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FOR ESKIMO

. CANADA

DEPARTMENT OF MINES AND RESOURCES

THE .BOOK OF WISDOM

('\('\)?r'L~ b?LCL)

L\-Df\) l>br1L~

Translations by Samuel G. Ford Sketches by Betty Kosior

Issued by the

BUREAU OF NORTHWEST TERRITORIES AND YUKON AFFAIRS LANDS. PARKS AND FORESTS BRANCa

DEPAR'IMENT OF MThIES AND RESOURCES

OTTAWA - CANADA

1 9 4 7

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CHILDREN

~HE BOOK OF WISDOM

PART I. r>c-I

(Text supplied by the Department of National Health and Welfare)

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Where Siokness Comes How Sickness Spreads The Clean Camp

The Clean IglooClean Air

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18

Clean Water

Clean Pots and Dishes Clean Food

A Clean Body

Taking Care of' Sick People· Berore Baby Comes

Care of New Baby

Feeding a New-Baby

Crying in New Baby

Sick Baby

Care of' Sick Baby Lung Siokness

What To Do When Frozen

PART II

LJ II

(Text Prepared in Bureau of Northwest Territories and Yukon Affairs)

Fmnily Allowances Po-~c.<.) _j) c. ~ .J> c, b ~ b~ c. ~ 19
Care of Rifles JPI>I"\ bLrt'r<lc- 21
Care of Boats 1> r <l _:) bLrt'P<Jc- 22
Conservation of Game .)c:I~uc-r~ t>L~() AclLrr'-:>r 23
Planning for Periods
of Scaroity b.. cl L·~ ~ '> ,.., r ) A <r I\<.l.rn-=:>.l 27
To All Mothers With
Small Children <3CL...()._c:.-L-D rp..!. Q- f)~~) 28 1

INTRODUCTION

The first part of this book is about hmv to be healthy and happy.· 'When we have good food, warm clothes, good kind friends and no sicknes(J..wf). are happy.

'~en someone is sick.inthe family we cannot be happy. Everyone is sade lrwe learn: what causes sickness then we can try to stop siokP~ss In this book you will read a lot about what makes us sick, how the sd ckne s .spr-eads from., person to .per-scn and. from camp to camp , and how to stop this(

You will read about wh¥ babies have siokness and are not strong.

You will read about lung sickness and how to keep from it. All you read in this book is true.

The second part 'contains advice about how to' be prosperous, how the King 'ishelping Eskimo children, how to make your' rifles and boats 18: a long time. how to save the foodanime.ls froin becoming scarce, and how t, pl~n for t~es of scarcity.

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HJ.W:.THY <lo_b
HAPPY l>C\b
GIRL \~ ~ Jl.\<lr) e

58

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2

PART I

WHERE SICKNESS COMES FROM

Not long ago a lot of people got sick in the same camp. They all had the same sickness. They had lots of good food. They had a good camp. They were very happy before the sickness came. Then one young man got sick. EVeryone liked him and they were sorry. Everyone went to see the sick young man. In a few days a lot of the people were sick. All had

the same. sickness as the young man. It was not a happy camp now. They asked for the -governmenb Doctor to come and help them. Vihen the Doctor o. came he found a lot of very sick people. children. young men and women and old people. He did all he could to help. He kept the people that were not· sick away from the sick. He taught a few women who were not sick how to nurse the sick and not get the sickness themselves. 'No more people got the sickness. All the sickriess had come from the young man who first had it.

We know what the Doctor did to stop the sickness spreading •. Let us learn why he did this. Then we can all help to stop sickness from spreading.

3

HOW SICKNESS SPREADS

SickneBs that can be passed from one person to the other is

caused by very small germs~

All ger-ms are not the same c

They do not all make the same sickness •.

There is a different kind of germ for a different ai ckne s s e Germs are vory sma Ll., So small that we can only see them wi th

very strongglasseso

A lot of them together look like a small specko

They live best in e. warm, wet place ..

They like the dark~ dirty placeso

A few germs become a lot in a short timeG

They grow well in the mouth~ nose, and throat. They grow well in our bodies.

They like meat and fish.

They grow well on our dirty.bodies and on dirty clotheso

A clean body is a poor home for germs.

When we cough and sneeze the germs are in the little drops of

water we make.

In spit there are too many to think of.

They get in the air and on our hands and clotheso

You see how e~sy'it is to pass germs from one person to another.

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A SICK YOUNG MAN

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A HEALTHY YOUNG MAN ~~b <lJn ba-lP)

4

THE CLEAN CAMP

The waste from our bodies is full of germs that caUse sicknessQ The waste from the bodies of sick people will give others the same sickness. This waste must be put where people cannot get near it.

Dogs will carry the waste to people. Flies will carry the waste to people.

This is the way sickness is . spread so much. A clean camp is a safe camp.

When a new camp is ma de one person must be the camp boss.

His job is to see that all waste is put where dogs# flies~ and

children cannot get near it.

A good camp boss will stop a lot of siokness.

The spit from a sick person will spread siokness. No one must spit in the Igloo.

Always spit in a Can or' cup or rag and empty in a safe place or

burn it.

Boiling water will kill germs that caUse sickness. A good camp bos~witl help to stop sickness.

A dirty camp,will always have someone sick. Soon all are sick.

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5

THE C LEAJl IGLOO

Sickness and dirt are partners. The small germs that cnuse

sickness live and grow in warm, dirty~ dark places. These germs are too

small for us to see unless we have very special glasses. A few become

many very soon. They get on our hands and clotheSe They get on our foode

They get in the mouth and into our bodies~

Then we get sicko

Small children get very sick very quickly.

These germs are like poison.

The strong sunlight kills these germse

Fire kills them and boiling water kills themo

Soap .and water will kill them on the body and clothes.

These germs do not like clean people with clean bodies_ clean

clothes and clean igloos.

A person with these germs on the body or in the body will pass

them on to someone else.

Everything that comes out of the body of a sick person will

spread the germs.

Do not live all winter in the same_igloo_ but every so often build

a clean_ new onee

Every so often during the summer- move your tents to c Iean; new

sites.

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CLEAN NEW IGLOOS ~~ L~ ~._:)b\Lb

6

CLF..AN AIR

When we breathe vre take air into our bodies a.nd let it out again.

The more we work the more Vie want air.

If we cannot breathe we die for want of air.

The air we breathe out is bad air.

It is full of germs and po~son.

A sick person breathes out a lot of poison air.

In an Igloo with poison air all will get the same sickness.

New, fresh air from outside must be let in the Igloo. A little

air all the time.

Growing children need lots of good air.

If we keep fresh air in the Igloo it will help us keep well.

This is a.n easy way to keep well.

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OUT IN THE CLEAN AIR

7

CLEAN WATER

Germs that cause sickness can live in water.

How the water looks does not tell.

We cannot see the germs.

We can see dirt.

:

How water tastes does not tell.

We cannot taste germs.

Clean ice and snow is safe.

Big rivers and lakes are safe.

Small rivers and small ponds are not safe.

Boiled water is safe.

·Tea is safe.

Dogs carry germs to small lakes and small rivers.

Keep dogs and children away from summer water.

This is work for the camp boss.

All body waste must be kept away from sunnner water.

When not .sure boil all water.

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KEEP DOGS AWAY FROM DRINKING WATER

and fish.

8

CLEAN POTS Al'lD DISHES

Sickness is carried by the dishes we cook with and eat from$

Dirty dishes start sicknesse

All the family can get bad sickness from dirty dishes.

Dirty dishes make food a poison.

All dishes must be very cleane

Hot water and soap will keep dishes clean.

CLEAN FOOD

The things we eat must be kept clean.

Dirty meat will make us sick.

Meat that is not frozen will get bad and na ke us sick"

Fresh meat must be kept away from flieso

Flies carry germs that make us sick.

In warm days fresh food and cooked food must be well covered.

,

Every year people get sick and die from eating poison meat

It is very bad for small children.

Dogs carry germs that can make people sick.

Dogs must not get near our dishes and what· we will-eat.

We should always wash our hands before eating.

The waste matter from our bodies is full of germs.

If this is carried to our food or dishes by dogs, flies or dirty

hands. we will get sick.

.....

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)JQ._)r c+ P ~J(L_ _j)(L-D l\t>rL-1.

pr-.::> bo-L()_I <l~)'~ )(}r-'~rL(_ ~_O__J).

pr-.o 1\7Uc-c- I)Jt"'-:J >J(__:) a-r,,(f\cr---=>

~~~ llr,~r (}r~L~J(_

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prj <1O-P-D......:J er. bcrLcr>J.

CLEAN POTS AND PANS

t> d r>e. >J u -=> ~.-=:> L ~

9

A CLEAN BODY

Our skin is fUll of very small holes_too small to see without

special glasses~

We sweat- through these holeso

When we sweat we get rid of poisono

. .

Our skin breathes through the small holes.

When our skin is dirty the holes are full and the poison' cannot

get outo

Then we get sicke

Lice like dirty skine

Sores come on dirty skin.

Soap and water will keep the skin clean. Then we do not g~t

skin troublee

Sickness does not come on clean skino

I~ we keep our skin clean it will help us keep well.

\

Germs that nn ke people sick live on dirty skin.

Keep e Leans

, without

on cannot

t get

I

~.

- 9 -

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.. _----

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-=-

_-

A HEALTHY YOUNG WOMA.N

t>8\b <la_b

10

TAKING CARE OF SICK PEOPLE

Sick people spread tha germs that made them sick.

The person taking care of someone who is sick must be very

careful or she will get the same sicknesse

Do not touch the sick person or their clothes unless you have to.

Do not let anyone sl~ep with them.

Wash t~e hands well after touching them.

All waste coming from.a sick person can spread the germs s-

Th~y ~re in the. spit.

See that all this is put where other people and dogs cannot

.~. . -

get near.

Dogs can spread the germs so keep dogs away from the sick.

Dishes touched by sick people must be washed aloneo

"

1

1

1

i

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)- <l

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Remember germs that make us s'ick are too small to see.

Meat or any food toucheo. by sick people can spread the' sickness.:

So keep our bodies clean8 keep our clothes clean. keep our

igloos clean and keep the camp clean.

Sunshine. water,. soap , fresh air and heat are enemies of germs s .

t

- 10 -

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SOAP AND HOT WATER

11

BEFORE BABY COMES

Mother must be strong.

She must eat a lot.

She must rest a lot.

She must not go near sick people.

Sick mother will make a weak baby.

Strong mothers have strong babies.

Weak babies do not nurse well.

They do not sleep wello

They soon get sick.

Sick babies do not growo

It is hard to raise a sick baby.

CARE OF NEW B,ABY

Feed new baby regularlyo

A new baby sleeps a lot 0

Baby must be kept clean and dry.

Baby wi 11 cry when wet and dirty.

Keep baby warm when sleeping.

If baby is hungry betw.een feedings, give some clean water. If baby fe~~6·too;f'ast, it will get pain.

'.".

Baby must have plenty of sleep and food,. or it will get sick.

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- 11 -

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I\bC.P)<l< <)<s-c-o-)

MOTHER AND CHILD

<I 0- 0- .:» r) (, a-. -:»

each day.

12

FEEDING A NEW BABY

Mother' lS. m~lk is best :for baby.

MOther's nipples must be cleano

MOther m~st ·eat lots o i: good food , long be f'o re baby comes.

Good :food 'and lots o:fwater :for the mother makes rich milk.

A new baby should be nursed every 3 hours :for the :first month.

After one month, nurse every 4 hours, :for five :feedings

Clean water should be given between :feedings.

Baby must not be nurSed between :feedings.

I

Too much milk will make baby sick.

B~by's stomach needs rest.

When :four months old give baby solid :food with a spoon, be:fore

nursing, morning and e.v~n~ng.

powdered milk mixed with clean water 0

too strongo

I:f mother does not have enough milk :for baby, give dried

I:f baby "throws up", it is getting too much milk, or the milk is

Baby must eat regularly to grow big and strong.

Too much milk makes baby's bowels looseo

..

.)(lon) •

.k is

- 12 -

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A FINE NEW BABY

13

CRYING IN NEW BABY

A new baby cannot talk. so it cries.

A baby cries when it is hungry.

SICK BABY

A baby cries when it is thirsty.
A baby cries when it is .wet.
A baby cries when it is dirty.
A baby cries when it is cold.
A baby cries if' it has a stomach pain.
A baby cries if it does not get enough sleep. A baby will cry if' frightened by noises.

A baby will cry if the motiher' moves it too fast.

Ifababy thinks it is f'alling. it will cry.

A sick baby cries a lot.

A baby cries if it is lonesome.

A sick baby will not eat well.

A sick baby does much crying.

A sick baby has a qUiet cry. except when in pain.

A sick baby does not sleep well.

- 13 -

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A. CRYING BABY

14

CARE OF A SICK BABY

A siok baby must be kept warm.

Give small amounts of clean water or weak tea often during

the day.

Most sick babies do not eat well, therefore give nursing

o:rtener and for shorter time.

If sick baby "throws up"milk, give a little weak tea many

times during the day.

When "throwing up" . stops, then start nursing again •

. As baby gets better, nurse it for full time regularly.

Keep sick baby.quiet.

Fussing with sick baby makes it worse.

s

- 14 -

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A MOTHER CARES FOR HER SICK BABY

15

LUNG SICKNESS (TUBERCULOSIS)

Lung siokness is ev~rywhere~

It goes from person to personQ

Everyone oan get it ..

A person with lung siokness gives out the germ when he coughs or

sneezes or breathes heavye

It is in the spite

It is on the lips and hands" and o Iobhe s ,

One person with lung sickness can give the sruma siokness to

everyone in the iglooo

New babies get lung sickness very easy.

The young baby will get it from mother if mother has lung sickness.

A mother with this sickness must not nurse the baby.. The baby

.must not be near the sick mothero

Some other mother with milk must feed the baby_

If a mother with lung siokness nurses the baby the mother will

get worseo

Lung sickness is slow working.

At first the person does not feel sick ..

There is a little cough that does not get better.

You do not feel like eating"

You get tired ea~ ..

You feel lazyo

Slowly the cough grows worse ..

You sweat easy and even sweat in bede

You get thin SlCWTly ..

s or

:ness.

- 15 ~

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-

----~

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- _'--'

CLOTHES WHEN ~r~(-.:>r

POSSIBLE 1\~Q_)<JJr'

16

As the cough gets worse you have more and more spit. The spit may have some blood.

The spit is full of germs of lung sickness. Now anyone will catch the sickness. A person with lung sickness now must be kept away from everyone. Only one person must take care of him.

Wbat must a person that may have early lung sickness do? Right away he should go to the doctor or nurse.

Then he must do what he is told.

People with early lung sickness get better in a hospital. Then they cannot spread the sickness to other people.

What must a person do who 'has lived with a lung sick person? Right away he should go to the doctor or nurse.

The doctor can tell who has the earlY'start of lung sickness. He will tell you what you must do.

People with early lung sickness can get better. They must obey the doctor.

Lung sickness can move from the lungs to anywhere in the body. It spreads to the bones often.

It spreads to the kidneys and bladder. It spreads to the brain.

It is a slow disease and hard to stop unless caught early. Young men and young women get it often. They spread it often.

... - -------_--_. ------~.-----.--

_< ... _ -''0'_

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t.

nyone will

kept away

ss do?

spital.

Ie.

ck person?

~ sickness.

~ey Imlst

in the body.

; early.

- 16 -

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NURSE AND DOCTOR - HELPERS OF THE SICK

c ( _:)

17

A young woman with lung sickness must not marry. When she has a baby she will get worse and die. The new baby will get the same sickness.

Lung sickness will be no more when we all do our best to stop it It is our big enemy.

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- 17 -

SICK THIN MAN

HEALTHY STRONG MAN

18

WHAT TO DO WHEN FROZEN

If face, nose or ears get frozen do not rub. That will make it

<l d·

worse. At first sign of freezing cover the part and leave aloneo

When feet and hands are clean and dry they are hard to freeze.

So keep feet and hands clean in cold weather.

Keep socks and mitts clean and dry.

If feet get wet change to dry socks at once. Do not wait for

a warm place to change.

If you do freeze your feet put them in ooldwater until the

frost is gone. Do not rub.

Make sure frozen part is clean.

Boil seal oil and let it get cold.

Boil thin cloth (cotton) 0

Soak the cold cloth in the seal oil and wrap the foot. Keep

the oovering looseo

Be sure that only very clean hands are used to dress the

fro·zen foot 0

Change dressing every dayo

If frozen-badlY9 get to the ·doctor or nurse as soon as you can.

lee it

aze.

'or

an.

- 18 -

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1\t1-:>r. Ar'4J x r c sr »

(La_ d<lr'L~6\o-

Q._ r' t> <l cI b n l'\ -=> J

~ -:» LL L c.J cr .._:, J c.~ ",nc_t>~cl(J

<In_;, ~ ) ~ --=:> 0- C. 7- L)J\f....,J
(~ <.c- " .:» Q_ c. rr' n .:» J I>~_J A(\(,r\ L)r-'...;>~
('=-("Uc--:>c:- L)r\o,
() I> c.. L. L)r<....;> J
<1 ~ <l -.:> _b <l r' L <. -:» C ~ <. c(. b< l\(~<" fl. __;;, f\ --

_.---

.----~-.-==.--=-

.A WINTER SCENE I> P t> r

19

PART II

FAMILY ALLOWANCES (Helping Eskimo Children)

The King is helping all the children in his lands. He is giving

aid to the Eskimo children also and has instructed His servants the Police

to proceed in this way.

All parents and foster parents must register with the Police

all children up to sixteen years old giving their names, identification

numbers» ages and relationship to the head of the household such as ,son,

daughter» adopted, etc. The Police will then arrange that every child will

receive help from the trader when it is needed.

In the past you have had years of scarcity -and this has caused

much hunger and sickness to the childrenc Now the King is giving a monthly

allowance to each child under 16 years o Ld , But this is to be controlled

and only when in real need must an Eskimo mother or father ask to draw this

allowance to help their children~ If you have a good year of hunting and

trapping you will not need the allowance that year and it will be saved for

you and issued only when there is a dire need for it~ When you do not use

all the allowance it will qe saved for the child who willreoeiveit at the

age of 16 years.

Lee

ving

s n

d

'11y

1

lis

'or

e

he

- 19 -

p o.._. ~ ~ c. < ) -D ( b f\

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/\Li""r-D <.J<l >c-r'L hLb 1\.)-.::>(\.

c..LJ p.)Lc- f\j<lc-_;> <1c_~L(,6) ">c:-.-Jr cLd

_J) ( (, 16 l:!.. CJ e- P I> l.) <l II r (J -.::> 1>"" r r a: -.::>CL. ~ 1\ r 0- .:»

l>PP--=> <If\-::> hc.-r c..c-IJL <lr~bJ~ c..~o- l:!...-.::>ro-

rl .:» ~ L [). (J (" < (J ~ n J <l L I> ~ J l, ~ C- r 0- c..~ c:-

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C~ bLr'?r'r("r~ Pr'<I<:r I\~c:-Jf\ <lc.cJr /\..!Q__>

c.Jo-t-. P~~a-. I\('l,a-(,,<' c..J4c- P)(,/\ Po..._'7P

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P)L/\ P0-7Pa- <Jt'l>'7r) -D<lr'<..o->r -DJr'rJo-

16 & cr I> P c- b c:- J (J ,) cr- r' CL. '7 > <l r d c, e-: () r ()

R.C .ll.POLICE

THE ESKDro '3 FRIEND

20

The traders are working with the Police to help you and your fa.mili

to be good hunters and workers$

and the King has instructed them to issue goods only when it is necessary. He

does not wish you to become lazy and expect to receive goods any time. You

are to continue to work hard at hunting and trapping, teaching your children

When the foxes are scarce and you are: unable to obtain food.

clothing and other things for your children, the King will pay the trader to

give you these things for your children. You must work hard to get foxes and

food for your family and the King will help you in times ~:r scarcity. In th1i' :~~

way Eskimo families will be prosperous. their children will be healthy and

everyone will be hapPy e

Every Eskimo should have a disc bearing his identification

number. Do not lose your disc. You will need it to obtain the Kingts help~

- 20 -

to

(LJ <l('~bj~ ~b~,r~ >~rd<l ~c-o--=>

"

P) br'o-_; <If\-.::> PC.....::> C> l>br'LL cd_p<l

I\J_,p c.I..Jo-~ J\~L~~a- l\~LLc-~r'.

PL'_')Jb.c-r>a- L:\p<l~J?r) <If\_;I ~(.)A~

"~1-'?ra-'r')Ao-d. UL\Q_ !\I:I-c'<l)"c>,>r

rP f-D-.::> t>}...~~~. c L a c ~ P)('r LlPcdr_::>r

t> L~ -D C ) ~ Q_.. _J) <l r1 J ~ .:» 1"

rd'£"o- <l~(l_C-< <lL___:) a-r7~r' 4~o....<

<l-Dl,_:) <lr>P....:> r)L/\ l\t'o-c.r c.~ f>(,_;:)

<l Pc-o-"> errL o-c>6\!lJ )",Jo-~P)('I\ l\a-Cfo-

(e 4cS<l-=> f\o-r)~,!>f\ . f\PL<ra-r-.::>n or~~?"'()_:)

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c>L~ c')~o- . U,Jr ~_!)n.. f\t'o-'1o-..7> p)<..r__:>

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/). -D_::> (, c... '"' rt () 'v "> t> ~ r'<.) ~ Do">

<lte>f>uC"....? r c-~I>nr 1\"L..cr< P0-7(o...c'<1c-Jr'

PL,....,:)~~~L

)U

"en

and

ESKniO PARENTS RECEIVING FAMILY ALLOWANCE GOODS

FOR THEIR CHILDREN

._

- ..... ~

21

CARE OF RIFLES

In the old days your fathers.used the harpoon, bird darts and bow and arrow when they hunted game. Then the white man brought you the rifle. Today very few of you could hunt the caribou, walrus, white whale and square flipper without;the rifle.

You trap foxes which you trade for rifles and other things made by the white man. It takes many foxes to purchase a rifle and yet some of you are very careless and do not take care of your rifle. Soon it is useless and you must trade more foxes to secure a new rifle. When you use your fox skins to buy a new rifle you have less with which to bUY,other things which you need

How much better it is to take good care of your r~fle so it will last a long time. Then you will be able to use foxes for the other things which you need and will not go hungry and cold when the foxes are scarce.

Always carry your rifle in a sealskin bag so it is protected from .

the rain and snow.

Do not throw it roughly on the ground or in a boat. Clean your rifle after each time you use it.

Keep your rifle clean and dry, aim it straight and if you hunt patiently you will not lack food.

Ammunition is expensive, do not waste it. Why use many cartridges when one well aimed shoti vrill do? lilian you waste cartridges you waste foxes which you could trade for white man's food and other things you need.

Take good care of your rifle; Aim carefully when you shoot; Do not waste cartridges;

Then you will not go hungry.

r

i

s

- 21 -

dPI>r\ bLPr' _:,p

UclL()<l~ <1<'<""> 4)<'<-> I>o-() .....of:::,.a-

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f\f'(l"r' JPI>f\ n r » ~P)J__Jo-7>r'

c. L J 0-:- (, <I) .:» r' I> L ~ 0-:- J f\ r -.::> r )) c: {;\ ('~_:> (,......:>

I>~~_:) <l~Cl.....~)t'L~ JPI>f'lbrJr'

rprtr<">r' f\(,lJa-() cr-1>~f\,",J__::,r> b.....:>()__l

~o_.:_(,\o-. f\f'Ga-" ~rr''7rc- JPI>f\1> 4P\1o c.~

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"c-rJ~ r'~> <If\......:> 4(JPl.r':>{\ (\t,()~~_::>(\

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C. b <It. a- ~ a._ 7- r c_ b L P y 0- C. 0- J P 1> (\

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b(\cr~a_7>Y D.Pc..-f't-.:>J J\.c.(,rf\~J-.:>·

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t..,J~ <lP)~ <It''<'uc:-c-''. <Jr-r7{'{'r) ~d

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f\ I' ~ <:r-' CJ cr [> ~. f\ r '"' e: b -.::> 0...... 0- r r cr- <l r' r )

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<1(\ JPI>f\ bLrr'<lJ

.)bl\r't'_;,n Jrr<lc-Jl>'\

"Jo- ~bur-:>~ <Jt'?uc:--.::>r c.~ ba-rL-r'.

A WELL KEPT RIFLE

JPI>(\ bLP(4r-'L<

22

GARE OF-BOATS

In the years when the faxes are plentiful some of the Innuit trade many foxes for boats. It takes many faxes to secure a white man's boat. Take good care of it so it will last a long time.

Do not drag it over rocks which will break the bottom~

Be sure you have a safe anchorage so the boat will not be broken or carried away by the wind.

Keep the boat well painted and the seams caulked so it will not

leak.

If you do these things your boat will last a long time for hunting seal. walrus. and whale. You will be able to use your faxes to obtain other things you need from the trader and you will not go hungrye

I

- 22 -

I>PI> ·/).~rn ('\l'l.Jo-n <lrc~) f::l....of:::>. f:::>.c.-rn

~_()D. f\rt.o-4<r <lrc-£) I>r<'lt"'~·). f:::>.c-

<lrc'7I'<ll.) 1"\('(,0- ~...::>c-r I>r<lr'{,r. c e

~Lrt'-=>J UL." Pr'4o-'" <1dcr-- t'-c>cr>

!>rrc-Jt' I>~(.,()J .o r r c v r' t>o-4<;~J

t>'7lJf\J r'Jr\04L ,,<..,",J<lL ~<..(, <l_:,(,

p\6\l"'r r~r'L.~._:>J UL Pt'<lo-'" 1\{'Q.-rL.

4-Dr.J_j ·"'7rcr" 0-7> .'

<l L -c:» l> r <l r' r.J <1 < .:» J c, L J <l -:». 1\ (J r --.:>

t' r ) <..._;) r < rl <l < .;» r U L b. ~ ~<l cS- ~ L <.. e: r L

c-e o i," {>f"<;lr'c- I\b(.Jt' 4J~4_:) cl~a,_7r~

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- _

-- - --:-- -=:. -..::. ~ -

- -:::;--- - __ :; - ~ .-- ----

=:--- --- ---- ------ - - .-

- -

_-

- -

TAKE GOOD Cj.RE OF YOUR BOATS

b L r r' <l r <1 b r~

_1·. . ......

23

In the old days your fathers used the harpoon, spea.r, and bow and

1\.0 U L o_l

1- :)

CONSERVATION OF GAME

n r I

You must have food. You must have olothing. You must have dog

rood. You must have foxes with which to trade.

I\.b

Hear then worda; of wisdom showing how you may always have a good

supply of these things.

arrow when they hunted game. They worked hard and with great skill and were

P 1\

usually able to get enough animals to meet their needs. They neve~ killed more-animals than they needed and did not wound them with rifles and allow

them to esoape to die. There were always plentiful supplies of caribou,

seal, walrus, and whale.

u

Then the white man brought you the rifle whioh enabled you to

secure your food with greater ease than your fathers did. But you did not

- use the rifle wisely. You killed the oaribou in muoh greater numbers than

you needed, often leaving them on the ground to rot. You shot the walrus and

allowed him to sink. You also wasted many seals in the same way. Today

-there are many areas where no caribou can be found and the walrus too have

How to Save the Animals

disappeared from ma~ parts.

Caribou

Never kill more oaribou than you oan use before the meat spoils.

Rotten oaribou meat oanbl"ing sickriess8.nddea.th~

A wise hunter Will always try to kill bulls and not OOWSe It" is

against the law to kill oows when the young are suokling them or to kill the

young. If you save the cows and -the, young the caribou will inorease in numbers.

- 23 -

cr-r>rb>~ <l--c~rLr~>~ prbf\~__:)

OrL~Cl'_:) o-[>"I>r\"'rc> (JJf\~rc>.

o.; c..... r r' t> b r' 0- ~ c- ~ cr U L...1. r) ~ ~ a-

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r',>c-r n-..DJ6u t>L"r't>z.c:_) l>o-....ob~_o~

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UL...(<' I>L-~cr 1\~c._I» G.-L)i Pr<lo-

CLLt'7r<r )~t><.c_~r <lr'c>r-~(, ('I-=:> ~rc-u-

Lo-r\) JPI>('I_o b.Pc- <lr'C»C\o...._bC.L(

:> ) ~....::> <1 r ~ <' c:...... > ~ r' ._::> C\ ~ .:» f c- .::» (, .:»

c-e b ~ a_ -D J P r- r\ ( L r' c. ~ J P t> f'\ _}

r>~c_\'a-~c:-> ~L...~ <11'1-..:> r''>c:-(\) <1r'JI'a-~c->r'

c-e d P [> f\ t-> <l) r' ) 7 r (r' )) <J" ) J t>.._:) < '- I> > .

PLc-~r '-LG)~c._ llJo.......<JJo- ULr'O-. A(;\._:;)

I\~c_<r' P6"flrJ a.....r'._.:) <lrc'a- 4r't>~~>r-'

UL.." P6\~-D c-c 1-0- _oc._ <ll-~ ))bJ-o) ~~-..:>

-cr'P> f\ c, l:, <: c- ) r

fr'<1cr o-Lr7ro- ))~(,r' ULb Pr'o-

r~ () r <- )) 4\. Cl ~ J CL.. b a- L 0- r ) J r .:»

C~ )) (J) <, (J 0- r-; 0- r <l <.. >

I\J7PL( >c- r'-D ~- (__ L> to n ___.:J r

<la_ro- -D(,(J_:) )dr><:..PJr <lr~J

~c_c-cr- UL~

c.~ c..LJo-(,

cs-<l> ))~

OFF ON THE HUNT l>L~r'J

24

In regions where caribou are scarce do not use the meat to feed

dogs. Feed the dogs on fish and save the caribou for your own i'ood and

clothing. With good nets and with sIdll and patience you should be able to lay up supplies of fish as food for the dogs and yourself8 If' you dry the

fish in the sun and, if possible, smoke it, it will not spoil.

Walrus

In past times your fathers hunted the walrus with the harpoon

and sl?ear in a small boat. Not lIlarl¥ walrus were lost and there were enough

for everyone.

Today you hunt walrus in power boat~ with rifles and c~n follow

I I

j

them much more easily and safely than your fathers did. But you shoot .

many walrus which sink and are lost and sometimes when you get excited you

wound maIV walrus which escape and di.e. Because of this waste the walr-Ils

are becoming fev{er year qy year.

A~ways harpoon the walrus with a float attached to the line bei'ore

you shoot him. Then you will not lose. him by sinking.

Do not kill oows or young walrus. If you oontinue to kill cows

and the young ones there will soon be no walruse

Do not kill more bulls than you can take home. Avoid waste"

. If you follow this advice the walrus will not disappear but will

inorease in numbers to provide food for you and your dogs.

____ ._ _ ..... ,._ ._ .. ' __ W ....... ' ......... ""' ....... 6· __ ' .... • ........... , .""-'*"Zc ... "" .......... e ... ' .. &u." .... =· ... 'PU ...... ---_k _ .. · __ ... __ · __ M_-...·_ ... _· __ ._.., __ .-. ....... ..0.=:: _,

_~ __ _ _ _ .· :::m-t1z, -.aezc,'j)'*RB.,.'·, 'ei.! .:.:e:zow ... ' _._ -.

1 1 1

- 24 -

))(,~<lr)r -a r r r o c c c prl::.("\r<,o;;_r c-ppl\

~b-=:> (J <I~<1 a--':> Q ))4'a- a-PPa-Lo- <I1-b_::,

<l .;» G rQ ~ (l. c-e co :» <I b ~ J r' [). P <l r' r J r> .:» a_ L ) r

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Al.....')iS* ~~rr'r....;:.P, ~t'_;)_}. UL" Pr'<l<r r~o-rc:.,_.

Ac\()""

u c' 1- a: r-' > ~.r' tl. ~ (S'* <, ~ > 'l 7- J 0...." d \\ _J)

<lJ6\(,_o__;:). <.<! -a r v e- <lrt>~~~r) r6\{)..,<<:-Po-\

(,~ b<C_(') o-,-)r I\o-~r ,

C~c:- La.- t>r<l .u» l\.JL.c:--o JPn-o_;) Lc-<.<.r

<lrJro._r VelLa-). c.~ JP4~>~ <lrc" P6\<!> 41"\.....')

t> n. L.. ~ c- l, r' b. f c- <l r c <1 r' C> ~ > ) J -e "> U ., L <.~

C1(;\b,., n.PC'*~c:-4c:-> 4(,.)c'L..

a_ c:--: b ....::> J <l <? <. t.,.-=:> 0- <l C". 0 d r b f\ a_ ~ U L I. P r' <\ <J

p~o-r~ .

<la_Pcr- P)LPo-_::, )drUC-_::,r'. uL'" <1o-P~

) J t' ~ J r' P) L r .:» c-e <l ~ 6\ _o J a- > P c... r J -.:> .

) d t' Uc:- .:» r' <. 1- ~ <J L <l 4- r" <1 J "cr f r' <l cs-

~Lr7r'a-·

U L. t. U I..~

Pt'<1 cr <3 r' (- <r r c...r

<. ~ l\ '> ~h' L C' r' .:» r

P,*\)vc:;-._.,;>rJ ~f~ol\d':7t>~ A€\o.

<I ~ t> <:r r '- <l r r J <:r) a- P ~ <l ~ 0-- r cr ~ 0-> n. ....D _() .:» prr'-o_:)

CARIOOU ~ J

WALRUS fit\~

.,. .• ,.. tIC'

Seals

25

In some areas the seals too are be~ing scarce. This is because:

Many are lost by sinking after they are shot.

Too many young ones are killed"

Too nlalli'f seals are used to feed dogs.

How to save the seals:

Foxes

Use the harpoon when possible to prevent loss from sinkingQ

Make greater use of seal nets.

Do not kill many 'Rw-hi te coats""

Use fish nets to obtain good supplies of fish for dog foode

Feed your dogs on fish and save the sealse

Do not keep more dogs than you need.

It is against the law to trap foxes during the breeding season

or when the fur is not prime ..

If a man traps foxes during the breeding season he stops the

young foxes from being born and foxes become scarce.

If he traps foxes when the fur is not prime the trader will not

aooept them and the foxes are wasted.

It is necessary for every man to "strike up" his traps on the day

a.ppointed by ~w. If any man is in doubt about what day he must stop trapping let him ask the Police or the trader.

Fish

Many Eskimo do not use enough fish.

-----·--- __ .&.2F''''~'v·'''~

._... - ...... -=" =- .. ."" " !

"

- 25 -

n r L 0- I\d'7rc.._

p ,) l, b c: f'\ .:» r

0- r' L1

-J)C-Il. D..~r o-r>~ ~P)J-..::>c-) <lrclt') U-,L

c-e <Jrr Pl,\~_D JP(_o <It'I><')

C.LJ-=> ~r'~ 4rc-..::><l) )Jc..<'Lc..

<1.1\.....:> <lr~<l-.::>O' Pr-D .....oJc..~L(_

C~ ALb 1\ 7- r b > .s» J (l P L c.

(>o-.J o-I>c--:>J <Jr40-rL p",o-rL

<I f\ -.::> -!) -.:> <l _o 1\ a_ ~ <l .::» r

<If\_:) rd)(.)Po- <lr~(.) )Jr'Uc-_::>~

~b-..::>o-I>no- .....o_::><l_o <lr~", ~~-=>O-~Q_I:rL(

pr6n~r o-r7~r'cr-=>

l\b-:>o- prl:,n~-.:>r' 4rc'JuL<'" (Lr~

prbuc--.::>r <lrr-.:»o- Pr1<1o- Q.._L,)(J

C~ ts :» A r p r '" <..) P ) L l:. c- ) <r n r l, ()

-D(,nt'~ f)......o<r) 0- C~ n.Pc-~c-<l'> nr(,o-

u L c..~ r a r .:» ft' r _:) /\ [.> ~ \) ) <l <C c;r I> " f\...1

1\ 7 t> 7 r ) c-e f\ r l. 0- <l t' t> ) f). 0...... >

c..~ r p r (,) n.....::> CL- f) r P r r a- 1\ ~ 7..! ~ <>

c-e a: _:, <l " c- .:» --...D b "b'. l-; ~ L t' ) <l -; (L c- I> n ) <l <-

CJ -D L >c-r'-D " 0- __::)~ b<' b(, "-!)b 6'\.~

o_c-I>f1LL -DbC\~ <In >c-t'L crl>b'\f\._::)(J

<l 1\ r -.:::> J

o-L) r

26

Fish is excellent food for man and dogs.

You should lay up caches of fish for the hungry period.

You should obtain twine from the trader and learn from someone who knows how to make a net G

You should also learn how and where to set nets to get the best

results.

Fish go up the rivers in the fall to.winter in the inland lakes.

They come down the rivers in the spring.

You Can catch fish with nets at the time s they are going up or down the rivers but you must never completely block a small river with your net or there will be no fish next year.

You can net fish in the sea in summer if you learn the right places to get theme

You can net fish under the ice in winter in the inland lakes. Fish taken in war.m weather must be split in two and dried on lines in the sun so it will not spoils

If there are many flies the fish should be smoked in a tent

before hanging outside to dr/.

Fish is good food" Learn to net fis~o

Learn to dry it in war.m weather so it will not spoil. Put up good caches of fish for yourselves and your dogso

In this way you will save the other food animals and you will never go hungry.

- 26 -

LL> ~-D_.l-=:> Pr~__:),

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FISH IS GOOD FOOD ~t:......::>6. (Jpt'<lJ~n

27

PLANNING FOR PERIODS OF SCARCITY

Every Eskimo knows that there are some years when the foxes are

scarce and other years when they are plentiful.

In the good years the trapper has many foxes to trade but in the

poor years. he may have very few or none.

In a good year the trapper should bring all the foxes he can get

to the trader. He should buy only those things he needs and leave the rest

of his foxes with the trader on credit. The trader will give him a paper

showing hOI/I much his oredit iso Then when the foxes are scarce and he cannot

get enough, he can take the credit paper to the trader and buy, with it the

things he needs"

In this way the trapper will be able to secure supplies from the

trader in the years when he has no foxes.

It is much better to have a credit with the trader to use in poor

years than to go in debt to the trader.

Eve~one knows that there are times during the winter when food

is bard to get.

Tha wise Eskimo will store up in caches enough food to feed himselfs

his family and his dogs during the hungry period.

Work hard when the fish and game are plentiful to lay up a supply

of food for the hungry period.

- 27 -

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c e 1\ 0-. cl <1 < r r' <l ~ J < .:» r'

Q_L)r crf<>a-Lr bc-PQ__r>

A WISE ESKIMO

CLEANS AND DRIES

FISH FOR TIMES

OF SCARCITY

I ! , I

!

28

TO ALL MOTHERS WITH SMALL CHILDREN

Our King has made a law that all mothers of children will get

help in seeing that these children grow up to be strong and healthy •

. One way this he Ip will be given is by bringing to them good baby

foods. All the traders will have these foods at the stores and will let

you have them. These foods are for small children up to three years old.

These foods are like rlour and will not get bad unless they get

wet. Keep them dryo They do not need to be cooked. All that you need is

olean water.

There are two foods, Dry Milk and Pablum.

Here is how to get them ready to eat.

MILK

Boil water and let 0001

In a bowl put 1 cup of wann water

Add 1 dessert .. spoon (2 small spoons) of dry milk Beat well with whipper till all lumps are gone'

This milk is a good clrink.

PABLUM

In a bowl put one (1) cup of prepared milk. Add 1 dessert-spoon (2 small spoons) of Pab1um Mix well bf stirringo

This is good baby foodo

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CAN OF :MILK - :BOWL - WHIPPER -:BOX OF PABLUM MILK AND PABLUM ARE GOOD ]uOD~ roR BABIES

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