOU add thllis :m.gor seennd which lpmdua::es ~I]JOil:e ,chord no. 3Smd rt.hen you 'Ioo:k up ehl>liCll'ruo., 38~md, d~s(iO'\l\elf' tluu:.lell.'S say. tr has ~iI!:I<Otf:l chord! no. 9 ~in i.t.3Jnd, :m rOI:"rJi, i~nd k.C1~p g'Oi~lg f(~rever;

So ,['!nl!:!'" )l;Nlfiwul fhai lhrsf!produ.a: clioI'd .1,8, the11, JUJiU: ca:t;l l~M up chord 18 in the f1,l!·ul'lJ.fl.r:l;l~lullle.""., .. .and thcn ·firu.w. :'ia}I,~'I'lmt ~~ subtWi\il.<ii]ons are am'!d th!;'f! .~~ b~ek,,,

., , ;,0' ,~~"$ a ki~d D! dr,(l&£#'(t;df)'Ft)t~t;,

Yes", There's .011 gre<bl dC<li1 of that brad! O!f tbing in 'titu:::' ConO:'.nof;or Orc:hc.strnffi One iI:I:Jiin.~W \~'iL'l uever 3:b~e eo OI~<u.lI]Ze ina "'llydI1nl'rnll sarlsfac()Oi.ry eome iis dlle sp.'Oldng (If[;llords .. .1. tried, rDJ1I.:lt m C(luldlil'lt [lgure otnhow to do it, <'I]mo!ugh 1. am. falSdm<lliied 'Of the di:lI~'I"e'nn '~IIJl<9i[rutiJes spiillt.img' (:;~~ngiV{; '~ulh~ s;;lI:iJ'I]~ dll(H~{t

.Let's St"ly we're d~alin,gw:i:th 3 iI1JOi(.CS. ¥ou find $..:notc cl'ruo:rd no. 2,. the d~mlnhbed mJi<llld, ~nd then rn:rnl~:ead il!)iftaJ::hlLg tha~ .lJ:iIt[[lor il.h[~dI that produces no. 38 f,enru find! chord [1,0.. 2' ~:nhere. pllli!: annaher i 1,1I'licor.m1 in it, and you 've modtdO:]t!ed! 11.:0' another il:fPe of hiUmOI])"

SO'lll1i!i c01J:rd lir~d 3-r.U!it: dlO.rd 1,'j,[i.,. 2 hack :fl~ 11M! Syn"I.eJls m:lltJiCtll:e and cOl!'!ti:tn~e In iliCd f.!1:ail1:'n>er.

TI:ril! h: (line (!if·the more <C~lrnbenjinime 'l:~if!.!r.' that l-ibl1'1't ~l b {i:I1.e (l(ftllt!,ef~N~rS.m ,,,'O!'~d. So the idea ,~ .. ~ b@,w)'Ol!! could meve f!fom. one world ofs.'Otu~d 001 another~moolt:hlY!liQlI ith~il:iu.'I]<ut'llded a~ ~fh: h~d .~Iogic:a] (;Q!:nll,;.ctiiQll1 •

.lftVi:llalMf!'l)'~u hcwt!ti:'e Ca~'alfl,glte i?fC}j,rJrns(1~ ~kl! ~~nll fllg alld l'iMn thl! ,~}lU~~~l1:1 J2~la~e"MJrdS ICJi(jI}.~er 2J.

Tbe 12'~ote clilords(<9Ime' 'lmld~ ];ru~er.

Go 'j gilt ma cna

y,.~, Thenl l"(;~i~li:~d tba~; d~e~c aU-run te',I~i'i,~'!I) mCltr,iJcj"I;Uy in'r-eli'ted c:hordf!~~r,e ba.5ifjd! on ~e~tjd oftih:e d~I'ii:l'rcfit '!}.~~Q'~e ,cb~~ •

..

'ftl'u'f~~m J. 4:1, $. ~1iId' ,6:,

Yh.cl~lin,aU of idle &.tlO'H! !ld:l'o,r& '1i'!i1i'n111 'l!!\~e~iutie:~lex(]epl d;le'~l~gm:elillrJed, fOl.:U1'b. A~'d' Il~qn lile /J4J'olicel (1iU/f~r,e1'VtJ;l(l!tmf,J') Ih~g!'lre tJ~ Qrlts)'~!{; ~iI'!lnt~~'ng ~fi{l ] fllJ,!tf.-B5. Thiil':s, right ibiJd ti11~~ it .1Ot:SbiiJck ool~d~iU. '~\iie were taik[[f!!g aoo(]t hefof!f:.

5'8 J'fOlJ: Utlr.M ih~ 6.,~~i:lf ciW.ld'$, Ilren tl~ afl.i~tltr1Jtd ,12-~ol~ coords. llllcl fl~~,l1 yl'm Jitck '~fJ tljW ~hc6- fliI}~e ch~ wtlh Ik<l'i'iP1i()I~ dro;.m.

I d~dm'~ kl'!!Q,w \v!1:cr,~ 'L'O put these :aJ:l-'ii!1w~~ ~bQ:rn'li ·SQ· Itllilqught '~rH j~t p:u~. 1lI~~m d'ru~:!:I~;; fuCOlUSM;l' they 'liift.e',re 'mn,c~:mlcdlW!rtt:h the' ,l)..noOO' dlliOT'W."

Xi¢/! fJc/niR;st ~:lw~ .t?/,th,$ H~~1l1HJI~'liJifElo'Ok l~~, MM Ie jind'rsJrmwA!il'arch ]_':$t,l9'''i. UIi! ilitUl1'11! Ufl.il8i' y~~; !flkNI'J ji:rniJ'i!mg ~1U1'n]]:o, fl@!l:'Vifo-lin andi, ,PiauQ •. Ww ;tJInt IJw~ftrst ,rilue.~mJ fJro'U!fi~t mlthiJ fftat;tnal t((l~~l~~r)r~' ,the .flm.tmony Boo[l,:?

Very li.ke~y;,,~.,

A~d,~(\ 6tJnti~~: 'lJ'mlr.l~~ i~ ~ Uw 1im~~ Ji£l~,*g' :i:l~tl~'Par~,.au: 'd skrj)piN1 (ilm\J; ~'d~'fIfJ ~l~~ ~fJf, ~';~~~i 1:2'i1Qk!dj~a;~'J~ (1:1\1. fli:l~Jftl~ madi.!'d~}1fj'IIi,~ c~~~si~ t!lifJ 1.aJ:~ 19:80$:7

·n~e:re!!:"~ i'I~,:!ru ;pef~~n pO~ll;lL, !l:enahll.y\!i,w[ll~n !Il1iclEuJ;l, iejl~u' iQlr tenyeOllrll" 1Il!.u:.1 dec~ded! to ~e Qln_j~" a e~'J'il.am ,,~~V ~~1!1!.aill~ vocabul!l!.jr of(bQrds.M,d[tl!s~dlh,e: ·Cc]]!CM'd~ dl~U I b:a.d diiS-wvered in ~1~ !~OI'I;I:IC!l~' Qf ~lld]jii!Qg' tl~ro~i~1:ru .~liNhQ.Wesys:~iii.M~~],~ ~t!110 4-onl)00 ~iIljOIFds l]]al~ha,,'e all the lil1W~$ [~Ii1!i.Q~(:l !~Jl!~ro:~ nQ~~ l8; aud 2'3] and ~H,l' ,I;}.:no~~ ilibi(l,ri1 tbntoo.n~ins aU 1lh~~ITIIQ:~~ dl!l]I!'ds ~f~:no(1il' chum nQi.3li5J,~d d~tli!l I t~!~~~~,ck to p~~..,q;OI;illS, work which ]1I:!~rl lill! :nm:y oQ~bmIilCO~~I,';VlW (JQmlldif!h~g: 4ng~ d](!lfds,Gith~rnl1)" IS QII:' f!.Q. 2:5. ~!~dsQ' I m~(l'matww·~ rUiJ;l'e 'tllI0~f!¢l'5. (lltlt ~):f d~~Jlle', ~~e~ ,~Qme't!hb~g[ '~~. ~~f.,t o[~!O!h~~~~n ,r.P!!u~~{~t.ethe [h;!l<ub~.;; Co.iIl" certtJ',. I ~hll~f)ly rew!ert~cl. tQ,~\f1])3it I had. b~c'n d(liLng locO!g ;ago. I d~(JIIj.'()'f(;drng,. U~ ,eWllti:i!dybjr ~h~m()~ wl~Gn .~ ~~t\i1illi~g mym~t StrlWlig Q.!iJ~n'1l. A~d :tb~~:1l wb~~ J ~~m!~ ~.~~iOOrh~ [)ol!;libillI.'l'Co~o~i!'to!1 d~sc~~~d ,tilili1llt:th~ro~!~ :also ml)'.2g,b~~. n n~'~r mad~ ~rni'st runulm1]r;:h 1~lt~r. m d:idltili't I~~lblk 'oil tI~(lilll a:s,hillivmng tlili,:nnbi;frlS ail: d1~lt ~lD!1IIEl.

So ,tl1l ~~.I!Wi:l14!1·J~(}li! dl.miS 18!'i1~~d ,2J~, (!7l1d wliaf's Wfl ~l!'r iJ:' •.•.•

.•. are the ~l~no~ (;[~ordls ,5~ 9~ ~2,.!IDd m4f~md ~o~blinr-l1!g 18 and n~, 'o~2.3 i,'lif!;d 2S,~e:<tlc~, tlhl1i 4~ note c:ho~ 2', 3~a_fl!d ~ 3,

lIT!]

'[!!]I

!@J

I@]

il!!ll

[!!] @] ~ [!!] @] ~'
I
I
is 1- a. 'L I~I II
41» TIlesili ~not~ chords exlstin almest c\!e'IJlhin,g fvc\nitte:n s]nee'.\\\IeI.l.CJe,n:aI,ll~¥ slnee the' irifUl [String] Qilanct [m998]. ii!J:I1d ma:Jibe be[om that. :But thenalso dlis '~~torl combiues JI,.:110~~ chams, 18 and 23 1I\7i,thJn the '~note eherd [rnu:mhel: 35]1.

:So tl~(1J' IfJn11S a kiruj oj ClmmW,!'l·ti(l;t;~e ,b(1J1s jor ~1h'!dllll)'!!tiO'l~ 1

Yes" that's righil:..

A(Ol~d liQUW ro~l'i,I1Ued t~ '~ ,all~~nJ(f11J(1~' 12-fl!(lf.lj d~rJ'I'(l$?

Yes" I hegalJ 10 be ineeeested in ID:heln ,cen:tIi,l].~y b}, il:he Lime' of rl:1:~e' TIlird, Sttiing Quartet There fua:stffl! imfc~~ b)1 &,ti'ff·l\Ilerlf£fJ~f!1g all,a' Fn~l:t:J:" a:!'lxl~}i:£ir JHf.~,t~mUtlkd: "..m ,gvJJ d: 'WfJjl ()J.~ Oh,~tes I h;Jid ~@!,"g@U,i;n~U ~~OO1l;ItUhaLYeJ;.lJilal ~QS '\!e:ry ,irnrn,po:mil:nt ilm:l a:llill of thls,

it ~dJllItJW!l' Jm;tmti1. ~n ,P;:U"t!ta [l99tH a:r~d fO !';m .. Ja:u '~' heffl,wi:rrg (~IUfj1tll'nJal '/~O'ttl5 tJ~(tl .tMt;~in SIM 6iru}~e ,110'111 35.

,; ,s'11",(:w IRml~to.:Meny\l~" rlCl 1\!D.:!h;i111 'F~,re.llJol;ir~ 'On l'J1cr<!:!n·I'I1'ti;:n'I!IJ~ lIr,.~a~'e-]OIllii: 1!lim.'"1i.~~irJr.J, fl/3'.'mJ kiliJic 3. 1IL1l6 ~' [Hms~: '81t-](ll.

Co 'f ght rna ella

Ne, byIDZIU time .I ne1.~er' sa:~ dm",n. and, CW'Il10ite: liH:m ,out. .~. ju,s[ used d'le :nml1lcer system i[!i:l<l;t Bl1IiUle:1"':.Mceng~~berg ~!ll,~! }iQu~(']f g;t\'I:;: me.

,AJ~d ,ria' "m.! fltul tlJa& ,You !Jtil{ W'ft!t~ fl<l],H1ony I>OQk:

No.

l\l(j:~ Nat oJ oilr

No. POlJFU<lUy because I'm f~mi]]<Jir l'l'Lth the p,ttrtk:ul<1r harmonl.,c f~e~cl ~hat m"m. "vorklngi ll. ~vh.~c'h M .1, .'my has nowbeenreduced liO <11. ~i"iC'I~)' SJli1Iia!lJ~ ilIRi!!J. And ill don't. dl~nk about UNIt. 01:1. I oOC(liSfu.(liuaUy leu),k up .reL1jirr:k!i~15b~~~bult Pre ~.ken se(:!tI,o(rlIS ,OUiIr ohb>e::: book i~:haJ]:' ~oJlm~mlj~s;t the ~~mwial ~b~m I 'l;1i1Iw,ij(rki~lg Q~L

{~~ Jt.l~, say wll1 jlQ~ ,~fii ~, na~ ~'l~it pl:ld ,d~ ll:r.td 11M H:1J!1J1!Oinry BQGI~ huamJ1! ,~ '~/l:d? Wen. for one tlli~'[I:g: tbe idea !(]if including:so ~<lIlily Muds, oflllafl110ni,es '\"OI'&'J ,0\ '!,i~e~'J ftudngeflon. :!I]].d it {op,k,m a"\l:ft1i~ ]o!, o:f time to exp~o1fie iIl(lW to deal with them, ${D. m began to, rcdut:em~' \·oC<lbt~~ary :so ilLh;m~ I mtdd.haJld!~e it ll1.or~ 'qJukMy am::lllno~e. ~]~. If you Fiemember the CCinlEerJtiQi for O['d'le:s:trn~l thin:k :1 H:stedhow 'lhe 5·note and! -l-noee choI'dsall tlt tog:e:the:r, <:lind: that t~:mk. a ~ong time to '~~md;,. out:., as a m:lltte:r ef fact, so th<:liil: !ea.ch of tbe fo~r su,;ulds of tbe WOlI'k\iji'ould hi3V~' h.s mm hOllr:mO'ny and. :j ts mm~"J.y of Sloul!lifUng .. AJJd. it seemed to me rh<1tt in (heern}d it d:idn!ll make a ::>l:!1ong emollgl1) elI'cl:i[ fo·:r rne to ho'!:hc'ral:lI:nJll. h too, much, m'[\"i'lIJ!l u~diJ!~ ina ~~JU]n ~!i,m~~ ~!i'h~1l ~ diditbu~ alwr ;;1,. 'Wh~~!),l ] btJ,g!lIlr1 to feel i~h~lt it h~!dl ~'le~!FI{Q pi:i!)blcrns d]j1~l.~: didn't ~~all¥ ~'3JJl!lt t)) h'l .. ~e ~!O W:1.'\~t';" h \V'~, h'u:e:res;li~lg' to knowall abi)iu~hm\,l aiI'l this li¥Qrked. bl~tt in ~hJe end I began .1:I}Qk~ngat; it in :ilnQt~~ef V!';\\)'~ ,~ Ibtgarn 00 be li:'!iiU'ere5ted h~ LltilJiiy ~).lheraspec[S ,of ,[:()m.po~idon ibe~de1; lhe' lli'I~rmoni!c strucmre. :~ f'C'l't ~h;,l:l iff II!l'Si('cli ~\ ve:ry=not sll]iJp,le, bu.t ,e<L'lmymOl:[I]pufau:d ,hatmOllii(;Siuij,c~ur;e.tJ!etli ~ oo~~~d foct:ts 'Oi~. >oilier ;]lspec ts of,e::ompoSilltriCJu1I, ti,ke spad:ng of dlOrdisiilndnnu:5ki!:~ r:ha~~ten",.aJtio[ll, ..

J~nd you see one Oflhe'iiery bifi!5ik p~!O:Menls of' 3[W of dMs is l'm re<lIly w.ri'l:i.ng (;O:fU rapiLlintaJ musk so dua~b~5i@ d1J011di!l, aJn~ .!i@]don~ .nett".s playtlmlloU il:he same tlrne, And. 3i,~!I"e<lIdi)' ~his ends up(llI!lI~ing a cnll:ifllc'[ of p~l'l:rpose. TI~e problelTIl1l b:rt5aill,¥I'3i}~ been i[or me me desiee fo:r a kiad of conuilpuntal and! polr~i1ytbilUi>c struClj1JU'C" whleh C(nll~dn'~ SlQm~d the cholflilli as sim.ultalJe(lll]S. aii.Ulcb. b ~~1.l'"Q'.I.md .011~,~ hlrndsof 1:I!lJ~elj~eGtu;)!j;] 'co!llIf1Iicts. lmeil:~] ify.o'u b,nt.e one L~ne. ~]ng .ol:lie 'Vi.'l1}' ~II.d. another I~ne oo.n1lj~TIg against I~" .how do pnu. d~c:~d.e whi.ch of d1if: i[i]j~eni'als Y0:!,1 cOfl;sid.er p~f~ of the ~tru:ct!IJre?

A.tu.i: .1~!liW do .~fII.milllt!'e. thruie hi1~ds of t}t~,pj'fi(J.,u1

1 resolk-e them~!I1 diffierenll ''>'<!!if'S. S~mei!i:ilnes" for lust<l]].[e,rn~rould JUS] est3b~iish Que cbo(lrd.

and ·I,·"·rr~ 'all~' ·'1",,,, d·-,'I'''!!;''''''''''n'' '1'"1""'""';' 'I";~"""; """",,,",, t;~~,n~ ... T1i o~,,,,·,, n .. n1h'l\' (1',"'"", ~l,n ...... r.ri"'" "~'-'I"'" ""1]-1- , ... ;;;.;,d··

'IJI'IIJ,,"'. J ,~~~, ""'"', ~IL!L. u , .... ',' l~.I""·lIl '!I;". '11, ~~,011""'~ I ;"~'"l ~ l,iljllJ ,J ill.lLiII'!I.J'~'!io- ,1,111" .11i,'...,1iJI. "I;...i!!;Ij, ~I""~",l 1L._ .1II'!w'!', ........ lIo ,'Lo"'IL,...,., J,.v.1I, "_" iPlLlI,~, J i!.l.J U. ,...,. ,u",~·. _

theu chiull~e '~li1ie ofth:ei.Au':r'!llll:!l .... I1C] groilidlll'llly nl:O'!I1einti() an,mher >[-hfU·,d. W'\:e tried e,~ry klin.cl. of' thl~ng ~ cou]d lhi~k of. And .in~~ilt': eadalse, .~. found 'that d1l:e otber side of ill ~iJ.t'l that; uslru:Jig a<JJlIlY Oif ill:ruese ,,~hurd p~uen:li.s. led me lO pO!l~~~ag~.;!l that I dld[l~tli:ke; ..

EI,r;;'W su'

~ju~t did~~'t lilt: the :l'[Jl,md of them. So. [f'!Je!1J m WO!l"~di;l!~"(liU~1d iI;l.tuil I fQ~ndl p~a_gt::!l.l did I.i.ke·,. e'!i'Cfl .if ~!l di;d~Il'~ fo:lnuw ~my of these ~:t:cm8 e..~~edt'; AU d~.m~gh JJ]~" ,c>Olmpos~tion1ii there are m,!JiII!lU~II.ts when J. ,d~d (h.ing,~lh<lt .~ i~'hm]ghl sl,m!rlch,d bet!:e:r ilh:m ~,iha~ ~h~5. ,d.l:o~[i ~y .... tern IPfodH(;~d" bec.b •. u ... ~in 8~·C:lwi,ed. to' be n'HJre i.1i1i character ~,thwhat. 1: '\!rotUn. There ~,t:iI!'C nlla:ny dMle'reglll imle.lu.iouf. :!1ghdng [;Q_gelher \\1111Il:h ]!'Il. theend 500:111. made me fedl th ,11 ma}ibe dli~. ;\;ystem.",a.", not <'IlS 'lue:fitl ill> it ['liilldl been to m.e and that :tbe:re \'\1·e,~e other Inane" I ¥l'as morecenceened ,ij Lh .. So .1 "'~mpl:lfied l!~y \\'O£:abub.l~y;rund made ]-1:; hIte, :smllilC" th i.!1ig Writ ll\~ m,or~ fes1!ri.~~edl.

fJ l1Ji U1Cll1 twj. to tishn'.! toaP\i'l'J(~ 'l1mi 'tlJ'aJ' em ltxa m~ oj tllis1J'~ mmtted wrMulary; ..

... The :I:'rnflh [Str.ing] Qua[ltci t(:crt."lildy 15 ;~n Cfu'lmp;]e. ~. 'l:binlk ~b~t dlCQHi~t;n.e~ fOil P.ian.o and \;~nd!s, I[ 1.991.~ is llke that ilOO.

l;~ ~.}p()$e #1'Ii p.wr.~ iu wM.ch )ViIi!i btgat!, .~ Ms;l) 6"jillute tJwI'd 15. , • .lin a ~tr Chaf~~1;l [] 983]. U~~ s,fJW g!I~itaF pira, r;trm~/d bcaf!!lodaml~pk too.

Oh ye.'i. ·trn..at·~Jhill oil' [~I~t d~m'd.

It 1ul m:w (l~n:ur~h mare 'fI!!'.t,ri.r.ter!~!(.l{abrtlar}~

W(;JI.it"~ iiJj w~ry rkJl \:('Iodn~] ary'l'li~hln ~ ~nl.~d I. 1i'l":,Hl~~ b~cOi!I~ISie: yn~,] ,c~n .W'rodlll£'(:: e"I.i\~ry p!lJ!l58ibie 3';JM)(~ (ho~d \~.idlin du: fi.,nr~I_:(lIr.horo. Audifyou h~lIi~ one 'Qif tb~ s..u'l!)tt) ,dlords dJ~lt I \"0';1$ t~lJ,,]n.g'lhol,jJ!~: }'flU(;an produce 1lli]Jl(1!.stal'!!ymher chord of ft~\'Cv nooos lvithi.n it,

t)(J )'m,~ fed llml!c()rn/Ji/iftg ~/M I ~:~nno~lIili' Book fum {~n inlfl.g(l QIfl! ~'ke~VfJ,' .'.(I1l.c~m~P.r(JsJttl?

Wen cenain[yl~ h \i;;~a. s ,,'erJr' hnport<uH. ~)r rue, I had ito knOir,v w]}a:t pO(\'3lbIHdes the hAml,ornk '~ifjJ."]d cQIiI!~;;lIirncd. And i.l. '(:cl1ai(~~r atthat d~nc didh~~'t a gtJtid de:.dlof[~llu.cne!c on t!lJ.c\~~y.~ ~"{)impu!5e~,

[·iUT e'Xamp'b;;. in lI.J.(~:l11y QJ thep.t"ue.'. ojr,lu; .196fk: tlWid'iOs. l!r14y;i;aJ.~: lftti:ur '"70s, 1'IUJ~~:~ f~i~ wlJidJ. ~;w,mlJir:r.aJliI'ixll(JW5£fJi:ltl.'i ii· wed al1lii'l ~t.'i~m doli ,qf~'lJ,tJ fJffs:s~bfJit.it$l~(l!V(J occtj:rn:'~'h.at' s· 'I:JM m~d oJi.!I~ fJiocg, Far ex« m:ple UU; Beass Q.nintci1! [.l. 971], fiJltM!·r:.(1id~ Of#1!e iJ'wiJYf~ tiltM {md t'ri:tJs 't~tl~g aMm .UUlll lJPtI. .of ~r!Strtl'1J1m ts-tnuNf1t'tI~ horn, m~d t,1'1!l',mbm;l~fun!: 0:'J\I(,t' £Irld Ihi?1J tt~(J:t ',k t});E rnd. .. IJ.i~i 'l'N~ tl~i,,~~ n;oow: tlu! fW'lR. i:~l aUf,!, u:try: ,u.f bting' a lti:,u1 af (;r~"'1Jpldrg of (f,U ,oftht: la.'1lVlhiml1(fJ'i~,lp.oss1bflilips l'

Oh,.('jen:air.~]y~ ~f(:S. And in the Thi~l~ Suing IQliutel tlCu~ ~a,(:~ ~ha!t '(me du[) pia~'Sr~ur mo .... e~ ments .md the ether pl~.~ ''i~'x •• 111id i.l~ the eeurse of ~ta~llhe· d]ft'e!~~n .(;iI)itnbinal~io[i!~oHi~e:m OJireh~~ard., Olud that i51!ht~ (imnpJef~o:n. or ~h;t; pi~<c~ .. l'hC!:1~ are ~~~:de' s(;'!ctio:rt.'i that are iIDh.~J!iludes in hC~'cem ~hem, b]~~ ~[m~~\ly the tho~l.gbt ~V"4<" I~h~t itworu~d g,f~ dlrQU.!!:'h all the dio;crel!l~ p~iblle oo·mbiRitt~O]1jj..

It :~iT.!lHi.mi;ngt~~ ,'au ~nMd t11J!(ij',jrom tiz(Ji kh~d ,(JfJfI\rmt1Jl.l'tt'U(,$f,1c~ al dhoruf ,ti$li','{I;(Jll'u!HMmlony BOQ:j{ W4:!·camp!.-tuffl,

·1r~.lI<'1t'·:!l ng:h.t.W ·did~]'tf;e,e~, tbat ~":M\¥h.at I needed to dio, m\Vi!I.S morc QO[J]cerned~l,\i;lb the g:en.e:mill !::ri.!; s\,\r.e.ep ,of ~he pic~e. and bolj!,' ene pil'Od!lH:ed 'the ge[le:rn~ m~iD efre~i~~n'l~he:l~dThaill these s:m<1'IE d,etiu:led m<!lUe:r.;" lit's bO!liJ1d1 :[ot l'IDlIe to ·ml.k.;:]:boln ;m:h~s. :1 don 'iI: .reaJlyknQ\;,';.Di:f[erern.iI: idea,> aOllDe to m.ei:l~. diJ[ie"re'nt tinu~s!lW can'texplain it mOil'·e than that,

Co r ght II ierla

Welt, it '$pi!rfoctlyclMr. ,Atuf ,tJt.eJfHlm· spmJ/SJt1f ilself, VieW], '~ bOiPe ~'O.

'P'05~t Not lO[lg aitc,tlhis cOinT!'elfMid(l~ I 'MI,;,'i 5ur,pri~di to ~(;cii1."{;; i,I rn~Jtte· lPeJiC~· ~Ie Wtl, !the :m3i~l .f~O'.II'l. EW~~ou C~wt.et.n ,~o:n,~ined tbe m!C)!!j,l, 1;(:('}I;,';~lt edition, of ehe I'larnw'J} n'OOk~~viILh '~'linm,emw, h:lndll,i'11l~Felll, corr~ic::rio:ns. l'h,M: he ,\~ou~d. SiOo ,czu.~ny ~e~'Jjd, bis _pencif![d, aopy I lOok M fu:r:I}~~T e;videl1l~e m~~, tibe H(.lr'~(Jrf}l .ll(JM 11i(l~oiOgellp~~,yed. anactise m~e wn. hl.s compoiSi!l1I.g. lBu!!:a,l,'l;re~k 0'1' two ~03iltre:F[ ,gGt ~, ph(!llile call :from ,Mr:. CaTIt~r ~killflg me ~o send i,l hac:k 'as, ~oon as.pcssi.bl.e. "',I·d. ~b\rgol.1ie~, hO'wl1ludlli I depend on i1," he said,

Co yr ht Pl ria

Co r ght 111 ierla

Chapter 1

(ATAIOG!UE i

CAlAlOGUE OF IllNflERVAILS ANlO'CHC)IROS

The C~lt3]oglln~ of '[nrencals and Chordis,. the: op~fD.~mg ~~CtfuO~l ~lf Il.hel-la,rn,~()l'~y .1~(JlJft, \'!13S Imitated 0]1 rOlen" :Ii!::~d~r~]:ze:· sheets of III uslc ])<;Ip~r. Car~ri.!ltrodu~ed tbis. section v.~hh a dde p a :ge labeled ",\ro~:nme l~. acoolrip.ruil1i~d hyUll'1! subtnle ~C~l~~]ogu,e ;f~r In u~ I"..d", ~~'ild Clwut s", On the &."]iIIH~ p~~, he d('lj~l,;d ~h(; ,~~UU~ln .. Nf~YC!nhcr 2.5,. ']982", ~~h~~nl!ghl;erl!~!i!!ly mud! of l:lhi\':ivo]u!!1,eh,-~d. been Cimta!pi~ed ,.lnd, conl~l]eU:!d IOI,lIg befoll>e d~i~, Th:anbgih.1:ng day. I The remainder ofDilc tide :Pilgc ;g:h·cs <'l:u1 .i nd.ex of the p~gc' numbers rbl~ all P;U"i.:S of Vol.m1ilC I, rrOllll IJn.e eatalegue that opens, the bo ok rtIJ1llou:gh the six sections o~ S)"Jflthesis.

The objecth-e ol IIile first chapter, by no U1C<!:1I:I5 it trivial one, is to develop i'II COI1','C" nlent and n1Jil~llIlg,eilbl!c means of norn'LingilU possible ~,I,1Ih~nf:a15 and ehords from two toten fWI!Je i,1i] di~e 12'·m:lot~ chroraadc scale, C'll1eil"'" s.oll.ldon to th~£ fillnnid~hIJ~ [a,fiJ:.-p]",esum,~I}ly fhunded t]u"Ough paig,1Si:L1J,;jn, uilIlill ilmd er 'r Dr......is~o notate o:nl)! theseehordswsth llm!lqlll~ to~al ]:ntel'\'al, contenrs 111 prime form, prudud:ng ato4~'] of 2'2iO in'll!ffJI!i. ~nd ch~H'tl~,. c,.~d~ uf which b. ghreF! 'I. ,c;j'!ltii(llgt~e !~~!n:!her.~ The I'H';aUl,l:.'ii!; of tbi'l 8ytem ;js. th;it U1!l!11:llpmed and In'!'e!;'wd fi:ornu. maybe exc:lud:ed frolTlllllu~ ca!t2lruogUI:, sin()ebQ,~~ fOI~rm; WtUIJd ~m:~'!(h th~in'~,~md com tent of a d~o·rd inprime fO:I1~,~ These rnlll&~5, f.ll!1;;!l:nI.TW,bl.y ·tbe: first PQ~~'.} to be pm{illt!~:cd. for the book or(~rtr.i.~:i)1 diie fD.rst to lJoe fOM'r~ui~~~d. comprise materials tlun~ii]~ be developed and !e!.''!::P:I;O!.i:t!d b:'i eji(te:ilg~:\1~ di:t:Jifu~itll bi)t~l '\"()~~fi~'!~>i!~, i~) this ~t!,i~f:.,lbi~ .'5C'cIJon i!'J the 1'.:'~PQ~,itioi!l of the boot, f~lfmi:F!i]' the fooliindalio'i'i for it as am. ,ef~~it1!t1r'~

Q' - - ~

!U1Jrter'5 '~JlI~~l!'J!~t.atio!~! of these chords; as ''Ilith Forte's. ~s based on oo!up]emerHilliion. ml'~ il.h~sl}'pe of o.rb'3:n~z;ruliom,il[l ~1~Her\71] or aeherd is presented In ,conjUl:m:lio:1il with its ccrnplernen t~:I1r chord, il.h.e:D'i:b~,' forl:nmn~lg a '~ou!l~1 of t\,~elveug.'ru~q1J],e' notes or a .~ :2~note <lig:gw,e~'~,e. TIUDS" an runte11r.t!.s are cOUlp]ed I!Mi.th t!heir l~llm:.e' oornp~emen!S;; a]] ~1101W eherds \,,~:th qtheLr '!). noaecom p~:ement!l; ~ru] 4J..moilc cbords w:id:u t~1Icir &W10Ie c:omp]em!l:l,[nJitS and so fonh. The aggr,(." gatesiJ.~-e' ordered by size, begiulIling "I.lItith 2'-10 note-s {small/large) amill ,eo:ll!d~:Jding~ .. ith II). note (ti!ords.~ Vlhbi!llhis ,chi!!S~.ifi,c~]dl)r~, Cilner mi-;;es <ai d:ilfcren~ turn by ~UF<'n!o1:iHK the ehords a.cwniing (Q"IIi1Dipelll~es QflmlertiM~rn!Uy. 'fbol!!e chords dl<illtare g::lon,~im;'elrtiJb1:e are presented first i.n dH:' ~i,:'l'I:img, fil~~O~'o'~d b)! those that ilIlIi',e lm·'I~ljbl.e. This pmpelitJ'c~n be n~::q.cmy diseemed oniu1IY p.~ge" Non"!,rn\'e'11I:ible chords :lIill:1e notated 0111 i.~~gl,e sta.l!tes, ~,l,!hereili~imiell't:iib]e chords are notared 0111 0lI. 5)ISiem of Il"l.\\,o ~'lta''es,l.he prime r0l111 above, ~hei IlI.ve:rtcd fann belO'W, and this notatienal wed,10do!IOg){ ]5, presenlccU for '!tic entire bool{.~

I s~(' "The C~·m!.JinlJ:t',~,iiil 1\111 '.iiI' EII:hm L:;,rrlC'r'., lJ!lJJl!ml}1 ni!1~/ iPP" 7~:!'!, 1'01" inrll'll:lllJill iglll 1'J'Il !.hLI: dm;l'Iloi!llFQ.' o:t. the .H.:rffili'1ll11.1!~

I r~ji'~~"$Iil!tl:tJ;P;:~ii,AFiK'lidj", I. ppo l7B'-8I.!!if 1:1ltSfrrKill!il:~iUqIJll1.iJ'lMIl'lliC"cQl1ipri~ 2OS,cnnrle'.!, n~j.'Z21!Iru; nole(l,olTllJl. 5,.lSilhce th~ ~il!; iJ:lI;;!!"\':I1 'C~'!5J i1:Qd ~ili! n~,I1iO~~' d~o;ifl1b :l1FC n~" il'ldu!l'!.;i.U un Ihi!!' ~;r:"P""!ulil>-

• 11~~ T"rintO!' .run .. 'lJ)fll clmn! ~al~ I'I!I~ id~nlJlc.d III000rlru ro:r~t~nt mlhlll~i.llrnm~l. im'C'ncd rul1i1lr"II~~l,\.ill.-er1ied. ilh~ 1111' th:E' ,dllmt !'!'I.l'I~~r. ijn,\ ~fWdri)lll~l~ "I~' !Hit.i!.u~d for ;(U !!w¢blibV~ .(;Ii(!!wt_~ iT! til;; {~lllih;.gJJ(;j. _~ igiL"'~l"'!;i~j j~~ t1!!7 f,.,llo1~';lIg p'IJi<lJli''iIiI1\~L~ ,

~ :~II the .1II11iti1JLl\.Cril}l. ,tllllD:11' lillX:!jjl:III!~ !;(!!mi1'I~!1~(,!II!Jlry "O~l'Ill!O:I'!.g~~!,'ii ~!ll ~ p4ll!i1 ,;,i;!~ (fill' ,,~jh!1l;p;'!,,"'!+flI;o inrE~nit th~ ~-n".~ ii!f!1'Ii 3>!iJOW dttli![~)'.I'IfII'h i~, «Iltitm. the' ",hB sil!l~ns hili~ been r;rpliKO:l wi:th en d;I'Ji~.<:,~,. ~iIlH' pll.l~ ~iu;:ln~ ;ue ~l"v"'1l rrlll"lhe dlO!lIJlen dCl'l,1ililg liIiilih '~'I1III:hlS<iil! :!l1Ifi1,i\milj!!li>.

• ~i1i~!:'1i ~.~oo ....aTI}' he' lJ!i~tifi"d the (h~ .00OCLW~l]l!l· llii IInC' ~w_}pi:iiI1' of illwnibul'iw. ,C;jI1(';r 1i!~~.Hli.;r~1Jrlfi['rH'!."~ "fm- d~nlY ~I'I l!t.il1lc~il1l!!, :1i1]'l'L1:~ 1:!t.C1'[j.- >( l~ctl.N' to I~~C e£Lu~!llI"_

rJ - oria

There are a rusmber of ad!Ydimtageoull features ]n, Cart.e:fs a:rl1ll1geme:llt, For one, h il~:~,I.:~s:U"aies thai!. 1i.I,';Ie lm.her of aV;3,ilable ~(l!l;ITI;S of a cI,101\di lTiD13Jtches tlli:N:: number of ar",.."i~!able ftlnnsoifitI;, complemem, l'hus, i,hel1'C are silr(,in.t,cl:vaj] classes ;:lind Sill, 1 (l,inotc 'chords. tl/,\rC'h~ 3·nol~e- chords, and 'l'iiVd\ie 9-note ChOfds, tW!C~l}"'nirul'e '4-i!1Q~e 'cl1!!)),rd~, ~nd ~l'I1'Cnl:y"i!1ine ,8-. Q'Q~eclwf![lil. tl:drl"Y"'I.'!~grnH 5 ... not('l cbord!s, 2lIud dlirty-t:dglu '7~l]Jote chords, and fin)" &.]l;Clt~ chords. AddHiou:iI]]y. ~f a chor(~ is rlo:n·,invertJibh:" thenus complementis lwk:ewisenOi!'l!.' in¥er[ib~~. r-!I'l)we'!,'cr, du~, c'Orn:pbQel:lJJ~ of ~(111 in;,,'ertible chord i:n prime £0"11: is 1111 :inwmd (onn, and, j,I:iI tum. !tbe com.ph:mel:ll't of an in,~'eniliMe'chor1{i in, inverted fonD is hi. pfimlt! fOltm:!ii This :P'fD.!rl,11l 1:[JI~gl'ruil: explain Caner's dedsiion 11:0 notate both iI111f: prime andlln:vened forml!! of tl.le~ s e dholcd.!l. A. cornplernernaeyarrangemern ~s also beneflcls] because eve~ !':ho:!"da::(lI!l~~lhlS its, cornp:le:rnent as a ""1i:ll}..~t or a SlI!,lper.l!e"t ru~ 3J~ least 'Ol]Je ~fl:!ltl!ru::~}' ~foo'r's orwtlllliz.ationof I(h ords in 'I.1:Jiis chapter (]eady w~~uslTa:tes thathe became i!lti,m~~iel)f al'~J!r'e of d~e ~InpOrtiU1Ce of d~e~e l''''O pmpe:ruC!\') over the course of a.~llem.blb:lIgl:llile materials forthis hook <lillld Ukeli-me suggests. that 00111 areimpertant rul:pecit.'l in h:isoompo:diliol:ru<'liru d'llnlk·· w:ng.

These properties become especl .. Uy signiflcantw:ilh the fifty IJ..[lote cbon:ls. Cane:f' grouped the &1note chords inil:o four caregories: mos. 1=7 aee nOI:ID-'il]i\rerm:ible (\.vith ruhe' excep-' don of no. 3) <II1:'Id, ~d:f-(onlpl~emen~ry by t1O!1nspo$iil:iQin~Il' [lOS. &-:20 are ~:n"!l\ertiJbrue .. md se~f(J!)m,p]e:me'l,l'[.U;' by i.m'ers]on;,~ nes, '2W-!li4:ar-e' 1,1Ion'"iin~lerLilMe" ~iI1 \\·hkh the !Eompl,e.enti;s ni':iiotThl¢i~ (rnOl14~1'1(;rlibrue) Ml'!1lt.echorid! t1l1!lt shares the same (mal ~ntcf\~ru (QIlW.mi~i ~~ld., :!10S, SS-,SO i!!]"~ii1'\!e:i·tJb]!i;':,in '!i\!hkh the comp'l;em(l]1ti:s; 3!iI'lG't]H~:r (~nv~rtfub~e) 1ij..:[1JJQ®e chQ.rd 'wrul!:l:ru the same ~!I)Ulirn interval content.Carter cenvenlentlyatranges chords nos. 3!5-,50 <:1!$ c,o~pJe:rrH~~)·' (~l!~ p~li~'~05h~w wh.~(h _ ~~wrd~ ~~m~_thc :~~me __ i~t~~:d_ ~~nte:n!.~oir_ ej(~IDrl~:, no~ IS? [0. ~ .2,.4.l,8] OIiIm:t rm, ss [0, rn ,2,5,,6,/8] ,lFe nO~ljeclas curm~iPilem,enmry cli:io.rds (D-F.,.il::;.{':;..A-U

and D"D~<C-."\4\:~~)" d.lIe fonme,r in prillimt: :form, ehelauer in ~n,,'ert.ed fonTI, '111iC' dirusu:-lbutiion of ]fI te~rns ls diffc:rCiI1 t i,n eaeb ChOfd, yet. the I;Onallnte['\'3~ eontent [[32:23:32] lis ide:ntlcal fo]" both. 'fh~:s, typi;; of l~ti:tiil1g. whi.chinayal:so be t!>i:Hliild ~iI'l. !F'(!Irte'$ d:a:,-.sificatio:n. is l:1imJai.iI'l.tai,~cd th!l'oUg',hm:lt the entire book. Thus, in Oh;a:pool':S ;8 and 1 m, these 00M]ilell1lentary' p~i~ ;~ID1e ~I'illthes~zed. a~d .,u:mlyzcd in conjlul1cmon li!o disptay the complementa:ry mall!:,e,,;u!p' .of the~!I"' :iiiUi~lli.

C .. arter also 5,IJIBi:ifi esihe i rnteIi1141/mntefil~. for chords of dl ree to six notes, l:lJJot,,·U.ed asa c!!l)Ue[tiJm~ of successive ~~,:ne:<u.· iln tervals, IG The res;trilcUioll to :six iis . . raJDJosltlJk,e~ya pnc.lticall Oint':, dlJ!l<C' 'W the amoum of nU~Mbel'S. that would be' mqUlf!ed fo:f' eheeds n'O!ll ~~'~en ~oten notes '(for

.. n-,,,~ .::I~ ~E\~il ~,x~~tiCl"$ 1.0 ~I;:~ :rilriilcip)e~ +no~,,/B.~Qli~ , .. h.;l:r¢l, :rIfOli_ ~:;i ll!'ut ~.16, !)i..~~I~/'l'!ii!l:ue' d!QI~rU:II', lB. '!l~' :<IIml SG, tmd. /&imn~ d1o:rG.:! miD:!. 3 and 'II,. Wu!h :IlI1e;s~ !c\~n '~i1r!l' Of in~'CilTiiib]\c: I:hill~d!!" both tltt~ dmm. Mid Ie, ulmpli::m.etll.t. ,ue ~ fl P\'nl!ifi~ [,-"nm,

, Jl.!lio;ll1d'"IIlI1<;' .. TItl!SllULrrm·;ift\~r.lIJ!j,fitJ:i~, 78.,

• i!J,.lflm~' dW:f1Cil 1ft;!.!, 3, 1ITI unven'~b~ ,dilliriil, ii1 ;Rlillped, ~\Till1u Itll~' l'O:I;.irl\~tli~l~ dmn:l3. 'bel::a'uu:i:t. 15 s.EtF<{!Implil:me~l'rltry bf '[fl1rQilpa,hiM>!'!. ~imHjj,flr. o('c1lfl_,""r i!"'I!l"~ /[illl~ ,~!,!~ diU!'!) (:If.!, '" Oiir!! ifl~~~!~t,!~,"ilo!,d. L" !.n'\il!ud.c;;! k!! ~ !istl.ng af!'!m""iJ!~l:,r;tJil1~ ,"", nm~ ('1:1QL'<di~,. t~tlS.e 1 .... ~I~l:' odilT~I'~H~ piu;h~ mI!II~1 iii' ltliJ ,dlum l~tn1fI~po~ ~'WiiC!C (e.;g,. r,:.lf..Q.~, ,c.'Ij.,9~. G!i*~.D)') ([.~II£r,t.:l '~il~ j,-i!iml'i, 111m~, lfiru 'f.':lf!'~'l";. IhOl ~"f:1[)lllIf~'lr';:llmp~mell!ll~~o1~ ~ .. pt:!f!;L'!tl~II'['<:I p:~~ IlIrhu~nihRl~)~:;!It'~ m d~~ "J1w,mbati!!J'f1 'q:if lh~ '~'.lil~C,

~ 6;nO'LI!!.:hard !If.lcU5ll. in\'Cll'Iibr.;:, bUI, Ui.~IlII!lI!i' 1.lo'el,..,rO:n'T!i. ~i!l~~ i~ it O;:llfl~'1,jI!!!.;dI ~~/ i~lf, ·nn.ll.lu~(j~'me~JtiO(!lJ ~i'5-'nn, ChiipUl:rr :!i. IIJi~ dlm'd hM ttiloR'~ jj!)~ o",'I,)'~ but i~ lloltllC'di QliIlll :()'In:!':m Ilifn.-o sb',\1E!J UI llfuJlJW plfimC':;mel iO\'CCrI.cd :f'iJo.lI1'm.

~j ']ii:liid. ~f:ml 'w.::I:!l iJl'l'i:f'OtU~tt:.",:1 ~ A~~n f.o.ftl;! in ".f'1y ,St-...m\um ,o/}'llmiH{ Jlllli!f<, Hbl4, 111:"flE :!iWt:I!.iit, m~~~ ni:1~~ ;!l!~~ m imrJ"'ii'!Jj d;!~ lI(;'jNLli'II:~!:d br l:Jyphen~ ,.lillloni) br.u:kf.!l ( [, C.'lIrI.!:lr nrn.Ke~, done ~ 1I!11(){MClll:d, piu:h ~!I1:tl!:l"I'iLb 51!:parnJdl It.y ~ln'\hJ:"!R~ ~;I<!H ,;oilll,U~1I Il:hc !JIO!G~~~,

Co 'If ght "la'.c r!a

example, t'l!l S.;notte chord ~,!!OuM demand t,"I'le[lty~i,ght numbers to t~lIy the 'lwen,ty-c-dgLM tnjal ~!1tel" .... ds}, The' eollection of inlIeT,!,.ds !I1epJ1csentts the nm.nbe'F ,of semitenes bt't~v.een all pai~or notes i[! a cheed, 1I\ritlh the :rnmmben <.!lImn,ged on k"llie!;'!; (he ul>per le¥el speciJie8 ~;he ]rl.tt:'!:ll'315 between eaeh adjaeemnote, di:le nextlewe] tlhe intervals Il:u::twee!l 'el''Cryr two l10tes, the next level d:~ei,l,lI~en'Jbbet\\'!'eel,l e'l,i\ery three i10tes fmd so forth, Toge'tl},er, the Dum bersi ndicate the tOl<i:~ ~:n u~'w.lil, OO'I],lweml ofa ,[;ho~-d..for example, the e'mtry fot 5· ~~ote dlOlJid nQ. G. 2~2e2"2/~1~/8" ShOMGS that it CO[lll'l]I1S, 'our lnstances ora maj,o:r second (111bel,ecl with "'2~)', three instances of a fl1:l:jor third fla~1eled \,vith'"4")" 'lJ.'1'Oil'lil" stances of·j), U~jto~H~ (]~bded\'vi!~h "6~), and a slugle ~nst;;JjJl(lC" of~. Hli~lor s;i:)(dl! (la.heLC!rlI wi th ~B"}"Wjli]ir~vcrt:ib~lc eberds, the Stl!Cot"M~ve wntcr'!<'lt'i are ili~e same for 'both the plfhnc iHld i.!;(V(;.ll;.cd fOf!l;~', !);lnc(: a ,c.h:ow-d and its i!:liive',r.5~o:n are identicalin terms of ~nt:ern]jl conterH.; thus, only one sei!: of lDten;;ds is given. Thisis somew.hat di:IJ:e'ren.lt \'.\Iith 6 .. not.e dll{!il.-d~ nos. 2 W-51ij', Asuoted above, ,ead) comp[e:mentary pair ]s identical ~:n terms of tnta] iru'c~"v.al, centem, yet the disuibutio[1l ofthese ~nternds differs. Fbr this 1,"e'<lson, rbe lruerealsaee pmvlded for each ,clruol'dL

The marmscrlpt pages of l111sch::1lipterCOI1lI.;!i,ml d~itailedlh'r~,u,elllconunen rarles ~n the mll.i:-gi,i,1IS ·Df the music. Mllrgi.I~::i(~ouiings ~Jf U~.~s. l1ii!i~ur,~ ~~l!~y he found h~ nUH1IY :in~'Swn~.s th~ougholl!nthe nl;(1lll~lS!(;iI"ipit of ~hc H(U1JU):j~:)' J1.ook.. ~ctin,g: a; .. supplements (0 .or dabor~u;fuml$ on the music. II Caner"s margrun;;d eosnrnents in th:is, chapter oO[lsist of cal(:uli'ln.ions of the tetal number o!f ~nOOM~s and chords in tJw chrom:a:tk scale, indiC@:tiQ:!'l~ .of the nnmber of [lon~ir~'It~JUb1e (&JI[1L~etfh::~)a1'l!di:nvcruMe chords, and iadkes, iri which chords aresorted '!l:(:cordi~~g to prime foon. Q.r~eli' ~jno~t likely made these €!uJ''U!e!!, :af~e.ii h~t\~ng worked out the ,(;oru.e(~~ of thec<!I:1ilI.oglUe, and motl:n:rw,ere suooequentl}' ililcOlrp0ll<lled i:11 the dtle page of the H~Jwwt~}" llMiit, ·''1':Ota.1 Nu n:~,ber of Gholi1ds COl:nlli.ned.\\~lth~m r~JC;h Tot2iJ] Ab'gI."egOlte"., r\ep;~O(IDu.ced run Appernclix 3 of till If.! edl don [p, 363).

TIl<!:: m~[I:l1I.I1()~.eson the tCJItil~ IlUI,1f:I1:J,e-,"()iI'inilel~Samd chords" and the I1Ui~fil:lbef'OIfnon~ hlJ,\we:rnblc and ~1n\"Cl1:iIi:l~:e eberds.are Ifom:ltdal.od in reference to, CO[lilp~:~IU.e:n[[ti1~lla'iil'ii~]g:>, rui;

2:",,10:

'(1):.1;6 [g~l\:. lu~.imnes]1

12xU., i2.i3,. il4., ts [twel\l\e forms ofiJ, i.2" ts, i4 and is]

TOI:a~. chromaele: 12l<!5""i](]I, ull:m""fpill') [Si,X.'l}""S:ix total .. i.l.lI~el:'1lill~ s in the chmlIHldc slEOlI.le, and, by ,coml)~emel]J~,'.r ;a.'I'.5odOllt.ion, sixt}"'six l~il!lci[e ehords]

3,-9;

S)'m1m.ettica~: .5

i uvertible: 7'-12+ 7"",19 [Nos. 1-5 ~fien:otl"i,i1Ive'l1:ibl,e,. ,'I!ldlIllQ~" 6-.1.2 ,l.J'C' ~w'i¥ert·" Ibl,e" p:~odludng n,,~e i:ornts of the former and f[mr~ee'n. fnrms ofni:.'Ie' ~.al'~er"]

U Nmn<l' off' 'ih~e 1IIiI"''lIi~:'I1 c;omlllcntll :n:n, 'Men 're',I?rni:Ullccd i IJIj tine l'1.m~ic oil' il1,ii cditif:m. i IJIj i[oIl5ifJL~mij:rm of '~pru:\I!! .. !"i!i'l'l>'~\~ ... i.i fl~"'; ffiilJ!y ~,f 1!1~ ';;Iu.h;~ ¢i ,,,mi.! !ii'i!lifii~l'il;ili,-," !'I"I~F.;j]j'1: 11-, .11.;; 'f:'<.~I;;-i'iiL~ <.r .he H-,,~",k. dl;ry \'!,~11 II~ ~il!fUF ,i!i'el!l iin I:iu~ '~ni:rodIJ!fiD"" ~.}'!L

Co yr ght. '11, ria

,4;;;1=4 [four [~,~ms. ~~r no. 1]

12x2, 3,. 4, S",4:3[t'we.I.l!iie form:!! oflnm. 2~~1

2;h6-12.~Hi~2210 wltliilli forms of s,.....g [~w~nt1'rOur fi~nTI~ Gil ".os:. ~12'. 1H8+~rn. 68",,2~O~.llI01jC c:hord5i <J.nd :22\0 9,uQtechol:ds~

~;

S}\,[Dil!~1ni.e~riGtl: 15

inve'liihle: 14,-29d4_':13,~:N,oiS. 1-8 and B-W6, ~]te nOITIli·il)\'embJe, and nes, 7;, 17- 29allit wn.¥~I:1~bme. rrud.u!t'ing :fln:ee~ forl:t:ls ohbe fo~mlerilillid t.\~e~':lly..e.ight fOtillS, of[ihe lat!liern:,,]

3K5",,5 [th ree f~J,I'1ImI:!i ~~f :110.,51

w..,"'} .~ u_o -[.,,~ ,;".' c '. c Co" , ~~'", d' .]' {Q.-] 0,;>;'1";_ ,~",,-.~ ::'S~x: ~OnrlS Ulnos .. '" an .. ,4,

1- t1I<-~I, q, ~, ,~ '" .~ 'I, ~, Q '~I'C:_'·~'II,,,.[·,,~- ~';' - Cc"'_'" -,f'"",,", '1- 9, ,I 6,' 'D .1 \t 1'<.1' 'lie] '&l!L~,~, .JI1l' '''i~,p. lI!J~1 O-L~",!! ~..:J~.w ty~ '~J ]";i[ . _11I.~"'C~1Ife ;~,Oll uLIr.l! OJlJ IltlilU\i:i!,.,,~ ~)I -'I", ~ Q-'-' ,lJJ. tI' L l~JLIJ~,.

24K7, ru j:":29=:336",~95'lOta]io.nw!! of 4-8 [lli\"e'n~'f'fi}U!1f torms Ohll@!!l. 7! 1 '-2'""". a~·12+I·l*3S:5:::::q9!i "1,:.:.I1lote cboJds and 4'95 &mne ,Cin,Ofds]

~"1:

~meu;cal: 10

~rn~veI:iDbl~: '2~3S+2B.,6fi, I[Nol!l. l~l Dare .mon·5Im~I.'llib~'e. andnos, ·~.l ... 38ilJlre ~~!J.vertiib~.t" prodllChlg ten fOI"lM o.f trnl}~ ~ornH::r and. r.nrsffix .l~bnn:s, oftbc ~3iue'f.'.]

l~J-l(j;..l:2[J' [t:\l>'e~:\1etfonns OfIf:105" 1~~'O'~

24x.n-$!,8~6j2;..'79.2 i~ot"lll~ fOIf'iIDS of.~''7 [m!em:~Eum' for.m:!i Ofn05., ll .. !2S. 12~l+!B7:2!"''i92!}.!.note chord!sand 792 7".no~ d~Ci!rw.]

6-06:.

[no ca.'I'i::IIill<ui9IlS 31''e gi\ien for' non"il]'!l'eTtibl:e/~nveI:'Mhle chm:'cls] 2xl",!l[n'l'l;.'! fo~~msofno,. m']

4!X2~'I.I[fo~u·:f'b!rms 0[1]1). 2:~,

6x7' .. (j· I[sixf;o~ms or !lO .. 7J

12);4, 5, 6.,~.!),. 2:1 .... 34~:2I6 [n"l'eillve fom)ls olnDs. 4i~ 5,. ,6, IDo. 2'1~S4]

2'4~3! g...,14, ] &"-20,. 3~50='IU!6, [t\!,~~[lJt}~~oLWr fOilrrmlli!i of'3, ~14"m ,&-2)0, .35.-50'. 2'~"".I+l'»"216+f:l9~&24 ().,I!:Ji(]'le dmrds]

Ca~C1liatcd f[\Oll1! these (i~lresj the tot3ii, nilll]:arnlbef',onm:.tenml~ and, d:1Cl'ds f~">Oj.ll1:tt\'\o loren .I[],ates, in, the i~Qta~ c.nrornwmi~ic ]S '1,.070.

Thre~ ~tI::Ld~d}{~m<li[ :'i!f!t'l, (}f mar&l'iTl,al enrries m~J;y be foumd at, dll:eoottOmn of :pp. :2~ 3. ~nd! ,4 of 'l!i1:e H]'anns:e:lip'l:" :repire:'le.ruin.~ wnd~Cie:~ of rhe 5"\I!iIOle. &no!lJe a.ndl 7~[l~·t,ed1ol!'dJs., Mrn ea.d:l lI]1d.,e.x, lfihe eherdsase sorted ~u prime fo!l:'mi on the basls or in'lje~"V;lll \widdTl!l bt:tw,f~lern the i:nidai! ~:Jiotit';!lO[' beh,;,e,clIl the O,1[IIC9! JI.OIC:s (fPl!)i[lJl SJ:rlilU to lil:rge). {;c!I11.pal<lble IfiU the' {D'oocring' in ,f,onc'!l, s,¥stem, As. a rle,!fH~~ lb~ .iI)t'dier .of the cbords i[l. ,e~h :~ndex di~17ets

dran -'".~]-!. €:': . ,,1-.", ,,1-."1"11• ·~D- :-·.,·n,d',! r •• '.,' "'-d~" ':'~ II -I·"":o"·.··~;;,'x" ,f'~,.

nUi:a,"~nc:~~, 1i' tr{}lll! hl!9i~, Ull me Ica~a~!t),gt~It:" l!;·ire~~;m.~III!!J~,y" 'Ulln~r [~~U UC,~~.~ t tese IIU,tdt:Mi ,~.,t'~

] ., '. '.' .£' . . ,.. . . JI. .n,···. .~, • '., • '1 "" ·n,·· . ~I""".. t~ '-1

],~o1l-m re~eI\Cil]ICiC., pcr~rua,psll!e,am!lIJ],g: il~M! pmotl:ca , ne.cess.U,y O~, i~iJI;!;l1l]jg i't, ~rost~n,g (.l:~~ I iese

cbo:oos :s.orte{i, both! ~ prin:H.~rD:IfJ]], and by' !ca!t:.'llcgue :!]:umbe.,·,!~1

- = .""_

1~:r1I.if::F~semb~ledt!.-'!,!\l); seiparn1e Ulli.1iees [-roil' the' (il1:kty.-e:lgiht5-mo!1ie d:u)rds. eilc!Il. of

~!i'.hkh r.ep]1eSellt5 ~!~e' !dmrcls I:rnl::e'cms Oir lnteg~f:!l", '}"11e'li.ll':S'i! ~jndeli!: (the ilJOIP 'G'f p, t~9!) d:iifF lrilDil:ltes dle !ChOims lntlQ three (lOIU:MI1Si, mn \!I'hid'ru ~h.ei,l!1Itege:rn: lndleare the nl~l[Ilber ·of 5elm~iILmllei5 b~t'Ii.vee;n t[':ie ooj~ae]]t pit.cilt:S of eac::1l! t).,nott: d\i,om f"O"'!w.iHg Ihe~iiH!t mote ()!j' the chom) r(d~o'l',~~dby iI11!~ ~ooJI!I)gu~ :n.JJ!~lib~j'l\!. The fi~t 1!:.Q~:iI]mn (J()!ft~pm~, dl~ ten nO~ll~ it\~'Cdibl,c ,!M!~Q'~,~ (;m),Q~'ds., ![)itd~~~d :rro:u~ ,'l:~I!;Un l~) ~~I~~ ~iti. t~nI!{~ of semuones b~'U'f~e'n 'illC i:D!~lilil1 nom;f;. cl'l!~' ~C:{Im.d :<lnd U:li:m ~Qb~m:t:I:s,~iB~: d~H;'; 'twen~~g'lu, ~n~eFHbL' 5'J!o'~ie !(hOOO1dis': tillie'&: t1~o'Ci~.I:Yigns read,M, as\il:llG;]e l~mj~. li:kc~~i!iic !iip"'iI1iI1lim~ :[romsmoH mltllrg:c' 1.1111 :re~:ereIJCie oo!~:l!iJe' .WDii:tiarn. DO'les.

Th .. , ...... "',Tjlld· :"",,1 ,1=.... It·I.· .. ,i4..,.~~""'''If' ,n'" 'n <:!I!E1iI~, '-1 i!l~'~ .('-, .... , !I).,n (--.~ ... · .. ·t,. . .-.'~·d·" in ~"~r'<jom.'" {:)ii~ , "',.

,I!"" ~-~"_'V.\IJ~'_'_ " •. ~U~AJ '\ _11""" l!UIVII,I,~~.J~~ y.lIl. Lr'" =~~ l\.,.:_I~ -.~!IW ,,,,-_-' JjL.I._:iI!~i"'_" , ..... LI.~J~.!!L~·.-=~ L.~~ ilJJ",",,_~.~~~~ ._jJ_j '!io-.!I~

dMSdj 3Ccoo.mpfl;1lilecl hy~he' <Ci!I:,rnJ.ogue tlluJDh~rs:. T.I.lIel:il~l:tmbf:r of emni.~inIJbi;§.~lmi:f!:;;. is fbrtr'SD;" ~lt:'l:asl11iuch <l'l.c~ghc (Dif th.ei;Ii1'.~re:'.!tiblle ~.nClte cb~.r-rllii fIiilOS,;. 14" ru 8:;22', 2$, 2:7.31, 3[j and !1)! are gruvell rnm pr.l:fliJle t1,nd ~n'!l'~f~~dfhtll~s", Th~$ W"~ t':mde:n~l;' dem~r"~l.e, be(:a~:.~e (laneiii' pttli~crl.tih'e dupll(aJ~e e.mll~]~h;;'S. hll. blf'd!c:t-el'> i:n tbenDaliltl~"('J:'!iP't., .;\d.(Utlo!ll~lmly •. Cartel".';! pdm.eform iiQF !tWO' !of IrQ, - oebQrd$ diJicf$ from t~~at 'Of Fbne .~; (Artl:lI' :s.I:'le:ciJ;:i~s w,'J!.3 ~t!. ij!~2!5.9 (dU!~ FQroo form bdu;gO,~H58,) .~a!~d ~:Qi,a8 ,!\ill 'O~479 (~h~ Fo!!'oofQml! b~i!f!~J (U46H)., Again. iIll(!l !orn(l~' of me ChOOO1& hll ith]si'fJJd~),1 is b~Gdo!m!i.t1!'te!i'1.r.lI si~() b!ll'l1i~filn th~ ~nil~~j AO'~~ I(rro~ smd[ ~\!} ~a~r;e)~ mill~o~gh~o- di~Iiif.!:('liof:!iiS ~~~d.e b~tt,;,;--.ee!!Jj nO~l·~n~filib~e' iiJlJnd i:l:l!renibl.,e ~b~Fd)s. ~NeEm'~i!let ,~' ~her;i(! .$'OI:n1'S ori:n~je:ge:r .l1ilol:adon. is ~j~!dI ax :any ether poi.[n in

, ". (t- b:O" .D _:'lii1.e m;aliilttJs(;.fip[ o:{ b;le'uaflJll~'j~@n.~

!f~[IDlite:l)Selr. the il:lidi.ces f!)F ~~1Je f:M1~Ht:Oliin:lidi 'i"!,no~e' cbon::l!; ~i:B'C r;C'I,[l\r~~entcd in ~~u~k mo ~~tL1i()n. n~,~irnd~:>:: fair, l!lli~6rt~ !6-,',1I0~~ ch{i(I'(b;; (p.SiS) ol'gauizes, the d:1,ords:inK~' d~lJ1ee g~n!.!lp~. Inthe i~i!!~group.the~iPpe~"iii~!)JIm" ~]i'S[~:!I:l.S ti li:me' p;lIge"l~lIe'!u~yQ~~be~e !chords~ !JiQU'u.ed:hl! pirlrn!lie' fQ!I']]J~i. are ru::~Ii1II~d.ln !l!!;:wlll;so.fhll!I:C~'Wl] width be;~l'l\j~ell ~he' onte'.!:' notes, fram ~l5! t ... QI. '1) 00, no (no, m) .. On tbef~nmvill,g n\~o ~;£ren]iS. CtIm:r hewnsil ~@COIl:d! ,g!FO:np ef tle'll! chO[1@1!l Sllmr!ln:rufl~~' oKlJered by!;l!lii~efV:!ll 'lMidlth"bnt :Il!o't3il:ied,~n ~nV~[ilJ@d!:Fo:nn .. Tllill€!: fln<lJ~ IliOUir :!l¥5tems ~r: tlilts i:nd.ex: return. h.ll! pril1l!etlom1l U!OIia!t:I,orn and. 'lrm~g:e iIJ]J(!relt1lain~mg t\~t::n!ty !chortdls tin 1~~fniliS .(!I:f :5p~IC~fi.(;i:t~i~ieli"ic-al pi!!Utlrn$, t)l!litHn~db~1 bni'!d~!i;1t; jl!b{)'",~ t]lJ~ ('~~Qln:i1&. l'ffi}.e ~ndex r~')!r th~ thi~ [l!Ii'"'

_ ""." .r.

~~glu 1~l!':!(H!e d1l!o!!:',ii)s, (~'h 50) j!j: (;iom~H".i~:i.:d ~lOi.;~i(d~ng t'Y' .~. :iiim~~ard~~ig~~, 'WiUt tht: eJi:(~p~;io" Ut~U

pri~~~eu_nd ilru ... en~[~ fon!O~ :a_l1gi'i,!\e~ {-Or ~b{; tw~~~~r-~:igrn~~, invcnlbJe ·(;hon~s (~pfimwdb" dQuedb~]~~"~.:I,

~ ICi11n~.r ~m\e:I' dIM: I~~~ ~rnlllOt1~; ff~i[ ~mllr.' .MIO~~ :'Iltd 'i!''fIllOU'!' ~ihi;orn~ '." ;Ift\lf~' m'ld~ri ifIlIlL'teh :li<Ii!1::~, '!iieli1l~'lil1 l 'WiL'liij:~r1i'~illlill: iifI1IJ lC;mU:;I:$~!j, l:urOl'th!!~fF.l1 1'~mnpl!:~I: ~!!ijUO:jJI.· !([.,C'II~,r to !lito: ,edil'v~r).

m~' ~

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2.3.:2 :M.l .... , .s

5.:) 6~6 z-s

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01331,· ® 01'''1,1:1 '" ® 02~12· @ O~:;!~'~· @ 023'3J;A @ (1MB· @ 03!2:2:~ ,. €.I Q4n4~ @

101111.2· @ 011113· @' {)~H4· @ ij'1121· ® on21· @ ~,n23· @ ~"in."4· @ ml3.~· @ IDl112·, ® '@'113l" ® '~n14~ ,. ® ~];1:l2· @ 'Oi~2:U - €I el~n.2· @ {)~223J·, ® '®'123U" ® '~H2'32· ®

'tn:Bl,· ® ,eU411. ® '®"];31,2 • @it (mH· '@ ,at 3,2:2 - '® '~nnl, ® 'Oi21U· ® ,Q21Z2· @

,ei21.:B· ® '011],2 - '@ ,e:211l- '®

(112'3,11· (DOLB5· ® 01,:2'3'6,· @ (!l2~,7- @ Ol2,t5· @ ~12"'!5· @ (11241',· ® (I~2.:4S,- @ 0121119,· ® 01256, @ (llls-r,· @ a12S:B~ ® Ul2S9, ill !Cll,2~7A ® 012ll,8i~ @

lti'134,:)· ® ~iBtM,· @ OlMi'· ® '~iB4B - @ 'Oit15~,- \11 on 3$7 ' ® O'U;SS· @ '0'1367- ® Oo'~ ,~H)8· ®

0136'9'· ® ,0'r378 - ,® 0:1'1$6· @ 01-13,7, ® ~)l146"· ® '~'146B -@ O']o:ls,e;.®

'~:n478· ® ~n!!'l$l.® '®i23.4,fi, - @ '@i2.M,}'· '® O:21S7" '@ 0',2 3S$, '(i) ,O!H57· '® ,e,HL'li!!:.@j

'0145,7 "® '024,:5-8.@) ,"'-2467 - ,® 0:2"14li8-G OC246~ ,0 0'1478.@) 0!2479.(J)

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54

Chapter 2'

C.ATA:L'OG U E II~

,AlLbl Nl'IE.RVA,L TWE,LVlE."IN OlE, C HO'IRDS (SYM M ETIR.I CAlk. 'I NVER:TED I P'A,IRAILI!. Ell I NVIERTIED,)

The [_]'J!~U:5ccipt pages of Ch~p!tet 2areooQ;ated '(Jill! fUiilf ~edb"eN~ze :s,hce~ of musk paper~tilillm.befed -1-"7. l'h~ch~IPDieW:~ like the p!fe!;'liQ~,is a caU!irnQgu:e: thatp'~!I!:rntli a,~tema!tic ~I:l"ang:err,tent ,of chloJ.ldis ~hatare ::nn~ct~red .fi,ll:m, eO:lich. ,of lillie VI!lieb,e p:i:tdr:les of tbe cbromatic scale ~[Jd e~u:h of the de:!lte'IID iunon:IDt!:red. prum:ch ~mJlervills. £V'om mino:rsecol!d d!:FOlilgb :rmruae· jor SJel!lelll[h. Ca:r1!ell' aOIi1il]p!ilecilbe USit of SJr_m,et:ri,mJ.;i,I!lI~:ril!edchor-dsi,n 1979" d:u.ri:n:g the c,o~~it~on Qr Nfgt.& r'ilin~fes. TIle H~t ~~f paroiUcJ:.:iuvcn:edl chords wes ,(,o:mpiill!edali: SOMe ililt~e bel~ween U180a~d Ula5~ 1i!,lhen this type of chcrd oc~aMe!pmMlru.'~r!ti!n hl.'l ,{;omposiiIWOAS. Dnri ng ~~~:i~ tir~U!', he o.a:ddcd bOU1, types ij](f IChor-ds 't(l ~iIl,e ll(J!rJNJf1'u;t lJ'oQ~ logiea:l~y pl:acrnng them ~ml!1)ed!~~~lr ~le:r the o~talliJ~'\~eof (jj..~oiie chords due to weir stmdl!!f1e i:W hexachotdal pah"S. I

Carter oFganized the .. U.int.e'I"I131 E 2~moie !Cholrdis.illllbo mo gnJlI1'IJM>; ~l'mmetncil~nved.'ed, iin w.l1IIruch:illiveirsimil<lirumy relaeed intervals <!Ire disiIllibllll!:f::,mi:n oppoS_~[Ig direcrnc:ns ~mund! ;;t il:d'l.U[!IJ~ (pp .. 5~a), ;lind; :pan'l]~(Jl ~i~lw,!:rted. i~ whk:l.li.l:1I!ve:r'S110uaUY :re'1il1Jtedi~te:I'\'al~'!ho]d pal'3~~e1. :~ili(lifl:ll in c~<:1h [lZlln l!I)f the dm1rd. again around. a ,c~n.t~]kiton,e I~pp!, ~ 7'6).:li There ~:f\e' a i~otaill {l!f ,eig'h~~ghMlsyn)m~[ncal-~ro'!l!il;ll"ed (hords. ~l1d si:I(Jty p;;l!rn.nel:"~l1'\1i~i!"wd.chQrds. 3i 1ft OOil:Jl b'ij~l"i,~5, the: h1!~r:rY<:l'h:> th:at ,~(i!l!i)tib1(!l\e l~l~Se, cheH'd~ are uaerdered pioch iii;1H!.erva15.rn.'Ih~'r It_hiiln the in~'f'\~~ classes WOlJJ!: :1Ippe~r in m(1SI: of the other ch~p:I:e~ ofl:b~book. The f~nd~" mem~] diffe:re,noe bet\!,'ee~ the ~wo grou:p~, iii! d~e~~"'lY ]n.wbic.h ·the~ :i:r~te~)5 ~.repciSi .. I~i;on(;d around drue d:ruord'.slm]dpoi,m1t

[~ch of'lll1!e al.l~llinte:f"!.~!1 '~2:.~otie ~hor(bis Formoo byol).mltl~IDiHlg:~ Iij..:norre: d~o:rtl~~d a '~!i":~f!;..'irnlo~,e.d oomp;I~'m.ef! ~r)' form of '~~le $lU~le ,(hQrd. Thrn d~f[ei!"tent 6-nore ,ctl!o:rm, aee used: nos, 3,~ 4,5 and {I i,H,!!f!C lheooi:sf~J!r tbe ~metrical·m¥enl;;;cl ~rn:Ul(r.d'Si" andno~. 4,.5. 6, 8~ l~., 13, [8,. 191 O1I!nd 20 n:ro m~ b~ru!l.tf(l!r tt~e p~~:nlh~~l..]nJl\mr'ted dl0rds. The Qrd!~r lrne~d1!or lbe t'1ii'Q groups ~s, d,efi!lCd by the OOl!t:tr~~beri~g .of the '6-~Ob! ~hoJ1d!~ rro~p!'IDo:s. 3, tJhrougb 16 in (he fmt group and froi!ll!]!O~. 4 througJt 20 in the seeond, C4l!fl~.f sU!~e~, thepi~:h:es,of each 6-iilOite chord [pdor '1(0 i'11l!j!;;:m~l!;ir~g inl;~e ~2-:nf)te (~rrrt!ttiJoros, The6~!l:l:u,ch 8t~ilie:ment ~n the dmp~eris 6- !blQted'i!!Ol~ ~o.!'I~

I

!I. 50>;;: ·',['!!iu~t c..1lfI!C.r '])!i[~ ,::lJ)O~~ H~ l!":i;a'l'lmJcPiJl' ~ ~ ~p. ~~] «If tbi~ !:ldili.!JI:ITI,.

~ A lhiiu:e: gC1;l1:~ CihmJ.i!l~<::n .... 1 :12,mtl!;:;'l.'JL~n1$;, ih~ ·~Ill".·,,~!~q!1'b,.'~~ n~i !!ld~ ~j11 ~~C! "Jlgi'_Q:liI !I_]~l~r!pl'nfih .. ,H!'l~'~ H(""~lll;r •. ~hC)' .af~' .jj~CU!l.~da.litl! mi3llitld in Appe_mla 2uf dli!: ,~jIiOftl.> PiJ? :!l~S4I.

~ Su~p. 14-1~ ~'<ll:r·Th~ i(".®mlfl_~tmi .. l.,;\_1i of':l'iI:m1JU Q.l~"r''''' .fl~fl1.lJoo!!" f@ra_O! .~~nt oftlt~ hl!liflrtea.'ll jj~elo.~~ll .. ngJ.~· of~~'" ,r't..fi~!~ CiIi1!Er.. i!:lJ~!ii!':, C:i:!l~r' !mu~, I!!~"'t· ... !Jl'ilIl;]~U!\e'~i!!~.'!:';~~-d, ·h@~~ Wl:.Fe d~"i:I@i=oed~~rI Wfl)tc N'~ M!l~ :1 !ilI nk !: ~. j\j,q ~.~;i;[Q.'i_ij~, jl'ffiij'l ~.t !h'l:'.m. n~~ ~.jrnl. ~ ·iP~~r~,." {L!:u:C-i" k! ItJi~ ~llllI!"),,, NQJ'ICdiie;1~ ,c.m'ei!"dhl ~'IIt lhC'1lUll ~.lJllJlle' in Jii'orlr1il:tid!!'ai'imiEl ",ll1;liiocnmnTI, wm-ls lIa,::«..,MrtciITi

&note chord :n.o. 3 :i5 aa investible chc,rd, rot which reasoni l is notated on t\¥o s;titl','eS,ts two sets of 12-'II.ote aggregate;s. Ti!:N:: <lggrega,lJe on the lower staff is composed of two prinse forms of no.3!. separared bya b~lI" ~~ine; that 0111 the upper staff ~eat!ures. two II::JIYel'1l.ed forms of no, 3. Each &a:lIC'le ehord In the ,Ollggregate Is ,<1 telrone ~oruspQ,.si'tiQn of the other; 1lI]Jf: onlytrauspcsloon of thls >chQrd trnla:t can produce-a complementary fonn, since tal is is ~1!e only htte:w<lJru <;];m. abseat fmm it. The two :ii:gg:teg:iltes~!!'i:~lbe used <lccQrning to U,i1e:i:r ,6- note grOllP~]]gs ~ntllJe rO]kl\~n\g twenty·:foill:r :SeIlS o:f 12~iOte, clliJorns, i,IDdi:C"~'lied lItry the ~lOt.:l;· hOD "24;.;: IGr. The p~~[hes of'the gmupings, reWD<'I]n censtant ~n thesesets, but, the order of dle pitcbes and, tbm. dle distribution. of the eleven h1iten'<lls "<tryw.itlll. each,

0I11rt'C~r.3ilkes 1\\"0 add~~!Orru<lrn sUi~::u:lh.,.s~on!l for each o.:note chord In each of the o.vo' groups., one d~'fiil1,~d byi:l1iil:erv.t] '~riJclm ~n s,em!i.t.ones .of e:lich {;.,ilr1b01Iechor.di m the a:ggi-egou.e {lab~l~dI ~n bo~d lyp~) •. the (!!i~~H~1i' by UU~ cat:ll!ruoglJll) number of ilh~ 12·nol~ chord. For ex:~ ample, W'itWl 6--:nQ~ cho:rd 3.lb~ :fiirntc~U'l,;gofy 1:X:g!:r!~" \v:itJ'!i2:9-31. j,md mo~~.$ p:j"og!'c~i"t;ly d'lro!ilgh w2j-33,. ~2:Eh.'\S,. i23-37.i·21-3'9'.i ·~.9--41.i .~. ':-43, ,m:ndlJ!ldi l:Dig ;rut i'~ 5-t~5. Tlrnu'. dle~\1d~h oft:h,(: ~ni.haru fi..llilcte d,IiOl1dl ~educesli~m i29 ,(G~4~H, 2 octaves and a fb'ul."lh) to ~ll5 (j\!~;~t6,. <11. mleer tenth) .,wnrule tbe '\,\,dd'l o.f the seeond &note ehord expands from i.31 (CtJ.",C6,. tl/.OO O(::~.!Cs and ar.£fu), to 14:5 (G~.E.7, itI.u·ec: ~t1'~'S <Ind. a .sb.::(11)." The secoad catcgory..~~'.hi(his used only [or the e.rug;hl~bCig'ttt:s}~metri.ca]"inverted dlords, is due: ~aHll~ogu.a,e rDJlLumoor of rue .~.2~ now chord from Ca!1'ter!"'s ~rus·~.\!IhLdl 'isreiPof'Od~ced on p, 57, s l'he' numbe!'$i!) this ,c;;)Jlt!:gor},are ordered flf,[)r~~ low to high 'wth~f! c.fldl di,!i~iGr~ ,of ~[!ten7d ~~idUl..

<lI_ntc!l'''S. fOO~etib()d of nou'lting' 1[i'D:!: 124lo~ (ho~~ ill the 1IDI:~t (ian ~~"'( hi;; (;'1{phffii I]t;d by cX~Jrrop~~. llH! f]w::;:t ~m~lpruereprOOutes the ~n,t: se~ ofS}"lm1:'II~'ui)GiI·:in'l'Cn!!d, cho!l:lls '~)!II p.flS~'

[129 311] 8 7' 7' ·8"
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r.: ... Th.e m.rumbe.rs i29~S~. indi,C3te~he ~nt.eI,!al width ~n semlrones Cif each of tJlJe&no~e chords o,n the upper andlower !ijf!.:av.es. As noeed pre!"~01lJsl}l. the p'iu:heiil .o1:]! the upper st~ff area U-rilO'lt,; ngg,reg'd:W' OI]I!l1pfi~d of l1!.';f()oompb;];'Dler~~;ary i.IfI"'e!1Jed form.!i< of 6-iDltHeclw:rd l'UiO. 3 .• O([~!I;' :a ,m.to!1;e ttiu:1!:lipooicio(!l! of the other; On dl,e lower 5!taff.;~~e tWQ 'il:O:!T!I)~lemcnm!')I' !pdm,c fo~s.~ :shnHarly' 1[rn:fTh~po:i'ied a tritone, 'The dislrib1Luion ofil:illeml.isi.tI! each 6-;n.oW' chord ceeates a symmeuical-funvened iilrffing;ement. tbe iniliet",!!,.,d!l< 0[1 tbe t'Qp staff ,e:xte:l'u:a~lfIg UIP'"

• l1a(! ,,<idln @f MI t)1f!:l,me~fi"l)J!· ~I!(Q p!!r;;I!~cl>!I~ .. e1l'to;d dlooh ,,(1'<:0$ io :i!i!'!l~ {J +1h.::l .... '.!+5t 'l+81'~h· HhJ ] .rJ{l)_

• CaiJ:m~!' i1liPpa:rc:allili nC'l'l!:!' !;ll:Impltmi .nld. :II, :ti,n t!ll!' ~iu: pa:mi~cIi..;i:lw~ri. dmrd.i_ Sec [CK!IllIIIf.lll:. ne, S.

6 mil 'G:!ru:if~,miJJnllm;pt.illl :~2~nUll:'dll:lrru i1111!' ~nCl~1lCd l:iJl~lIrlly, 'L:!I, ~rrldl!;!' 1l1'li11,~>;I m~urt:':!l.o:iE'l.lIi~ ~mfllll:. The fb\!l~: ~,2·nti<l!l:' ~~ii~!l!Lli. '~h~ b~~~J ~t~!lrs~ I~A>erl~r.i,~d ijlll' !!pQ:jt:roph~, ~~f.!. io·{!i!lJj!lg)1~~'illthiil {I~igi'lW"'~!ul prWl1i!: ~(-n"'tii"ru ;cf.~tI~h c~ttl(rd '''''\;::r~' ~d![lWlI1:f 1J1e elJiWJ1!UD mr~pl!eil1i~'U Cine,rr'~ e'[llri~!>.

"'41,~~~, thofi~ on (he bQiUOUl. stlllf d01iil;n/\!!,c·an:llis, Eaell! &.~G'~ech(lrd is; ]~b~loo ~ [AJ:, [Dl~ U\:] er [B], where the <J!po!'lt!!(l!pllc (') ]d!~Uilif]c~ the iil1!vM!:nedii!!)l':il!ngemetThiL5~ The ,,~~tS in ,,,,·hjeh the 12·mJiU! d~o]ldl~<tllflero:m~ed<l.lfe deneted widl. dle~e!:iJ(r~cke~£d! letters, 'nl>e' fir:sl,:5ui[;b fOntUirliUOn comblnes [A]all'ld [B]a~ [,AD,]" in whkh fi.~'lmedll,ou,~tl [A] is :r.H)m'lit..~cli 'l,:enk,dly {Din the~m'!i'e_r' ~t<']~n:. and fi-n~]~e ,dmn.l [n]" the COI]JrufD,]e.m,l:::fI'l. ~]n, tb~ iUppe:r stare E,]cb nil illilC: d:m:~e :!!lJfuse",ique:n l filnrci!'li!> slmGu~r,ed from rMlt:iI!lf'n'l:. emu bi:n.alions of;ni,e (~lIllmecho.ro;,ll :Ill the heghllll.ng' rnc;ill->iurr~s.'Iru~c n'U~OOlrn)Crn 7 j8iM"'!:; d~eciil1:!lI.og~~e mmrhers of d~c 12":110((: ,d,lOrd'> f'ro,l,lTh i~r'~ list O.rn p, 57. W1iiU d.i~[ingili~hcs these :~u~~t ID.2"n.o~.c chords ~. the di':$,tribrlUjOTllof the iru;e:~~. iFur chord r~O" ,8~ i!:he iftl!.¢r¥ol!]~ ~ro'f.i~ bu~~o~ro i!.up are I, .3., HJ, '7.8. 6~ 41, 5.2.9', MId U; for cherd [I'l}, E', 'n:h~!!! ~m~e ]:~ltel:V.l!~$ailt,1:' !:"e'<l!d in reverse fr,(Jlirl lOp to bouem, IilflI. :i'tll instances, the inlt:w(lh <lir,~ synlmll]etrilr.OIIilll,rinVl:~~lI,:ed around ehe cc::n[f"i,d Il'fl.ton.e: e~chinl:en\ill ~,Il. du~ b@u:om ,c]if the c~ lord rnl'l.l,uirnorred by Ii til lu\'Cued f(lill'm 'l:1li the lOp.~·

111 e sernnd ,exl'llnpi!t: feEiture.!i the tlJir:lit set o1:'pal,-<1lID~e,,"i:l'lfl,~e!ited dlolrdi!> foom p. 69. struoturerl fnJm (\!It(]I, (;ompl!ementa;rr~C'I~m:!l nf f~m)i~,e chord no .. ,'1:

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The mo:wdof.lis :fu:nd:lu1l!u~n[.dru~t ~ he ~aUilil(~~ al [Jhm~ghc~lmlloS\u: lIumber:s Hire :n;o!l.:pmweled. One sigui£kallil: d~lnc:rence is: thal: f'."zu1er p~act~ ~he co:n11l;p]em~rn["1I:Y fOJms V!eruc<ll~]y> rni([lIe:r i[han 1,1o:ril!')Cint.'1.~,~y iL5.1iNl.th iIJ,lC syDl1lmetrilca~·]1],1I;'en;cd cbo]'dls.. ,M.G~h.cr difference is I!:hC~Y'~ill wh.ich the inlelil'.d.s. are' di:Stl'iblll®ed ~n tbe 12~lI'Iote c.homs.. In. the6t!i'~ .dlOrd." I[AU:]., lithe i:n.~elv,;qJ:!l, ~n

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sem~,,,'0nes ·~rom. _JGI :':OI:IDili '':0 .op are .1" I', "'", .~., .:.. IJI', u,' ,"",;:11, • :O:t[lu 1. ;, Wu,l.cn inealrl UlJ reve',rne' • .or

·chonl [A]t~]. 11uil:s.,each hlterva~ mn the ~n.ot.e eherd on the ~m'lter Sid ~s. matcbed .~. ~.~ .ilu'e:l'te.di formin.~he fHI01.e chord nn d1<t' iJi]ppe:r:s~: a ff.

C:;'u·.(':r pro\1d.ed, it ~nliliheil"~l!rlnargi.na~, cnmll~je.nrn:de'!i iu the[iIl::!M1U~clip![ pag'~$ of (his d~:apu:1" t~-~ ~!(p]~ldin th(!IIHale.up of t:hf':' ~n.inilJenfdl ]i 2':J]ore ,bOil,,,!]!>. At t111JiJ;: bottom ![Df lh.cll~t p.age ,(po -1), Carte]' mlotJt~iCd a vertical fQlm~.<lI[j(l!D of 12·no<tc !Ebo-rd -1:11.0:,. 7.; musttatling a ".sampl~ ptaccm.'CrH'(lJ[ caeh h:e~cI];ori)l; see #'] ~l~Qve"."Jl,.I;St ~oilie righ't'o:ftll]s;, Q1f1~e~ Jiscood tjl:!!epit(:b~.l of &note ,dloM. ne" 3,. which serv.lBd! asrhe basls Jer th.e8:r:st ~~?e'lTIiJilJ..;!Io.U:r sets. and on t:h~ fo.lkn'l'irng p::]ge, the pnehes of '&no(t': chords IJiUS. 4, 5 ~nd o. JUSi[. bek~\'!l' ~helllui(~r. :be o,hse.I:"I'ed '~rul~l[, "O!l~y 4he:l(;<l!l": blJlxlr; {i l:!Le)[~l]Hl["'J.ti'[!lg no <liugnu!f11edf1l'l) p roch:_.lce d~~s I.~ !l]faU~

~ ~II lh!t, .mIlllQi.~tnlpl. '(J'n'l1$liI<.ilttli I'bb.ieek~~ti liUI"U:;nlili~Cor' I:hu"cl='!il. dmrd (mi~~, :ht th~ rttltinn, Ithe1i~ II'lUl'Ilfuotrn iiJ!liJ1i'I:' !lOt h.~.,,!tl indlliCLt-d ~n Ih", IinI"L~k. ;l.IU<".", ~h£'y 'lmliily ~ h-:tllilllfl illl C.:.trl~'~ m'hile ~Jm:Joo:ll!Kcoo 6tru fl .. ,'i'7"

Co yYr ghl [TJ ri I

i[nenr~l, dlOirn,'" (In p, 6, the Qipening ofil!;he section de\{Q~ootQ dl,e rJ{ff'Ol!~ld"irweTi!i!~d ~;lu)wld.'!. C.;an!ef [~tu:ed 'H, ~heuJP' (If d~e' p~t,g'e lih<1l[ ~ht:, "upper h(!,Kacho:rd ~~, '~r~(;"ah]d wldll ~nV,to~·t~·d ~~U!.:·IYili]~ (i I~ ~m e d.t"8c:e!~dir~,g O,!'dl."f) '"" l~sil}l. on rnJL 7, C.1:OC'ter f!,nr.~t,~~ ~ th~ 1)~~.dH,"·$ flf t'l ~(!' 11 i'~u:, ,&mm: ,d'~(}lrchm.ed. r~)rr the [J"u71l1d.·~nvcru:d. dm.rds.

,A ll,~ I~ NT E RVA l

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