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A Review of the Evolution of Aircraft Piston Engines






F A Y E T T E T A Y L O R Professor of Automotive Engineering Emeritus Massachusetts Institute of Technology SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS CITY OF WASHINGTON • 1971 . NUMBER 4 .SMITHSONIAN ANNALS OF FLIGHT VOLUME 1 . (END OF VOLUME) AIRCRAFT PROPULSION A Review of the Evolution 0£ Aircraft Piston Engines C.

The following numbers are in press: 5. Casey.Smithsonian Annals of Flight Numbers 1-4 constitute volume one of Smithsonian Annals of Flight. The Curtiss D-12 Aero Engine. The Wright Brothers Engines and Their Design. Langley's Aero Engine of 1903. 1964. The Liberty Engine 1918-1942. by Robert B. 3. appendix.75 . appendix. by Robert B. by Philip S. Price 60ff. Dickey. appendix. Price 60^. T h e following earlier numbers of Smithsonian Annals of Flight are available from the Superintendent of Documents as indicated below: 1. 2. 90 pages. 110 pages. T h e First Airplane Diesel Engine: Packard Model DR-980 of 1928. by Louis S. 48 pages.2 Airplane. bibliography. Subsequent numbers will not bear a volume designation. Hobbs. by Leonard S. D. For sale by Superintendent of Documents. Meyer. which has been dropped. 1968. bibliography. The First Nonstop Coast-to-Coast Flight and the Historic T . 7. 20 figures. 6.Price $1. Price 75jf.C. by Hugo Byttebier. Meyer. 20402 . 1964. Government Printing Office Washington. 37 figures. 43 figures. bibliography.

or Revolver-Type Engine Fairchild-Caminez Engine Sleeve-Valve Engines Diesel Aircraft Engines Two-Cycle Gasoline Engines Unconventional Cylinder Arrangements RELATED TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 57 57 57 59 60 62 63 Valves and Valve Cooling Fuels and Combustion Altitude Performance and Superchargers Vibration Control Propellers Reduction gears Other Developments Ignition Systems Carburetion Fuel Injection Starting Bearings and Lubrication Engine Instruments 63 65 67 73 75 78 79 79 81 81 81 82 83 .Contents Page FOREWORD ACKNOWLEDGMENTS EARLY ATTEMPTS AT PROPULSION EARLY INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES vn vm 1 8 Wright Brothers' Engine 1903 Langley Engines 1900-1903 ENGINES 1903-1909 ENGINES 1910-1918 PISTON ENGINES AFTER 1918 9 15 19 27 35 Liquid-Cooled Engines Air-Cooled Engines Air Versus Liquid Cooling UNCONVENTIONAL ENGINES 35 41 53 57 Barrel.

Lubrication Propellers and Propeller Gearing National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Annual Reports . and Radiators Carburetors. from material furnished by C. Cowling. and Turbine Engines Related Technical Developments Altitude Performance and Supercharging Cooling. and Fuel Injection Instruments and Accessories (Engine instruments. Richard K.SUMMARY OF PISTON-ENGINE DEVELOPMENT 85 Table 1—Engines of Historical Importance Table 2—Credits. 95 96 101 101 101 103 104 106 108 109 110 112 112 113 115 115 117 118 119 120 121 123 VI . but incidentally containing valuable material on aircraft propulsion. by Country. Rocket. fuel-supply and exhaust systems. starters and starting) Fuels and Combustion. for Engine Developments . Fayette Taylor) Bibliographies and Indexes History and Technology of Aircraft and Flight (Publications primarily concerned with aircraft development. or with theory and technological practice) Aircraft Powerplants (Descriptions and technical data: under Engines. Carburetion. dates refer to date of publication) Aircraft Power Before 1900 Engines 1900-1913 Engines 1914-1919 Engines 1920-1924 Engines 1925-1929 Engines 1930-1934 Engines 1935-1939 Piston Engines 1940 and After Steam Engines Diesel Engines Jet. ignition systems and spark plugs. Smith. FOOTNOTES 88 90 91 APPENDIX—The Rotary Radial Engine BIBLIOGRAPHY 93 95 (Expanded and arranged by Dr.

Gardner Lecture. 1962 (1963). with aircraft power started with his appointment in 1917 as officer-in-charge of the (aircraft) Power Plant Laboratory of the United States Navy. appears the bibliography which accompanied the original manuscript and which. 1938. . with Charles Chatfield and Shatswell Ober. and at the Smithsonian Institution. both foreign and domestic. concentrating on the development of air-cooled radial engines. Its nearly 600 entries. and updated. many of them new.I. the text has been revised. The active connection of the author. most of them contemporary accounts. for lack of space. 1936. Professor Taylor is author. From 1919 to 1923 he was engineer-in-charge of the Power Plant Laboratory of the Army Air Service at McCook Field. Mass. retiring from active duty there in 1965. Here the engines of World War I. Since 1926 he has been Professor of Automotive Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1962. Dayton. were tested and improved. This has since been edited and expanded to approximately double its original length by Dr.Foreword This. with E. the fourth number of Smithsonian Annals of Flight. 1948). of The Airplane and Its Engine (McGraw Hill. and for a short while chief engineer at Wright Aeronautical Corporation. New Jersey. Its 72 illustrations. S. Fayette Taylor. include a number of engines. Director July 1. Press. 1968). . cover the whole range of engine development and related activities from the early beginnings. From 1923 to 1926 he was engineer-in-charge of design..T. Taylor. Washington. was the Fourth Lester B. 1928. This bibliography should be a useful and welcome tool... He is still an active consultant in the field of internal-combustion engines. Cambridge. Ohio. for the Tear Ended June 30. . 1962. of The Internal Combustion Engine (International Textbook Co. delivered at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. With it.C. both for the airplane enthusiast and for the historian of aviation technology. 1932. for the first time. Subsequently it was published in the General Appendix to the Annual Report . March 8. October 5. He has also published numerous papers and articles in professional journals. S. 1960. 1961). Richard K. 1940. PAUL JOHNSTON. and of The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice (M. Smith while he was serving on the Museum staff. aircraft. enlarged. 2 vols. of the Smithsonian Institution . 1969 VII National Air and Space Museum . and the materials in the collections of the National Air and Space Museum. could not then (1963) be printed. Pioneer work on engines and fuels was done during this period. 1948. . As presented here. D. C. Paterson.

Propulsion. Robert B. The bibliography has been edited and arranged by Dr. Curator. FAYETTE TAYLOR VIII . Jr. Smith.. Important editorial assistance by members of the staff of the National Air and Space Museum is gratefully acknowledged. Especial thanks are due to Mr. Richard K. Meyer.Acknowledgments This publication is based chiefly on the author's close personal connection with the development of aircraft engines during the period 1917-1950. C.

AIRCRAFT PROPULSION A Review of the Evolution Of Aircraft Piston Engines .

using bentbow propulsion.—Reproduction of Launoyand Bienvenue helicopter (NASM 1930-15). using rubber-band propulsion. (Photo A-18232) Figure 2. 1871.ctflfK Figure 1. (Photo A-19627) .—Penaud's Planaphore (NASM 1930-17). 1784.

2). was reported to have flown 70 yards in a monoplane that was powered by a pedal-driven propeller. "Father of Aerial Navigation. when Derek Piggot. 1 . and even today probably powers many more "airplanes" than any other type of powerplant. Gibbs-Smith. Connecticut. there is no record of heavier-than-air sustained flight having been made with this kind of power until 1961. A French painting of such a device is dated 1460. and by Sir George Cayley. respectively. MAN'S MUSCLES. Alphonse Penaud (1851-1880) improved on Cayley's design by using twisted rubber bands. were equipped with propellers driven by pedals and a manned windlass. were driven by a wooden or whalebone bow (fig.D. in his excellent historical account The Aeroplane." in 1792. many early balloons were equipped with oars or paddles. 1 On the other hand. credits the Chinese with this invention. England. 1857— N O T E : All footnotes are to be found on pages 91-92. 1863. USUALLY ATTACHED TO FLAPPING WINGS. Cromwell Dixon of Seattle. Ritchel at Hartford. both for model helicopters and for a near-conventional model monoplane (fig. Charles H. in Hampshire. Washington. The first successful free flights by a man-made heavier-than-air contrivance seem to have been by model helicopters whose counter-rotating propellers. in 1878 and that of deLome in Paris.Early Attempts at Propulsion were the earliest and most obvious source of power suggested for flight. The first successful flight by a model airplane powered by means other than rubber bands is said to be that of Felix DuTemple in France. as early as the 4th or 5th century. 1). In spite of innumerable attempts. usually made of bird feathers. As late as 1907. that of Charles E. A. demonstrated a dirigible-airship powered by a pedal-driven propeller. This system of propulsion remains to this day the most important source of power for small airplane and helicopter models. and at least two dirigible balloons. Models of this type were flown by Launoy and Bienvenu in France in 1784. It is of historical interest to note that in the first detailed account of their pioneer flights the Wright Brothers attribute their early interest in flying to toy helicopters powered by rubber bands.

locomotives. in flight to the moon. Rocket power. however. and horses on a treadmill (obviously at least 1. which described an aircraft sustained by magnets acting on electrified amber and propelled by a hand-power bellows blowing on its sails. namely. Odd sources of power that have been proposed included tethered gryphons (birds were evidently considered inadequate). sails. Contrary to most historical statements. A model ornithopter with wings operated by gunpowder. the steam-driven airplane models of Henson and Stringfellow were apparently not capable of sustained rising or level flight. developed by Pabst von Ohain. and road vehicles. stating that Stringfellow was . A compressed-air-driven model by Victor Tatin (France) made circular tethered flights in 1879. The latter machine was considered quite successful. the first use of rockets was by Fritz von Opel (Germany) in 1928. that of Tissandier at Auteuil in October 1883. soon after it had been successfully demonstrated in ships. Steam power became a popular proposal for aerial navigation in the early 19th century. and that of Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs near Paris in August 1884.1858. The prize for ingenuity in the unconventional category might go to Portuguese reports. Some of these sources were even tried. Steam jets located in the wing tips were a remarkable anticipation of a modern application of jet power." The powerplants used are of interest. A model helicopter by W. but it was never built. is said to have risen from the ground in 1870. propelled by a steerable steam jet. was suggested by Gerard in 1784. powered with the HeS-3B gas turbine engine of 1. but there is no authentic record of successful flight. Thus.100-lb thrust. The first jet-engined flight was that of the Heinkel-178 airplane in Germany. Steam power was later used by this same inventor. An English cartoon of 1825 shows a proposed rocket. In the short indoor flights of record. take-off was from a horizontal wire somewhat higher than the landing point. inspired by the Chinese invention of the ballistic rocket in the 12th century. For man-carrying powered flight. Phillips (England) rose from the ground under steam power in 1842. Gibbs-Smith attributes the powerplant design to Henson. because of their advanced design.000 pounds per horsepower). built by Trouve. 27 August 1939. these flights were what may be called "powered glides. There are records of two flights of dirigible airships using electric motors with batteries. and in 1850 designed a model airplane powered by this means. H. published about the year 1700. Sir George Cayley built and tested a gunpowder engine in 1807. using a clockwork motor.

is now at the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution (fig.-span model built by Henson but never flown was said to include a well-designed steam plant. bore and stroke driving two mid wing 16-in. The 20-ft. but details are difficult to find. -. Its best powered glide was for about 120 ft indoors.—Stringfellow engine and boiler (NASM 1889-1).r f I. (Photo A-20030) more the skilled mechanic than the inventor. i M^MU^IJ Figure 3. A Stringfellow engine and boiler of 1868. Stringfellow's "flying" model was a 10-ft-span monoplane equipped with a double-acting steam engine of %x2-in. 3)A dirigible airship with a 3-hp steam plant weighing 351 lb was flown by Henri Giffard from Paris to Trappes in 1852 (fig. I have not found a . propellers geared to turn at three times engine speed. a multibulb affair. 4). 1868.

is equipped with two 20-hp steam engines. The best-known full-scale attempt at flight with steam was that of Sir Hiram Maxim in 1894.—Giffard airship." although Ader's machine seems to have had the ability to lift itself without external assistance. an extraordinarily light weight for its day' The boiler. 1. (fig. on display at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers. these machines made short uncontrolled "hops." Clement Ader's "Avion I I I " of 1897. 1852. very much like . France. In spite of earlier and later designs for steam-driven dirigible balloons. steam-engine powered. Alexander F. At most. (Photo A-19889) technical description of this single-cylinder vertical engine. Maxim was an experienced steam engineer. that of Giffard seems to be the only one which made successful flights.800 lb. Paris. or 5 lb/hp. The powerplant was rated at 363 hp and weighed complete. Mozhaiski in Russia in 1884 and Clement Ader in 1890 both built and tested full-scale steam-powered airplanes. The "Chauve-Souris. 5) each drove a pusher propeller. Its two twin-cylinder compound engines (fig. No engine details seem to be available. and his powerplant was far more advanced than the aircraft to which it was applied.Figure 4. 6) was of the multiple water-tube type.

—Maxim's steam boiler. feed-water heater. 4 3 .) . and burner. p. v o l . 1894. (From Journal of the Society of the Arts (30 November 1894). 22. (Photo A-42378) Figure 6. 1894.!«tfSki U Figure 5.—Sir H i r a m Maxim with his twin-cylinder c o m p o u n d steam engine.

Fortunately. A sentence from his memoirs reads in part. "Unfortunately there is a limit to this process [increasing the air flow through the burner] of increasing the air supply . steam ceased to be of importance for aircraft after flights by the Wright brothers and others had demonstrated the superior qualities of the internal-combustion engine. Of course. Langley. boilers consisting of one or more long coiled tubes with water pumped in at one end and steam issuing from the other. (Photo A-12555) . Samuel P." The early jet engines encountered this same problem. Operation along rails indicated that this engine could furnish the power necessary to lift even the monstrous contraption in which it was installed.modern marine steam boilers. a certain speed of efflux cannot be exceeded without putting the flame out. 5 (NASM 1905-1). who built and successfully flew unmanned steampowered models 2 of 14-ft span in 1896. . This type later was used successfully in the White automobile and is probably the type which would be used today if no alternative to steam power were available. but it continued to have an emotional Figure 7.—Steam engine used by Samuel P. Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. The most notable feature of Langley's steam powerplants (fig. and full technical details are available. 1896. Langley's records are complete. . Langley in his 14-ft-span Aerodrome No. Lack of success with this machine was not the fault of the powerplant. 7) was the use of "flash" boilers. Langley's steam plants weighed in the neighborhood of 7 lb/hp. Any discussion of steam power for aircraft should include the work of Dr. He was perhaps the first to grapple with the problem of "flameout" in an aeronautical burner. that is.

If steam power was without competitors. A replica of this engine is in the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum (NASM 1965-253). . we would have successful steam aircraft today. but at a considerable sacrifice in performance and perhaps also in safety. who reported in 1926. economy.appeal to many people well into the 1930s. air resistance] they [steam powcrplants] are absolutely impossible. Steam was probably given the coup de grace by Commander Eugene Wilson of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics." My own opinion is not so extreme. "On the basis of these three considerations [weight. A Travelair biplane powered with a steam engine designed by William Besler was actually flown by the designer in California in 1932. a naval officer trained in steam power for ships.

rated together at 3% h p a n d weighing. or 19 lb/hp. Balzer and redesigned and rebuilt by Charles M. however academic and futile. The first successful heavier-than-air flight powered by a gasoline engine was that of Langley's %-size model. Figure 9 shows a letter from Manly giving some data on this engine that were not published in the Langley Memoir. The cylinders drew in air for half the stroke and fired at atmospheric pressure at midstroke. A 4-cylinder 5-hp (40 rpm) Lenoir engine using coal-gas fuel was used. This engine was a 2cylinder V-type. and 1. 66 lb. this engine can legitimately be described as remarkable for its time. The engine (fig.2 lb/hp. Efficiency was low—about 5 percent.Early Internal-Combustion Engines The earliest successful aeronautical application of the internal-combustion engine appears to be in a dirigible-balloon flight by Paul Haenlein in Germany in 1872.000 ft on 8 August 1903. in Paris in 1898. There is still some controversy. 88. and weighed 8. for other data).8 lb/hp. It is on exhibit at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum (NASM 1908-1). The Lenoir engine was the first commercial internal-combustion engine. The relatively lightweight and relatively efficient "Otto-cycle" gasoline engine began with developments in England and Germany in the 1880s.2 hp at 1800 rpm with a weight of 7 lb (see table 1. about who made the first man-carrying powered flight. It produced 3. pre-date the well documented flights of the Wright brothers in 1903. designed and built by Stephen M. which flew 350 ft on 18 June 1901. If short straight-ahead "hops" are counted as "flights. These 8 . 8) was a 5-cylinder air-cooled radial. The flight took place in Germany in 1897. stimulated by automobile development. At 2. p. flew a dirigible equipped with a pair of "tricycle" engines in tandem. These engines were probably forerunners of the 3-hp Clement engine used by Dumont for his one-man dirigible airship flown during the summer of 1903. air cooled. The first flight with this type of engine was apparently that of a dirigible airship designed by David Schwartz. it is said. Alberto Santos-Dumont. Its application to aircraft came soon after. Manly." then the claims of Ader and Du Temple.

—Gasoline engine used in Langley's quarter-size model aerodrome (NASM 1950-3). the engine they used in 1903. may be taken as the real beginning of the age of the reciprocating internal-combustion engine in aeronautics. on 17 December 1903. which attracted little attention.Figure 8. mark the beginning of this revolutionary achievement. Certainly the Wright brothers developed the first practical. 1903. was their own design. 7 lb (without battery). Wright Brothers' Engine. controllable airplane. these engines are worthy of some detailed attention. As such. 1901. and in their subsequent flights. .2 hp at 1800 rpm. 3. and tested in 1902. North Carolina. and their flights at Kitty Hawk. Also. (Photo A-23759) were also short hops but they demonstrated good control and were followed soon after by sustained flights. Figure 10 shows a short and amusingly inaccurate report in The New York Times of 26 December 1903. and 1904. and the Langley full-scale engine completed late in 1901. 1903 Little was known about the accomplishments of the Wright brothers until some years after their flights of 17 December 1903. The Wright engine of 1903.

a t 1300 R.>fyv->^^U- Figure 9. weight and speed of the sma?. i s quite accurate and i s as foil 'T.—Letter from Charles M.vere shrunk into these cylinders and were bored out to le-^e them 1/32" t h i c k .P. Massachusetts* Dear Professor Taylor:I had forgotten that T had not included in the I&inolr the more d e t a i l e d information concern" nr the s i z e . The cylinders of t h i s engine were irv. Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology. T e general olan of construction of i t was similar t o that of tho large engine except that Lt was air-cooled instead of water-cooled. Cambridge of heavy s t e e l tubing turned down to form thin i n t e g r a l r a d i a t i n g fins. T cannot refer to J he o r i g i n a l records which were returned for safe keeping t o the archives of the Smithsonian.M. in* eluding carbureter. a>d the weight was j u s t t e n (10) l b s . the power developed was 3 H. (Photo A-51010) 10 . However. Manly describing the small gasoline engine of figure 8. I will t r y to look up some personal memoranda that T have and see i f I can give you more d e f i n i t e detailed data regarding the weight of the'engine and i t s accessor!eSj b u t . Unfortunately. t h e stroke 2-3/4 n .s i z e model aad believe t h a t the oictures shown in the Memoir are as good os arty that T had of i t . 1926. ignition c o i l aad the small storage b a t t e r y that had a l i f e of about five (5) minutes service in f i r i n g the engin< * I do not r e c a l l that any photographs -/ere made of t h i s engine except while i t was assembled in the frame of the q u a r t e r . Fayette Taylor. . I think the above information i s f a i r l y accurate as t o general features* Yours very t r u l y .M A N L Y AND V E A L CONSULTING 2 5 0 WEST ENGINEERS 54T" STREET NEW YORK April 2 7 . I t h i n k .l Manly " o t o r . CI104CB <3S*. Aeronaut! cal Ds partuient . The cylinder heads were made from solid hind forglngsfmachined out)v.7s: The bore was 2-1/16" diameter. Professor C.with the cylinder b a r r e l ?nly l/o2" t h i c i at the bottom of the f i n s . my r e c o l l e c t i o n of the matter. Castiron l i n e r s .hich were screw threaded and brazed to t h e s t e e l cylinder b a r r e l s before the Tatter were finish machined.





Inventor* of North Carolina Box K i t e Machine W a n t Government to Purchase It. Special io 7 hr New York T>mn. W A S H I N G T O N , Dec 23—The I n v e n t o r s of the a i r s h i p which Is said to h a v e m a d e several ul flights In N o r t h C a r o lina, near Kitty H a w k , a r e a n x i o u s to v l l the use of their device to the G o v e r n m e n t . lalm t h a i they h a \ e solved the p r o b lem of aerial n a v i g a t i o n , nnd have never m a d e a failure of a n y a t t e m p t to fly T h e i r m a c h i n e In an a d a p t a t i o n of t h s box kite Idea with a propeller w o r k i n g on a p e r p e n d i c u l a r shaft to raise or lower the craft, and a n o t h e r working on a h o r l s o n t a l shaft to send It forward The m a c h i n e , It Is Bald, can be rals> d or lowered with per,|, and can c a r r y a strong; g a s o line engine capable of m a k i n g a tpeed of t> n miles an hour T h e test mad.- In N'«rth Carolina will be fully reported to Iht O r d n a n c e Board of tho W a r D e p a r t m e n t , and If the m a c h i n e comm e n d s i f . if sufficiently, f u r t h e r tests will be m a d e In the vicinity of W a s h i n g t o n , and ange a sale of the dernment. The use to which J put It would be In work, and possibly in
torpe.J. •

Figure 10.—Account of Wright brothers' first airplane in The New York Times, December 25, 1903.

In spite of the fact that the flights near Dayton in 1904 and 1905 were witnessed by numerous people, the press ignored them. The first eyewitness report published was a letter in Gleanings in Bee Culture, Medina, Ohio, 1 January 1905, by its publisher, A. I. Root, under the title "What God Hath Wrought." This article is reproduced by Gibbs-Smith in his book The Aeroplane. An early public report by the Wrights themselves appeared in the September 1908 issue of Century Magazine, a publication similar in content and format to Harpers and the Atlantic Monthly. I recall discovering this article when our copy arrived at home, and I remember that my father, in spite of the many photographs of the machine in flight, refused to believe that human flight had been achieved. This attitude, five years after the Wright's first flight, was pretty general at the time, partly on account of the great number of false claims of flight which had been made in the past. These spurious claims also account for the seemingly incredible 11

absence of reports by the Dayton press, whose representatives, after witnessing two unsuccessful attempts at flights made in 1904, failed to report eyewitness accounts of the many flights made in 1904 and 1905, or even to go eight miles out of town to see for themselves! The Century article is extraordinary for its simple and beautiful expository style, and for its evidence of the almost excessive modesty of the brothers Wright, together with their rationality and persistence. I believe that it should be rated as a classic in American scientific literature. The 1903 Wright engine (fig. 11) was designed by the brothers and built with the assistance of their faithful mechanic Charles E. Taylor (fig. 12; he is not related to the writer). This engine is especially well described by Robert B. Meyer in the Annual Report of the . . . Smithsonian Institution . . .for the year ended June 30, 196 J. It was a 4-cy Under water-cooled, horizontal engine of 200-cu-in. displacement, with automatic inlet valves.

Figure 11.—Engine from Wright brothers'1903 airplane (NASM 1961-48); 12 hp at 1090 rpm, 179 lb. (Photos A-38626-B)


Fuel was supplied by gravity from a small can on top of the engine. From there it flowed through an adjustment valve to a surface carburetor in the intake manifold, which was heated by the cylinder water jacket. Ignition was by a low-tension magneto with k 'make-and-break" spark contacts in the cylinders. The engine would give 16 hp for a minute or so, after which it gave a steady 12 hp. Control, such as it was, was by the spark timing. As shown in table 1, this engine was heavy and of low power compared to the contemporary Langley engine, but it flew! This basic design was later improved by the Wrights so that by 1910 it was delivering 30 hp for a weight of 180 lb, or 6 lb/hp. The first and subsequent engines followed contemporary automobile practice in cylinder arrangement; however, crankcases were of cast aluminum, and the first engine had an en-bloc cast-aluminum water jacket. These, in use for aircraft engines from the beginning, have just recently come into use for some automobiles. After being in England for a number of years, the first Wright engine, with some alterations made subsequent to the 1903 flight, is now on display in the original airplane in the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.

Figure 12.—Wright brothers' mechanic Charles E. Taylor (left), who helped to build Wright 1903 engine, with a later model Wright brothers' engine. (From Airway Age, vol. 9, no. 12 (December 1928), p. 38)


(Photo A-15864) It was my good fortune to know Orville Wright. Ohio. 52 hp at 950 rpm. A description of this engine appears in "Langley's Aero E'rjgiine of 1903. much beloved member of the Dayton community.—Langley AerodromeA. 6. Meyer (Smithsonian Annals of Flight.S. and had become a very modest.engine (NASM 1918-1).Figure 13. 1971)." by R. He had previously retired from active participation in aeronautics. Army Air Service in Dayton. 14 . and to see him frequently during the period from 1919 to 1923 when I was engineer-incharge of the aircraft-engine laboratory of the U. no. and of the famous Dayton Engineers Club. B. in test stand. very quiet. 1903. 135 lb.

Further development resulted in the full-size engine of 1901.Langley Engines. The 5-in. On 12 December. bore cylinders. he contracted with Balzer for a 1 /'i-hp engine to power a /1-size model Aerodrome. the 52-hp 5cylinder water-cooled radial engine Langley used in his Aerodrome represents one of the most remarkable pieces of engine design and construction ever achieved. had accepted a contract to develop a flying machine for the United States Government. The history of this engine is interesting. removed from their Aerodromes./hp. 2. 9). are now displayed in the Smithsonian. Both engines. this contract must stand as one of the most optimistic on record! Later. Manly. the development of a reliable gasoline engine is a matter of at least two years. decided to use the stationary radial principle. Neither engine had been delivered by 1900. of cast iron. In 1898 Samuel P. respectively.196-lb/cu in. The search was unsuccessful and it was finally decided that Manly should join in the further development of the Balzer engines. Power of the large engine was carefully measured on a dynamometer and. Considering that even now. assembled by Manly himself.4 The water jackets. Balzer. shown in figures 13 and 14. the first nonrotary versions produced 16 and 2 hp. thick. 15 . Langley. then Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. a young graduate of Cornell University. and on June first of that year hired Charles M. 1900-1903 Considering the state of the art at the turn of the century. displacement has never been closely approached.58 lb. but Manly. 3 remained as a low record until the Liberty engine of 1918. after further consulting European builders. Langley contracted with a New York City automobile builder. The specific weight. described in detail in the Langley Memoir. with specifications in table 1. which had failed to produce the power required. lined with l/16 in. most remarkably. Stephen M. an increase largely attributed to better valve action in the absence of centrifugal force. were built up of steel lie in. Whereas the full-scale rotary engine had developed only 8 hp and the small engine 1 hp. as his assistant to supervise the design and construction of his Aerodrome. for a 12-hp engine to be completed in three months. and the slow progress led Langley and Manly to spend three months in Europe seeking even the prospect of an engine to power the full-sized Aerodrome. These engines were of the rotating-radial type. described in Manly's letter of 27 April 1926 (fig. sustained for three consecutive 10-hr tests. and in the ^-size one of the same year. The figure 0. His choice was quickly justified.

78) (From 16 . Langley Memoir. pi. 1903. SECTION THROUGH CYLINDER AND DRUM Figure 14. ENGINE OF AERODROME A.—Section through cylinder and crankcase of Langley Aerodrome A engine.5" Cy/inder if Si '"• {ffrvkt jEhafnc. Section through Cylinder tjfrum.

and magnetos was not available on the open market and had to be obtained from reluctant automobile builders or else built by hand. and other parts machined all over to carefully controlled dimensions. as were the cylinder heads and valve ports. without previous instruction or experience as a pilot and in an airplane without landing gear. Worst of all. before making their first powered flights. Accessory equipment such as spark plugs. and its use of crankcase. Although successful automobiles were in operation both in Europe and in the United States. its cam and valve-gear arrangement. and details of existing practice were either very difficult to find or else held as closely guarded secrets. 17 .020 in. The difficulty of this operation is mentioned by Manly and can well be imagined. cylinders. most of them were equipped with engines far too heavy and too low in power for airplane use. In view of these difficulties. carburetors. His survival of two crashes into the icy waters of the Potomac River testifies to his quick thinking and skill as a swimmer.of steel 0. flew several hundred times in gliders of a size and type quite similar to that of their first powered airplane. Manly's skill as an engineer and machinist was matched by his courage in making two (unsuccessful) takeoffs from the top of a houseboat. Nowadays it is hard to appreciate the difficulties of these early aircraftengine builders. All early Wright machines were equipped with landing skids. In contrast to the poor preparation for the Manly attempts. were brazed onto the cylinder. the accomplishments of the Wrights and the Langley group are all the more remarkable. there was no established body of good practice. the Wright brothers. thick. This engine somewhat anticipated modern large aircraft engines in its use of the radial arrangement with a master connecting rod.

—Antoinette monoplane with Levavasseur Antoinette engine. (Photo courtesy Science Museum.Figure 15. 1909. 93 lb. (Photo A-3099) Figure 16.—Levavasseur Antoinette 8-cylinder engine. 1905-1907. London) 18 . 32 hp at 1400 rpm.

respectively. Ellehammer. a remarkable figure at that time (see table 1). powered by the 50-hp Antoinette. with a 50-hp Antoinette engine. Cody made the first airplane flight in England on 16 October 1908 with an airplane somewhat resembling the Wright in design. Louis Bleriot also used the 50-hp Antoinette engine in his first tractor monoplane. Farman's engine weighed 3 lb. apparently under good control. both records accomplished in their flight of 5 October 1905. The year 1908 was memorable for the rapid development of increasingly successful airplanes and engines. The first helicopter to lift a man off the ground (Paul Cornu. Together with the engines of Glenn Curtiss and the French ENV (fr.and 32-cylinder models. hardly more than short "hops. All were water-cooled V types and were later built in 16." in airplanes with unconvincing control systems.368 ft in 1 min 14 sec.Engines 1903-1909 After the Wrights had demonstrated the actuality of airplane flight. Antoinette engines (figs. The engines of Farman and Santos-Dumont were 8-cylinder V types rated at 50 and 24 hp. Other noteworthy details of the Antoinette included inlet port fuel injection. H. the Dane J. and the Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont accomplished flights. Not until 9 November 1907. No. Santos-Dumont used one rated at 24 hp for his "hop" of 772 ft in November 1906. en V) of 1909. C. 13 November 1907) was also powered with an Antoinette engine. a period of nearly three years elapsed before anyone else flew in a heavierthan-air craft. Antoinette engines had machined-steel cylinders with brass water jackets. hp. VII. they pioneered the use of the watercooled V-type engine in aeronautics. which flew in December 1907.. Meanwhile the Wrights increased their duration of flight to more than half an hour and their distance to nearly 25 miles. did anyone but the Wright brothers stay in the air for as long as a minute or fly a distance of over a thousand feet. On that date Henri Farman in a Voisin biplane flew 3. In 1906 the Hungarian Trajan Vuia. Two important new engines ap19 . and evaporative cooling. 15 and 16) were built in Paris by Levavasseur as early as 1905 and were to become very important powerplants for European aviation in the next few years.

"un des plus passionants spectacles qu'ait presents Vhistoire des sciences appliques. which flew successfully in 1904. 18) which powered a flight of 1 min 43 sec in the June Bug on 4 July. In 1907 Curtiss joined the Aerial Experiment Association headed by Alexander Graham Bell. 17) and the Curtiss air-cooled V-type 8-cylinder (fig.—Renault 80-hp V-8 engine (NASM 1932-125).peared—the 35-hp Renault 8-cylinder air-cooled V-type (an 80-hp example is shown in fig. France. And. 5 Figure 17.'1'' Glenn Curtiss was building and racing motorcycle engines soon after 1900. 44 min on 2 October. except for Wright airplanes (which had flown for over an hour). and thus began his distinguished career as designer and builder of both airplanes and engines and as an airplane pilot. It was. about 1916. according to a French commentator. (Photo A-42316-B) 20 . with geared propeller drive (rating of the 1908 version was 35 hp at 1400 rpm. a practice widely followed in later aircraft engines. In 1902 Thomas Baldwin engaged him to supply an engine for Baldwin's dirigible airship. the longest flight had been by Farman in a Voisin. it used long hold-down studs on the cylinders. until that day in 1908 that Wilbur Wright flew for 2 hr 20 min and 23 sec at Auvours. 242 lb). One of the earliest geared engines.

(Photos A-3100. New York. A-3101) 21 . showing its 8-cylinder air-cooled engine installed. Curtiss in his airplane June Bug.—(Above) Glenn H.Figure 18. (Below) The June Bug at Hammondsport. 1908.

90). and Bleriot—had made flights of more than an hour's duration.Curtiss's earliest engines were air-cooled. The most noteworthy engine which developed from his early work was the famous OX-5. installed in an unsuccessful airplane in 1907. 19). to 22 . Late in 1908. to be described later. An outstanding engine to appear in 1909 was the 50-hp 7-cylinder Gnome rotary-radial. including the V-8 engine used in the famous June Bug. with integrally machined cooling fins and a modern master-rod system. first flown in Henri Farman's No. Engines bearing his name have an important place in aviation to this day. and this type had been originally planned and built for the Langley Aerodrome. It frequently used a cowling with central air intake. p. Next to the Wright brothers.5-hp 3-cylinder Anzani fan-type air-cooled engine (fig. he settled on a watercooled V-8 engine similar to the Antoinette of Lavavasseur except that the cylinders were of cast iron. the cowling used here had its opening for outlet air at the bottom." because in that year flight began to be convincingly demonstrated by others than the Wright brothers. The design of the Gnome was by Laurent Seguin. with monel-metal water jackets. The year 1909 has been called the "year of practical powered flying. Its primary purpose was. Antoinette. Another fan-type engine of this period was the REP of Robert Esnault-Pelterie. something like that later developed for static radials by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (see p. Made entirely from steel forgings machined all over. Farman. Later Anzani built 1. 23. which had been previously thought essential. 90) was a masterpiece for its time and deserves special attention here. Rotary types had been built for automobiles by Stephen Balzer and AdamsFarwell in the United States before the turn of the century. however. The rotary feature was used in order to eliminate the flywheel. rather than around the rear edge. His tractor monoplane was equipped with a 24.and 2-row radial air-cooled engines that were used in a number of airplanes prior to and soon after World War I. Glenn Curtiss was certainly the most important figure in early American aviation. Unlike the NACA cowling. probably. table 2. both in engine and in airplane design. This engine (figs.5 miles) on 25 July 1909. 20 and 21. and also to assist in cooling. Four types of airplane—Wright. however. Ill biplane. Bleriot made his famous cross-channel flight (37 min. it anticipated many features of the latest large air-cooled radials. His subsequent R E P fan-type engines were used in several successful airplanes. but it was first adapted to flying in the Gnome.

became perhaps the most popular aircraft engines up to World War I and were used widely by both sides through that war.—Anzani 3-cylinder fan-type engine. The type used in Bleriot's crossing of the English Channel. This seven-cylinder model. 145 lb. its rating was 24. 6 The only disagreeable feature was the castor-oil fumes discharged from the exhaust. 1909.5 hp at 1600 rpm. Lubrication was achieved by pumping castor oil into the crankshaft at a 23 . I had the pleasure of flying with a Gnome engine in 1920 and found it exceptionally free of vibration and also relatively quiet. away from the pilot. The fact that it also greatly reduced engine "drag" as compared with uncowled engines. may not have been understood at that time. (Photo A-49846-E) encourage discharge of exhaust gases and oil under the airplane.Figure 19. and subsequent larger and more powerful versions.

(From Aerosphere 1939. 50 hp at 1150 rpm. 341) 24 . p. 1910. 165 lb.—Gnome 7-cylinder Monosoupape rotary-radial engine. In this longitudinal section note inlet valve in piston to admit fuel-air mixture from crankcase.Figure 20.

without danger of stalling the engine. 25 . Because of the great inertia of the rotating engine. by means of separate valves controlled by the pilot. it was possible to adjust to the appropriate mixture by trial. and the engine was kept going by short bursts of power. the fuel and air were introduced through the hollow crankshaft. Because the reverse process was difficult. One of my first assignments in aviation (1917) was to make tests to show that mineral oil could be used in aero engines. as installed in er Canard pusher biplane.21. and oil which was not burned eventually found its way out of the exhaust ports and. much of it settled on the airplane (and on the pilot!). after the engine had been started the air throttle was opened wide. With a known setting of the valves for idling. The fuel valve was then opened until firing restarted and maximum propeller speed was attained.—Gnome 50-hp 7-cylinder engine. A-50895) fixed rate. at which time firing ceased but rotation continued. No carburetor was used. Oddly enough this technique was easy to learn and pilots seemed to like it. Previous to that time castor oil had been considered as indispensable for aero engines as it was for young children. despite the cowling. Another interesting feature of the Gnome engine was its method of control. 1910. throttling down was accomplished by temporarily cutting the ignition.

The JAP (J. air cooled 8-cylinder V-type. air cooled These engines accounted for nearly all important flights in 1909.Important engines of 1909 included the following (see also table 1. water cooled 2-cylinder opposed. was important for being one of the first aircraft engines to use mechanically operated inlet valves. Since automobile engines had been using mechanically operated valves for many years before 1909. Wright Curtiss Antoinette ENV Darracq Gnome Renault REP Anzani 4. 26 . The Darracq engine. All other aircraft of the period used automatic inlet valves. water cooled 8-cylinder V-type. air cooled 3-cylinder fan. p. water cooled 7-cylinder rotary. water cooled 8-cylinder V-type. Prestwich Co. used by Santos-Dumont. A. 88). air cooled 7-cylinder fan. Roe in his early airplane appears to have been the only other one using such valves. including the winners of the first official aviation contests at Rheims. opened by suction.and 6-cylinder vertical. it is hard to understand. V.) motorcycle engine used by A. water cooled 8-and 16-cylinder V-type. why this important feature was so late in coming into use for aircraft engines.

it powered practically all United States and Canadian training airplanes and was probably responsible for training more pilots for World War I than any other engine. the considerable windage losses. the Navy version of this engine.5 engine (fig. p. affectionately known as the Jenny. Used by both Army and Navy. 34a) with sheet monel-metal water jackets brazed onto the barrels. however. the Curtiss J N . Reasons for its demise were chiefly a limitation on speed due to centrifugal stress. a water-cooled V-8. The best-known trainer. It set a pattern. It reached its maximum development early in the war and was definitely obsolescent by 1918. In the United States the Curtiss O X .7 27 . had an aluminum crankcase. which included World War I. It was a forged-and-machined-all-over engine. castiron cylinders (see fig. The O X . My first airplane ride (1917) was in a single-float seaplane with the O X X . Other rotary engines were built at this time. and it was radial and air-cooled.Engines 1910-1918 The period 1910-1918. and overhead valves. saw such rapid developments of aircraft engines that only the important ones can be described here. design limitations imposed by rotation of all parts but the crankshaft. and a rather strong gyroscopic effect on the airplane during turns.5 . for the later development of the modern air-cooled radial engine. push-rod operated. 22 and table 1. the water-cooled V-type engine became dominant. but none achieved the importance or success of the Gnome and its descendants.2 . 88) led the field until 1917. is shown in figure 23. including models by LeRhone and Clerget (French) the Bentley BR-1 and BR-2 (British) and the Oberiirsel and Siemens (German). when the Liberty and Hispano-Suiza engines were introduced. As the rotary engines became obsolete. By "important" I mean those which pioneered successful new design features or which were particularly notable in service. Early in this period the Gnome air-cooled rotary engine was dominant and was built in many countries and in several modified designs. features which are now characteristic of most large aircraft piston engines.4 .

(Photo A-1832) Figure 23. 320 lb (see also fig. Reno. Nevada) . (Photo courtesy Harrah's Automotive Museum. 90 hp at 1400 rpm.Figure 22.—Curtiss JN-4 Jenny airplane with OX-5 engine. 1917.—Curtiss OX-5 water-cooled V-8 engine (NASM 1920-8). 34a). 1915.

(Photo A-487) . 1 9 1 5 . This engine pioneered welded-steel cylinder c o n s t r u c t i o n .Figure 24. March 1918) Figure 25. 3 6 0 hp at 1800 r p m . Report on the 180-H. 618 lb.P.1 2 engine. 9 0 0 lb. 1 9 1 7 . 180 hp at 1500 r p m .—Mercedes 6-cylinder engine. Mercedes Engine. Its cylinder construction is similar to t h a t of the Mercedes in figure 2 4 . (From [ B r i t i s h ] Ministry of Munitions.—Rolls-Royce Eagle V .

8 After a decision on 29 May 1917 (only 7 weeks after the United States entered the war). and breaking of accessory gears. 25). Hall. of the Hall-Scott Motor Co. 88). p. before or since. Its weaknesses included single ignition. J. Among the engines built in this style. Its principal weaknesses were cracking of the cylinder-head water jackets. It had no radical features. It was copied by such famous makes as the Rolls-Royce Eagle (fig. but few pilots completed the training course (very short) without at least one forced landing. the first 8-cylinder engine was delivered to the Bureau of Standards for test 3 July. just 6 months after Vincent and Hall had started their layout. Liberty. O On 31 May preliminary layouts were approved by the WPB and some extra help was called in. to be discussed later (p. and a tendency to leak water from the water pump down onto the low-slung carburetor. described later. 9 The design was based on the welded-cylinder construction pioneered by Mercedes. This was the built-up welded-steel cylinder construction widely used for a long time thereafter in most water-cooled engines. 24 and table 1. In freezing weather the latter defect accounted for many forced landings A very important new style in liquid-cooled cylinder design appeared in 1915 on the German 6-cylinder 180-hp Mercedes engine (fig. 33). and Elbert J. The first "production" engine was delivered to the Army Air Service in Dayton on Thanksgiving Day 1917.The O X . Vincent. all drafting was completed by 15 June.. a rather flimsy valve-operating gear including "pull-rods" for the inlet valves. which was developed under extraordinary circumstances. an important one was the United States Liberty (figs. and 34b). and it came to be considered a reliable engine. G. 26. These faults were gradually reduced as time went on. Early production engines had a 50-percent chance of passing the government 50-hr endurance test. but finally gave way to the castaluminum en bloc construction. Salmson. Washington. Renault. FIAT (Fabrica Italiana Automobili Torino). I believe this record has never been equaled. In later modification a bar was welded between the ports to reduce cylinder 30 . except perhaps by the first Pratt & Whitney Wasp. and BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke). Chief Engineer of Packard. Complete layouts were approved 4 June. D . by the War Production Board to build an airplane engine more powerful than any in use up to that time. but was an excellent synthesis of the state of the art of its time. started to design such an engine in the Willard Hotel. and the first 12-cylinder engine completed the official 50-hr test 25 August 1917. burning of exhaust valves.5 engine was considered very reliable for its day. 27.

1918.—Liberty V-12 engine. 34b).—Liberty 12A. 467) . (Photo A-691) Figure 27. 4 2 0 hp at 1700 r p m . p. transverse section viewed f r o m rear. V-12 engine. (From Aerosphere 1939.Figure 26. 8 5 6 lb. 1 9 1 8 . It has Mercedes-type cylinder construction (see also f i g .

(From The French Hispano-Suiza Aero Engine. Instruction Book. 34c).—Hispano-Suiza V-8 engine.—Wright Aeronautical Corp. viewed f r o m rear. 1 9 2 0 .Figure 28. 4 7 0 lb. p. transverse section. magneto end. (P/?ofoA-5i0iJ) Figure 29. The French-built model was rated at 150 hp (see also f i g . Hispano-Suiza Model E V-8 engine. 180 hp at 1700 rpm. 25) .

and some General Motors divisions. 11 Also. Ford.12 The success of this engine started a revolution in liquid-cooled engine design which culminated in the Rolls-Royce Kestrel and Merlin. and at the end of the war many thousands of these engines were on hand. By 1917 Hispano-Suiza engines were being built in England and the United States. Lincoln. 30). and their motor boats were far outclassed by the Liberty-equipped bootleggers' craft. and in 1924 it powered the flight of several Army airplanes around the world. Marc Birkigt. The only major weakness remaining was in the exhaust valves. the first aircraft to cross the Atlantic. The Liberty engine remained important in United States Army and Navy aviation well into the 1930s. Many were sold at low prices to "rum runners" and were very successfully used in running liquor through the Coast Guard blockade along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts during the Prohibition Era. in a turbo-supercharged version. Large quantities of the Liberty-12 engine were produced by the automobile companies. perhaps the best fighters of World War I (see fig. The NC-4 was. and D-12 engines. From a technical viewpoint. 1921. It was also the prototype for the Mercedes and Junkers engines which were the backbone of the 1940-45 German Luftwaffe.distortion and jacket cracking.10 The Liberty was also the first engine to fly nonstop across the American Continent (in the Fokker T-2. including Packard. it held the world's altitude records in 1920. and heavier teeth were used in the gears. built first in Barcelona by a Swiss engineer. The basic contribution of Birkigt to engine design was the en bloc cylinder construction with a cast-aluminum water jacket containing steel cylinder barrels and with enclosed and lubricated valves and valve gear. which served well most of the time. 88). of course. During these years the Coast Guard had no "requirements" for a light and powerful marine engine. 33 . Japanese. It was used by the British in military airplanes as well as by the United States Army Air Service and Naval Flying Corps. Liberty engine production was far ahead of airplane production in this country. and table 1. 29. C-12. It was adopted for French fighters in 1915 and used in the Spad (Societe pour Aviation et ses Derives) 7 and 13. via the Curtiss K-12. together with en-bloc Russian. 2-3 May 1923. 28. and 34c. This engine was used in the NC flying boats with a special economical carburetor setting developed at the Washington Navy Yard. p. as well as in France. and Italian designs. 16-27 May 1919. the outstanding airplane engine during World War I was undoubtedly the Hispano-Suiza V-8 (figs. piloted by Kelly and McCready). and 1922.

(Photo A-44832-C) The only weakness in the early Hispano-Suiza engines. In contrast to the all-forged construction of the Gnome and the modern large radial engines. 1917-1918. the Hispano-Suiza engine and its descendants were essentially cast-aluminum engines except for the moving parts and the cylinder barrels. used by 27th Squadron. 29 and 34c)." that is. The development of this engine was continued in the United States after World War I by the Wright-Martin Company. by standards of the time. AEF. was a tendency toward exhaust-valve burning. which reduced valve cooling and also distorted the valve seats.—An Hispano-Suiza V-8 powered this Spad 7 airplane.Figure 30. The flat steel head had a tendency to warp and lose contact with the aluminum jacket. which in 1919 became the Wright Aeronautical Corporation. 34 . World War I. One of the most important changes made was to eliminate the steel cylinder head and to seat the valves in bronze inserts pressed into the aluminum heads. causing exhaust valves to leak and burn under conditions of severe operation. they did not come directly into contact with the cooling water (see figs. This was due to the fact that the steel cylinder heads were "dry. This basic improvement set a pattern for the most successful subsequent liquid-cooled engines.

then built in both the original and a larger (300 hp) size had convinced most designers that the welded-cylinder construction was obsolescent. as in the Wright version of the Hispano-Suiza. 31). air-cooled engines for light aircraft Liquid-Cooled Engines By 1920 the success of the Hispano-Suiza engines. From the technical point of view. 34d). in the center between the valves. 1922. horizontal. with successive 12-cylinder designs known as the K-12. and V-1400 models. instead of 2 as in the Hispano-Suiza. and later. In the D-12 the steel head was abandoned. The Curtiss Company in the United States took up the cast-aluminum engine. by means of which the head was held tightly against the water-jacket casting (fig. 13 C-12. generally based on the Hispano-Suiza. The first was the Kestrel 35 . chiefly for military purposes The development of the air-cooled radial engine to a place of dominance in all but fighter-type military and small civilian aircraft The advent of 4-cylinder vertical in-line.Piston Engines After 1918 In the period after 1918 hundreds of new engine types appeared. but cooling was greatly assisted by an integral stud. These were all of the 12-cylinder V-type. The great success of the Curtiss engines in racing (first to exceed 200 mph in the Mitchell 14 Trophy race. and winner of the Schneider trophy in 1923 and 1925) led the Rolls-Royce company to develop aluminum V-12 engines of similar type. with 4 valves per cylinder. The two early models had steel cylinder heads like that of the original Hispano-Suiza. the period is marked by the following significant developments: Further development of the liquid-cooled engine of the all-cast type. D-12 (fig. opposed-cylinder. Detroit. and the valve seats were bedded directly in the aluminum head.

(Photo A-3110) f ^ll]J&22* . in the Mitchell Trophy race. about 1700 lb. This engine was the first to fly more than 200 mph. 1922. about 1944.—Curtiss D-12 V-12 engine. 325 hp at 1800 rpm. 2000 hp at 3000 rpm. engine speed was increased so that it probably developed about 400 hp.—Rolls-Royce Merlin 61 V-12 engine with 2-stage supercharger. 704 lb. and for the race. Detroit.Figure 31. (Photo A-3109) Figure 32.

9 litres. Features of the engine are the twelve plunger in-line direct injection pump. 34h). The Kestrel was followed by the Rolls-Royce Merlin (fig. which for a weight of 1. B pfte CVUNDG . Germany's leading World War II engine (see also fig. all descendants of the Hispano-Suiza and Curtiss. bore and stroke 150 x 160 m m . vol. Cylinder barrels were uniformly of steel. 33) and Junkers V-12 liquid-cooled engines.20 Ib.540 lb. April 16. 4 1 .GLM INTERRUPTER Germany's BREATHER BALANCED CRANKSHAFT Leading In-line ROG_ER BEARING MAIN KARWGS Engine MOUNTING TOR KtND STATER Wyf®]2 [ | y K L\\\vT v l \ v\ii y •'.. at 2.P.' \ i i^\m r //7\\\\ \ ' I \Y \ ky AUTCMAT£ALL> THROTTLE .m. DB-601-N V-12. 1942.B. is 1. and the fluid coupling which provides an infinitely variable gear for the supercharger drive. (From Flight. Figure 33. especially in the method of taking the cylinder-head-to-crankcase load. This was successfully done as follows (fig. Design details varied. and thus had better valve cooling than the original Hispano-Suiza design. p. V «.600 r.—Daimler-Benz. or R. type which attained theretofore unheard of power output in proportion to its size and weight and won the Schneider trophy in 1929 and 1931.) of 1927 soon followed by the racing. 32). = 1. 367.601N of 33. SUPERCHARGER hr? Part-sectional drawing of the liquid-cooled D.p. In every case the basic structure consisted of cast aluminum crankcase with en bloc water jackets and cylinder heads. and the German Daimler-Benz (fig. and also by the Allison V-1710 (a fairly faithful copy of the Merlin). 34 illustrates the evolution of liquid-cooled cylinder construction) : 37 . Roller bearings are used on the crankpins.p.H.= £ : •. winner of the Battle of Britain.270. also of cast aluminum./h. In all these engines the valves were seated in inserts embedded in the aluminum head.. B.


34b).700 118 1. Rolls-Royce (fig. and Daimler-Benz (fig. psi . ft-min H p per sq in. . dry (without water. in Maximum hp Rpm Brake mean effective pressure. 34h) Through the aluminum water-jacket structure—Curtiss (fig. . lb. 985 1. Packard (fig. 39 . radiators) 1918 Liberty 12 5x7 420 1. 34a). 4 Unique fastening of cylinder barrels to crankcase by means of a ring nut. Aluminum casting containing valve ports and camshaft was continuous over 6 separate steel cylinders. Hispano-Suiza (fig.2 0. 34c).04 1948 Packard Merlin 12 5.—Liquid-cooled cylinder development: a b c d e f 9 h 1 2 Year 1914 1917 1915 1921 1922 1923 1934 1935 Name Curtiss OX-5 Liberty Hispano-Suiza Curtiss K-12 ' Packard V .Through the cylinder barrels—Liberty (fig. . welded Cast a l u m i n u m // // // .1 2 -' Curtiss C-12 3 Rolls-Royce Merlin Daimler-Benz 4 Barrel Cast iron Steel Jacket Monel sheet Steel. 34d and f) and Junkers V-12 gasoline engine By long bolts from cylinder heads to crankcase—Curtis OX-5 (fig. 78 2. piston area Weight. 250 3. 000 8. welded Cast a l u m i n u m // it Load by Studs Barrel // Jacket Barrel Jacket Studs Barrel Steel./ Water jacket is cast integral with crankcase. Mean piston speed. 4x6 2. 3 Improvement on K-12 by bolting separate water-jacket casting to crankcase for easier assembly and disassembly. T h e following figures for two engines of nearly the same piston displacement a n d representing design ideas 30 years a p a r t illustrate this d e v e l o p m e n t : Engine Number of cylinders Bore and stroke. . . 78 Figure 34. 34e). per hp.000 360 3. oil. 34g) and Allison T h e i m p r o v e m e n t in performance of liquid-cooled engines since 1918 has been astonishing.

which will be discussed later. Gibson at Royal Aircraft Establishment. p. A. 1 1 .—British air-cooled cylinder d e v e l o p m e n t : Left.These improvements are attributable not only to improved detail design. 1926). sgs» Figure 35. 4. p. Right. 1918. applied f i n n i n g on barrel is typical of many m o d e r n engines ( f r o m [ B r i t i s h ] Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Report I. and cooling fluid. ABC steel cylinder with f i n n e d a l u m i n u m cap. with hard valve-seat inserts. this cylinder had poor head and valve cooling ( f r o m Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers. but also to important developments in fuel. 1 9 1 7 .C. 260. Cylinder developed by Dr. H. supercharging. vol. 38. f i g . screwed over steel b a r r e l . 2 6 8 . no. January 1919). anticipated the essential features of m o d e r n aircooled aircraft-engine cylinders—that is. a l u m i n u m head.E. 40 . 8 7 2 .

A. the ABC (All British Engine Company) Wasp of 4/^-in. right). chiefly for military purposes. A parallel development of air-cooled engines with aluminum cylinders having steel liners was begun about 1916 by Charles L. about 1930. ten years after Gibson started his work. 35. poor exhaust-valve cooling because of poor contact between the head and the separate cooling element. and 41 . 38) which passed its type test in 1922. These included the radial Anzani. D. of air-cooled radials with steel flat-head cylinders capped by a bolted-on valve-port assembly of cast-iron or cast aluminum (fig. Heron. bore. By 1918 they had constructed and tested steel cylinders with cast-aluminum heads screwed onto them. Bristol changed from steel heads to Aluminum heads with the Jupiter F. and FIAT. The fact that cooling problems increase with increased cylinder size evidently was not realized at the time. the practical use of the aluminum-head cylinder in England was seriously delayed by a parallel development. Also obsolescent were air-cooled engines using cast-iron cylinders with integral heads and fins. and the Renault V-type with its descendants. through several changes in ownership. was successful enough to gain the support of the British government for its development in a larger version. and others) were obsolescent by 1918. H. that were capable of higher specific outputs than any cast-iron cylinder (fig. bore. During the first World War it had become evident that the simple cast-iron cylinder 15 had reached its limit. rather than in pounds of fuel. because of poor exhaust-valve cooling (S. 35. starting in 1917. per horsepower-hour!). however.. he built a 3-cylinder engine in 1919. Finally realizing this fact. It was never a really satisfactory aircraft engine. Oberiirsel. the Dragonfly of 5%-in. left). assisted by Samuel D. Gibson.Air-Cooled Engines The Gnome and its rotary descendants (LeRhone. to develop more effective air-cooled cylinders. the RAF (Royal Aircraft Factory). Starting with a 2-cylinder opposed engine. This cylinder design suffered from the same trouble as the early Hispano-Suiza engines. and were used on the Jaguar 2-row radial (fig. namely. Bentley B. Meanwhile the Gibson-Heron type cylinders had been further developed by Armstrong-Siddeley. and the Royal Aircraft Factory of Great Britain had employed Prof. the Bristol Jupiter engine (fig. R. Clerget. Heron said that its consumption should be given in terms of pounds of exhaust valves. This development finally became. which was built and used in considerable quantities in England and in Europe. Lawrance. the first radial engine using this cylinder type. 37). However.

.a vV.

pt. forged-steel barrel with rolled-on aluminum fins.17 Heron was a devoted worker and an able engineer. f. 1926. has more than 100 square inches of fin area for each square inch of piston area. barrel carries integral steel fins. which was supported by an order for 200 engines from the United States Navy. courtesy Wright Aeronautical Corporation. 39). and by 1921 had developed successful air-cooled cylinders of nearly 6-in.Figure 36. 1918-1926. to assist in the development of large radial engines. with Navy support. as evidenced by its use in Lindbergh's New York-Paris flight. based on his work with Gibson plus his own improvements worked out at McCook Field. 872. and J-4b. In 1922 Lawrance's company was absorbed by the Wright Aeronautical Corporation 16 and. This was the J .l (fig. Ohio. with forged and machined aluminum head. e.5 . who at the time were thoroughly committed to water cooling. Wright J-5 (1926-7) designed by Heron. During the same period. c. (a-e. b.3 . Dayton. D. 20-21 May 1927. this country's most sought after aviation award. Wright J-4B (1925-6) similar to J-4A but with air passage and fins between the ports. the Curtiss Aeroplane Company and Wright Aeronautical accepted contracts from the Army Air Corps to build prototype radial engines with Heron-designed cylinders. Some engines were built. It won the Robert J. stellite-faced. bore. Lawrence J .—Development of air-cooled cylinders in the United States: a.4 . S. The first result. The Lawrance and Heron developments were brought together when Heron in 1926 joined Wright Aeronautical Corporation. 36e and 40). the 9-cylinder engine was built in improved models known as the Wright J . but in very small numbers. 2. all with essentially the Lawrance cylinder design (see fig. from Transactions of the Society of Automotive Engineers. Against considerable resistance from their chief engineers. Heron had left England and had been employed by the United States Army Air Service at McCook Field. the Wright J . f. vol. and sodium-cooled exhaust valves. p. in 1927. Wright Aeronautical had also been experimenting with air-cooled radial engines 43 . This was a successful engine of the 200-hp class. was essentially a Lawrancetype engine with Heron-type cylinders (figs. in many other pioneering flights.l (1922) and Wright Aeronautical J-3 (1923) used cast aluminum structure with thin steel liner. J . and in a number of early transport airplanes. of which Lawrance was president. Wright Turbo-Cyclone cylinder of 1948. d. Collier trophy. 36a-d). 2 1 . Wright J-4 (1924) used flanged steel barrel with screwed-on head and jacket casting. Wright J-4A (1924-5) similar to J-4.) finally a 9-cylinder 200-hp radial in 1921.

—Armstrong-Siddeley Jaguar 14-cylinder 2-row radial engine. Cylinder design is similar to that of Gibson cylinder in figure 35. 1922. First successful British radial engine with aluminum-head cylinders and geardriven supercharger. (Photo A-3104) Figure 38. 400 hp at 1650 rpm. 700 lb. The first Americandesigned 9-cylinder radial to be put into general use. Cylinder section is shown in figure 36a. The cast-aluminum cylinder head and internally cooled exhaust valves have been retained in modern practice. (Photo A-3086) . 476 lb.l air-cooled radial engine. Cylinder design is similar to that of ABC cylinder in figure 35. Ltd. 910 lb. its rating was 200 hp at 1800 rpm.—Bristol Jupiter 9-cylinder engine.—Lawrance J . about 1922. 360 hp at 2000 rpm. 1922.. This example was built by Cosmos Engineering Co. left. right (Photo A-3111) Figure 39.Figure 37.

220 hp at 1800 rpm. Chamberlin.—Wright Whirlwind J-5 engine (NASM 121) of 1927. headed by the chief engineer George J. " Subsequent to the merger of Wright and Lawrance.Figure 40. resigned to join Frederick B. Rentschler in forming the 45 . Mead. 510 lb. the bore of which was 4. Cylinder section is shown in figure 36e. This is the type used in transoceanic flights by Lindbergh. but the first really successful engine of the larger type was the Pratt and Whitney 425-hp Wasp of 1927.5 in. Byrd. (Photo A-44092) having cylinders larger than those of the J .. and others. a considerable fraction of the Wright Aeronautical staff.5 .

41). which will be discussed later Second-order balancing weights. this new g r o u p p r o d u c e d the W a s p (shown in fig. basically of the Heron design Divided crankpin (fig.c o m p o u n d engine. 2-valve cylinders. b u t with greatly improved detail design. 5. ca. including the composite steel and a l u m i n u m cylinder construction pioneered by Gibson. introduced by Wright Aeronautical in 1935. Connecticut.800 rpm 9 cylinders. are used in all m o d e r n large air-cooled radial engines. H e r o n . 42) Domed-head. 46 . bore and stroke Built-in geared centrifugal supercharger Fully enclosed valve gear. with the addition of the above improvements. the first large radial air-cooled engine of w h a t m a y be called " m o d e r n " design. 43) with one-piece master rod While most of these features h a d appeared previously. T h e notable features of this engine included: Rating. 41) Forged and machined crankcase (fig. and set a high standard for future development of radial engines. 425 hp at 1. Figure 36 shows the evolution of W r i g h t cylinders from a b o u t 1920 to 1930. with rocker boxes integral with cylinder head (fig.Pratt & W h i t n e y Aircraft C o m p a n y of Hartford. 1914) The vibration-absorbing counterweight. and L a w r a n c e . Figures 44-47 show the outstanding modern air-cooled radial engines which are basically descendants of the G n o m e . the most highly developed aircooled radial. their combination here was an eminently rational and successful one.75 in. pioneered by Bristol in England and Wright Aeronautical in the United States about 1940 (Gnome had pioneered the forged and machined steel head for air-cooled engines) The automatically lubricated (by engine oil) valve gear. in comparison with the cylinder used on the W r i g h t t u r b o . pioneered by Pratt & Whitney in 1932 (first used in water-cooled aero engines by Hispano-Suiza.75x5. This type. has dominated transport and m u c h of military aviation until the recent advent of the j e t a n d turbine engine. In a time almost as short as t h a t for the Liberty engine. to reduce unbalanced forces T h e basic features of the W a s p . T h e only i m p o r t a n t basic improvements to be developed later for radial air-cooled engines w e r e : The forged and machined aluminum cylinder head. of course.

425 hp at 1900 r p m . 20) pioneered this design for radial aircraft engines. (Photo A-3087) Figure 42. Right. 1 9 2 6 . from Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine. The first such United States engine of over 4 0 0 hp to go into general service. The Gnome (see f i g . complete crankcase. forging of one half before m a c h i n i n g . Left.Figure 41.—Divided crankshaft.—Forged a l u m i n u m crankcase of Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine. Cylinder design was similar to that of the Wright J-5 (fig. 6 5 0 lb. it pioneered many technical features which became standard practice for this type. (Photo A-3106) 47 . 36e) except that rocker-arm supports and housing were cast integral with the cylinder head—an i m p o r t a n t innovation. (Photo A-3105) Figure 43.—Pratt & Whitney Wasp air-cooled radial engine.

C B .1 6 18-cylinder air-cooled 2-row radial engine. (Photo A-3103) Figure 45. 2 8 0 0 hp at 2800 r p m . and t h i s model was widely used in commercial and military aircraft.—Pratt & Whitney Wasp Major R-4360 28-cylinder 4-row radial engine. A post-World War II military and commercial engine. 2 3 2 7 lb.Figure 44. (Photo A-4132) 48 .2 8 0 0 . 3842 lb. Earlier models were extensively used in World War I I . 3 5 0 0 hp at 2 9 0 0 r p m . 1948 (cutaway). 1 9 4 6 .—Pratt & Whtney Double Wasp R .

JH m . This post-war engine had three exhaust-driven turbines geared to the crankshaft.—Wright Turbo-Cyclone R-3350 18-cylinder 2-row radial engine. 1953. When this engine first came into use in 1933.—Wright Cyclone R-1820 1425-hp9-cylinderengine. among others. 3700 hp at 2900 rpm. about 3000 lb. 1955 (cutaway). It was used in the Douglas DC-3 and Boeing B-17. and it was the latest and most highly developed piston type to be widely used in large military and commercial airplanes. it was rated at 525 hp at 1900 rpm. (Photo A-3090) Figure 47.Figure 46. (Photo A-3089) i rV> .

2. per hp. this 38-hp engine used cast-iron L-head cylinders. The popularity of engine-powered model airplanes fell off about 50 . .. supercharging.3125 Maximum hp 200 3. . 49). including principally the Lycoming Division of Avco Corporation.000 rpm or more. .800 2. .900 Brake mean effective pressure..38 0. . 1. bore and stroke (fig. . and of the 4-cylinder Continental A-40 (fig.5x5. in number of engines. 112 302 Mean piston speed. lb. Some are rated up to 1 hp at speeds of 15. these engines were produced in very large quantities between 1945 and 1950. 070 Hp per sq in. 650 3.4 7.. These are usually 1-cylinder 2-cycle engines of less than 1-in. 0 Weight. 48). were important factors in this development. The subject of the air-cooled engine should not be left without mention of the remarkable development of the light-airplane engine. a real compliment to the high quality of these small powerplants.l Wright TurboCompound Number of cylinders 9 18 Bore and stroke. 1. and their total production. a license to build Continental engines of this type was acquired by Rolls-Royce. Engines of this type built by Continental Motors Corporation and by others. improvements in fuels. . Originating in the United States about 1930.The following comparison illustrates the development of air-cooled engines from 1922 to the present time: 1922 1955 Engine . Another interesting category of air-cooled engines comprises those built for installation in model airplanes. psi .5 cylinder of figure 36e. piston area . in 4. . 1. . In 1961. It is claimed that there were 180 manufacturers of model engines in the United States during that period.. dry (without oil and oil radiators) . probably exceeded that of all other aircraft engines combined.125x6.96 As had been true of liquid-cooled engines. Introduced in 1931. It was the forerunner of contemporary horizontal-opposed light-plane engines. Lawrance J .'. 700 Rpm .5 6. have developed to a remarkable degree of reliability and performance. ft/min . beginning with the small British 4-cylinder vertical Cirrus and DeHavilland Gypsy engines of 1927.. Later models use composite aluminum and steel cylinders similar to the J . and cooling systems as well as great improvements in detail design.'. .

This engine was the f o r e r u n n e r of contemporary horizontal-opposed light-plane engines. air-cooled model engine uses special fuel with hot-wire ignition. (Photo A50897) C Figure 49. 145 lb. 40 hp at 2 5 0 0 r p m . 2cycle.2 0 ) . This typical single-cylinder. 5 ounces.000 r p m . Super Cyclone (NASM 1 9 4 4 . about 1/10 hp at 10. 1 9 3 1 .4 0 air-cooled horizontalopposed 4-cylinder engine. (Photo A-36625) .—Model airplane engine.Figure 48. about 1 9 5 0 .—Continental A .

Below. This position for the radiator required a large cooling surface and cont r i b u t e d heavily to airplane drag. (Photos A-47190.l radial engine on Curtiss F4-C1.—Radial engine with NACA-type cowling on Frank Hawks' Lockheed Air Express. (Photo A-33428-E) . 1918. 1927.—Frontal coolant radiator for Liberty engine on DeHavilland DH-4 (NASM 1 9 1 9 . after return from Europe. Figure 51. Louis (NASM 1928-21). 1929. Partially exposed Wright J-5 engine on Ryan NYP airplane Spirit of St.5 1 ) .—Completely exposed Lawrance J . Figure 52. (Photo A-9850-D). about 1924.Figure 50.A-1193-B).

especially for use in fighter airplanes. The drag of air-cooled engines was greatly reduced by the advent of the very effective cowling and cylinder baffing developed at Langley Field by NACA. Japanese fighter aircraft also used air-cooled radials copied from Wright and Pratt & Whitney designs. but has revived during the past decade. because of the assumed larger frontal area and greater drag of air-cooled radials. whose support for air-cooled engine development in the 1920s and 1930s was never as enthusiastic as that of the Navy. Their other military aircraft used these and copies of the German Daimler-Benz liquidcooled engine (fig. developed from a Pratt & Whitney license. compact size. 36a-e and 36f. and minimum maintenance. In the United States. That cooling drag was a real problem in the early days is illustrated by figures 50 and 51. During 1966 one manufacturer alone produced a million model aero engines. except for the rotaries. 52 and 53). when the advent of jets and turbo props diverted attention elsewhere. The most intense controversy on this subject took place in the United States Army Air Service. As we have seen. and there was one excellent air-cooled European fighter. European military aviation remained generally committed to water cooling up to and through World War II. water cooling was dominant through World War I. Air Versus Liquid Cooling The classic and often emotionally charged argument over the relative merits of liquid and air cooling started with the early days of flying (Antoinette vs. Further reductions in cooling drag were achieved by increased cooling-fin area.1950. Gnome. starting in 1929 (figs. which at its close were obsolescent. the Focke-Wulf with the BMW 2-row radial. These develop53 . the Navy made a commitment to air cooling in 1921 which has held for reciprocating engines to this day. 33). which reduced the air velocity required for cooling (compare figs. which imposed such design criteria as short takeoff. The reason for this choice lay in the limitations of the aircraft carrier. It was chiefly Navy support that underwrote early Pratt & Whitney and Wright aircooling developments. showing typical installations of the 1920s. although some air-cooled engines were used in bombers and transports. for example) and persisted to the end of World War II. Commander Bruce Leighton was probably the individual most responsible for this well-considered decision.

1930. (Photo A-50822) Figure 55. 1949. 13. on Curtiss Falcon airplanes. 1954.—Cooling-air flow in tractor installation of a cowled radial engine.tPtu'ilion of "flap"when \. by the Thermix Corp.-aoseo/ Figure 53. Only the upper half of the installation is shown. no.—Installation of radial engine on a Douglas DC-6. publ. 9. (From The Project Engineer. 10. vol. with controllable outlet flaps. showing modern cowling for radial engine.—Comparison of radiator installations for water (left) and for ethylene glycol cooling. Figure 54. p.) .

until the advent of high-temperature liquid cooling with glycol-water mixtures. At the suggestion of S. Coolant radiator is housed under fuselage. Figure 54 show's modern cowling for the air-cooled radial engines. below the star insignia. The use of high-boiling liquids (mixtures of water and ethylene glycol) for engines formerly water-cooled was an important forward step in reducing the heat-transfer area. (Photo A-45801) ments put the air-cooled radial virtually on a par with the water-cooled engines with regard to cooling drag. which allowed operation of the coolant 55 . Inlet and outlet ducts are designed to minimize drag.Figure 56. the use of this method of cooling was adopted for Curtiss liquid-cooled engines by 1932. and thereby the drag. D. North American P-51 Mustang of World War II. of radiators for liquid-cooled engines. a 1-cylinder engine was tested at McCook Field in 1923 with a mixture of water and ethylene glycol at a high coolant temperature. and used soon afterward by Allison and Rolls-Royce. Heron.—Liquid-cooled fighter. After considerable development work to avoid leaks and to overcome other troubles encountered. This change. probably near 300° F During 19281929 further tests were made at McCook Field with a Curtiss D-12 engine.

because of their use in planes of smaller size. Although today (1969) jet and turbine engines are standard for large military and commercial airplanes. however.18 The fact that the Battle of Britain was won by liquid-cooled engines (the Rolls-Royce Merlin) gave a great impetus to the Army prejudice in favor of water-cooled fighters. and it was found that the air-cooled fighter was better at low altitude both because of its lighter specific weight and its lesser vulnerability to small-arms fire. reduced the radiator area required by about 50 percent (fig. and with few exceptions.000 ft. mostly of American manufacture. from the early beginnings in the late 1920s up to the present. commercial air transports all over the world have used air-cooled engines. together with better radiator design and radiator cowling (fig. 56) brought the drag of liquid-cooled engines well below that of air-cooled radials of equal 250° F. than by all other types combined.19 Actually. the elimination of the weight. Their installed weight. This improvement. For commercial uses. 56 .55). which had been greater than that of air-cooled radials. also came down to more comparable figures. both types were used. complication. there are still many more planes powered by air-cooled piston engines. and maintenance requirements that characterize liquid-cooling has been a chief reason for the popularity of air-cooling for air-transport purposes since about 1932. Schlaifer gives the weight per horsepower of the best liquid-cooled fighter installation in relation to a comparable air-cooled installation as 30 percent more at sea level and about the same at 25.

was a 24-cylinder.OR REVOLVER-TYPE ENGINES. The Rolls-Royce Eagle (not to be confused with the 12-cylinder Eagle of World War I). built. None were successful—although during 1929 there were brief demonstrations of the Swiss Statex and British Redrup types. The Napier Sabre. which provided a small frontal area and allowed good streamling. Perseus. The earliest development of a sleeve-valve aircraft engine that I recall was that of the Belgian Minerva. SLEEVE-VALVE ENGINES. type. but never got beyond the experimental stage. 57) with rollers in the pistons operating on a 2-lobe cam. was very similar to the Napier Sabre. a 24-cylinder H-type engine with sleeve valves. Its advantages were its small diameter and a propeller shaft running at half engine speed without the usual reduction gearing. This was a 4-cylinder radial engine (fig. Its advantage was its compactness. The methods of linking the pistons to the driveshaft caused lubrication and mechanical problems that were never solved. but it proved impractical because of excessive vibration resulting from torque variation. or Burt-McCollum. FAIRCHILD-CAMINEZ ENGINE. and an example of the latter. 1. engine which appeared in the 1920s. and Centaurus. The single-sleeve. During 1926-28 it was flown experimentally.Unconventional Engines Hundreds of unconventional types of aircraft engines have been proposed. BARREL. was exploited chiefly in England and finally became operational in the Bristol line of aircraft radial engines. a Knighttype. These were used by the Royal Air Force during World War II. 2-crankshaft H-type engine used in British fighters toward the end of World War II. including the Hercules (fig. liquid-cooled. 57 . also using the single-sleeve valve. 58). the Fury powered a Simmonds Spartan biplane in flight. Perhaps the best known was the Almen engine of 1921. and tested. In this type the cylinders were positioned around the crankshaft with their axes parallel to it. The only crankless reciprocating engine to reach the stage of official approval. or double-sleeve. it received in June 1927 United States Department of Commerce Approved-Type Certificate No. Among these the following may be mentioned.

2 0 0 0 hp at 2 8 0 0 r p m . transverse section. The only crankless reciprocating eingine to reach the stage of official approval. 535). it was later found to be impractical because of severe torque variation. Figure 58. 135 hp at 1000 r p m . p. 2. Modern Aviation Engines. 1954.—Bristol Hercules 759 14-cylinder sleeve-valve engine. 2 0 6 0 lb. 3 6 0 lb. Aircraft Engines of the World. 1 9 5 6 .1112. 1929. vol. Earlier models were used in British bombers during World War I I . (From W i l k i n s o n . f i g .Figure 57. 244) 58 . (From Page.—Fairchild-Caminez engine. p.

too late to compete with the rapidly developing jet and turbine engines. It set the world's nonrefueling duration record for heavier-than-air craft 25-28 May 1931. Figure 59. Although diesel engines had been used earlier in lighter-than-air craft. (Photo A-2388) .It was developed after the war. M. The first diesel engine to power an airplane was a Packard air-cooled radial (fig. The Packard diesel received from the Civil Aeronautics Administration a CAB Approved-Type Certificate 43 on 6 March 1930. were of Daimler-Benz manufacture. this was the first to power an airplane.—Packard 4-stroke-cycle 9-cylinder radial air-cooled diesel engine (NASM 1932-7). the Graf ^eppelin II. 510 lb. Woolson. This DIESEL AIRCRAFT ENGINES. 59) designed by L. a record that still stands. 225 hp at 1950 rpm. Those used operationally aboard the Hindenburg and its little-known sister ship. who was killed in a crash (due entirely to bad weather) of an airplane powered with one of these engines before the development was completed. Diesel engines built by Beardmorc and Maybach were used experimentally in some rigid airships during the 1920s. 1928.

Collier trophy for 1931. The most successful diesel airplane engine was the Junkers Jumo a 6-cylinder. later the National Aeronautics and Space Agency. and its development terminated.engine and its designer and manufacturer were the recipient of the Robert J. A great many 2-cycle gasoline aircraft engines have been proposed. it never became an important airplane powerplant. Most of these were of the crankcasecompressor type. but it TWO-CYCLE 60 . but it was made obsolete by the gas turbines before full development. Washington. opposed-piston. 112). and also that on diesel engines (p. D. The research work of the NACA on diesel engines for aircraft during the late 1920s and early 1930s was extensive and outstanding.) conducted exhaustive research directed toward the development of aircraft Diesel engines during the decade 1930-1940. but it found no practical application. receiving a CAB Approved-Type Certificate 79. but by that time the engine was obsolescent. 60). The Napier Nomad engine. A model fitted with a turbo supercharger powered a high-altitude photographic reconnaissance airplane of World War II. (NEC). From 1909 to 1912 both air-cooled and water-cooled NEC engines were built having 2 to 6 cylinders and 20 to 90 horsepower. in the late 1930s. but by the beginning of World War II. NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. however. This work was centered on injection-system development and combustion-chamber design. The attraction of this type of engine lies in its mechanical simplicity and low cost. No multicylinder engines were built. water-cooled engine (fig. mostly in Europe. and many were built experimentally. The cylinders were cross-scavenged with a Roots-type scavenging pump. The Guiberson air-cooled radial diesel engine appeared about three years after the Packard. the development of which was started about 1920. but was never widely used. now common in outboard marine engines. the Junkers J u 86P. and with the general use of high octane fuels. This engine was used to a limited extent in German military airplanes and in German air transport. it became evident that the diesel engine could not compete with the conventional spark-ignition type. 96). It was used in a British-Wright airplane of that period. The earliest 2-cycle aircraft engine flown successfully was built in England by the New Engine Company. NASA. GASOLINE ENGINES. For reference to this research see Index of NACA Technical Publications listed in the first section of the bibliography (p. Ltd. Numerous other aircraft diesels were built and test flown. a 2-cycle diesel compound powerplant was designed after World War II for exceptionally high specific output. in 1909.C.

has serious drawbacks for aircraft use. nearly all engines used for model airplanes are 2-cycle and crankcase scavenged. principal among which are its high fuel consumption when used with a carburetor. On the other hand. Photograph shows engine equipped w i t h exhaust-driven turbo-supercharger as used in high-altitude German reconnaissance airplane in World War I I . Most of the proposals have been for small. Figure 60. for the sake of mechanical simplicity. 1430 lb.1 3 ) . The Junkers diesel engine described above stands as the only 2-cycle aircraft engine ever to be used in considerable numbers for military and transport aircraft. and its tendency toward misfiring and stalling at light loads. Earlier unsupercharged versions (rated 7 5 0 hp at 1800 r p m . (Photo A-3112) . low-cost engines.—Junkers J u m o 2 0 7 .D 2-stroke-cycle 6-cylinder opposed-piston diesel engine (NASM 1 9 6 6 . 1200 hp at 3 0 0 0 r p m . but so far none has been developed with the characteristics necessary for a truly successful full-scale aircraft engine. In 1966 an engine of this type became available for small target aircraft. 1650 lb) were used in pre-war commercial airplanes.

61). (Photo A-3098) Finally there should be mentioned some engines with unconventional cylinder arrangements. unusual features include machined-all-over cylinder heads of novel shape and an ingenious arrangement of the pushrod valve gear. 985 lb. it was quite widely used in British military and commercial aircraft. A racing version. powered t h e 1927 winner of the Schneider Trophy. a race for seaplanes. A second engine in this category is the Pratt & Whitney R-4360. This is the largest (but not the most powerful) successful piston-type aircraft engine ever to reach the service stage. Brought out in 1918.sive service. of 8 0 0 hp. the only W-type ever widely u s e d . have already been mentioned (p. 4 5 0 hp at 2 3 5 0 r p m . and won the Schneider Trophy. in 1927. This engine was liquid-cooled with its 12 cylinders arranged in 3 rows of 4 each.—Napier Lion 12-cylinder W-type liquid-cooled engine. the Supermarine S-5 seaplane.-" The first is the Napier Lion (fig. 28-cylinder air-cooled radial with 4 rows of 7 cylinders each (fig. both using the double-crankshaft H arrangement. 62 . which flew at 281. 57). UNCONVENTIONAL CYLINDER ARRANGEMENTS. It has been used in many large military aircraft and in the Boeing 377 Stratocruiser. the only W-type engine to see exten.Figure 61. This engine would undoubtedly have been more fully developed had it not been for the advent of turbo-jet and turbo-prop engines. Besides the large number of cylinders and their unusual arrangement in "staggered" radial formation. The Rolls-Royce Eagle (the second line with that name) and the Napier Sabre. 45).65 m p h .

but a few are of sufficient importance to deserve mention here. Tungsten is the chief alloying element in such steel. By 1918 the ordinary steels used at first had given way to high-speed tool steel which has a high degree of strength at elevated temperatures. Valves and Valve Cooling As previously mentioned. Interesting related historical developments have also occurred in fuel systems. A further important improvement. including principally silicon. the poppet exhaust valve has always been a critical item because it is subjected to such high gas temperature (up to 3000° F) and high gas velocity. This development occurred 63 . has been progress in engine research. Most of the items listed contain relevant bibliographies. Since about 1920 austenitic (highchromium) steels have been successfully used in various forms. was the use of Stellite facing on both valve seats and seat inserts. Unfortunately. about 1934. a history of research in the field of internal-combustion engines is beyond the scope of this paper. and many of the other elements comprising the aircraft powerplant. with small areas available (stem and seat only) for heat dissipation to the coolant. leading to improved understanding of the basic phenomena involved. exhaust systems. Various sections of the bibliography contain selected references to some of the important contributions in this area. While this list is by no means complete. control systems. To treat all of these in detail is beyond the scope of this work. with several other alloying elements. nickel. this type of steel burns readily at the seat of a leaking valve. it should serve as a convenient introduction to the subject. fire extinguisher systems.Related Technical Developments Fully as important as the historical development of actual engines.21 however. One method of attack on this problem has been through the use of improved materials. and cobalt. Especial attention under this heading should be given to the improvement in the structural design of aircraft engines made possible by the development of experimental stress analysis.

4.E. but the high steam pressure exploded the valve stem. A method of coating the internal valve surface with wettable material was developed by Midgeley and Kettering in 1917.l 9-cylinder radial of 1921 (fig. 39). Heron and Gibson tried water in 1913. But mercury will not wet steel. Journal. with more success.A. 150. p. used mercury-filled valves with some success. no. 9. fig. In all but the first (upper left) the interior space was half filled with sodium to promote heat flow from head to stem and thus to assist in cooling the valve. and the Lawrance J . although with trouble from mercury leakage. Mercury was next tried.Figure 62. (From S. 64 .—Evolution of exhaust valves used in Wright radial engines. since its vapor pressure is lower. and very important. 46. 1940) jointly in the United States and abroad (chiefly in Britain). contribution to exhaust-valve life and reliability has been the use of a hollow valve partially filled with liquid for the purpose of improving the conductivity of heat from head to stem. with the manufacturers of poppet valves playing an important part. vol. Another.

For successful use in spark-ignition engines. the Bristol Aeroplane Company developed its single-sleeve-valve air-cooled radial in the 1930s to the point where it was used in World War II. Another method of attack on the valve-cooling problems was to eliminate the poppet valve in favor of some-form of sliding valve. The automatic lubrication of valves by engine oil. and the highest possible resistance to "knock" or "detonation. had a strong antiknock effect even in very small concentrations. in 1917. and only a bare outline can be given here. Figure 62 shows a sequence of development in exhaust-valve design.When S. and control of. Earliest work on the relation of detonation to fuel composition seems to have been by Harry R. As already mentioned. aviation gasoline. but its density is low. This discovery led to an intensive search for powerful antiknock agents." Control of volatility seems never to have been a serious problem. Much ingenuity has been displayed by valve manufacturers in fabricat'ng the modern hollow-head with hollow-stem valve. 65 . he continued his work on valve coolants and soon used successfully the mixture of sodium and potassium nitrate previously used for heat treating of steel. and the Napier Sabre and the second Rolls-Royce Eagle also had sleeve valves. Fuels and Combustion One of the most important developments in aircraft propulsion has been the improvement in. under Kettering's direction. and development work in aircraft fuels has centered around increasing their antiknock value. now used in large aircraft exhaust valves and in many non-aircraft engines. During the course of this work it was discovered that some substances. Ricardo in England and by Charles F. gasoline must have the proper volatility range. Ohio. D. and filling it (partially) with metallic sodium. Boyd in Dayton. Kettering in the United States. Heron by 1928 had adopted liquid sodium as the internal coolant. was started by Thomas Midgeley and Thomas A. Intensive work. notably iodine. This development is a long and complex story. This material has the necessary low vapor pressure. Continuing his work. Heron came to McCook Field in 1919. introduced to liquidcooled engines by Hispano-Suiza (1914) and to air-cooled engines by Pratt & Whitney (1932) has also been an important contribution to the present long life and reliabil ty of aircraft-engine valves.

and in 1922 Midgeley brought the first samples of tetraethyl lead.L. By 1920 toluene and its related compounds appeared promising as an additive and were used in flight tests. about 1926. in determining the effect of fuel structure on antiknock quality and.—Increase in aviation fuel performance number with respect to t i m e . and when a promising substance was found there. Pb(C 2 H 5 ) 4 .WITH wmft' Figure 63. he would bring it to the McCook Field engine laboratory for test in an aircraft engine. It was officially adopted for use in aviation gasoline by the United States Navy in 1926 and by the Army in 1933. Experimental work with leaded fuel continued thereafter at a rapid pace. and has since become universally accepted as an additive for gasoline. The i m p r o v e m e n t was due both to additions of tetraethyl lead (T. 66 .E. 1919-1923. Performance number is ratio of knock-limited power to that with pure iso-octane (xlOO). Another important contribution was Graham Edgar's work. notably by Schroeder for the 1920 altitude record with a turbo-supercharged Liberty engine. I was closely associated with his work during my administration of that laboratory. Midgeley's work was done on a small 1-cylinder engine in an old Dayton kitchen. By 1921 the extreme antiknock effects of metallo-organic compounds was evident.) and to improved refining methods. to McCook Field for tests in 1-cylinder and full-scale aircraft engines.

Measurement of engine performance at altitude was first seriously undertaken when the United States Bureau of Standards completed its altitude test chamber in 1918. and by the NACA laboratories. as altitude increases. the throttle to be fully opened only above about 5. D. and led to good control of this quality in United States aviation fuels soon after. Heron was also an important contributor to this result. however. by the Army Air Corps at Wright Field. discovering the high antiknock properties of the branchedchain parafins such as iso-octane. S. which were designed to be partly throttled near sea level. Altitude Performance and Superchargers The fact that. and the BMW also had higher compression ratios than could be used with full throttle at sea level without detonation. The powerful effect of water or water-alcohol injection is also illustrated in figure 63. is the ratio of knock-limited indicated mean effective pressure (klimep) with that fuel.000 feet. This development seems to have been started at Pratt & Whitney about 1940. reduced air density reduces engine power must have been realized before it became obvious in 1909. to the klimep in the same engine using iso-octane. Both engines were designed to be lighter in weight than would have been required for full-throttle operation at sea level. but the only attempt at improved altitude performance used in World War I was embodied in the German BMW and Maybach engines. The high consumption of the auxiliary fluid (about 50 percent of the fuel flow) limits its use to short periods and to engines with sufficient supercharging to take advantage of the increased knock limit. The advantage in altitude performance over an engine capable of full-throttle operation at sea level. Subsequently a considerable literature on this subject developed (see bibliography). when airplanes began to try for high-altitude flight. used from about 1942. water-alcohol injection was generally used for takeoff by both military and transport airplanes." Figure 63 shows the improvement in the performance number achieved both by the use of tetraethyl lead and the control of fuel composition. The advantage of altitude in military work became very apparent in World War I. was quite small. The "performance number" of a fuel. and was continued by them.specifically. 67 . Specifications and laboratory tests for antiknock quality of aviation fuels were sponsored by the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee in 1933. By 1946.

but none was put into service use. R. the first of its kind to be used in service. PUMP AMAL FUEL PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE Figure 64. Change of speed of the supercharger drive is effected by a hydraulic pump. 1942) 68 . 42. Intensive development of supercharging equipment began both in England and the United States in 1918. J. MERLIN "SIXTY-ONE" H ™ VERTICAL COOLINC FINS PASSAGES INLET BRANCH O F INTERCOOLER BOOST CONTROL UNIT Perspective drawing of the new two-stage two-speed supercharger of the Rolls-Royce Merlin 61 engine. p. This type was then developed in France by Rateau. FULL GEAR CLUTCH & CEAR DRIVE TWO-SPEED CHANCE OPERATINC.—A two-stage two-speed geared supercharger with intercooler and aftercooler. vol. Laboratory work on gear-driven superchargers was conducted during the war by the RAF at Farnborough. 656. England. The twin rotors are mounted on a single shaft.-R. (From Flight. and experimental models were tested during the war.The Swiss engineer A. 17. Dec. as installed on the Rolls-Royce Merlin 61 engine of 1942. Buchi suggested the turbo-supercharger for aircraft in 1914.

64). and in all cases some kind of flexible coupling was introduced in the gear train to prevent critical torsional vibration. Geared superchargers were built experimentally by Curtiss and by Wright Aeronautical Corporation in 1925.Many types of compressors have been considered. Experimental models applied to the Liberty engine were tested at the top of Pikes Peak in 1918. The only elements holding the four forward cylinders and the propeller in place were the crankshaft and the two camshaft housings. and the loss of all its cooling water. A. Jones. Supercharging was hard on an engine not originally designed for it. who remained in this position for over twenty years. but the design was unsuccessful. ever got beyond the experimental stage. the centrifugal type. E. chief of the power plant section at McCook Field. 38). I suggested placement of the turbine wheel on the nacelle surface. The man in charge of this development for GE was Dr. Hallett. returned from a flight with the Liberty engine and its nacelle cut in two by a failed connecting rod at the third crank from the front end. was asked to redesign the General Electric supercharger to overcome this difficulty. 2-speed supercharger of the Rolls-Royce Merlin (fig. Turbine 69 . who made the 1920 record. In spite of this condition. In 1922 Ernest T. 1921. the Liberty engine was still running! A serious difficulty with the supercharger shown in figure 65 was the failure of turbine blades due to inadequate cooling of the turbine. The Royal Aircraft Factory had Armstrong-Siddeley construct a radial engine with a built-in geared centrifugal supercharger in 1916. The culmination of the geared centrifugal type is represented by the 2-stage. and in flight at McCook Field in 1919. and I remember when Major Schroeder. Figure 65 shows an installation of this early type of General Electric supercharger on a Liberty engine. In a conference with Jones over the design board. in charge of superchargers under Major G. Sanford A. A Le Pere airplane with this equipment held the world's altitude record for the years 1920. and 1922. but only one. but the first United States production engine to be so equipped was the Pratt & Whitney Wasp of 1927. Moss. Siddeley did not produce a successful geared supercharger until that used in 1926 in the Jaguar (see fig. a year later than the Jaguar. After 1930 all military and transport engines were equipped with geared centrifugal superchargers. using an overhung turbine wheel as in figure 66. In 1918 the Engineering Division of the Army Air Service contracted with the General Electric Company to develop turbo-superchargers of the Rateau type. probably because of torsional vibration in the drive system. This suggestion was adopted for the new design.

is surrounded by hot exhaust gas. operating at over 20.—a. b.000 rpm. General Electric turbo-supercharger installed on Liberty engine (NASM 1966-43) of the type which held the world's altitude record for 1920. (Photo A-3092. A-3193) . The exhaust manifolds and the nozzle box are white hot (about 1500° F) and the turbine. Tubes conveying air from compressor to carburetor serve as an aftercooler. Night view of turbo-supercharger in operation.Figure 65. 1922. 1921.

wheels of this type have been used on all subsequent installations of turbosuperchargers in the United States. Beginning with the B-17 the engines were also equipped with gear-driven superchargers acting as the second stage. 1927. Figure 66. This exposed position of the turbine wheel was effective in reducing the blade temperature as compared to the earlier arrangement shown in figure 65.—Side-type turbo-supercharger installed on Curtiss D-12F 460-hp engine in Curtiss P-5 Hawk. The Boeing Stratocruiser and the B-29 and B-50 bombers used essentially the same system. including the Martin biplane bombers u>a of the 1920s and the B-17 and B-24 bombers and P-38 and P-47 fighters of World War II. although in these airplanes the turbine was located inside the nacelle and the overhung wheel was cooled by air piped in from outside. (Photos A-3094) .

Jr. lower right. (Photo courtesy Pratt & Whitney) The only service use of turbo-superchargers on foreign-built airplanes appears to be that of the German Junkers diesel-engine high-altitude photographic plane shown in figure 60.Figure 67. In 1927 the official world's altitude record was taken by Lieutenant C.. with a Pratt & Whitney Wasp equipped with a NACA Roots-type supercharger acting as first stage to the engine's own 72 . controls inlet pressure.—NACA Roots-type supercharger. It is remarkable that this very effective device received so little development outside of the United States. C. Bypass valve. A w o r l d ' s altitude record was established in 1927 with t h i s installation in a Wright Apache a i r p l a n e . 1 9 2 7 . coupled to Pratt & Whitney Model A Wasp engine. Champion. USN.

which gave a strong second-order horizontal vibration. The culmination of the supercharger art is represented by the Wright Turbo-cyclone R-3350 engine shown in figure 47. 73 . A number of engineers ran these engines on the ground. and a number of pilots flew them. It also had an unusually large torque variation. or vibration of the power plant with relation to the airplane itself. had cranks at 180°. Vibration Control Powerplant vibration presents two kinds of problems in aircraft. the engine torque variation was so large in both cases as to obscure the improvement in sidewise shake. that is vibration of parts within the powerplant. one with the 180° shaft and one with the 90° shaft. with the Hispano-Suiza V-8 300-hp engine. The other is internal vibration. This engine. Pilots complained of discomfort with this engine. 64) used a water-cooled aftercoolcr with its own separate radiator and circulation system. with the 90° shaft. whereas with the 180° shaft the penny would quickly bounce off. and the improvement obtained was demonstrated on the test stand by the fact that. which produced the 300-hp Hispano engine. One is external vibration. as well as a 2-speed centrifugal geared supercharger. In any case. The next test was to mount two engines in similar Thomas-Morse fighters.24 Aftercoolers. Vibration-measurement at that time was in a crude state. the last large piston-engine passenger-transport planes built in the United States. This engine.25 that is. a larger version of the original model. In my experience it became of concern first in 1920. 67). have been generally used with turbo-superchargers. This is the only important use of a noncentrifugal supercharger in aircraft. Probably. The Merlin engine (fig.geared centrifugal equipment (fig. like all V-8s up to that time. due to its large cylinders and high mean effective pressure. It is standard on the Douglas DC-7 and the Lockheed Super Constellation. thus eliminating the horizontal shake. About 1921 the Wright Aeronautical Corporation. built one with counterbalanced cranks at 90°. Considerable external vibration from engine and propeller was accepted as normal in the early days of aviation. has three exhaust-driven turbines geared into the power system. The consensus was that there was no noticeable difference in vibration of the airplane. a penny would remain on the crankcase. Such coolers are shown in figures 64 and 65. and with 2stage geared types. introduced about 1946. devices to cool the air after leaving the supercharger.

who developed the pendulous counterweight. and also in many 74 . The Liberty engine of 1917 had a torsional resonant speed of 1900 rpm with the usual propeller. This type of device has been used in large radial aircraft engines ever since. as in the case of radials.the 90° shaft was not approved. Taylor and R. for which he received the Reed Award in 1936. Draper and George Bentley made a serious study of the shaking forces and movements of radial engines in 1937-1938. Such was the state of vibration analysis in 1922! Reduction of engine vibration became essential in the early days of commercial aviation when passenger comfort became important. although it soon became standard on V . Taylor. There was also the problem of decoupling the several modes of vibration in order to avoid numerous critical speeds. radial engines were used. This problem was solved by the mount patented by Edward S. S. One solution lay in flexible engine mounts to reduce the transmission of vibration to the airplane structure. Chilton. Browne. although the actual flexible mounts are at the rear. Charles S. Serious trouble with torsional vibration was experienced in the 1920s in dirigible airships using long shafts between engine and propeller. which has been widely used since. to be discussed later (p. This type of vibration originates chiefly from the torque variation inherent in piston engines and may be destructive when resonance is involved. of secondorder rotating weights to balance the second-order shaking component characteristic of the master-rod system in radial engines. A very critical case of crankshaft-propeller vibration appeared with the introduction of the geared version of the Wright 9-cylinder 1820-cu-in. Chilton contributed the mechanical embodiment. which effectively counteracted the principal torque components of the engine and prevented breakages in the drive system. radial engine in 1935. Taylor and K. This type of vibration also held back the development of metal propellers. S. This involved a problem of Ct droop" due to gravity when the engine was mounted at its rear. Another contribution to reduction of engine vibration was the adoption by Wright and Pratt & Whitney. Internal vibration of reciprocating engines has been most serious in the propeller-crankshaft system.8 engines for nonaircraft use. This problem was quickly and brilliantly solved by E. in the late 1930s. In this case. 30). Otto C. The basic concept was that of E. 77). as previously mentioned (p. Koppen has used very flexible decoupled engine mounts in light airplanes with good effect since about 1939. The principle employed is an arrangement of links which have the effect of supporting the engine at its center of gravity. Its rating at 1700 rpm was close enough to cause accessory-gear breakage.

non-aircraft powerplants. After the first engines so equipped had been tested, it was found that these inventions had been anticipated in France, but the credit for practical application should go to Taylor and Chilton. It should also be mentioned that the Packard Diesel engine of 1928 (see p. 59) was equipped with spring-loaded pivoted counterweights designed to reduce torsional vibration. These, however, could be effective only at one speed, whereas the Taylor-Chilton design was effective over the entire speed range. Another important torsional vibration problem was that caused by the gear-driven supercharger rotor. Various types of flexible coupling have been used in the gear train to avoid serious trouble. Further consideration of vibration problems is included under the heading, Propellers, below.

Gibbs-Smith credits the Chinese with first use of the air propeller, on toy helicopters. A helical screw is shown on a DaVinci helicopter drawing of about 1500, and screw propellers were used on dirigible balloons as early as 1784. An early Langley propeller is shown in figure 68a. The success of the Wright brothers was in no small degree due to the excellent performance of their two counter-rotating airfoil-section propellers, chain driven at 8/23 engine speed, or about 380 rpm. They gave serious attention to propeller design. Apparently they could get no useful data from marine engineers and had to develop their own theory. In doing so, they often argued each other into a reversal of opinion, but finally arrived at a design which Frank W. Caldwell says ran at near optimum ratio of forward speed to tip speed, and had an efficiency of about 0.70. The Wright propellers were of 3-ply laminated wood, very light in weight. It should, perhaps, have served as a warning to future propeller designers that the first fatal accident—the crash of Orville Wright and Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge in 1908, resulting in the death of Selfridge— was caused by a propeller failure. A broken blade set up sufficient vibration to cause the propeller to cut a rudder-bracing wire, upon which the tail came askew and all control was lost. Wooden propellers were universally used from the time of the Wrights' first flight until well after World War I. They were very reliable for the needs of that time, and were superseded only when the requirements for power and tip speed exceeded the limits within which a wooden propeller would safely operate.

Figure 68.—Propeller development: a, Langley wood propeller (NASM 1938-56E) of 1893, used on Aerodrome No. 4. b, Curtiss-Reed twisted-duraluminum propeller (D-6), 1925. c, Hamilton-Standard 2B20 constant-speed propeller, 1946. d, Hamilton-Standard Hydramatic full-feathering propeller of 1947. For typical wooden propeller of the period 1910 to present, see figure 50. (Photos, respectively, A-287, A-51875, A-3096, A-3097)


Materials superior to wood were actively sought after World W a r I. F r a n k Caldwell, head of the propeller section at M c C o o k Field (1918-1930) a n d later chief engineer at H a m i l t o n S t a n d a r d , was a leader in this field, a n d has given excellent accounts of propeller developments. H e r e there is space for only the briefest review. M i c a r t a (canvas laminated with bakelite) was successfully used as a wood substitute by 1920. I n 1921 Caldwell tested a steel-bladed propeller on his electric whirling m a c h i n e to twice its rated power. H e then, very innocently, presented it to m e for a " r o u t i n e " test on a Hispano-Suiza 300-hp engine. After a few minutes at rated power, a blade broke off, c a m e t h r o u g h the control b o a r d between the heads of two operators, climbed a wooden staircase, a n d went through the roof. T h e engine was reduced to junk. T h e above incident was an early warning of the i m p o r t a n c e of vibration a n d fatigue in propeller operation. At m y insistence, further " r o u t i n e " propeller tests on experimental propellers were m a d e in a specially constructed "bombproof" shelter. All metal propellers of t h a t time (1921-1922) failed, with m u r d e r o u s results to the engine. I n one case the whole assembly of crankshaft, rods, and pistons was pulled out and t h r o w n 20 feet from w h a t remained of the engine and stand. Subsequent metal propeller development involved careful attention to vibration problems. T h e R e e d type, using a twisted a l u m i n u m plate as a base (fig. 68b), was one of the early successful designs. Later, the manufacturers of metal propellers developed elaborate e q u i p m e n t and procedures for the measurement and suppression of blade vibration. A n excellent historical record of the development of variable-pitch propellers is given by K . M . Molson. T h e idea started with m a r i n e propellers as early as 1816. T h e need for pitch control in airplane propellers was realized as early as 1912. Various designs of controllable-pitch propellers were tested, usually with disastrous results because of mechanical weaknesses. V a r i a b l e pitch became essential with the advent of the highperformance airplane, the Boeing 247 and the Douglas D C - 3 being early examples. I m p o r t a n t propeller developments, with a p p r o x i m a t e dates are: 1921 Aluminum blades, fixed pitch (Reed) 1923 Aluminum blades, adjustable pitch 1931 Hollow steel blades 1929 Controllable pitch, 2-position 1935 Automatic, constant speed 1938 Feathering 1945 Reversible and feathering 77

and others) had belt. were evidently aware that the optimum speed for engines is not usually that for propellers.The above dates indicate general use in at least some airplanes. with a few exceptions. and was used by most of the early fliers after The Wright's and up to the start of World War I. and both Wright Aeronautical and Pratt & Whitney adopted the Farman planetary gear for use in the DC-3 in 1933 (fig.or gear-driven propellers. most experimental airplanes (Stringfellow. As improved engine design called for higher engine speeds. the 8-cylinder-in-line Mercedes. Figure 68 shows examples. From that time on. Direct propeller drive. although the drive ratio for steam engines was usually up rather than down. with planetary gears. the propeller shaft of which was an extension of the camshaft (or vice-versa) and ran at half crankshaft speed—a ratio which has been widely used since. Langley. The need for propeller gearing results from the fact that the propeller speed for optimum propeller efficiency is usually lower than the speed at which the engine gives its best performance. 17. Even before the Wrights. For that matter. Pratt & Whitney used an internal gear in 1931. by 1930 it was evident that large engines should be geared to allow of optimum performance. with their chain drive. p. is attractive for its simplicity and reliability. and the 220-hp Hispano-Suiza. These were soon followed by the Rolls-Royce Eagle. Now hydraulic control and aluminum blades are standard on piston engines. Without gearing. the general use of reduction gears came much later. the speed for the engine-propeller combination is chosen as a compromise—too high for best propeller efficiency and too low for maximum engine power. Both hydraulic and electric pitch control were used until after World War II. with the propeller mounted on the crankshaft. Among the first flights with controllable pitch were those at McCook Field with the Heath propeller about 1921. In the United States. however. The first application of the constantspeed variable-pitch propeller was by Hele-Shaw and Beacham for a test flight in England in 1928. 20). 69). Maxim. By 1920 most large European engines were geared. Other geared engines which appeared for use in World War I included the RAF (a copy of the Renault). Reduction Gears The Wrights. An exception was the early Renault air-cooled V-8 (fig. this compromise became more unsatisfactory. in 1924 gearing was actually eliminated from the Curtiss D-12 engine in order to save 25 pounds of weight! Nevertheless. 78 .

spur type planetary gears being standard for most radials and plain 2-element spur gears for V-type engines (fig. the Wright Brothers' engine of 1903 used "make-and-break" ignition. This type was also used by some American engine builders under license from Farman. As mentioned previously. though often very important. The plain spur gears used by the Rolls-Royce Merlin of 1945 carried 2. however. This system involved a pair of contacts within the cylinder. one insulated and connected to a battery 79 .//M////w/»/}. a remarkable achievement in gear design. Other Developments Only brief mention can be made here of the numerous secondary. wide.—Bevel planetary reduction gear system as used on Farman engines.Figure 69.200 takeoff horsepower satisfactorily on a face 2-in. problems encountered and solved in the development of reciprocating aircraft engines. >///////. Spur-type planetary reduction gear system which superseded the bevel type. Among these. after World War I. 70). Below. should be mentioned the following: IGNITION SYSTEMS. propeller reduction gears became an integral part of all large airplane engines.

the mechanical complication involved. 649) and coil system and one operated by a shaft protruding through the cylinder wall. This system was soon displaced by the "high-tension" system with spark plugs which was used in all other successful airplane engines. However. (From Aerosphere 1939. p.Figure 70. This type of gear has been generally used in V-type and in-line engines since about 1930. is accepted practice to date for all spark-ignition engines. The low voltage arc so formed was an effective igniter.—Two-element spur reduction gear as used on Renault Type 12-Kh liquid-cooled engine. 80 . in its essentials. and. and the difficulty of cooling the contact levers within the cylinder made it impractical for any but very low-output engines. This shaft was operated from the camshaft so as to "break" the contact points apart at the moment of ignition.

25). At the time of the Wright brothers' first flight. These blocks were saturated with fuel. air starters. hand cranks with inertia flywheel. and these were used by most aircraft engines after the Gnome and Antoinette. generally. continued to use float-type carburetors. 81 . The development of new ceramic materials about 1940 caused a universal change to this material. All these systems required experimental adjustment. From about 1921 to 1940 m'ca plugs were generally used. As mentioned earlier (p. CARBURETION. first used on the Antoinette engine of 1906. the Wright brothers used gravity fuel feed from a small can to a heated surface in the inlet pipe. Since that time most military and transport engines have used floatless-type carburetors. Direct injection into the individual cylinders was used in gasoline engines for a short time on some Pratt & Whitney Wasps in 1931-1932. good for only one engine speed. A floatless carburetor was introduced by the ChandlerGroves Corporation in 1935. Injection through nozzles located at each inlet port. cartridge starters. Both mica and ceramic plugs were used in Europe. and the Stromberg floatless injection-type carburetor became operational about 1938. and various devices were used to introduce fuel to air. although injection systems are available for this type. float-type carburetors were being developed for automobile use. a scheme originally conceived by Balzer. many of the injection type. and finally the present electric starter with storage battery. Float-type carburetors were used by the Wright brothers on their later engines. STARTING. little was known about carburetion. This method was developed to service use in World War II in German military engines. and the engine air was drawn past them. The carburetion system used for the Gnome rotary engine has already been described (p.Ceramic-insulated spark plugs were generally used in the United States before 1921. has been used to a limited extent in light-aircraft engines since about 1946. 13). It was adopted by Wright Aeronautical Corporation for their R-3350 engine in 1944. Meanwhile. in the hope that a combustible mixture would result. Light-plane engines have. The Antoinette engine and all of the Wright brothers' engines produced during 1907-1912 used a small pump to inject fuel into the inlet ports. FUEL INJECTION. Manly used a large sheet-metal box filled with porous wooden blocks. Subsequent development included simple hand cranks. and were generally used for aircraft engines up to about 1935. Hand starting by the propeller was standard before 1920.

Copperlead bearings. began to cause serious fatigue failure of plain babbit bearings. but has the disadvantages of rapid breakdown to gummy deposits in the engine. When fresh. if not all. This material is excellent for bearings in all respects except in structural strength. Ball or roller bearings occasionally have been used for crankpins (see figs. and a very limited supply base. Most radial engines. for the main crankshaft bearings. aircraft. Work to explore the possibilities of petroleum oils for aircraft-engine lubrication was started at the United States Navy Aero-Engine Laboratory 82 . These "copper-lead" bearings were found to have excellent load carrying ability as compared to babbit. when improved with a very thin overlay of tin. and were soon adopted as standard for all high-output aircraft engines. engines previous to 1918. resulting in increased bearing loads.S. A bearing consisting of a steel shell lined with a thin layer of cadmium. This practice has been continued with few exceptions. Improvements in lubrication systems have included the use of full pressure feed to bearings. During World War II. with the exceptions noted above. of which figures 44 and 45 show examples. even as early as the Gnome (fig. 23). rather than gravity or splash feed. These bearing developments have been an important factor in the up-rating of airplane engines illustrated by figure 71. Before about 1930 such bearings were made of the lead-tin-antimony alloy babbit.BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION. radial engines started to have crankpinbearing failures when overspeeded in combat dives. or such "total loss" systems as that already described for the Gnome engine (see p. and. have generally been found adequate for V-type engine crankshafts and crankpins. usually air cooled. U. this type of oil is an excellent lubricant. As size and power of engines has increased. 20 and 33). 25). Meanwhile a subsidiary of the General Motors Corporation had developed a bearing material consisting of a copper matrix filled in with lead. with a very thin overlay of silver was developed to solve this problem. it has become necessary to limit oil temperature by circulating the lubricant through oil radiators. After about 1930 the increases in power and speed. 20). used ball or roller bearings for the crankshaft. Most aircraft engines have used plain journal bearings for the crankpin. which is low. has already been mentioned (p. Another important improvement has been the installation of adequate oil filtering elements within the engine's oil-circulation system. The use of castor oil as a lubricant for most. Variations on this bearing have been used in large radial-engines crankpins since that time. Thrust bearings generally have been of the ball type.

83 . ENGINE INSTRUMENTS. it enables a trained observer to detect and anticipate many forms of engine trouble or incipient failure by observing these curves for each cylinder in turn. Since that time. Chatfield. Used in most large multi-engine airplanes. and the running time between overhauls. in 1917. Early instruments were chiefly for the purpose of indicating whether or not the engine was performing satisfactorily (in fact this is still the purpose of most engine instruments carried in aircraft). in the approximate order of use. fuel-supply indicators. It was followed. by sight glasses or gauges to indicate oil flow or oil pressure. First to come into use was some sort of tachometer for observing engine speed. D . As flight duration increased. A late development in engine instruments is the engine "analyzer. remote-reading temperature gauges for oil and coolant. The development of engine instruments has been concurrent with that of the engines themselves. and Ober in the various editions of The Airplane and its Engine (1928-1948) give descriptions of instruments as they appeared at the time of publication. The earliest flights were made without any engine instruments at all. development of mineral oils suitable for aircraft engines has been energetically carried on by the oil industry. were found important. The resulting improved quality of lubricants has been an important factor in increasing the reliability. Taylor. The introduction of supercharging required manifold-pressure Washington. Other relevant publications will be found in the bibliography." an electronic system which observes the ignitionvoltage versus time curve of any cylinder on a cathode-ray screen and which requires the services of a flight engineer. usually showing fuel-level in tanks. and thermocouples for indicating the temperature of air-cooled cylinders at some critical point. of aircraft piston engines. and within a few months a number of proprietary mineral oils were found satisfactory and approved for use in all except rotary engines. A detailed account of instrument history and technology is beyond the scope of this volume. O .

From 1930 on these curves apply to supercharged e n g i n e s . 1 9 0 3 . except as regards overhaul period. remain at a p p r o x i m a t e l y the 1930 levels. — Engine d e v e l o p m e n t curves.400 o LO en LO Ui 0_ GO 300 LO LO LU Q£ LU Q_ > O X < GO DO cr. Typical performance characteristics of m i l i t a r y and large c o m m e r c i a l airplane piston engines.1 9 6 0 . LU o _ LO GO 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 Figure 7 1 . 84 . unsupercharged engines.

1902). Figure 72 shows the piston-engine family as it has developed. Best weight per horsepower in 1903 was that of the Manly engine.Summary of Piston-Engine Development Figure 71 shows performance parameters for piston aircraft engines since 1903. and the 18-cylinder air-cooled radials. Mean piston speed (mps) at takeoff rose steadily from 750 ft/min in 1903 to a maximum of 3. which is near maximum for unsupercharged engines. of which the 85 . Brake mean effective pressure (bmep) is a measure of an engines' ability to withstand high cylinder pressures and to produce power with a given speed and size. The approved overhaul period for the best modern transport piston engines is now as high as 2. bmep was increased to takeoff values up to 360 psi (Rolls-Royce Merlin) and 300 psi (large radial engines in the United States). This improvement has been achieved partly through improved design and partly because improved fuels have allowed higher compression ratios (from about 4. it rose to 130 by 1925.6 lb/hp. With the introduction of supercharging and improved fuels in the 1930s.000 ft/min in 1935. where it has remained. This figure was reduced to 1 in 1935 and has gone slightly below that since (see table 1). One of the most remarkable improvements has been in reliability and reduced maintenance.40.600 hours. Jet engines are also used for certain categories of small aircraft. Further improvements in piston engines would have been made had it not been for the introduction of turboprop and turbojet engines. finally culminating in the V-12 liquid-cooled engines as represented by the Rolls-Royce and Packard Merlin. The very early aircraft engines were overhauled after every flight. Specific fuel consumption has been reduced from nearly 1 lb/hp-hr to current minimum values of less than 0. at 2. which virtually put an end to intensive development of the large piston engine. up to 8. Starting at 62 psi (Langley.0 in 1903 to present values. by the Pratt & Whitney R-2800 and the Wright 3350.0. where it has remained since the advent of jets and turbines.



55 3.5 5.400 2.347 3. 13 2.650 1. 16 1.04 2.800 2.350 2. * Maximum rated. or takeoff power.500 2.400 1.04 3. 1 2.700 2.64 .51 4.470 1.250 950 1. 11 7 6 5.31 46.88 6.3 5.) Stroke (in.31 6. Pratt & Whitney 4360.28 .90 2.—Engines of Historical Importance Weight Engine Water-cooled Langley Wright Antoinette Darracq Curtiss O X .450 1.470 2.4 5.5 4 3.96 30 59 88 103 109 94 112 132 825 1.804 4.l Pratt & Whitney Wasp.296 1.43 .327 3.800 2.900 1.800 2. 13 6.06 4.000 3.6 11. 180 3. cyl.75 5. All liquid-cooled engines later than Curtiss D-12 are supercharged.78 63 58 91 65 101 100 114 118 125 137 165 360 870 725 735 1.420 2.75 6.2 2.650 2.93 7.2 24.650 52 d 16 32 24 90 160 150 420 325 560 1. Where two dates are given.0 6. 15 4.900 7 145 242 165 700 910 476 650 940 1.400 1.650 1.72 5 6.6 5 Pratt & W h i t n e y 2800.363 3. 150 1. 100 753 2.2 4 5.99 1.5 5.060 1.) Horsepower b Rpm lb c lb/hp Bmep (psi) Piston speed (fl/min) 8 * 6 8 12 12 12 12 12 Air-cooled Langley (model) Anzani Renault Gnome Jupiter Jaguar Lawrance J .800 1. cowling.000 135 179 93 121 320 618 467 856 704 992 1.) Displ.347 3.75 6. (cu.400 1.86 3.9 6.53 2.000 2. except Continental. Rolls R o y c e Merlin I Packard-Merlin 1901 1903 1906 1909 1910 1915 1915 1917 1922 1930 1936 1945 radial horizontal V opposed V vertical V V V V V V 5 4 8 2 5 4 3. in.63 6. 170 1. 12 4.75 5.l .500 1.700 1.376 155 2.300 2.820 2.360 1.550 3. 13 3.823 171 2.3 1.4 5.93 5.800 1.525 65 2.5 206 226 335 1. 13 2. they refer to typical early and late models of the same basic engine.77 1.0 6.400 1.344 1.75 5 4.88 3.5 5.TABLE 1.75 5. 5 6 6 687 200 196 194 503 901 718 1. 150 1. 180 1.38 1.512 787 1. c Radiator.000 1.600 1.090 1.72 5 4. W r i g h t 3350 1901 1909 1908 1909 1920 1922 1922 1926 f 1930 i 1945 1938 ' 1940 1945 1948 [ 1941 1955 radial fan V rotary radial 2-row-radial radial radial radial radial opposed 2-row-radial 2-row-radial 4-row-radial 2-row-radial 2-row-radial 5 3 8 7 9 14 9 9 9 9 4 18 18 28 18 18 2.000 3.290 3. 88 .38 1.88 5.5 5 5.000 Tear ° Type No.800 2.823 1. 145 1.9 3.700 1.753 1.750 2. 15 .800 3.500 3.72 3.9 5.75 2.5 5.900 2.650 1.320 1.83 . Bore (in.070 245 128 209 305 235 197 302 » Refers to year of first general use (except for Langley engine).53 1. 700 2. and coolant arc not included in the weight of liquid-cooled engines Cowling is not included for air-cooled engines.700 2.000 3.5 Mercedes Hispano-Suiza Liberty Curtiss D . are supercharged. 15 5.740 2.830 1.1 2 Rolls R o y c e Kestrel VI.700 2.5 35 50 400 360 200 425 575 1.030 2.2 5. 13 6.985 1.235 1. d Dropped to 12 hp after 1 min. W r i g h t 1820 Continental A .560 2.848 3. All air-cooled engines later than Lawrence J .76 3.75 6.0 6.804 2.

and a few remain in service in the old Ford trimotors dating from about 1930. devoted to this important and revolutionary development in aircraft propulsion. From the work of these men aeronautics will derive the information upon which progress. especially in Canada. Gardner in Aviation (vol 1. August 1916). Although by no means as dramatic as the powerplants that count their horsepower in four digits. It is interesting to review the contributions of the various nations in the field of aircraft propulsion. as do also the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 and Wright R-1820 (in the D C . and Germany was the first to fly rocket and jet engines. 1. although German and British turbojet development was concurrent. horizontally opposed piston engines manufactured by Continental. no. There could well be a paper as long as this one. the following prophecy of Lester D. A few Pratt & Whitney R-4360 28-cylinder engines also remain in service. The history of these developments is so recent and so well covered in the literature (particularly by Schlaifer and Gibbs-Smith) that no attempt will be made to cover it here. and they have their counterparts in lesser quantities in Europe. Lycoming. It is evident that the United States and France have been the principal contributors to early engine development. Table 2 summarizes this subject. Literally tens of thousands of air-cooled. will be as meaningful today as it was then: Now many of the most distinguished scientists in all countries are giving aeronautics close and careful study. and Franklin power American light planes. or even a whole volume.3 airplane). engines in service in medium-powered airplanes. Figure 72 also includes a family tree for rocket.latter two remain in air-transport service. will be achieved. these modest prime movers have enjoyed greater quantity production than any other type of aero engine except those for model airplanes. There are also some Pratt & Whitney 9-cylinder Wasp and Wasp Jr. such as has never been thought possible. 89 . Where the piston engine continues to reign supreme is with the popular light plane. while England has made significant contributions in late piston and early turbine engines. If the art and science of aircraft propulsion develop as fast in the next 50 years as they have since the Wright brothers' initial flight. and turboprop engines. turbo-jet.

1936 1939 1944 1944 Heinkel He-178 Messerschmitt 262 Messerschmitt 163 Aluminum cylinder structure Hispano-Suiza Spad 7 1914 90 .T A B L E 2. for E n g i n e D e v e l o p m e n t s First manned flight Engine AUSTRIA Aircraft Tear Internal combustion engine Lenoir gas engine DENMARK Haenlein (dirigible) 1872 Fixed radial engine air-cooled Ellehammer ENGLAND Ellehammer 1906 With gear-driven centrifugal supercharger Transatlantic nonstop Automatic constant-speed propeller Turbo-propeller engine Armstrong Siddeley Rolls-Royce Eagle Bristol Jupiter Rolls-Royce Trent FRANCE Armstrong Siddeley Vickers Vimy Gloster Grebe Meteor 1917 1919 1928 1945 Steam engine Electric motor Air-cooled Otto-cycle engine Helicopter Rotary radial engine More than 8 cylinders Propeller reduction gear Inlet-port fuel injection Seaplane (floats) Turbosupercharger Steam Electric motor Tricycle engine Antoinette V .F. 4D 1852 1883 1898 1907 1909 1910 1910 1906 1910 1918 Rocket engine Diesel engine in commercial transport Jet engine Axial flow jet engine Rocket engine in military service von Opel Opel-Sander Rak-1 Junkers 2-cycle opposed piston Junkers G—38 von Ohain Junkers Ju-004 Walter SPAIN-SWITZERLAND 1929 ca.A.8 Antoinette Gnome Rateau GERMANY Giffard (dirigible) Tissandier (dirigible) Santos-Dumont (dirigible) Cornu helicopter Voisin Antoinette Farman Antoinette Heurig Fabre R. b y C o u n t r y .8 Seguin Gnome Levavasseur Antoinette 16cylinder Renault V .—Credits.

in order to fly the plane. the British two-cycle NEC engine used a Roots-type scavenger blower. 5 Also in 1907 Curtiss broke the World's motorcycle speed record (137 mph) with a 40-hp V . . 3 Without water or flywheels. Steel cylinder bores have been used since the Gnome engines of 1909.l Curtiss J N . 7 The Navy version was a slight modification having dual ignition and a 100-hp rating. according to the Christian Science Monitor (May 18.4 (NACA) Stinson Detroiter Monoplane Ford or Fokker Wright Experimental 1903 1912 1918 1919 1921 1921 ca. a fuselage length of 25 ft. 6 See Appendix A for a description of the unique working of the rotary engine. Described by Wing Commander T. a wing area of 300 sq ft. Bedfordshire. . . was flown under pedal power a distance of half a mile by John Wimpenny at St. Biggleswade. 21). E. but this was not a supercharger in the sense that it was used for altitude compensation Footnotes The plane had a wing span of 80 ft. are in the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum (NASM 1905-1 and 1905-2). the British museum where it is exhibited. pp. 70-71. with the propeller behind the tail. (See " Southampton University Man Powered Aircraft (I960)" In The Shuttleworth Collection of Historic Aeroplanes. p. a specially built monoplane of 84-ft span. 1969. Aerodromes 5 and 6. . weighing 115 lb. but with ignition battery. 4 Later development shows this to have been unnecessary. 1921 1922 1926 1927 1928 1931 1935 *As stated (p.4 (McCook Field) Curtiss racer (Detroit) Fairchild D H . Guttery. the Puffin. Albans. 1 91 . In May of the following year. 2 These models. 60). . This condition is the same as for the weights quoted for other liquid-cooled engines. also in England. The pilot was required to develop 0. Details of its tests are contained in the catalog of the Shuttleworth Collection.4 hp. which had a cruising speed of 21 and a stalling speed of 16 mph.4 D H .8 air-cooled engine.UNITED STATES First manned flight Engine Aircraft Tear Airplane Seaplane (flying boat) Over 400 hp Transatlantic with 2 stops With fuel antiknock Metal propeller Controllable-pitch propeller Over 200 mph Crankless engine Roots supercharger* Diesel engine Cylinder fuel injection with spark ignition With pendulum-type vibration absorber Wright Curtiss Liberty 4 Liberties Liberty Reed Hispano-Suiza Curtiss D-12 Caminez Liberty Packard Pratt and Whitney Wright 1820 Wright Curtiss DeHavilland-4 Navy-Curtiss N C . Old Warden Aerodrome. 1962. and weighed 130 lb. .4 (McCook Field) Standard J .

22 For official definitions of fuel terms. however. Dickey I I I . it is called an aftercooler. Col. 1. Kirkham. using two Rolls-Royce Eagle engines (see fig. 21 An important contribution to this art in the United States was the development of Stresscoat by E. when it is used between the supercharger and the engine. did not go into real quantity production nearly as quickly as did the Liberty. no." by Philip S. This method of showing stress patterns by means of a brittle lacquer coating had been used by the Germans earlier. 8 92 . about a month later. 10 The first nonstop Atlantic crossing was by Alcock and Brown. 12 It will be recalled that the Wright brothers also used crude aluminum en bloc water-jacket construction on their first engine." by Louis S. using strain gages and photoelastic techniques as well as Stresscoat. " T h e Liberty Engine. and was closely associated with Heron and his work during this period. 17 The author was in charge of the engine laboratory at McCook Field.2 Airplane. vol. page 33. including performance number. vol. 30). see fuel handbooks published by the American Society for Testing Materials. USAF. S. 24 The NEC 2-cycle engines of 1909-1912 were equipped with Roots-type scavenging blowers. 14-15 June 1919. 15 The chief limitations on the cast-iron cylinder are poor heat conductivity as compared with aluminum. 14 Named for the brother of General William (Billy) Mitchell. but was not used in this country until the work of the above-mentioned persons. Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. 13 The K was for Charles B. 19 On one occasion I asked a high-ranking officer: "Does the Army want liquidcooled fighters even if better fighters can be built around air-cooled engines?" He answered in the affirmative! 20 Obviously. but these were not superchargers in the sense that they were used for altitude compensation. has been generally used in aircraft-engine development since about 1940. 1.T h e details of this feat are related in Smithsonian Annals of Flight. 16 See previous remarks. 1. 18 Owing to the fact that radiator area can be designed large enough for any altitude. however. regarding the Hispano-Suiza engine. 23 A squadron of Martin bombers was the first combat group ever equipped with turbo-superchargers (1923-1924). the sleeve-valve Napier Sabre and the Junkers Diesel also had unconventional cylinder arrangements. 9 The Wasp. Subsequent engines. while fin area on an air-cooled cylinder has a practical limit. Taylor and Greer Ellis in 1938. 1918-1942. Casey. no. had separate cylinders. Lt. the power of air-cooled engines above a certain altitude is therefore limited by cooling. Ret. it is called an intercooler. 11 T h e story of this flight is related in Smithsonian Annals of Flight. " T h e First Nonstop Coast-to-Coast Flight and the Historic T . who conceived the basic design for this series and was also consulted in the design of the earlier Liberty engine (see p. 25 When the cooler is used between stages of supercharging. 3. Experimental stress analysis. 25). and low strength as compared with steel. also with weldedcylinder construction.

As mentioned in the text (p. 20 and 21). short crankshaft. and the cylinders and crankcase. as mentioned in the text. On the other hand it has the following inherent disadvantages: 1. 93 . to which of necessity the propeller is fixed.Appendix The Rotary Radial Engine The radial engine has been built in two essentially different configurations: the static radial. and the rotary (rotating) radial. the large flywheel effect of the rotating cylinders was important in relation to the type of control system used at the time. The rotary radial engine shares with the conventional radial the advantages of compactness. in operation. Difficulty of providing a closed exhaust system. 2. 5. 25). but because of this arrangement the pistons do not reciprocate relative to the mounting structure. 3. The former may be considered a "conventional" engine. Design limitations imposed by the rotation of all parts except the crankshaft. in which the pistons. An undesirable gyroscopic effect on the airplane during turns. which passed out of use soon after 1918. and therefore no unbalanced forces result. which. 4. In the rotary radial. the anti-propeller end of the crankshaft is attached to the airframe. and adaptability to air cooling. resulted in high oil consumption and the throwing out of excess oil with the exhaust. rotate around the crankshaft (see figs. Thus. however. the rotary engine is exceptionally free from vibration. which still enjoys widespread use. resulting from high centrifugal forces created within the revolving engine and wind drag caused by the rotating cylinders. Limitations on the lubrication system. The rotary engine functions internally in exactly the same manner as the conventional radial engine. reciprocate inside the cylinders of an engine firmly attached to the airframe. Severe limitations on rpm. owing to the design of the engine.

however.In spite of these disadvantages. 94 . and powered many successful fighter planes. the rotary engine was an excellent design for the state of the art during the two decades after 1900. It was produced in large quantities during 1914-1918.

GAMBLE." 122-128.S. See especially "Engines.) carried out. and the first volume appeared as volume 35 of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. comprised mainly of references to topical articles in the periodical literature. An exhaustive bibliography including all important foreign references would be a desirable project for some future historian. exhaustive and important research in airplane engine technology. Richard K. NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics—later the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. C : U. and with which he is familiar. PAUL. and also sponsored. NASA. is arranged chronologically by date of publication. Especially relevant NACA reports are included on pages 123 to 134. For a complete list of its publications in this field. The second and third sections. ed. D.C. Washington. and are referenced under the appropriate headings. This was done on the assumption that anyone using this bibliography is more likely to be familiar with the time period in which a development has occurred that with an author's name. mostly in the English language. Fayette Taylor This bibliography is limited to material. Originally published as a series in the New York Public Library Bulletin (January 1936 to September 1937). 1938. 95 . ed. History of aeronautics. 1938. listed in the first section of this bibliography. 325 pp. The first section of the bibliography contains books and periodical articles in which the emphasis is on the historical aspects of engine development. New York Public Library publication. A selected list of references to material in the New York Public Library. Bibliography of aeronautics of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics [now NASA]. see the index of NACA publications. Bibliographies and Indexes BROCKET. Government Printing Office. which the author considers important in connection with the history of aircraft propulsion. WILLIAM BURT. D . this valuable source had its inception when the editor was assistant librarian at the Smithsonian Institution. when further work on it was unfortunately abandoned. Washington. Published during the years 1910 through 1932.Bibliography Expanded and Arranged by Dr. Smith From Material Furnished by G.

1918 ( T I C E ) . 37-52. 4th. 10.S. 38. pp. p . GLENN D." 1909). "Types of Recent Foreign Flying Machines. G. 1937. vol. General article on progress and development in engines and accessories. 1962. 96 ." 1906. DIETRICH and LEHR.. vol. 1920-1950. 1920 (DICKINSON and N E W E L L ) . The heritage of Kitty Hawk. BONNEY. 31-35. 1950. KAMPER. 17th. Bane was chief of the U.National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Engines 1935-1939 (LOMBARD. 433-445. 1921). The aviation industry. includes several fine fold-out drawings. BROOKS. 1 (January 1943). 63-86. "Samuel Pierpont Langley. ed. 6th. data. Illustrations and data on successful and unsuccessful engines to 1920. ed. SPARROW. footnote refs.. 1939). modern aircraft engines. Index of NACA technical publications. no. pp. Ohio. ANGLE. TAYLOR. R. 123. HOWLAND. Engines 1925-1929 ( M C C O R D . " T h e Aero Exhibition. THURMAN H. 1919). An encyclopedic work of Jane's format. C. 1920. History and Technology of Aircraft and Flight Certain aspects of the history of aircraft propulsion are also treated in publications listed under Aircraft Powerplants: Aircraft Power Before 1900 (VILLENEUVE." 1909. 1915-1949. historical tab. 1939-1943. Engines 1940 and After (DEFOREST and ELLIS. 1918). 4 (April 1952). 605 pp. New York: W." 1906. illus. Engines 1900-1913 ("Airship After Buyer. illus. 1904. New York: Aircraft Publications. CLEMENTS. vol. The engine section was sometimes published as a separate volume. Airplane engine encyclopedia." 1906. bibl. BANE. Engines 1925-1929 (LEIGHTON. T h e 1914 tests of the Langley Aerodrome. 211 pp. " T h e Wright Aeroplane . " T h e Failure of Langley's Aerodrome. 1916 ("Nomenclature for Aeronautics"). pt. 1915 (LUCKE). UPTON. 1928. 1908. no. Recent advances in aviation.. pp. 1868-1869). F. Norton. Engines 1914-1919 (DOUGLAS. 1924 ( S P A R R O W ) . 162 (1950). 1929). illus. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. 13th. 1918. 1930. WALTER T. 1932." 1903. an alphabetically arranged compilation of all available data on the world's airplane engines. Also under NACA Reports: 1st. including modern aircraft. 1933). Certain aspects of theory and technological practice are also treated in publications listed under Aircraft Powerplants: Engines 1914-1919 (DURAND. 1928. Engines 1920-1924 (BAUMAN.. 24th. 1940). Engines 1920-1924 (LOENING. Army Air Service's Engineering Division at McCook Field. . annually. Engines 1930-1934 (LYON. 1920. SAE Transactions. Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. 1920). W. WRIGHT. and aircraft statistics and buyer's guide. pp. " T h e Paris Aviation Exhibition. 1925. 2.. 1908. 1927 (GARDINER and SCHEY). See also bibliography of NACA Reports. 1931 (MARVIN and B E S T ) . Dayton. 15. 2d. of 9 items. 1926 ( W A R E ) . FOKKER. drgs. " T h e White Flyer. vol. Aerosphere''s modern aircraft engines. 1921. T h e aviation engine. 1938 (GERRISH and Voss). BANKS. ABBOT. 1929). SANTOS-DUMONT. Ohio: Otterbein Press. 10th." 1903." 1908. Aerosphere. 12th. Lubrication.

pp. A scholarly and well documented history of heavier-than-air flight that includes 10 pp. 1961. illus. New York: Ronald Press. 1720-1723. Includes 2 pp. 23 (December 1. vol. FROESCH.. no. DAVY. J . . HARRY. Smithsonian Annals of Flight. T h e Liberty engine. G. Aeronautics. 137-202. Although his "flights. 1963. an historical survey of its origins and development. 1909. DRYDEN. vol. no. CHARLES. pp.. Textbook discussions of the subject. illus. Account of first European air meet. p p . Volume 3. drgs. Lists all engines flown. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. vol. illus. Rheims. Ellenhammer's engine was unusual in its low wt/hp ratio at this early date. also includes. 8. Divided into historical and technical surveys. History of the pioneer work of Robert H. 1928). 1949). FAUROTE. M . graph and tab. 375 pp. 1932. Complete and authentic. and sketches.CHATFIELD. Brief article. GODDARD. illus. with emphasis on technical details rather than historical events. p p . CHARLES FAYETTE. illus. 12 (December 1953). were inconsequential short hops. diagrs. illus. Airplanes up to 1918. 803-804. vol. GEORGE EDWARD. pp. Rocket development.. 1930. 30. 1.. IVAN H. Esso Air World.. Airplane types. glossary. GEISSE. and LANCASTER. 1968. Gas turbines for aircraft. no. This book is perhaps the most authentic and well-documented work available in its field. drawings. 104 pp. illus. Inc. 4 (July-August 1966). New York: Prentice-Hall. Twenty-five years of engine design. New York: Taplinger Publishing Co. PHILIP S. Generously illustrated. London: His Majesty's Stationery Office." 1906-1908. SAE Transactions. 71. A review of commercial air transport from its beginning—its future and problems. 25. 272-280. 292. liquid fuel rocket research. 1799-1909. SAE Transactions. CHARLES H . 1929-1941. The airplane and its engine. including history starting with Wright brothers. and a catalog of exhibits as of 1930. 1960. GIBBS-SMITH. 1903-1909. vol... O u r heritage from Wilbur and Orville Wright. J . 188-190. pp. 1727-1765. The propulsion of aircraft. A handbook of the collections illustrating aeronautics. Inc. 2. and 4 p p . and 1949. no. 1918-1942. 1936. p p . no. a 5 p . 3. 110 pp.. with photos. 1940. 2121 (August 18. 25th anniversary of flight at Kitty Hawk. editions 1928. Goddard in rocket development. The aeroplane. 349 pp. useful in recognizing engines used and their approximate dates of introduction to commercial flying. 1955. of bibl. 222 p p . 1966. DICKEY. each edition outlines the status of airplane propulsion as of its respective date. " T h e first air display: A veteran aviation journalist recalls the Rheims meeting 40 years ago. and PENDRAY. photos. illus. of chronology. and RICHARDS. HUGH. illus. of bibliography. with 22 pp. 56. Flight. and includes much valuable material on power plants.. London: Her Majesty's Stationry Office. vol. HARPER.. speed contest won by Curtiss at 47 mph. 97 . Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. B.. The invention of the aeroplane. as edited from Goddard's notes and memoranda.. 16-19. 1918 pt. Chapter 11 is devoted to the history of this type. CHARLES H U G H . H.. OTIS E. a very useful series of brief histories of aeronautical manufacturers. ESTHER C . 360 pp. FAY L. eds. data. Special issue. Ellehammer: A Danish pioneer who first flew 50 years ago. and TAYLOR. DRIGGS. Aviation. TILGHMAN.

ISKANDER. 253. of the Smithsonian Institution . New York: Farrar. 373-418. diagrs. drgs. T h e United States pioneer of the air-cooled radial engine. KELLY. Journal of the Franklin Institute. Miracle at Kitty Hawk. 436 pp. illus. by Manly describes the full-scale radial engine and the attempts at flight. HODGSON. vol. Oxford University Press. drgs. HEINRICH. an understandable presentation of interesting and essential facts in aeronautical science. HERON.. except 1915 and 1921. illus. SAMUEL PIERPONT. T h e Wright brothers as I knew them. including engines and fuels by an engineer actively engaged in aircraft engine development since 1915.. Mich. LEY. McCook Field. The text includes good accounts of work of Stringfellow and Henson. 17. illus. LEONARD S. 1924. generously illus. drgs. illus. HOLZER. An 88-p. no. Includes some historical material on rocket engines. in 1948. drgs. pp. Rockets. The History of aeronautics in Great Britain from earliest times to the latter half of the \9th century. Langley memoir on mechanical flight. 3. . Detroit: Ethyl Corporation. vol.. and Young. Chiefly history in U. 784 pp. vol... 1951.. drgs. Forty years of aeronautical research. Inc. ed. Ch. glossary of 15 p p . illus. 1922. A classic work on engine vibration. Author was chief engineer of Pratt and Whitney. diagrs. Annual Report. Berlin: Julius Springer & Co. section treats engines. Dayton.S. Practical aviation. a biography authorized by Orville Wright. 1 treat with early engines.. Chicago: American Technical Society.. Die Berechnung der Drehschwingungen und ihre Anwendung im Maschinenbau. with photos. 130 pp. 98 . Sperryscope. —•——. LAWRANCE. WILLY.. illus. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. FRANK P. W. Ohio: Engineering Division... 1911. pp. and MANLY. 1961. 27. 1961. extensive graph and tab. New York: Viking Press. JEROME C. 24. data. The Wright brothers. of very useful bibl. LANGLEY. Straus. 199 pp. J . 241-271. and FOSTER. HOBBS. .. 738 pp. .1955. U. 1952. Jane's all the world's aircraft. Published annually since 1909. pt/2.. pp. a brief outline. CHARLES L. illus. 1-309. SAE Transactions. no. 1921. vol. 1. LAHM. data. 1919. HOURWICH. illus... Air Service engine handbook. no. The Bee Hive. . T h e appendices. and diagrs. Air cooled engine development. vol. Aeronautics. 431-477.. 3 and 4 of pt. illus.. .for the year ended June 30. HUNSAKER. pp. pt. 116 pp. SAMUEL D... Exhaustive data on engines of that period. Reprinted by Edwards Brothers. graph data. tab. the letters of Wilbur and Orville Wright. diagrs. 340 pp.. Historical survey of its technological aspects. p p . CHARLES B.. J. diagrs. 1-5. 1943. drgs. History of the aircraft piston engine. Aeronautics at the mid-century. Ann Arbor.. illus. 1925. CHARLES M . Hew Haven: Yale University Press.S. 482 pp..HAYWARD. missiles and space travel. 436 pp. has 18 pp. 10 (April 1939). its editors and publishers vary over the years. 48-57. pp. Air Service.. 1956. no. include a chronology and an excellent annotated bibl. keyed to the text's chapters. 1 (January 1951). 4 (fall 1954). 3-10. E.. 8. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co.. T h e aircraft engine. FRED C.

and .Lindbergh's Wright Whirlwind a result of seven years' development. The papers of Wilbur and Orville Wright. Letters of the Wright Brothers. 42-44. illus. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 221-222. 1922. Sky high: The story of aviation. and of the large liquid-cooled V-12s and Lawrance-type radials developed by Wright Aeronautical Corporation. diagrs. An excellent survey to its date of publication.. The Wright brothers. 1935. 60-66. Three famous early aero engines. Boston: Little.. Aircraft propulsion systems in evolution. pt. MCFARLAND. ERIC. vol. 1930. 13 (March 29. Author was noted airplane designer 1918-1940. illus. vol. text is documented throughout. T h e author. illus. JOHN ROBERT. 226-228. Maxim. vol. pp. 2 vols. A somewhat more popularized edition of their A history of aircraft (1931). illus. 414 pp. 22. drgs. vol. drgs. pp. Voisin. pp. Historical development of air-cooled engines. A textbook with technical data on engines up to 1921. diagrs. tab. Obit- Astronautics and Aeronautics. 256.. ed. P. 1 (January 1953). On a great pioneer. GEORGE J . 514 pp. 809-851. New York: Whittlesey House. GROVER. LIONEL S. 99 . of chronology. 3. LOUGHEED. 1358-1359. and HODGINS.. illus. 24.. illus. no. 495 pp. Chicago: T h e Reilly & Britton Co. MCMAHON.. Aero Digest. VICTOR. designer of the Antoinette airplane and engine. Some aspects of aircraft engine development.. MARKS. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1931. and since that time seven successive models of air-cooled engines have been produced. 1927). no. 418-422. the Langley-Manly-Balzer radial. who subsequently changed his name to "Lockheed" was one of the brothers who founded the Lockheed Aircraft Co.. Vehicles of the air: A popular exposition of modern aeronautics with working drawings. MEYER. J r . . Aviation. The Bee Hive. illus. . no. 1925. uary on Levavasseur.. 1929. Boston: Little. Work of Penaud. Emphasis is historical. The Aeroplane.. illus. 22. 1922). vol. and 25 pp. no. Annual Report of the . Brown and Co. etc. T h e horsepower at Kitty Hawk. 1953. . It was written just before Mead left Wright to become one of the founders of Pratt and Whitney and its first chief engineer. Includes a 5-p. Langley. ROBERT B. MAGOUN. MCSURELY. including many of their own drgs. and the Clement engine used briefly by Santos-Dumont. drgs. pp. Good descriptions of the first Wright brothers' engine. Wright. 2. illus. data. Ader. 20. SAE Transactions. 1929). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. pp.. Smithsonian Institution for the Tear Ended June 30. illus. PRATT. LOENING. vol.. 224.. MEAD. 1396. 1909. Brown and Co. fathers of flight. 14 (February —. pp. MARVIN C . pp. 357-372. ALEXANDER. 493-521.. Journal of the Franklin Institute. 308 pp. 3 (March 1965). Well illustrated. • —. illus. 28.. 28.. radial air-cooled engines. 1920. pp. vol. 7-11. Santos-Dumont. vol.. A history of aircraft. This article covers development of the improved HispanoSuiza engines. no. et al. SAE Transactions. bibl. FREDERICK ALEXANDER. 25 (June 20. 1961. 1962.. The development of fixed... work begun on Feb. 6 (December 1953). The airplane engine.. 454 pp. diagrs.. W. p p . Fifty years of flying progress.

an annual publication. J. illus. illus. pt. GEN. vol. The trend of aviation development. 8 (winter 1949). vol. 65. Transactions. Pratt & Whitney development history. 34. illus. extensive tab. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. The Bee Hive. basic features almost unchanged through development years. USA. 110 pp. 4 (April 1938). Sperryscope. data. G. Return of the Wright airplane from England to the U. illus. Engines of high output. illus. on fuels. An excellent survey. • . Aircraft engines of the world. New York: Paul H. 2-5. pp. 65. VINCENT. 17. 30. pp. no. illus. Historical. Manly.. SMITH. pp. 12. drgs.D. 547-662 by Heron.S. 571-583. 5. ASME. SCHLAIFER. Flight. thermodynamic considerations. WILKINSON. 1950. 145-153. SAMUEL. 1939.. Vincent was a principal designer of the Liberty engine and was chief engineer of the Packard Motor Car Company. Development of aircraft engines and aviation fuels. pp. Search of archives reveals interesting engine histories. An excellent survey. RICARDO. The present status of military aeronautics. USA. two studies of relations between government and business. no. L T . 4 (October 1915). vol. 11. FAYETTE. VEAL. pp. Illus. 1-2.. drgs. on engines. 2. B.. and HERON. no. diagrs. Pp. pp. GEORGE O. Aircraft diesels. 1908. no. History of the aeronautical engine. 1926). . with footnote documentation. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (December 1930). S. pp. vol. no. diagrs. SIR HARRY RALPH. The two R's—A commemorative history of Rolls-Royce aero engines.. the engineer. vol. 284-286. pp. 1926. 1-544 by Schlaifer. vol. Aeronautics in the United States. A combination encyclopedia and catalog of current types. 881-898.. illus. 754 pp. Wilkinson. PAUL H. Recent progress in military aeronautics. 1940. SAE Journal. MAJOR. C. paper 1210. COL. SAE Transactions. USA. 1954). 1922. Short history and description of some 15 different makes. 402-414. . 79-82. 180. Journal of the Franklin Institute. pp.. Boston: Harvard University Press. SAE Transactions.. no. vol. An unusually fine survey. graph data. TRUE. 437-448. pp. 1. Average of 280 pp. 6 (December 1919). BRIG. 79 pp. vol. 665-705. TAYLOR. WEBSTER P. ROBERT. London: Flight Publishing Co. 639-721. New York: Pittman Publishing Corp. An outstanding survey." 100 . vol. Text documented. Gas turbines and jet propulsion for aircraft. 1926. 1942... pp. The development and progress of the aero engine. 275 pp. diagrs. London: Macdonald and Evans. GEOFFREY. technical appendices. SQUIER. 1944—1959. CHARLES D. 2363 (May 7. 34.REBER. Account of flight of reconstructed airdrome with arguments for the machine as the "first one capable of sustained free flight carrying a man. 1000-1015. Samuel Pierpont Langley and modern aviation. WALCOTT.. vol. per vol. vol. Operation Homecoming.. Aviation. C. and at this early date it is strong on historical development.. 21 (August 16. G.

1. DEGRAFFIGNY. 272. 51-53.) The failure of Langley's Aerodrome. 9 (September 1868). pp. "Performance of Fairchild Airplane Engine Improved. 8. pp. 67-75. pp. pp. 115-118. ALPHONSE. Charleville. no. pp." 1927. Mechanical flight. 6 (June 1869). Many entries contain data on earlier engines. no. 99-105. fig.Aircraft Powerplants Classification in this section is by date of publication. 80-84. 2-9. 12 (December 1868). J. Aeroplane automoteur. GASTON. vol. 8 (August 1868). 10. no. Electric motor with bichromate of potassium battery. no. By motor through the air. electric. 1930). 83-88. UAeronautique. Also under NACA Reports: 12th. HENRI. PAUL. pp. ALEXANDRE L. 1 (January 1872). see also under Engines 19251929 (DENHAM. Brief notice of Wright Brothers' 1903 flights. col. Engines 1940 and After (HERRMANN. p. HUREAU. 1903). " C a m Engine Passes Fifty Hour Test. vol. A. pp. 83-88. Scientific American. no. no. Ueber den Treibapparat bei Luftschiffen. 2. 1884. TISSANDIER. 2 (August 1904). no." 1927). 3-6. 19-22. 1. no. December 26. pp. 1. If Aeronautique." 1938. vol. 1945. " T h e First Sleeve Valve Engine in Production. Used in flight of dirigible airship. vol. pp. 33. no." 1926. 1926. 11 (November 1868) pp. £«7. no. 8 (August 1869). 112 pp. 2. illus.. no. 240-244. Rapport sur 1'Exposition Aeronautique de 1868. foldout diagrs. Les moteurs legers. Author made world's first flight with an internal combustion engine (dirigible balloon). 16. (Reproduced here. illus. Covers the aero exposition at London. 89. applicable a la navigation aerienne. p. pp. 5 (May 1883). La Locomotion aerienne. 83-88. vol. France: Impr.. 6-7 (June-July 1894). pp. 10 (October 1868)." 1954). 1903). 1882. gas. "Napier Nomad. 1868. pp. Engines 1930-1934 (HALL. Use of india rubber for model propulsion. no. d e A . Contemporary steam." 1927.rcArj/iJ fur Luftfahrt. Engines 1935-1939 ("Perseus Production. J R . which refers to the great day at Kitty Hawk. 5. no. 131-135. no. 7 (July 1868). vol. L'Aerophile. 115-120. incl. no." 1938). PENAUD. 43-53. pp. Pouillard. vol. pp. 1926 (PATON and KEMPER). " T h e Fairchild-Caminez Engine. " T h e Continental Single Sleeve Valve Engine. Propulseur dynamo-electrique pour aerostat elonge. GOUPIL. pp. at the top of the page. vol. 1 (January 1869). HAENLIEN. 128-134. 1. 51-55. 1903). illus. 35-39. 3 (March 1869). UAeronaute. no. 16 (October 17. and compressed-air engines. November 28. pp. no. 2 (February 1869). 101 . 4 (April 1869). The Automobile (London. For articles dealing with unconventional engines. Aircraft Power Before 1900 VILLENEUVE. vol. 7. no. Engines 1900-1913 Airship after buyer. EINERY. A 4-inch item. inventors of North Carolina box kite machine want government to purchase it. pp. HARRIMAN. Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies. The New York Times (Saturday.

pp. Aeronautics. 1908. 10 (March 10. The Aero Exhibition. 703. pp. The White Flyer—the motor driven aeroplane of the brothers Wright. pp. Renault. and footnote references in the text. vol. 1909). vol. no. pp. An early account based on visits to Dayton by representatives of L'Auto of France. pp. 5 (September 1908). Summary of air navigation to date. pp. 1909).E. p.SANTOS-DUMONT. HAROLD J. Engineering (October 1. 6 (June 1909). August 11. Le Moteur d'aviation Clement-Bayard. 14 (April 7. First public account by the Wright brothers. The sons of Daedalus. many excellent drgs. Illus. 2.. Gasoline motors for aeronautical work. no. no. pp. 456-458. 1906). pp. NESFIELD. p. 1409 (June 12. no. vol.. The Wright brothers' aeroplane. 1908). pp. Discusses the question of secrecy by the Wrights. 1 (January 1906). pp. 111-114. 1909). pp. drg. 1909). 60-61. 11. pp. 49-50. 3 (September 26. pp. finely done drawings. Olympia aero show of 1909. drgs. vol. 1904). 1680 (March 14. L. vol. no. no. 87 (March 26. vol. The Paris Aviation Exhibition. FOURNIER. Vereines Deutsche J^eitschrift des Ingenieure. 452. no. pp. no.. 125-129. Survey of French engines: Dufaux. Automotor Journal. 487-492. 17-20. 90. vol. 418. 13 (March 27. Illus. illus. Light-weight gasoline motors for aeronautical work. pp. Outlook. Levavasseur's Antionette V. 641-650. "Abandon the balloon and build a flying machine. no. The Wright aeroplane and its performances. 88. In this item he remarks. E. Illus. pp. illus. ALBERTO. 1 (May 7. drgs. 1909). liquid-cooled engine. No mention of wing warping. 53. pp. Types of recent foreign flying machines. Century. 211. no. no. 291. illus. 28-30. vol. Mentions Wright Brothers' first flight and first flight of Wilbur at Le Mans. and no. Illus. illus. 1410 (June 19. illustrated with photos of gliding and power flights. 172-174. no. 25-33. 1906). C. Scientific American. vol. no. 1408 (June 5. RUMPLER. Obituary.. Motoren fur Luftfahrzeuge. explosion legers pour dirigibles et aeroplanes. 578-584. Scientific American. vol. The future of the airship. 5 (May 1909). 4 (April 1909). Dutheil & Chalmers. vol 77. DANTIN. 38-40. Engineering. 1259 (March 13. 1906). 441-448. pp. 65. 532-538. 1672 (January 11. 1909). no. 62.P. Scientific American Supplement. The design of engines for aeroplanes. 3 (March 1909). pp. 1909). and others.. 102 . Vol. drg. no. HOWLAND. no. never!" Later.. 1909). 1908). and no. pp. vol. WRIGHT. pp. Scientific American Supplement. Moteurs thermiques: Les Moteurs a. Farcot. 1909). illus. Engineering. 1909). no.. 15 (April 10. Samuel Pierpont Langley. vol. 58. 153-169. Scientific American Supplement. Describes the Clement-Bayard engine. R. 76. illus. 22-23. vol. diagrs. illus. 14 (April 3. ORVILLE and WILBUR. Cosmos (Paris). illus. 52-53. 1612 (November 24. 207. pp. no. 413^115. 55. 94. 65. 1906). 12 (March 20. Genie Civil. 284-287. 94. vol. tab. he did! Eight-cylinder "Antionette" motor for aeroplane. no. ALBERT C. Illus. 1908). 82 (November 30. data. Outlook. 150-156.

radial..VORREITER. 1918. Heft 3 und 4. pp. illus. pt... 1939). 1915). no. SHERBONDY. 33-34. vol. Aerial Age Weekly. T a b . illus. Scientific American. Modern aeronautic engines. pt.. no. 1. Development of aviation engines. 322-323. Illus.. 258-259. MEYER. ^eitschrift fur Flugtechnik und Motorluftschriffarlet. and others. E. 1917. 1912.. 1910. Aeronautic engines. 205-208. 12. Aerial Age Weekly. no. SAE Transactions. Vincent. pp. 20. A survey. air-cooled engine. Paris air show. vol. pt. H. no. pp. 498-499. pp. no.. 1917. pp. 241-266. American aeronautical engines.. GRIFFITH. 1915). 3 (September 1918). 7. Anzani fan. and graph data. pp. 19 (July 26. 1915). A good description of aircraft engine practice up to 1917. 1915). graph data. no. Esnault Pelterie. Illus. 1917. AUSTIN C. Engines 1914-1919 MACCOULL. no. tab. 1. 20 (August 2. illus. 14 (April 7. vol. vol. 1915). . no. drgs. 103 . 1961. MCSURELY. Lavishly illustrated. an important parallel between the development of the engines of the automobile and the airplane. 128-129. Includes discussion by Manly. 16 (July 5. vol. See also under History and Technology ("Ellehammer. 5. tab. L'Aerophile. and no. L'Aerophile. p. p.P. Miese. 147-152. 16. L'Aerophile. 117. 406-^07. p. 274—302. 1911). pp. pp. 18 (July 19. vol. data. 14 (June 21. Aeroplane engines. no.. 1911). 1915). Les Moteurs a l'Exposition. Relates to Gnome rotary. 1912). SAE Journal. Some notes on high-pressure aviation engines. 1912). pp. pp. pp. Henley Publishing Co. Neue Flugmotore. drgs. Aerial Age Weekly. 1 (March 22. 1915). pp. 1. illus. Louis Seguin. Bertin engines. 1915) pp. ClementBayard. pp. 154-155. vol. Wunderlich. LESCARBOURA.. drgs. NEIL. VON. Maxim. diagr. 73. 2. 2 (August 1918). 1953. and no. Details of some important early engines. 1915). . 4 (February 15. Bringing the Gnome engine to America. Aviation engine development. 21 (August 9. PAGE. vol. 6 (March 15. VICTOR W. L'Aerophile. Aviation engines. 589 pp. 22 (November 1. vol. tab. data on 12 engines. 1. 180-193. 450-451. Le Moteur Renault. 475. 20. no.E. vol. drgs. 14 (October 6. 41-44. Stout. 177-179. No. no. 1911). . pp. L'Aerophile. heavily illustrated. Alexandre Anzani. 1915). no." 1922. illus.. 7 (May 3. 12. vol. 2 (March 29. 346-347. 372-373. 8 (April 15. 2. pp. pp. 19. vol. and no. 1917). drgs. vol." 1966. New York: Norman W. 247. 374—375. 17 (July 12. . SAE Transactions. 13. illus. pp. Scientific American. Panhard. 1915). CHASE. data. 1 (January 1. SAE Transactions. no. HERBERT. how this most intricate of aviation engines is being successfully manufactured in our country. no. vol. illus. 512517. air-cooled engine of which Seguin was the designer. no. A. p. 3. " O n a Great Pioneer. Sturtevant motors. VEAL. 426427. 19. illus. no. pp. 19. 15 (June 28. 1917). Le Nouveau Moteur R. LEIGH M.

pp. 275-279. The Liberty aircraft engine. UPTON.p. The Aeroplane. 14. 6 (December 1919). 270. SMITH. 17. p. vol. 24 no. SAE Journal. DONALD MCLEOD. August 13. 697. 1919. Mercedes engine. SAE Transactions. vol. illus. 7. 599. pp. vol. 3. no. LAY. 191. Outstanding aeronautic problems. Airplane performance determined by engine performance. pp. pp. 213-219. 444-462. The Liberty motor. 104 . no. The Aeroplane. 500. DONALD W. 680. Engines 1920-1924 ABELL. illus. pt. Also SAE Journal. pp. 51. SAE Transactions.. no. 466. radial. Scientific American. 113 (May 1920). 1037-1041. 17. no. air-cooled engine. 280-284. SAE Journal. vol. 385-432. 1919). The 450 h. vol. January 29.. 119. 1919. tab. and graph data.. vol. Napier "Lion" engine. pp. F. 5. 11 pp. 2. no. CHARLES F. A German view of the Liberty engine. The Aeroplane. 1921. 22 (June 1. 1 (1919). vol. past experience and future requirements. vol. G. 367-372. vol. SAE Transactions. The true story of the Liberty motor. 455. 1919. illus. 1968). no. no. 14 (October 1. no. 1919. pt. vol. Fixed radial cylinder engines. B. pp. FRED H. vol. 118. G. 1918. JOHN W. Illus. DOUGLAS. no. G. and February 12. vol. 1919. Illus. Aeronautical Engineering Supplement. Also under NACA Reports: 8th. 119. pp. 3. KETTERING. 3. The airplane as a commercial possibility. 1923 (SPARROW). VINCENT. WARDROP. pp. Evolution of the aircraft engine. 20. 582. 2. 1918. Under Engines 1920-1924 (HELLER. tab. 23 (December 18. 480-482. Scientific American. Scientific American. How the Hispano-Suiza engine came to the forefront of aviation. no. 515. data. COLVIN. The Smith 10-cyl 400-hp. SAYERS. The Liberty engine. Engines 1930-1934 ("The Hispano-Suiza Aero Engines. pt. A. The Hispano-Suiza aircraft engine. vol. Scientific American. Includes 2 fine cross-sectional drawings. 1266. 14 (October 5. 499-500. pp.. 593-594.p. p. Excellent general discussion. no. WILLIAM F. American Machinist. 1920). 14. tab. pt. DOUGLAS. the Royal Aeronautical Society. Progress made in the construction of giant airplanes in Germany during the war. Its checkered career and details of its construction. The 200 h. drgs. Journal of BAUMAN.DURAND. DICKEY. The future of the airplane business. 2 (August 1919). 16. pp. data. J. vol. 13. 1919. p. pp. pp. no. pp. 430-432. NACA Technical Note. 1918). pt. vol. SAE Journal. 23 (December 7. 4 (October 1918). drg. 4 (October 1918). C. pp. SAE Journal. 1. February 5. 3 (September 1918). 1918). pp. SAE Transactions." 1934). 29. 1918). 5. See also under History and Technology (ANGLE. 294—303. pp. HOW Ford built Liberty motors. 475-491. 14. W. 250-268. 1919). 809-810. 363-379. Aerial propulsion. 2. 118. pp. vol. vol. H. and August 27. no. Strong emphasis on need for engine development. 1918). 676-678. 1920. pp. Interesting predictions by an eminent engineer of that time. 6 (December 1918). in text and large fold-out drg. SAE Transactions. vol. 1919. Airship machinery. 1 (January 6.

NACA Technical Note. 1921. 1921). no. 186-189. 16. SPARROW. Effect of the reversal of air flow upon die discharge coefficient of Durley orifices. 18 pp. GROVER C. 1. drgs. Transl. 1921.. W A R E . no. U.. no.. diagrs.. 3 (March 1923).. graph data. SAE Transactions. October 1.. pp. Includes cross-sectional and several detail drgs. illus. 1923. pp. 1920. Illus. 15. McCook Field)..p. C. ALAN E. Aviation (February 25. 105 . G. no. 689-705. Army Air Service (Engineering Division.S. Pt.S. pp. 24 (December 12. no. 2328. 3590 (September 9. pp. L. 7 pp. 9. Bristol Jupiter engine. 347^130.. Report. NOACK.. 1. vol. no. NACA Technical Note. Test of Armstrong Siddeley "Jaguar" 14-cylinder radial aviation engine rated at 320 h. 14 pp. .S. pp. Army Air Service. graph and tab..p. 17 pp. 15. W. diagrs. no. pp. Development of an American pursuit engine.A. diagrs. NACA Technical Note. McCook Field). Engine shape as affecting airplane operation. 577-590. Progress Toward 1000 hp. 1922. illus. 1921). 725-740. vol. data.. O. by many fine drawings. SAMUEL D. pp. 1924). drgs. L T . 1920. 1923. 11. Pt. NACA Technical Note. Tests of the 450 h. Well illus. A. Recent developments in aircraft and engines in the Navy. drgs. SAE Transactions. pp. 872-881.I V a engine at a high altitude test bench. T h e aeronautical engine: Some differences be- tween the airship and airplane power plant. pt. no.p. illus. 26 (December 26. Aviation. 18 (September 1922). 1922. D . 15. SAE Transactions. 455. 1921). no. pp.. 685-686. no." sodium and potassium nitrate mixture. September 4. 707-724.. . R A D M . FAYETTE. 8. pp. data. Recent efforts and experiments in the construction of aviation engines. SAE Transaction. Journal of the Royal Society of Arts [London]. TAYLOR. graph data. 34. U. S. vol. W. illus. 40.S. graph and tab. vol. drgs.. GLENN D. 12. 17.. Air cooled cylinder design. 1920. 2218. and graph data. from ^eitschrift des Vereines Deutsche Ingenieure (1920). July 16. data. CHORLTON.. MARSDEN. 13-15. HERON.LOENING. vol. at 1500 r. High thermal efficiency in airplane service. Aero engines. graph data.S. SCHWAGER. ANGLE. 20 pp. C. pp. 1921). S. vol. Benz aircraft engine. 17. BRUCE G. Development of German aircraft engines. pt. no. 1920. graph data. USN. OTTO. no.. Army Air Service (Engineering Division. Contains history and detail design. U. 735-738. 39. 28 pp. data. extensive graph and tab. NACA Technical Note. 11. 1923. WILLIAM A. tab. 862-887. T h e Hispano-Suiza as developed under license in the U. 1. 161-164. and October 15. HERON. Aviation. no. and no. HELLER. 478. Air Services. illus. Author was in charge of engine design. 69. USN. Exhaust valves and guides for aircraft engines. aircraft engines. Aerial Age. M O F F E T . pp. T h e 300 h. Tests of the Daimler D .. Report. 18. Navy changes in Liberty motor responsible for improvement in Navy plane operations. CHRISTIANSEN. 1921. 53 pp.p. 1. vol. vol. graph and tab. vol.. illus.m. vol. pp. 198-200. 1920. 3589 (September 2.. Aviation. 1921). U. . pp. 3591 (September 16. LEIGHTON. Recent aircraft engine developments. vol. Record of early development work on internal cooling through the use of "salts.

TAYLOR. no. WILSON. pp. pp. DINGER.. pp. formed to manufacture aircraft engines. H.. M C C O R D . pp. vol. illus.. 2 (1926). aircraft engine.. pp. vol. 130-143. no.MEAD. 20. no. The Fairchild Caminez engine. 21. 21. 695-717. 856-878.. 1925. C . 211. two high powered radial engines successfully produced within the year. DENHAM. no. 30 pp.. 1925). Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers. . 55. no. 891-893. no. p . drgs. 18. as of 1924. Cam is used instead of crank train in radial airplane engine. LAWRANCE. USN. pp. Aviation. vol. 867-886. 18 (May 4. illus. Engines 1925-1929 BOEDECKER. 887-910. Philadelphia. Aeronautical Engine Laboratory. vol. 121. vol. graph data. vol. The economy of air cooling. vol. drgs. no. 517-520. 18 (October 28. pp. no. GEORGE J. SAE Transactions. SAE Transactions. no. 1922. Airplane Engine Designing for Reliability. SAE Transactions. SAE Transactions. 1. vol. 586-588 illus. 6 (August 9. illus. 1925. 21. 4 (November 1926). EUGENE E. Aviation.5 . 54. Automotive Industries. Aviation. 664-667. 634-636. 1926). 1926). FAYETTE. illus. vol.. tab. Graph data on Armstrong-Siddeley 65-hp Genet. 19. diagrs. ATHEL F. 246-249. Napier Lion and the Schneider Cup. pp. 492-493. Aviation. pp. C.. drgs. Pratt & Whitney anniversary. vol. 1926.. pt. MEAD.. vol. illus. Aviation. 18. illus. p. 37. Drgs. 19 (May 11.. CHARLES G. pp. USN. L T . pt. The design of air-cooled cylinders. CDR. vol. type J . 18. 2. Aviation.. 24 (June 15. Aviation. pt. 847-866.. NACA Technical Note. Mostly about the Wright J series. graph data. 812-846. Air-cooled engines in naval aircraft. 1922). J. 1926). 2 (1926). WILSON. 23 (June 8. 1926). A good survey. illus. drgs. 21. Armstrong-Siddeley in field with light air-cooled aircraft engine. 106 . The development of the Wright Whirlwind. vol. 1925). 1925). pp. 5 (August 3. illus. 21 (May 27. CDR. The new Packard aircraft engines. no. diagrs.. CAPT. ARTHUR. 1925). 38. pp. 2 (1926). Wasp and Hornet radial air-cooled aeronautic engines. vol. 1924. Naval Aircraft Factory.. pp. T. pt. The trend of aircraft engine development. an airplane engine designed along new lines and embodying entirely new principles successfully tested in flight. SAE Transactions. K. The Fairchild-Caminez engine. USN. vol. 19. The development of the Wright air-cooled aviation engine. 17 (October 26. illus. 19. illus. Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Co. Pt. Automotive Industries. 1925). USN. graph data. JONES. no. vol. 38.. NUTT. 275-305. Vincent. pp. 21 (May 24. See also under History and Technology (HOURWICH and FOSTER. EUGENE E. graph data. 21. The makers of Napier engines. Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers (May 1925). 788-791. 1925). Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers (February 1926). data. pp. no. vol. GEORGE J .. Aircraft engine design. detailed description of the latest aircraft engines produced by the Packard Motor Car Co. E. illus.. 746. pp. Progress in aircraft engine design..

Cam engine passes fifty hour test; Fairchild-Caminez Engine Corp. Development announced as an approved type. Aviation, vol. 23, no. 1 (July 4, 1927), pp. 20-21, illus. CARTER, B. C. Dynamic forces in aircraft engines. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (April 1927), vol. 31, pp. 277-328, illus., drgs., graph data. The Continental single sleeve valve engine. Aviation, vol. 22, no. 17 (April 25, 1927), p. 826. Engines at the Paris aero show. Aviation, vol. 22, no. 3 (January 17, 1927), pp. 122-129, illus., tab. data. Performance of Fairchild airplane engine improved. Automotive Industries, vol. 57, no. 5 (July 30, 1927), p. 160. Fairchild Caminez engine. WILSON, EUGENE E., CDR., USX. American air-cooled aircraft engines. Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers (August 1927), vol. 39, pp. 533-543, illus. BOURDON, M. W. Huge air-cooled airplane engine develops nearly 800 B.H.P. Automotive Industries, vol. 58, no. 24 (June 16, 1928), pp. 920-921, illus., graph data. Armstrong-Siddeley radial, air-cooled engine. CLEMENTS, BISHOP. T h e metallurgy of aircraft engines. ASME, Transactions, vol. 50, 1928, pp. 1-2. FOKKER, A. H. G. Single-engine versus multi-engine airplanes. SAE Transactions, vol. 23, 1928, pp. 223-227. MEAD, GEORGE J. The "Wasp" series B engine. Aviation (June 11, 1928), vol. 24, pp. 1678-1679, 1703-1704, illus. WOOLSON, L. M. The Packard X, 24-cylinder 1500 h.p. water-cooled aircraft engine. SAE Transactions, vol. 23, 1928, pp. 493-504, illus., drgs., diagrs. Wright "Whirlwind" Engine. Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 206, no. 5 (November 1928), report 2890, pp. 681-687, illus. BROOKS, DONALD B. Horsepower correction for atmospheric humidity. SAE Transactions, vol. 24, 1929, pp. 273-279, graph data. Continental 7-cylinder aircraft engine develops 150 H.P. Automotive Industries, vol. 60, no. 10 (March 9, 1929), pp. 404-406, illus., sectional drg. HERON, S. D. T h e in-line air-cooled engine. SAE Transactions, vol. 24, 1929, pp. 4 2 3 434, illus., drgs., diagrs. Especially the air-cooled Liberty variant, the Wright V-1460, among others. LEIGHTON, BRUCE G. Races—the test-block for aviation. Aviation, vol. 27, no. 8 (August 24, 1929), pp. 393-394. Lycoming develops aero engine of radial type in two models. Automotive Industries, vol. 61, no. 9 (August 31, 1929), pp. 295-297, illus., tab. data. The 9-cylinder R-645 and 7-cylinder R-500. STOUT, R. CHEYNE. T h e development of the Cirrus engine. U.S. Air Services, vol. 14, no. 4 (April 1929), pp. 53-54. TAYLOR, C. FAYETTE. A study of the engines exhibited at the Olympia aero show. Aviation (August 31, 1929), vol. 27, pp. 456-463, illus., tab. data. PAGE, VICTOR W. Modern Aviation Engines, 1908 pp., 2 vol., illus. New York: Norman W. Henley Publishing Co., 1929. See also under History and Technology (GEISSE, 1928; "Lindbergh's Wright Whirlwind . , " 1927; M E A D , 1925 and 1929; RICARDO, 1930; TAYLOR, 1926).


Engines 1930-1934
HALL, E. S. Engines having the cylinders parallel to the shaft. SAE Journal, vol. 46, no. 4 (October 1930), pp. 408-412, 476. Traces historical development, including drgs. from several patents. LOTT, E. P., and SMITH, W. L. The operator's airplane and engine requirements. SAE Journal, vol. 46, no. 4 (October 1930), pp. 393-402, 407. LYON, A. J . Aluminum alloys of aircraft engine piston and cylinder heads. ASME, Transactions, vol. 52, 1930, pp. 257-269, illus., diagrs. SETTLE, T . G. W., LT., USN. Airship engines. U.S. Naval Institute, Proceedings, vol. 56, no. 8 (August 1930), pp. 745-747. BANKS, F. ROD WELL. The evolution of a Schneider engine. The Aeroplane (October 7, 1931), vol. 41, pp. 864, 866, 868, 870, 782, illus. Rolls-Royce model R. CHILTON, ROLAND. Air-cooled cylinder-head design. SAE Transactions, vol. 26, 1931, pp. 542-545. New crankcase reduces weight of Continental aircraft engine. Automotive Industries, vol. 64, no. 12 (March 21, 1931), p . 483. Model A-70 radial. Rolls-Royce, Ltd.; D . Napier & Son, Ltd. The Aeroplane (September 9, 1931), vol. 41, pp. 632, 634, 636. British Schneider racers' power plants. TAYLOR, PHILIP B. Increasing the thrust horsepower from radial air-cooled engines. SAE Transactions, vol. 26, 1931, p p . 531-541, illus., diagrs. At this time Taylor was chief engineer at Wright Aero.
DIETRICH, OTTO, and LEHR, ERNST. Das Dehnungslinienverfahren ein Mittel zur

Bestimmung der fur die Bruchsichereit bei Wechselbeanspruchung massgebenden Spannungsverteilung. £eitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure, vol. 76, no. 41 (October 8, 1932), pp. 973-982, illus. This article introduced the very important method of exploring stresses in engine parts by the brittle-lacquer technique. I t has had a profoundly beneficial effect on engine development since that time. LOWES, JOSEPH E. The Pratt & Whitney twin Wasp J r . engine. Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers, vol. 44, no. 3 (August 1932), pp. 371-373. ANGLE, GLENN D. Developments in high-powered aircraft engines. Aero Digest, vol. 23, no. 4 (October 1933), p p . 41-44, and no. 5 (November 1933), p p . 46-47, illus. Emphasis is upon liquid-cooled engines. Comparison of recent European and American military aircraft engines. Interavia, no. 41 (August 24, 1933), pp. 1-2, and no. 42 (August 28, 1933), pp. 1-2. FEDDEN, A. H . R . Next decade's aero engines will be advanced but not radical. SAE Transactions, vol. 28, 1933, pp. 377-401, illus., drgs., diagrs. Draws heavily upon Bristol's experience. Fedden was chief engineer for the engines of the Bristol Aeroplane Company. High-output engines: A British point of view and an American one. Aviation, vol. 32, no. 10 (October 1933), pp. 321-323. HILL, HENRY C. 400-hour endurance test of the Wright Whirlwind R - 7 6 0 E - 1 . Aero Digest, vol. 23, no. 3 (September 1933), pp. 50-51. Pratt & Whitney two-row engine development. Aviation Engineering, vol. 8, no. 4 (April 1933), pp. 17-18, 27, illus. TAYLOR, E. S. Radial engines: Their power and frontal area. Aviation, vol. 32, no. 7 (July 1933), pp. 201-202.


The Hispano-Suiza aero engines. Interavia, no. 166 (November 8, 1934), pp. 1-6. TAYLOR, C. FAYETTE. Power plants in 1933. Aviation, vol. 34, no. 1 (January 1934), pp. 19-20. See also under History and Technology (DAVY and RICHARDS, 1930).

Engines 1935-1939
Pratt & Whitney E Hornet, 750 h.p. engine. Aero Digest, vol. 26, no. 1 (January 1935), pp. 42-43. CHATFIELD, CHARLES H. Pratt & Whitney's development of the two-row radial aircraft engine. Aero Digest, vol. 26, no. 4 (April 1935), pp. 32-34, illus. Wright series F-50 Cyclone engines. Aero Digest, vol. 26, no. 6 (June 1935), pp. 30, 32, 36, illus. Bristol Pegasus Engine. Automobile Engineer, vol. 26, no. 346 (June 1936), pp. 221-224. Bristol poppet-valve engine with aluminum heads. Successor to the "Jupiter." LURENBAUM, KARL. Vibration of crankshaft-propeller Systems. SAE Transactions, vol. 31, 1936, pp. 469-472. TAYLOR, E. S. Eliminating crankshaft torsional vibration in radial aircraft engines. SAE Transactions, vol. 31, 1936, pp. 81-89. Theory and practice of tuned absorbers. WOOD, H. Liquid-cooled aero engines. SAE Transactions, vol. 31, 1936, pp. 267-287, 400, 424, illus., tab. and graph data. Relates chiefly to the Rolls-Royce Kestral engine. 1,000 h.p. Wright Cyclone. Aero Digest, vol. 29, no. 3 (September 1936), pp. 32, 35, illus. YOUNG, RAYMOND W. Air-cooled radial aircraft engine performance possibilities. SAE Transactions, vol. 31, 1936, pp. 234—256, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data. Relates chiefly to Wright Aero's models. Accent on the aspirate; some glimpses of Napier 'H'-shaped engines in production. Flight, vol. 31, no. 1485 (June 10, 1937), Engineering Supplement, pp. a, b, c. Allison 1,000 h.p. chemically-cooled model 1710 engine. Aero Digest, vol. 30, no. 6 (June 1937), pp. 50, 88-89. This engine was a close copy of the Rolls-Royce Merlin. FEDDEN,' A. H . R. Trend of air-cooled aero engines—the next five years. SAE Transactions, vol. 32, 1937, pp. 437-454, 467, illus., drgs., graph and tab. data. References are mostly to British and Bristol developments. GREGORY, A. T. Features of the in-line air-cooled aircraft engine. SAE Transactions, vol. 32, 1937, pp. 473-482, illus., drgs., tab. and graph data. Fairchild SGV-770 Ranger engine. Gregory was chief engineer of Ranger. LOMBARD, A. E., J r . How many engines? The question of power plant sub-division can't be solved by the old eenie, meenie, meinie moe formula. Aviation, vol. 36, no. 7 (July 1937), pp. 30-31, 63-64, 67-68. Includes footnote references. MEAD, GEORGE J . Aircraft power plant trends. SAE Transactions, vol. 32, 1937, pp. 455467, illus., drgs., graph data. More on Pratt and Whitney engines. The coming of the sleeve valve. Aircraft Engineering, vol. 9, no. 102 (August 1937), pp. 203204. Bristol sleeve-valve engine. How the sleeve valve works. The Aeroplane, vol. 52, no. 1362 (June 30, 1937), p. 816, illus. Bristol sleeve-valve engine.


illus. Metallic sodium followed. 6. 44. pp. 776-778. 82. graph data. 333-341. pp. SAE Transactions. illus. 1413 (June 22. Adaptation of Diedrick and Lehr work in the United States. pp. 8 (June 1939). pp. 1938. P. KAMPER. illus. footnote refs. 1 (January 1938). no.44. The Allison V-1710 engine. pp. 12 (October 1939). pp. A. footnote refs. graph data. and graph data. no. The development of sodium cooling of exhaust valves. Comprehensive description of current practice. tab. O. no. 417-418. 43-49. Gas pressure torque in radial engines. pp. vol. 33. Journal of the Aeonautical Sciences. Aircraft engine research of the National Adivsory Committee for Aeronautics. 35. 1412 (June 15. HAZEN. K. trials of water and mercury in 1913. 147-152. diagrs. 185-192. vol. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. The Aeroplane. vol... Describes 6-degree rubber mounting for radial engines. phantom view. 33. Automotive Industries. P. 2 (December 1938). S. diagrs.1938). 1940. 453. 90-91. GREER. vol. Modern aircraft valves. Torsional vibration of in-line aircraft engines.. illus. 34. vol. no. no. drgs. T. The Aeroplane. footnote refs. 278-283. SAE Transactions..air-cooled engine. H. 1-6. illus. pp. Brittle lacquers as an aid to stress analysis. A. DEFOREST. diagrs..E.. and ELLIS. 6. footnote refs. R.. specs. 48. vol. 479-484. K. graph data. pp. A. no. pp. 110 . Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. G. 1 (November 1938).. drgs. V. illus.CARRY. vol. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. vol. FEDDEN. R. p. Vibration isolation of aircraft power plants. 9 (May 1. 6. footnote refs. V. 46. and BROWNE. graph data. graph data. Piston Engines 1940 and After COLWELL. TAYLOR. DeHavilland 525-hp Gypsy 4-cylinder vertical for light planes.5 engine. BENTLEY. diagrs. 205-208. 7 (May 1939). graph data. no. 1940). vol. pp. CARLTON. 37. S. new R-530-D series supplements established line of nine cylinder engines. and MONTEITH.. See also under History and Technology ("Search of Archives Reveals Interesting Engine Histories. A new air-cooled motor.A.. SAE Transactions. vol. The first sleeve valve engine in production." 1938). Vibration of radial aircraft engines. illus. vol. C. 349-365. no.. 32. pp. 1926. 1938). Ranger vertical and V. diagrs. and no. illus. drgs. 4 (April 1938). vol. 1923. Aviation. first used in Wright J . Seven cylinder Lycoming.. Aero Digest. Bristol Perseus X I I . M. 1403 (April 13. pp. 1938).. 1938. 7. Dynamic suspension—a method of aircraft-engine mounting. WILLIAM J. The Aeroplane. vol. vol. 6. E. A. no. SAE Transactions. Perseus production. pp. 54. 335-341. Latest twelve cylinder Ranger engines. A. R. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. DRAPER. The single sleeve as a valve mechanism for the aircraft engine. vol. no.. 38. Salt cooling by Heron. 1917. 5 (March 1940). BROWNE. 1939.... Midgeley and Kettering patent on causing wetting of steel surface by mercury.. drgs. no. 751-752.

. 84. p. using a serrated condenser pick-up with five different pitch settings of the propeller blades. 409-431. no. vol. 385-392. FEDDEN. from The Aeroplane. YOSHIKAWA. 70-72. no. graph and tab. 1944). no. vol. Automotive Industries. HARUO. July 1943. Torsiograph observations on a Merlin I I engine. graph data. Flight. SIDNEY. no. 223-227. 8. vol. CARTER. Aviation. pp. HENRY L. pp. Automotive Industries. Lycoming "packaged power" unit. Aircraft Engineering. 36.. 1849 (June 1. W.W. 259.. 89. illus. no. 89. Some notes on design features of the Mitsubishi Kinsei engine. 44. pp. OLDBERG. 10 (November 15. diagrs. 1942. illus. drgs. 393-400.. Author was Japanese naval attache. 1942). 52 (1944).. 1983. C . 1941). exploded views. R. diagrs. 1941. E. Design details of the BMW-801A engine.. 6 (June 1940). details of Germany's latest twin-row radial power plant.Lycoming geared 75 h. no. phantom view. A very brief item. pp.W. illus. 465-483. pp. J .. YOUNG. diagrs. MOREHOUSE. graph data.. vol. pp. and no. p . 1941. 11 (November 1942). illus. A 775-lb. 201-202. drgs.p. based on Anzani practices. 1942. OVEYS. 1 (January 1940). T h e development of the Merlin engine. 12 (December 1942). Reports and Memoranda... exploded views. engine. 296. Accompanied by excellent British drawings from Flight magazine.M. Brownback built small engines in the United States. Mercedes-Benz DB-601A aircraft engine: Design features and performance characteristics. Historical account of Anzani fan and radial air-cooled engines. graph data. Berlin.M. Design features of the Junkers 21 IB aircraft engine. vol. 1756 (August 20. illus. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. THOMAS M . 162-hp. 14. Four-cylinder-opposed geared engine for light airplanes. 156-160. 397-459. A. drgs. vol. Aviation. Aero Research Committee. no. pp. vol. SHEFFIELD. 1944). illus. BROWNBACK... vol. illus.. 578-583. 10 (August 1941). M . drgs. 30. Includes some very small engines. illus. no. pp. and no. 611-615. His article is translated from Luftwissen. p . Flight. Phantom view drawing from The Aeroplane. 3 (August 1. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (October 1944). data. SAE Transactions. This was the 32nd Wilbur Wright memorial lecture. 801 aero-engine. 42. T h e B. HAROLD E. pp. 1942).. vol. vol.. no. 23. 39. vol. 50. illus. 50. pp.. F. pp. 169-173. R. vol. pp. 1850 (June 8. and BALL. 228-229. and no. graph and extensive tab. The B. Development of the radial engine for military uses. HAZEN. Ill . no. ELLOR. illus. 291-294. Light aircraft engine developments. G. Japan's Power Units. data. never widely used. vol. 4 (February 15. 801A. 114. pp. diagrs. horizontally opposed model. degs. vol. T h e Allison aircraft engine development. 42. SAE Transactions. 256-257. graph data. vol. p. J . B. 1943).. 253-266. illus. CAVE. SAE Transactions. Automotive Industries. 1942). specs. 50. illus. 162 (August 1942). SAE Transactions. SAE Transactions. 48. RAYMOND W. illus.. R. Three excellent British phantom view drgs. schematic drgs. Aircraft power plant—past and future. vol. pp. 1943). 488-500. vol. phantom views. German B M W 801 Engine.. 1751 (July 16. 1755 (August 13. 42. MYLES V. C. 36. 45. Also in Flight. H . and FORSHAW. no. drgs. illus. Aviation. pp. Lycoming 12-cylinder horizontally opposed engine. no.

C-115. 42. WILKINSON. See also under History and Technology (ANGLE. steam motor weighing 3% lbs. vol. illus. 93. given before the A. Aero Digest. 209 (July 1946). early attempts to use steam power in aircraft. Development of the Rolls-Royce Merlin from 1939 to 1945.. SCHLAIFER and HERON. illus. L'Aerotechnica. 92. vol.. 1945). no. 1915). 7-11. Aero Digest. JOTTI DA BADIA. 53. illus.F. no. no.. drgs. p. pp. pp. vol. pp. Aircraft Engineering. illus. of 4 items. Cam engines for aircraft. Extensive graph data. 3 (September 1933).. Brilliantly illustrated with numerous cross-sections. 11. 149. 1961. illus. 534. vol. KARL L. vol. A steam driven airplane engine. 1950. 18. vol. F. 1939-1943. 1954). L. illus. data. 239. HERRMANN. 3 (summer 1958). CDR. 543-551. fold-out phantom view. New Continental aircraft engines. CADDELL. Diesel Engines WOOLSON. ed. 94. HERON. Flight. Aerosphere. 136. and C-125. no. SAE Transactions. GRUBERG. fold-out diagr. NACA Technical Note. vol. no. Flight. 435444. no. A. ca. Besler's steam engine in a Travelair airplane.. pp. V. 138. illus. BANKS.. G. Aero News and Mechanics (June—fuly 1930). Ranger air-cooled. vol. 2362 (April 30. tab. 96. HOBBS. 54. 1942). vol. vol. diagrs.. 1753 (July 30. Journal of the Royal Society of New South Wales. SAE Transactions. 1555-1564. Models A-100. The art of the aviation engine. 49.. 1945. 12 (December 1931). BANKS. A. 466-475. II motore a vapore ed il suo impiego in aeronautica. 76. 1929.H. phantom view. FRANK L. 12 (December 15.P. 24.. ANDERSON. 1 (January 1945). 1926.. 79. pp. R. schematics. no. 53. R. vol. vol. pp. 1954. First diesel to fly in heavier-than-air craft. LOVESAY. 1892. pp. USN. 72-76. 115-118. Improving engine parts by direct measurement of strain. 218-226. pp." 1952. Steam Engines Flying machine work and the % I. WILSON. 1946. 1944-)... 124—125. Discussion of development time of various types of aircraft engines.GERDAN. no. 530-531. 170. Late developments of the Allison aircraft engine. 31. and phantom view drawings. C. 112 . Steam power plants in aircraft. bibl. no. 1948). ALFRED M. pp. graph data. Sir Hiram's steam-powered winged machines. drgs. Packard diesel. illus. Steam power for aircraft. in-line engine. vol. 1950. M. 48. 2055 (May 13. drgs. SAE Transactions. Steam in the air. Diesel engines for aircraft. Automotive Industries.. pp.I. EUGENE E. illus. no. graph data. in Paris. illus. MURPHY. 19th-century experiments with steam engines for aircraft. diagr. 33. pp. 26-27. Discusses the general findings of the Navy's Bureau of Steam Engineering's Committee on Experimental Power. pp. 32 pp.. drgs.T. Napier Nomad: An engine of outstanding efficiency. " T h e Two R's Rolls Royce Aero Engines. 100-101. " T h e Aviation Industry. POLESINE. 65. Flight.. 1922." 1954. Summary of the first Louis Bleriot lecture. 5 (June 1. Scientific American. no. pp. pp. The Bee Hive. DIMITRIUS. 95-102. L.

18th. p p . p. 1-3. illus. 17th. Interavia. EDWIN P. graph data. vol. SAMMONS. 1933). 104-109. RICHARD. 36-38. vol. no. 22nd. 1931). U. p. pp. pp.p. T h e diesels take the air. drgs. from Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift (January 10 and 20. vol. 11 (November 1938). 34 (July 31. no. The Aeroplane (February 27. 14th. 18 (June 6. T h efirstairplane diesel engine: Packard model DR-980 of 1928. no. Under Engines 1930-1934 (SETTLE. illus. and CHATTERTON. pp. 63. 1921). 1930. 4 (January 25. J . 1964. diesel. 48 pp. 10. 1924). 4 (April 1932). no. vol. tab. 176. LCDR. 28. 8 (August 1966). vol. pp. 44. The Aeroplane (April 29. 113 . D. 25 pp. 1936 (ROTHROCK and WALDRON. L. L. 1955. 813-815. 44. pp. 1933). 1200 h. illus.. A paper read before the Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fur Luftfahrt. diagrs. J r . 20th.. illus. BLACKALL. Junkers-Nachrichten. Automotive Industries. MELCHIOR. 624-625. Aircraft oil engines. 19 (June 8.. M . Nordatlantikfluge der Deutschen Lufthansa. vol. B. HERBERT. Junkers develops diesel engine for aircraft use. 33. 20-23. T h e most successful airplane diesel. no. A history of diesel engines. WARNER. diagrs. Air Pictorial. 1932 ( R O T H R O C K ) . Possibility of reactive propulsion in air. drgs. 3 (March 1937). 21 (May 16. pp. See also under History and Technology (WILKINSON. 1940).. 1414 (June 29. SAE Transactions. drgs. 1930). A family of motor mountings. The Aeroplane. SAE Transactions. and no. the last try at this type. VOGT. drg. HEINZE. EDWARD P. 31. vol. Aviation. vol. pp. Guiberson Diesel Engine. illus. 1930.. vol.S. 1933). And under NACA Reports: 12th. vol. illus. T .. 1938). no. 1. pp. JOHN B. 28. T h e Packard aircraft diesel. FOSTER) . The progress of the heavy oil engine in France. vol. data.. 236-248. 65. Schwerolmotoren im Ozeanverkehr. no. 1930).. pp. 3 (March 1932). drgs. 8 (August 1934). p. Jet. T .. vol. T h e heavy oil aero engine in England. pp. 1931 (ROTHROCK). 195. 565. 40. Aviation. E. 684-691. Use of the Junkers diesel engine in commercial airplanes. no. illus. no. vol. 62. Junkers J u m o diesel. 271-272. Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers (February 1932). illus. Flying and Popular Aviation. NACA Technical Memorandum.. An experimental 24-cylinder 2-cycle turbo-compound diesel engine. 107-131. and Turbine Engines KOLEROFF. 9. WEBB. 1-3. vol. T h e Melot engine. USN. 281-285. vol. 1929 (JOACHIM and K E M P E R ) . MEYER. 25.. Napier Nomad aircraft diesel engine. 1930). ERNEST. 1926 (GARDINER). WOOLSON. 17. 26. 1935 (SPANOGLE and WHITNEY) . no.. 20. pp. Rocket. illus. no. T h e Packard diesel aircraft engine. drgs. Aviation. A. Smithsonian Annals of Flight. 23rd. T h e Junkers " J u m o 4 " heavy oil aircraft engine. vol. no. pp. ROBERT B.GASTERSTADT. trans. KENNEDY. Jet Propulsion in France. Development of the Junkers diesel aircraft engine. 1937 ( M O O R E and COLLINS). Air Services. no. pp. 282-284. pp. Beardmore compression-ignition engines. 121-122. 792. 2. illus. 14 (April 5.. Interavia. Aviation. 1930). Includes a phantom view of the engine. 1-2. FREDERICK. no.

. diagrs.. 1930). tab.. SAE Transactions. Aircraft rocket motors. pp. 500-518. R. drgs. vol. pp. pp.. pp. pp. 18. data. tab.. no. Illus. pp. no. Gas turbine-propeller. 375-388. 210 (August 1946). Illus. 190-192. R. October 19. 134. 1941. drgs. diagrs... pp. p p .. no.. some particulars of one of the first successful American axial compressor engines. 1930. 982. Enemy jet history. 239-242.. 1939).. vol. Discusses solid and liquid-fueled rockets. The development of turbine engines in France. 1945. data. 32-39. 75-84.. 3 (February 1. CHARLES D. no. illus... no. vol. 1946. The French Bertin engine. FRANK W. SMITH. 246 (August 1949). Notes on the Bristol Theseus heat-exchanger propeller turbine. no. 204 (February 1946). November 2. no. D. E. 19. G. drgs. 54. MAGUIRE.. G. The Aeroplane (May 27. Illus. phantom view. 543-546. Aircraft Engineering.. 40. 571. 4 (February 15. 35.W.. mostly historical. 1939). 60-63. 100-104. Possibilities of jet propulsion. A. and no. 1-5. pp. BMW-003 turbo-jet engine compared with the J u m o 004. data. 503-507. 54. A translation of the Flugsport (1939) article.. STEMMER.ROY. 248 (October 1949). drgs.. graph and tab. 18. SAE Transactions. LUNDQUIST. W. vol. 1945... D. graph data. Illus.M. RICHARDSON. WHITTLE. 155-158. illus. 69. pp. 29-36. no. illus. 244-247. pp. photos. pp. graph data. vol. 156 (February 1942). pp. 3 (August 1. vol. 43-49.. Notes on the Westinghouse jet engine. vol. graph data. graph data. Whittle developed and promoted the first successful jet engine with a centrifugal compressor. The Aeroplane. Aircraft Engineering. 22 pp. Aircraft Engineering. 1945). vol. graph and t a b . FLAGLE. illus. 366-371. vol. with special reference to German developments with hydrogen peroxide. Heizloftstrahltriebwerke.. 1945. pp. Drgs. GEOFFREY. W. Flugsport. November 9. and one large fold-out drg. and COLE. drgs. 21. 247 (September 1949). no. diagrs. diagrs. no. vol. Aerojet's J A T O motors. illus. J e t propulsion. 114 . Aircraft Engineering. 31-36. The B. graph data. Propulsion by reaction. 293-296. 328-330. vol. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (December 1943). pp. 2 (January 18.. data. jet drive and reciprocating engines. 50. The rocket power plant. 1941. Flight.. diagrs. An internal combustion turbine. pp. 1 (January 4. 1946. 201. jets with axial compressors were developed in Germany. 14. 1931). 1939). graph data. illus. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (January 1931). September 25. vol. 70-75. drgs. illus. BOXTER. September 11. vol... 52. J e t propulsion for aircraft. diagrs. p p . pp. October 9. and GODSEY. 1939). 18. MAURICE. from La Technique Aeronautique (January 15. M. Aircraft Engineering. An excellent historical survey. bibl. illus. Aero Digest. drgs. pp. SIR FRANK. 47. illus. drgs. 503-510. 222 (August 1947). diagrs. NACA Technical Memorandum. Thermal-air jet-propulsion. J R . 445-452. vol. Aircraft Engineering. 003 jet propulsion engine. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (January 1948). 984. diagrs. no. G. Concurrently. pp. vol.. The development of jet or rocket propulsion. no. vol. 980. pp. no. The early history of the Whittle jet-propulsion gas turbine. ZUCROW. pp. Emphasis is on rocket power. drgs. 137. pp. 249-257. 40.. J . 213 (November 1946). Transl. pp. pp. 31. 62. 254-258. J . 1941.

vol. 1961. MARTIN. no. H. and LANCASTER. Engines 1920-1924 (HERON. ASME. tab. vol. P. " T h e Development of Sodium Cooling of Exhaust Valves. pp. 2009 (December 9. 1921). FEDDEN. 77. The Aeroplane. 1920. vol. 1938. no.. and September 3. 1919. G. of 10 items. 1922). 371-375. 9. E. Gas turbine development: Aviation. poor cooling. Piston Engines 1940 and after (CARTER and FORSHAW. 1961. 2 (February 1955). and MORLEY. SPARROW. SAE Transactions. pp. 963-982. pp. pp. SMITH. E. data. 608-624. TAYLOR. Rateau-Bateau Smoot Co. SAE Transactions.. pp. From Bell X . 15. Past and future "history" to the year 2005. MONTIETH. (LURENBAUM.1 5 . DRAPER. HAZEN and Engines 1935-1939 1938. GAGE. ELTIS. S. no. no.S. Flying an airplane engine on the ground. Aerospace Engineering. M. BROWNE. three examples built (1919). 15. 835-838. PRATT. Some factors of engine performance. 73. DRIGGS. no. and graph data. Analysis of Bureau of Standards altitude chamber tests. J e t controversy. type under test in flight (1919). pp. T h e first 100 years of aircraft powerplants. Engines 1925-1929 (CARTER. Whittle and Heinkel. pt. GODDARD and PENDRAY. DEBOTHEZAT. SAE Transactions. I. 21. 609-620..l to North American X . BROWNE. 1938. pp. 63. pp. pp. vol. new G. See also under History and Technology (DRIGGS and LANCASTER. vol. 921-924. 783-787. For articles containing information on valves see under Aircraft Powerplants. Sherbondy (1918) with the U. 1955. 1942). 1936. NACA Technical Note. 1927). 502-503. The engine's contribution to economic short-haul jet transport. Airplane performance as influenced by the supercharged engine. 1920. bibl. Engines 1935-1939 ("The Coming of the Sleeve Valve" 1937. 75 (1953). TAYLOR. 1965. vol... F. L E Y . W. JAMES A. 5. 1939. illus. graph data. How the Sleeve Valve Works. Graph data. Also under Aircraft Powerplants. machine tested at Pike's Peak (1918). 9th. 5 (November 1919). And under NACA Reports. Superchargers and supercharging engines. graph and tab. 7 pp. BENTLEY. 217-234. chart. GEORGE.E.Proteus and coupled-Proteus turbines.. Considerable graph data. including data on their engines. diagrs. Interavia. 1920. 1949). W. 115 . 1940. 1965. pp. August 27. 1943). diagrs. SAE Journal. R. 49-54. HALLETT. vol. 1936. V. illus. 89-92. 1. 7. 1. data. 1952. B. relates to laboratory and test stand work. 1923 (BUCKINGHAM). illus. illus. O. SAE Journal. 1919. The Aeroplane. graph and tab. pt. Transactions.E. and phantom view drg. 1938)." 1937. Related Technical Developments For articles containing information on engine vibration and its control see under History and Technology (HOLZER." 1940). vol. Piston Engines 1940 and After (COLWELL. TAYLOR and 1939). Altitude Performance and Supercharging American engine tests under high altitude conditions. no. Includes material on early jet engines. T h e record-setting research airplanes. pp. vol. 12 (December 1962). bibl. 2. A. 17. E.. vol..

first flight. p. Altitude laboratory tests of aircraft engines. 241-251. E. 116 . pt. drgs. vol. 54. C. 60. SCHEY. diagrs. vol. SAE Transactions. no. graph data. 19. SAE Transactions. K. A Roots-type engine supercharger. 2 (January 9. A Lilienthal Gesellschaft lecture. Aviation. MARCELLO. BERGER. JAMES B. vol. 12. pp. drgs. 1937). H. 1939. illus. 6 (December 1930). JOHNSTON. vol. vol. B. 981. Supercharging internal-combustion engines. 1922). CUMMINGS. 592-607.. illus. Functioning of supercharger in altitude flight. The turbo supercharger. pt. drgs. vol. vol. 20 (May 18.. PAOLO. 1929). model. MCCREADY. pp. NACA Technical Memorandum. GASTERSTADT. 26. Aviation. 1342 (February 10. 1929). 53-60. The Aeroplane. SARRACINO. 1942.. graph data. GREGG. vol. 24 (June 15. Junkers diesel motors and supercharging. graph data. The power of aircraft engines at altitude. First G. illus.. Superchargers. illus. vol. diagrs. as pilot of the LePere airplane with a turbo-supercharged Liberty engine made the world's high-altitude record in 1921. graph data. RAGAZZI. illus. 895. of 5 items. and GARLOCK. The problem of the turbo-compressor. bibl. vol. diagrs. 1941. R. FEDDEN. spring of 1919. NACA Technical Note.DEVILLERS. and a 7-item bibliography. Notes on the design of supercharged and over-dimensioned aircraft motors. from Technische Berichte. 32 pp. 31. McCready. V. illus. vol.. on Liberty engine. J. 1. LXXVIII-LXXXIV. 11. R. 1929). no.E. no. The present status of aircraft engine superchargers. no.. illus. 21. no. SHORT. vol. no. KORVIN-KROUKOVSKY. 6 pp. vol. no. SCHWAGER. A. OSCAR W. 28 pp. Superchargers and supercharging. L. pp. Aviation.. 38 pp. no. 933-972. 3. pp. JOHN A. SAE Transactions. A. 1926. 1931. graph data. vol. 911-913. no. Emphasis is historical. ASME. LIV-LXI. no. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (September 1927). RENE. pp. graph data. drgs. H. pp. 50.. 235-274. SAE Transactions. OTTO. 911-943. 581-591. of 6 items. 1932.. 2 (1926). 90-92.. Aviation. 358-359. 51. graph data. Transactions. 1920. pp. pp. Transl. Opie.. Ground versus flight tests of airplane engine installations. and no. The supercharging of aircraft and motor-vehicle engines. German application of the turbo-supercharger. PAUL. illus.. 1925).. NACA Technical Note. 1931... S. 4 (July 27. illus. 29. 7. drgs. and Chenoweth. History as of 1925. Comments on the 1929 world's altitude record with this equipment. illus.. SAE Transactions. bibl. graph and tab. ARTHUR W. illus. engineering problems in the design of an airplane to navigate in the stratosphere.. May 1918. KENDRICK. pp. pp. Roots supercharger on Soucek plane proves efficiency of blower type. 1920. GARDNER. 42. pp. Aeronautical Engineering Section. 26. DAVID. 26. Automotive Industries. New method of calculating the power at altitude of aircraft engines equipped with superchargers on the basis of tests made under sealevel conditions. pp. NACA Technical Memorandum. data. The high altitude airplane. 165-169. A. 16 (April 20. 21.. pp..

pp. C. vol. pt. ASME. 20. 1928. 26. A. Cowling of radial engines. The Aeroplane (January 19. 1929. SAE Transactions.. 614-620. SAE. Engine cooling problems with venturi cowling. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (March 1931). 1930). 1915. LEONARD. H . 179-206. SAE Transactions. airplanes that are to fly in the stratosphere. 1. R. p. A pioneer passes. SAE Transactions. tab. drgs. 12 (March 23. Anticipation of NACA cowling in 1921. S. ASME. p.. 1929). BRIDGMAN. 1932. FRED E. TOWNEND. 1240-1244. pp. L. The Aeroplane (January 30. The Aeroplane (November 22. Aviation. 117 .. graph data. 35. 607-618.. 1. R.. 1920. F. T h e cowling and cooling of radial engines. no. pp. 54. pt. 534— 577. D. diagrs. ANGLE. vol. High temperature liquid cooling. illus. 17th. SAMUEL R. in-line engines. 1556-1557. 11th. WEICK. illus. 1927. 14. 1932. Radial vs. pp. 84-92. vol. illus. illus. 1944. 71. DROEGMULLER. 1920. 1917.. Transactions. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (October 1930). T h e cowling of air-cooled engines. GLENN D. graph data. and TALBERT. 21 (November 17. illus. no. 656. BEISEL. SAE Transactions. experince of Stearman Aircraft Co. 16th.. The Aeroplane (April 24. drgs. THURSTAN. Transactions. 3d. Part of the air. 1931. 445^-59. T h e Townend ring. M. 1929)... 1 6 0 A . Clark plane and Low-Drag Cowl. and THOMAS. vol. MACCLAIN. 653-654. ANDREW. Sanford Moss. Design factors for airplane radiators. 53. 1586. illus. Complete and well documented. 1928). PAUL M . vol. pp. diagrs. vol. 34. vol. Recent developments in cooling aero-engines. 1588. Engine cowl rings. vol.Above the dark blue weather. 24. graph data. p . 189-196.1 6 4 A . 591-608.. illus. pp. 31. KENNETH. pp. vol.versus liquid-cooling controversy. T h e new NACA low drag cowling. 1925. 1919. vol. 51. vol. 4th. 1946). pp. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (July 1934). R E X B. vol. pp. 15. pp. Also see articles in the following NACA Reports: 1st. Cowling. Summarized in The Aeroplane (November 26. 36. illus. Obituary. CAMPBELL. 225-226. vol. Aviation. 66. pp. Cooling. illus. 611.. Dr. 898. vol. JOHN E. 6th. H . 52. from early Wright machine to date.. graph data. HIGGINBOTHAM. E. Transactions. 93-101. pp. 1929. pp. G. data. PARSONS. pp. 1929). vol. W. 5 (May 1932). diagrs. 1945. includes a 43-item bibl. A. illus. 1921). More about the cowling of air-cooled engines. SWAN.. The Lamblin Radiator. 34. Historical point of view. 27. vol. pp. 1930. and JAMES. BOYD. Aviation. vol. SAE Transactions. no. 813-848. Some advantages and limitations of cen- trifugal and axial aircraft superchargers. 1918. ARCHIBALD. graph data. and HERSEY. and Radiators BLACK. vol. T h e relation of intake-charge cooling to engine performance. vol. FRANK. 1590. 38. 36. 25. 14th. Relates to use of engine coolants other than water. Aircraft radiators. 613-650. Orginally given as a paper before ASME 1934 annual meeting. 13th.

T . Carburetion.KEMPER.. Three German engine fuel systems. Further progress in controlled cooling of radial engines. 39. 1938. 341-350. WILLGOOS. Relates to cowlings. 15th. pp. 357 (September 3. no. H. vol. 42. and no. of 3 items. illus. SAE Transactions. 1919. SAE Transactions. No. SAE Transactions. no. vol. Ice formation in carburetors. RICKERT. 566-612. 35-36. Summary of work by NACA. and the BMW 801. pp. vol. 23rd. 12 (June 15. B. 176 (October 1943). 293-302. 33. 6 (June 1935). 5 (August 1. JOHN G. C. 1927.. W. 219-229. 11 pp. vol. Aero Digest. NORTH. 1941. 977. 1935. pp. Carburetors.. 1939. 13th. pp. KITTLER. Cylinder cooling and drag of radial engine installations. vol. 620-624. 301-306. graph data. pp. Relates to cowl flaps. 1935. vol. illus. Aircraft Engineering. 247. liquid-cooled aircraft. SHOEMAKER. pp. and SARGENT... 26. 1934. 1920. NACA Technical Memorandum. Automotive Industries. pp. no. 1936. TheAeroplane. 1939. LEE. These fuel-injection systems are from the BMW 132. drgs. A non-icing fully maneuverable aircraft carburetor. 761-806.. no. Engine nacelles and propellers and airplane performance. J . RHINES. vol. 38-40. diagrs. Aviation. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (July 1934). illus. no. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences.. 1936). 515-528. 1 (July 1935). 17. vol. vol. A. 118 . and Fuel Injection Development of Stromberg carburetors. SAE Transactions. GUY E. and HELD. graph data. J R . 248-253. M. pp. 84. Ducted radiators for aero-engines. no.. 38. p p . A. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (September 1935). 23. pp.. 1937. illus. 2 (February 1932). CAMPBELL. 175 (September 1943).. 370-376. SAE Transactions. Air-cooled vs. p p . 4. ANDERSON.. 1938. 148-160. pp. An automatic power and mixture control for aircraft engines. drgs.. 540-541.. the Bramo-Fafhir 323P.. pp. vol.. vol. Interavia. M. no. J . diagrs. The Stromberg injection type aircraft carburetor. no. 5 (May 1937). Automatic power and mixture control. WOOD. U. 1937). R E X B. 5th. Engine cowling. DONALD H. Aviation. graph data. diagrs.S. vol. BEISEL. pp. 349-360. graph data. illus. pp. 1941). 1927). 35-36. CLOTHIER. H. 25th. diagrs. 185-191. 30. diagrs. drgs. and baffle designs. vol.. illus. tab. cowl flaps. vol. 24th. 34. 1-3.. pp. diagrs. diagrs. 21st. Air Services. J . Brilliantly illustrated. pp. A. no. BEARDSLEY.. Pratt & Whitney automatic power and mixture control. Air-cooled radial aircraft engine installation. 31. 37. Pratt and Whitney fuel injection system. vol. V. P. Heat transfer in geometrically similar cylinders. illus. 6 (April 1941). Why use cowl flaps? Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. 15. SAE Transactions. 1936. KENNETH. bibl. 6th. Fin and baffle design for air-cooled engines. 1918. pp. diagrs. graph data.. illus. 29. p.\o\. Automatic mixture: New Pratt & Whitney carburetor control gets long workout on first Pan American flight. 1935. graph data. illus. P. SAE Transactions. and graph data.. 8. C. pp.. 52 (May 5. 34. Broad historical treatment. vol. graph data. 38. D. 1929.. Also see articles in the following NACA Reports: 4th. 357-364. vol. graph data. D.

Aero-engine injection carburetors. drgs. illus. ROBERT H . 154—155. REID. 24 (December 12. illus.. no. vol.. illus. WISEMAN. Automotive Industries. 51 (1943). USAAF. diagrs. 1925). diagrs. ROBERTSON. 6 (June 1940). Aircraft carburetion. 2. vol. illus. pp. T. 8. pp. 20 pp... 1927).. 2. SAE Journal. J . 234-240. vol. Autosyn remote indicating system. G. Hydraulic starter for aircraft engine. 46. 119 . The Heywood injector starter. vol.. SAE Transactions. 622. SAE Journal (April 1947). Fuel injection for low-horsepower aircraft engines. 13. 63. Aircraft accessory systems. J u n e 7.WEIGAND. no. Aviation Engineering. no. no. 11 (July 1. HOLLIDAY. Aircraft Engineering. 1958). 8 (April 15. 3 (September 1934). 216 (February 1947). 25. illus. drgs. 1930... R. History of the scintilla magneto. pp.. p. Improved fuel-injection system for Mercedes-Benz engine. 55. and phantom view. vol. 32. 1921. First inertia type. no. 14-15. 17 (April 24. vol. William A. no. COL. 19. 50. H. L T . pp. 233-235. CRONSTEDT. Automotive Industries. vol. diagr. vol. 1917). 498. no. SAE Transactions. Remote-reading instruments for engines in very large aircraft. 1946. graph data. F. no. 19. S. Suppressing ignition-interference on radio-equipped aircraft. 1 (January 1933). 1958).. REAGAN C. NACA Technical Note. vol. 6 1 .. vol.. pp. illus. vol. pp. 119.. vol. SAE Transactions. 1937). 23. no. no. BOYNTON. 55-60. L. pp. BLACK. 260-266. Radio shielding on air transports. 236-242. Southwestern Aviation. p. illus. At this date Gray was a captain with Pan American Airways. GEORGE M. 1937. diagrs. vol. A. 27. 1918. pp. SAE Transactions. Aviation. 48-52. LANGE.. Aircraft accessories: Spark plugs. graph data. 48. diagrs. and HULL.. 14081409. diagrs. drgs. 28. SAE Journal. 247. diagrs. 294-303. vol. A combined air and gasoline type. no. pp. MORRIS R. 118. Instruments and Accessories MACHOL. R. Exhaust headers and mufflers for airplane engines. 4th.. diagrs. no. Ceramic insulators for spark plugs. pp. New York: John Wiley. The aeromarine starter. V A L . 19th. M.. E. vol. 38-42. RIDDLE. Automotive Industries. 8 (October 15. THORNER. Aero Digest. 13 (September 28. Performance of a vane-driven gear pump. 393 pp. 76. pt. Also see articles in the following NACA Reports: 2d. p. p.. 1917. 5 (May 1936). vol.. A. HEALD. 391-392. Shortcomings of mica insulation for aviation spark plugs. HAROLD E. Continental's fuel injection for business aircraft. diagrs. 292-306. The book is an outgrowth of a series of lectures given at the University of Michigan during 1942. 6 (June 1940). 1920. FRANK H. 527-530. no. later became president of the organization. 46. Carburetion for the aircraft engine. 1943. H . Aviation. Spark gaps in series with spark plugs. 1916. vol. pp. vol. graph data. Aviation. illus. 51. 1933. bibl. B. STUNKEL. SAE Transactions. pp. pp. Condensation of a paper given at 10th annual convention of the National Gas Engine Assn. GRAY. pp. ARCHIBALD. 2.

. J R . oil. 62." Aviation. . Some pertinent facts about aviation engine oils. BANKS. 1929). no. 23. 1927). 5th. no. 2. 12th. 1921). pp. graph data. pp. vol. 16th. H.E. B. NACA Technical Note. vol. Lindbergh with a Whirlwind air-cooled engine. vol. 161-163. F. A lecture given at the Aldershof Aero Lab. The combustion of fuels in the internal-combustion engine. DOOLITTLE. vol. 22.Spark plugs for internal-combustion engines. Aircraft engine performance with 100 octane fuel. vol. 7th.. 11. MIDGLEY. CAUTLEY. pp. Discussion of fuel structure and its relation to engine behavior. SAE Transactions. Cyclohexane did not knock in Liberty cylinder with 200-lb compression. pp.. Fuel for the Wright "Whirlwind. T. 6 (June 1949). THOMAS. 25. NEVILLE. 27. Aviation. 285-297. vol. 14. ASME. 659-696. Transactions. What is an octane number? The Aeroplane (March 9. good results obtained by Charles A. 233-253. discusses fuel. Lubrication KETTERING. Fuel and oil consumption important factors in long distance flights. The problem of fuel for aviation engines. 273-277. vol. Ethyl: Some information on the use and advantages gained by the Employment of tetraethyl lead in fuels for aviation engines. 15. 1. tab. 3 (August 1932). vol. Germany. 1924. pp. pp. 1916. no. 2. and materials of cylinder construction. pp. 1930. pp. no. 1926. graph and tab. D. 1930. indicator cards from optical indicator. 36... no. no. 304-305. mentions iodine and analin as knock suppressors. vol. WARD. theory of "knock". Also see articles in the following NACA Reports: 2d. vol. R. Gasoline requirements of commercial aircraft engines. BANKS. "best" gasoline 125 lb. JAMES H. no. Traces some historical development. pp. pp. vol. 25. SAE Transactions. 1919. CHARLES F. R. 6 (August 10. P. 1243. 1214-1215. graph data. 29. R. 19th. 120 . K. 436-437. KLEIN. F. 22 pp. 35. 44. Lubrication. 1932). and SINCLAIR. SAE Transactions. vol. drgs. Aviation. pp. KUTZBACH. 1930. pp. STALEY. 1933. 42. 1921. JONES. HERON. diagrs. W. pt. 5 (November 1930). 1920. vol. W. pp. pp. 170-172. vol. SAE Transactions. 52 (1930). P. 43-47. 1930. illus. vol. F. SAE Transactions. Fuels for aircraft engines Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (February 1932). pp. illus. 1919. WYMAN. Volatility requirements of aircraft fuels. F. no. Testing of naval aviation gasoline. 309-372. 164-169. "20 (November 14. vol. Journal of the American Institute of Aeronautical Sciences (March 1935). 127-140. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (April 1934). Aviation. Effect of low grade gasoline on engines. Aviation. 61-72. B. D. 201-219. More efficient utilization of fuel. data. Discussion of engine "knocking" and' its relation to fuel structure. Fuel requirements of the gasoline aircraft engine. 1927). 20 (November 14. 38. CUMMINGS. pp. W. High performance gasoline aircraft engine: Its problems of fuel. LESLIE E. The S. optical indicator shows pressure waves due to detonation. 10th. 1921.A. 25. K. S. E. pt. R. pp. Fuels and Combustion. data. Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers. 23 (June 6. vol. 1170-1172. 575-576.

FROUDE. illus. 1934. 16 (October 13. 1878. SAE Transactions. 47-65. 1928). E. RICHARD M. Memoires. 342-365. 1082-1083. 3 (March 1870). S. illus. 22 (May 30. pp. Chiron. no. Paris: E. 9 (August 31. 1925). E. and Propulsive Efficiency.. Aircraft engines and their lubrication.. 1939. vol. HAVILL. vol. 24. Gloster's Dr.. L. VAeronaute. 1127-1130. Aviation. vol. 244-245. USN. 1928). 219-231. 22. 33-43. 2. 1926). 706. 13. 19. GUSTAVE. Development of aircraft propellers. drgs. no. drgs. An excellent survey. Hele-Shaw and T. 26 (December 27. 21. 1 (January 1. 1206-1208. Beacham. vol. Geared down propellers and the efficiency of commercial airplanes. W.NuTT. Aviation.. pp. Description of the Curtiss-Reed metal propeller. W. On the Elementary Relation Between Pitch. 1927). Also see articles in the following NACA Reports: 11th. 1856. 1921. 20th. Slip. diagrs. Aviation. graph data. schematic views. pp. G. 1137-1140. 304 pp. 1926). pp. Aviation. Propellers and Propeller Gearing PILLET. 13th.. illus. Metal propeller development. pp. Conventional propeller calculations. vol. SAE Transactions. p. 3. 22 (May 30. WRIGHT. Etudes sur I'helice aerienne fades au laboratoire d'Aureil. 1925. 1190. vol. vol. 8 (February 20. 1926). diagrs. 1939. vol. T h e durability of metal propellers. and no. 1938.. vol. no.. 17 (October 25. HELE-SHAW. no. 25th.1928). diagrs. 15th. Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France. 1923). Etude sur le Propulseur pour 1'Aviation. illus. 1927. no. Aviation. 501-512. Aviation. vol. les nouvelles recherches sur les helices aerienne. L'Aeronaute. T. pp. p. 525-554. vol. E. Perfectionnement des helices aeriennes. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (July 1928). 1929. pp. . Lubrication. extensive test work responsible for present efficiency. ARTHUR. 1935. vol. no. diagrs. pt. no. 1444. vol. The Paragon adjustable and reversible propeller. 630. no. 26 (June 25. 1923).. no.. F. pp. MCCAULEY. 25. no. 307-333. 913-914. 24th.. p. Synthetic oils for aircraft gas turbine lubrication. 10 (October 1892). 40. MOCK. . The Leitner-Watts metal propeller. graphs and tab. diagrs. pp. pp. 25. illus. pp 446-448. 21st. Experiences practiques sur le rendiment de differentes helices aerienne. p. H. 24. illus. AMANS. 45-56. 22 (November 29. no. Transactions. C. 4 (April 1954). EIFFEL.. P. 34. Aviation. 1879. ARSON. THEODORE P. illus. Aviation. vol. CALDWELL. 19. no. —. 121 . no. uses hollow steel blades set in adjustable hub. vol. 22. 15. 1927). 1918. L C D R . pp. 19. 32. drgs. Aviation. 32. pp. The variable pitch airscrew. illus. illus. 21 (November 19. tabular data. 14. The Turnbull variable pitch propeller.. CLINTON H. data. pp.. vol. pp. vol. and BEACHAM. Institution of Naval Architects [British]. Success of new variable pitch propeller indicated by British company's experiments.

1934. 29. and JOHNSON. M. CARL F. illus. E. graph data. 478-485. illus. 486-491. Variable pitch propellers. 27. 1932. Aviation. GEORGE. p p . pp. vol. 32. no. illus. E. pp. vol. MOLSON.. JABLONSKY. Controllable pitch propeller. 29. illus. DICKY. and WRIGHT. pp. 1937). 24. vol. R. 32. T. 1929).. no. 38-39. THEODORE P. vol. R. 5 (November 1934). 5 (May 27. graph data. pp. pp. ALEXANDER. 3 (March 1933). 17. T. SAE Transactions. Propeller factors tending to limit aircraft engine powers. 11. 24 (1929). 300. vol. illus. 36. vol. vol. graph data. O. Engineering Supplement. vol. Some historial notes on the development of the variable pitch propeller. graphs. 29. 29-31. diagrs. no. and TURNBULL.. vol. 21-22. Aviation Engineering. 2. pp. pp. 497.. FRANK W. 6 (June 1933). pp. F. R. B. 1929. The Aeroplane.E. 32. 2 (Spring 1953). vol. Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal (June 1965).. 1938. vol. SAE Transactions. and RHINES. 139-141. SAE Transactions. K. W. 73. 4 (October 1934). Airscrews at the Paris aero show. pp. 50. Gearing of aircraft propellers. illus. illus. no. no. 35. A fully feathering airscrew.. 14-15. Descriptions of early types. 9 (September 1936). 193-195. 20-24. vol. Curtiss electric constant speed propeller. 105-111.. drgs. data. Diagrs. no. pp. 122 . 8. vol. CHARLES HUGH. illus. pp. bibliography of 25 items. T h e S. vol. 467-477. T h e constant speed propeller: Per- formance and control. SAE Transactions.. illus. vol. CARROLL. 177-183. pp. LAMPTON. 1937). WARNER. diagrs. SAE Transactions. The Wrights and the propeller. W. pp. vol. Controllable and automatic aircraft propellers.. Controllable pitch propellers in transport service. Aviation. Operating principles of the constant speed propeller. no. Aviation. graph data. Effect of controllable pitch on airplane performance.CALDWELL. 48. 28-44. Aero Digest. 1938. Curtiss controllable: An electric constant speed. 36-37. A. Not too technical: T h e function of propellers. Flight.. drgs. illus. 289-292. 5 (May 1937). WRIGHT. diagrs. MCSURELY. Propeller governor. . propeller and power plant sessions. 180-181. 376-378. Aviation. pp. 5 (May 1937). 27. 84. 1937). Southwestern Aviation. details of the Curtiss-Wright 120-degree angular range electrical operation. Caldwell was chief engineer of the Standard Propeller Co. diagrs. SAE Transactions. SAE Transactions. A. vol. Aviation. vol. MARTIN. CHATFIELD. E. pp. W. 36-37. 285-288.A. 52 (February 3. pp. no 12 (December 1933). The Bee Hive. 30.. 33. illus. and COOK. 3 (September 1936). vol. CALDWELL. CALDWELL. pp. HamiltonStandard constant speed model. pp. pp. 24. BRUNO. THEODORE P. 33. Aircraft propeller development and testing summarized. 9 (August 31. illus. pp. 469-473.. 297-303 (part 2) and 349-354 (part 2). LOMBARD. pp. no. EDWARD P. 25. 52 (February 17. and no. full-feathering propeller. no. vol.. Propeller problems imposed by substratosphere flight. vol. pp. F.. illus. D. 1937. no. G. SAE Transactions. and vol. 28. BAKER. Aero Digest. and tab. 14. 1929. Pitch control.

Spark plugs. 31-37. LUCKE. 1917 DICKINSON. and BOUTELL. 186-303. p p . 129-130. data. drgs. AUGUST J E A N . Report 8 in NACA. W. G. The altitude laboratory for the testing of aircraft engines. V. Report 7 in NACA. 4th Annual Report. pp. Aeronautic power plant investigations: 1. pp. 4th Annual Report. p p . 2.. Graph data. G. Mufflers for aeronautic engines. and ANDERSON. 2d Annual Report. 1916 (1917). Report 9 in NACA. CHARLES EDWARD. H . Review of the development of engines suitable for Aeronautic service. diagrs. FRANCKLYN. LUCKE. An excellent source of information about engines of that time. Effect of compression ratio. 1916 (1917). V. Carburetor design— a preliminary study of the state of the art. Preliminary report on the problem of the atmosphere in relation to aeronautics. 473-476. 1915 MARVIN. Report 4 in First Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. H . mufflers have seldom been used on aircraft engines. 123 . and W I L L H O F F T . and KLEINSCHMIDT. JAMES. 1916 (1917). gTaph data. J R . CHARLES E. DIEDERICHS. DICKINSON. 2d Annual Report. In spite of such work. this report is profusely illustrated with drgs. 499-524. 1915 (Washington: Government Printing Office. Part I I . Report 10 in NACA. 1915 (1916). . . 53-552. 3d Annual Report.. and UPTON. 2d Annual Report. and PARIS. *Hereafter. 41-49. 1915-1939 1st Annual Report. p p . 1918 (1920). 479-495.. 477-482.. Nomenclature for aeronautics. B. 1916). tab. from patents. H. 25-28. Report 42 in NACA. C. A new process for the production of aircraft engine fuels.. 1918 PARIS. Report 43 in NACA. Structured in seven chapters. p p . Performance of aeronautic engines at high altitudes. Aero engines analyzed with reference to elements of Process or function. 2d Annual Report.* pp. .National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Annual Reports. accompanied by extensive discussions. CHARLES F. S. Radiator design. W. G. 483-498. H . An outstanding source of information on carburetor design in 1916. 4th Annual Report. FRIEDRICH O T T O . 1916 (1917). p p . 4th Annual Report. 1st Annual Report. 1916 General specifications covering requirements of aeronautic instruments. drgs. C .. Report 44 in NACA. Report 11 in NACA. data. title abbreviated as in next entry. pp. Extensive tab. Synopsis of Aeronautic Radiator Investigations for Years 1917 and 1918. and humidity on power. R. drgs. pressure. pp. p p . 2d Annual Report. 4th Annual Report (1918). diagrs. Report 23 in NACA. Report 45 in NACA. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion engines for aircraft: Part I. 3d Annual Report. 1918 (1920). temperature. 3. 1918 (1920). 1917 (1918).

B. TICE. 1919 (1920). Report 51. 5th Annual Report. 5th Annual Report. and PARSONS. pts. G. V. General analysis of airplane radiator problems. R. B. diagrs. drgs. 1. B. W. GORTON. pts. in NACA. 1. Report 50. . B. Report 62 in NACA. B.. L. DICKINSON. E.. 1918 (1920).. 5th Annual Report. 73-76. pp. pp. graph and tab. and FONESCA. F. Causes of failure of spark plugs. L. S. data. 525-559. pp. 4th Annual Report. 4th Annual Report. F. pp. VICTOR R. data. Report 61 in NACA. and 3. 1919 (1920). LOEB. 124 . F. E. DICKINSON. Report 54 in NACA. pt. Report 57 in NACA. in NACA. Report 51. and PARSONS. Effect of temperature and pressure on the sparking voltage. pp. 1919 (1920). S. 1919 (1920). W. 5th Annual Report. diagrs. 644-654. diagrs. 1918 (1920).. SAWYER.. in NACA. tab. DICKINSON. S. H. Report 52 in NACA. C. diagrs. pt. PERCIVAL S. 63-70. Report 56 in NACA. R. C .. 163-176.. B. 1919 (1920). SILSBEE. in NACA. p p . 5th Annual Report. pp. 5th Annual Report. and others. Method of measuring heat energy of ignition sparks. 2. Report 59 in NACA. A. F. Metering characteristics of carburetors. R. 267-275. diagr. S. Head resistance due to radiators. 1918 (1920).. 590-595. KEMBLE. Carbureting conditions characteristic of aircraft engines. 43-52. 125-160. pp. 5th Annual Report. 1918 (1920). L. SILSBEE. L. JAMES. SILSBEE. pp. H. in NACA.. Report 49. 4th Annual Report. Report 53. V. data. . pp. 1919 (1920). 179-190. diagrs. JAMES. 5th Annual Report. pp.GAGE. C . C. graph data. diagrs. data. W. and others. 1-4. graph data. R. Properties and preparation of ceramic insulators for spark plugs.. 3. drgs. and BROWN. graph data.. graph and tab. 1918 (1920).. 225-244.. A study of airplane engine tests. 1919 (1920). diagrs. B. 1919 (1920).. diagrs. 1919 (1920). 5th Annual Report. 2. in NACA.. Investigation of the muffling problem for airplane engines. KLEINSCHMIDT. Report 58 in NACA. 5th Annual Report. B. 4th Annual Report. B. LOEB. graph data. H. JAMES. Report 48 in NACA. 1919 (1920). 5th Annual Report.. Power characteristics of fuels for aircraft engines. graph and tab. 79-111. General discussion of test methods for radiators. Methods for testing spark plugs. 193-213... Report 60 in NACA. data. in NACA. pp. G. Effect of altitude on radiator performance. Report. and SILSBEE. UPTON. pp. W. Report 51. S. illus. pp. pp. 53-62. L. 560-589. G. graph data. 5th Annual Report. B. extensive graph and tab. 1919 (1920). 217— 221. The subsidiary gap as a means for improving ignition. F.. Characteristics of high-tension magnetos. B. CRAGOE. R. pp. 5th Annual Gas leakage in spark plugs. 1919 (1920). and AGNEW. Report 46 in NACA. and KLEINSCHMIDT. and FONESCA. illus. drgs. L. pp.. pp. p p . C . 5th Annual Report. 5th Annual Report. F. SILSBEE. 247-264. Report 47.. graph and tab. graph data. LOEB. 1919 (1920). data. graph data. W. 596-643. 1919 (1920). pt. data. E. Calculation of low-pressure indicator diagrams.. 115-121.. S. 1919 SILSBEE. 4th Annual Report. Report 55 in NACA. Temperatures in spark plugs having steel and brass shells. B. graph and tab. S. and GAGE.

6th Annual Report. data. diagrs. 1920 (1921). F . 279-316. data. data. diagrs. Performance of a 300-horsepower Hispano-Suiza airplane engine. and WARNER. data on tests in the Bureau of Standards altitude chamber. drgs. DICKINSON. A very informative item. H . graph and tab. 6th Annual Report. H . D . Report 103 in NACA. 1920 (1921). V.. graph data. 1919 (1920). Report 90 in NACA. pp. 1920 (1921). 1921 (1923). and W H I T E . 133-147.. 7th Annual Report. F. graph data. 125 . Report 132 in NACA. p p . 1920 (1921). p p . p p . Results of tests on radiators for aircraft engines. 1921 SILSBEE. S. p p . H . 6th Annual Report. illus. R. SYLVANDER. WASHBURN. SPARROW. Report 102 in NACA. Performance of a Liberty 12 airplane engine. p p 651-677. Performance of Maybach 300-horsepower airplane engine. includes "keyed" photographs. 6th Annual Report.. and SPARROW. diagrs. a n d H A R P E R . Tests in Bureau of Standards altitude chamber. C . 1920 (1921). 7th Annual Report. data. Pressure drop in radiator air tubes. p p 173-184.. 1921 (1923). 1920 (1921). data. J o h n A. . C . 6th Annual Report. tab.DICKINSON. 581-600. p p . p p . Effects of nature of cooling surface on radiator performance. V.. VICTOR R. and WHITE. E. and KLEINSCHMTOT. 6th Annual Report. Report 88 in NACA.. C.. Power plant instruments. 667-637. and KLEINSCHMIDT. 1922 (1923).. Victor R. 1922 SPARROW. O . R. 561-578. Report 107 in NACA.. Comparison of hecter fuel with export aviation gasoline. 6th Annual Report. EATON. extensive graph and tab. 8th Annual Report. data. p p . 8th Annual Report. . S. E. p p .B. graph and tab. Simplified theory of the magneto. WILHELM. Report 129 in NACA. Turbulence in the air tubes of radiators for aircraft engines. N. S. S. Report 87 in NACA. Report 89 in NACA. H . Report 123 in NACA. 623-633. A high-speed engine pressure indicator of the balanced diaphragm type. pp. R. M . pp. B. . graph and tab. 187-194. 1920 (1921). drgs. graph data. Report 106 in NACA. data. 151-159.. Properties of special types of radiators. 163-169. G. illus. Some factors of airplane engine performance. 1920 PARSONS. 5th Annual Report. SPARROW.. GAGE. 1920 (1921). C . Comparison of AlcoGas aviation fuel with export aviation gasoline. 1th Annual Report. 6th Annual Report. 405-419.. R . STANWOOD W . illus. Report 86 in NACA.. graph data. MUELLER. p p . Report 108 in NACA. 1920 (1921). R. DICKINSON. Sealevel and altitude tests. H . drgs.. W. Report 63 in NACA. . 6th Annual Report. extensive graph data. STANWOOD W . R . 637-648. graph and tab. GAGE. data. GAGE. 1920 (1921). and NEWELL. 6th Annual Report. 6th Annual Report. JAMES. diagrs. STANWOOD W. STANWOOD W. R. F.. the first facility of its kind. illus. T h e development of the indicator by the Bureau of Standards was an important contribution to the future development of aircraft engines. graph and tab.. extensive graph and tab. extensive graph and tab. PARSONS. 91-99. H . Victor R.. C.

1925 (1926). D . graph data. pp. 1925 (1926). HARPER. pp 181-189. 483-500. 269-293.M. Performance of B. includes bibl. 1924 RANDOLPH. 1922 (1923). of 12 items. graph data. HAROLD E. SILSBEE. FRANCIS B. 126 . very descriptive. 11th Annual Report... 1926 (1927). Correcting horsepower measurements to standard temperature. pp. R. T h e sparking voltage of spark plugs. EDWARD G. D . It is not very optimistic. 1922 (1923). graph data. of 71 items. STANWOOD W.. pp.. Spray penetration with a simple fuel injection nozzle. 8th Annual Report. Fuels for high-compression engines. W. B. pp. 12th Annual Report. Report 202 in NACA. pp. Report 189 in NACA. diagrs. pp. pp. 75-90. 10th Annual Report. and BEARDSLEY. 10th Annual Report. 371-378. diagrs. pp. graph data. 9th Annual Report. STANWOOD W. illus. Electrical characteristics of spark generators for automotive ignition. 10th Annual Report. Report 239 in NACA. Report 222 in NACA. BRODE. 1926 PATON. 3 2 1 326. B. Jet propulsion for airplanes. T h e effect of changes in compression ratio upon engine performance. 103-110. W. Report 190 in NACA. 1924 (1925). W.W. 1925 WARE. and BROWN. 451-561. of 17 items. Report 241 in NACA.. . graph data. Report 187 in NACA. 1926 (1927). data. R. and SILSBEE. Report 159 in NACA. Report 230 in NACA. bibl. 1924 (1925). 125-138. W. 357-370. data. F.. 1923 BUCKINGHAM. B. pp. 81-92. of 8 items.. MARSDEN. CARLTON. F. 11th Annual Report. 11th Annual Report. 11th Annual Report. STANWOOD W. 1925 (1926). 399-518. R.. 11th Annual Report. 109-122. bibl. MILLER.. Mathematical equations for heat conduction in the fins of air-cooled engines. illus.679-708.. pp. t a b . Report 232 in NACA.. and SILSBEE. D. and KEMPER. F. Relation of fuel-air ratio to engine performance. 10th Annual Report. Description and laboratory tests of a Roots type aircraft engine supercharger. 10th Annual Report. An investigation of the coefficient of discharge of liquids through small round orifices. graph data. 9th Annual Report. 8th Annual Report. Power output and air requirements of a two- stroke cycle engine for aeronautical use. drgs. 10th Annual Report. graph data and bibl.. Graph and tab. SPARROW. 12th Annual Report. graph data and bibl. SPARROW. Report 135 in NACA. Report 224 in NACA. 1924 (1925). graph data and bibl. p p . 12th Annual Report. SPARROW. Partly historical. graph data. Report 158 in NACA. graph data. 1924 (1925). of 36 items. pp. Flame speed and spark intensity. illus. RANDOLPH. JOACHIM. of 14 items.. EDGAR. C. 1923 (1924). Sea-level and altitude tests. 1924 (1925). 1925 (1926). p p . bibl. 185-horsepower airplane engine. Report 205 in NACA. of 13 items. B.

. pp. W. 1927 (1928). diagrs. 1927 (1928). F.. R. Report 243 in NACA. 505-513. ARTHUR W. MARVIN. bibl.. Report 268 in NACA. J R . illus. 14th Annual Report. of 4 items. 1928 (1929).. 491-497.4 engine. D. that is. A Preliminary investigation of supercharging an air-cooled engine in flight. MARSDEN. 313-326.. and SCHEY. W A R E . diagrs. and BEARDSLEY. JOACHIM. 1926 (1927). graph and tab. GOVE. 1927 SMITH. Factors in the design of centrifugal type injection valves for oil engines. 393-406. Description of the N. Report 261 in NACA. G.. p p . illus. bibl.. pp. graph data. p p . 13th Annual Report. 95-106. T h e German B M W and Maybach engines of 1917 were overcompressed engines. GARDINER. pp. and GREEN. data. CHARLES F.. 13th Annual Report. Report 250 in NACA. 14th Annual Report. WILLIAM E. 267-279. 163-176. Report 277 in NACA. Equipment for single-cylinder research. bibl. graph data. 1926(1927).. and WILSON. 1928 JOACHIM. p p . CARLETON. graph data. illus. of 8 items.. graph data. 127 . illus.. and KEMPER. WILLIAM F. M . 329-339. universal test engine and some test results. W .. pp.A. 13th Annual Report.. bibl. 1927 (1928)..A. W . EDWARD G. of 10 items. 1928 (1929). . 12th Annual Report 1926 (1927). of 8 items.. p p . 83-91. Report 281 in NACA. Some late radial engines have torque meters incorporated in their reduction gear. T h e performance of several combustion chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. JOACHIM.C. MARSDEN. OSCAR W. bibl. drgs..GARDINER. 14th Annual Report. and BEARDSLEY. Resistance and cooling power of various radiators. drgs. T h e direct measurement of engine power on an airplane in flight with a hug-type dynamometer. bibl. T h e comparative performance of an aviation engine at normal and high inlet air temperatures. ERNEST E. 13th Annual Report. Early attempt to measure engine torque in flight. T h e relative performance obtained with several methods of control of an over-compressed engine using gasoline. graph data.. 469-481. Combustion time in the engine cylinder and its effect on engine performance.. graph data. data. 13th Annual Report. the compression ratio was too high for fullthrottle operation a t sea level. Report 284 in NACA. ARTHUR W.. drgs. 1927 (1928). of 4 items.1 with a Wrright Aero J . A preliminary study of fuel injection and compression ignition as applied to an aircraft cylinder. p p . Aircraft used was a Navy Vought V O . pp. bibl. bibl. illus. graph data. T h e comparative performance of Roots type aircraft engine superchargers as affected by charge in impeller speed and displacement. 13th Annual Report. 501-510. bibl. of 5 items. 409^-25. and SCHEY. Report 252 in NACA. 1927 (1928). T h e effects of fuel and cylinder gas densities on the characteristics of fuel sprays for oil engines. W A R E . 1927 (1928). graph and tab. WILLIAM F. 12th Antdial Report. 12th Annual Report. H . 13th Annual Report. GARDINER. OSCAR W . and WHEDON. illus. graph data. graph and tab. bibl. drgs. of 4 items. of 8 items. Report 272 in NACA. data. 1927 (1928). 14th Annual Report. Report 276 in NACA. drgs. ARTHUR W . illus. of 15 items.. Report 283 in NACA. Report 282 in NACA.. of 4 items. E. graph data. p p . p p .

. and BIERMANN. 503-518. and WILSON. 637-656. pp. The effect of cowling on cylinder tempera- tures and performance of a Wright J . 16th Annual Report. data. JOACHIM. O n investigation of the-use of discharge valves and an intake control for improving the performance of N. ARNOLD E. 16th Annual Report. 1930 (1931). Report 355 in NACA. illus. M . A. and ROTHROCK. Report 341 in NACA. JOACHIM. bibl. 1930 (1931). graph and tab. 15th Annual Report. drgs. SCHEY. 1929 (1930). graph data. W. of 9 items. p p .A. diagrs. graph data. Comparative flight performance with a N. 1929 WEICK... diagrs. SUMMERVILLE. 1930 (1931). Flight tests with a D H . illus. graph and tab.A. drgs. Report 337 in NACA. Report 294 in NACA.. data. bibl.C. W. An investigation of the effectiveness of ignition sparks. drgs. 137-144. SCHEY. CHESTER W.. 14th Annual Report. Report 330 in NACA.... 16th Annual Report. Basic data about the development of the NACA cowling. 1929 (1930). 1930 STEVENS. bibl. of 5 items.. of 5 items. T h e design and development of an automatic injection valve with an annular orifice of varying area. bibl. 1929 (1930). FRED E. Roots type supercharger. bibl. Fuel vapor pressures and the relation of vapor pressure to the preparation of fuel for combustion in fuel injection engines. graph and tab.. drgs. Reports 313 and 314 in NACA.5 engine. extensive graph and tab. A. drgs. OSCAR W. 15th Annual Report. M . 128 . 1929 (1930). 1929 (1930).. ALFRED W. and DAVIS. MELVILLE F. Report 332 in NACA. WAYNE L. W.. T h e gaseous explosive reaction at constant pressure—the reaction order and reaction rate. Report 359 in NACA. 14th Annual Report. bibl. 14th Annual Report. of 11 items. GELALLES. 1928 (1929). D.A. bibl. graph data. illus. bibl. of 18 items. HAMPTON H ... pp. 165-210. 15th Annual Report. pp. data. Report 303 in NACA. graph data. 503-514. M E R L I N .. OSCAR W.. 15th Annual Report. 571-588. STEVENS.. W. diagrs.. 519-529. T h e effect of supercharger capacity on engine and airplane performance. Report 327 in NACA. and ROTHROCK. of 11 items. pp. CHESTER W. pp. 575-585. diagrs. pp. A. 311-319. PETERS. 1930 (1931). OSCAR W. data. of 10 items. 16th Annual Report. WILLIAM F. graph and tab.HICKS. F. pp. Report 305 in NACA. 1928 (1929). pp. bibl. and YOUNG. O. of 4 items.4 M 2 .C.. T h e gaseous explosive reaction—A study of the kinetics of composite fuels. 15th Annual Report.. and FOSTER.. of 9 items.. data. graph and tab. 6 7 82. HICKS. illus. 15th Annual Report. diagrs. T h e measurement of maximum cylinder pressures. 1928 (1929). SCHEY. F. SCHEY. Experimental and analytical determination of the motion of hydraulically operated valve stems in oil engine injection systems. 16th Annual Report. G. Drag and cooling with various forms of cowling for a "Whirlwind" radial air-cooled engine. pp. Roots supercharger and a turbo-centrifugal supercharger. data. p p . and GOVE. 385-395. ERNEST E. pp. data.A.. WILLIAM F. bibl. Report 321 in NACA. 4 7 9 485. of 8 items.. graph and tab.

M C A V O Y . of 27 items. illus. diagrs. Report 399 in NACA. diagrs. 1931 (1932). SCHEY. 17th Annual Report. 425-437. bibl. 16th Annual Report.. SCHEY. 18th Annual Report. bibl. data.. 1931 (1932). and centrifugal type compressors.. diagrs. Coefficients of discharge of fuel injection nozzles for compressionignition engines. Report 404 in NACA. ARNOLD E.. SCHEY. 211-217. p p . 18th Annual Report. bibl. . 18th Annual Report. 1931 (1932). Report 372 in NACA. of 10 items. 1931 STEVENS. M . p p .. 113-122. A. 1932. T h e effect of valve timing upon the performance of a supercharged engine at altitude and an unsupercharged engine at sea level. MARVIN.. 18th Annual Report. graph data.. 533-543. 1931 (1932). T h e automotive ignition coil. 1931 (1932). and FREEMAN. Report 401 in NACA. OSCAR W. illus. p p . Report 363 in NACA. Early analysis of injection-pump characteristics. ROBERT D . IRA M . of 27 items. 1930 (1931). 17th Annual Report. THEODORSEN. bibl.. M . 17th Annual Report. OSCAR W. vane. Report 374 in NACA. T h e comparative performance of superchargers. of 33 items. T h e effect of increased carburetor pressure on engine performance at several compression ratios. data. 79-90. Observation of flame motion by means of multiple small windows in a cylinder head. 17th Annual Report. pp. extensive graph data. bibl. Lobe. and BEST. Pressure fluctuations in a common-rail fuel injection system. Report 396 in NACA. Report 402 in NACA. illus. diagrs. VERN G. p p . 17th Annual Report. and YOUNG. GELALLES. Report 384 in NACA.. Effect of orifice length-diameter ratio on fuel sprays for compressionignition engines. pp. diagrs. pp. graph data. illus. of 8 items. of 9 items. 211-236. 1932 (1933).. of 5 items. M . 697-706. T h e gaseous explosive reaction—The effect of pressure on the rate of propagation of the reaction zone and upon the rate of molecular transformation. graph data. pp. CHARLES F. 175-191. GELALLES. 17th Annual Report. graph data. bibl. .. graph data. bibl. W . J R . T h e elimination of fire hazard due to back fires. G. ALFRED W. 18th Annual Report.. OSCAR W .. bibl. 1931 (1932). Flame movement and pressure develop- ment in an engine cylinder. bibl. 671-684. A. 17th Annual Report. pp. ROTHROCK. and ROLLIN. 193209. Combustion in a high-speed compression-ignition engine. DARNELL. WILLIAM H. Hydraulics of fuel injection pumps for compression-ignition engines. p p . and BIERMANN.. F. diagrs. H . G.. of 10 items. Report 409 in NACA. bibl. 1932 ROTHROCK. bibl. 1932 (1933). A. T . of 10 items. graph data. Report 390 in NACA. 63-77. Report 373 in NACA. graph data. illus. 1932 (1933). extensive graph and tab. graph data. T h e effect on airplane performance of the factors that must be considered in applying low-drag cowling 129 . of 9 items. of 12 items. A. THEODORE. pp. graph and tab. (1933). 621-664.ROTHROCK. graph data.. diagr. 1931 (1932). bibl. of 19 items. A. pp. 17th Annual Report.

and BROMBACHER. diagrs. 259-275. data. SONTAG. 629-651. Reports 415 and 436 in NACA. OSCAR W. 277-304. atomization and distribution of fuel sprays. data. of 5 items.A. of 10 items.. using a hydrogenated safety fuel. M. of 22 items. 18th Annual Report. 1932 (1933). of 11 items. 19th Annual Report. and SPENCER.. radial engines. numerous photos. A. 703-717. of 5 items. graph data. 18th Annual Report. ROTHROCK. 19th Annual Report. 447-499. drgs. Report 433 in NACA. diagrs. drgs. Aircraft power plant instruments. CASTLEMAN. graph data. N. pp.. 215-239.. ROTHROCK. bibl. 1932 (1933). illus. Performance of a fuel-injection. 1932 (1933). 1933 (1934). G. 607-619. bibl. pp. diagrs. Report 440 in NACA. of 10 items. and YOUNG.C. 18th Annual Report... and diagrs. LEE. Increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a compression-ignition engine. 241-248. bibl. extensive graph and tab. cowled nacelle. C. ROTHROCK. Experiments on the distribution of fuel in fuel sprays. graph data. DANA W.A. pp. DANA W. of 59 items. 6 5 3 692. Tests of nacelle-propeller combinations in various positions with reference to wings: Thick wing. 19th Annual Report. M. pp. T . data. 1933 (1934). 735-744. DONALD H . pp. Report 429 in NACA. graph data. bibl. 19th Annual Report. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-ignition systems for internal-combustion engines. many photos and diagrs. 1933 (1934). 18th Annual Report. LEE. 19th Annual Report. pp. R. tractor propeller. 1933 (1934). Report 414 in NACA. illus. and FOSTER. bibl. illus. 18th Annual Report. drg.. Report 455 in NACA. illus. and MARSH. of 19 items.. pp. T. 19th Annual Report. 525-534. Report 425 in NACA. of 10 items. graph and tab. A. pp. 1932 (1933). C. T h e mechanism of atomization accompanying solid injection. 1933 LEE. M . data. Report 466 in NACA.C. H. J . 505-521. D. of 5 items. 1932 (1933). diagrs. bibl.. bibl. of 20 items. Penetration and duration of fuel sprays from a pump injection system... E. 18th Annual Report.. diagrs. A. illus.. Report 471 in NACA. 1932 (1933)... graph and tab. diagrs. bibl. HARCOURT. Tests using a Curtiss X F 7 C .. data. graph and tab. illus. graph and tab. 130 .. 18th Annual Report. T h e N. bibl. pp. Report 435 in NACA. pp. of 12 items.A. ALFRED W. H.. T h e effect of nozzle design and operating conditions on the. See NACA Index for the large number of test results obtained with it. discussion of other types. A. A. Report 469 in NACA. 1932 (1933).. This apparatus provides a wealth of basic information regarding injection and combustion in diesel engines. 1932 (1933). 1933 (1934). GELALLES. bibl. p p . WOOD. Report 454 in NACA... bibl. and WALDRON. 557-565. ROBERT C. DANA W.. spark- ignition engine. pp. and MARSH. J R . A.. Photomicrographic studies of fuel sprays. pp. illus.A. E.. 18th Annual Report. bibl. 549-565. W. SPANOGLE.1 . apparatus for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays and the results from preliminary tests. W. HICKS... Fuel vaporization and its effect on combustion in a high-speed compression-ignition engine.. G. of 14 items. Report 438 in NACA. bibl.

data. Report 493 in NACA. and MARSH.. CHARLES F. HAROLD C . A. M. bibl. A description and test results of a spark-ignition and a compression-ignition 2-stroke-cycle engine. 1934 (1935).. ARTHUR M. illus. A. 20th Annual Report. and WHITNEY. drgs. bibl. illus. C.. 20th Annual Report. 20th Annual Report. data. 21st Annual Report. of 6 items. 1935 SCHEY. 63-77. A. diagrs. Heat transfer from finned metal cylinders in an air stream. G. pp. of 35 items. M. J R . 163-183. 1935 (1936). illus. ROTHROCK. 20th Annual Report. Report 512 in NACA.20th Annual Report. pp. C. 21st Annual Report. BENJAMIN. pp.. of 8 items.. pp. diagrs. ROTHROCK. drgs. diagrs. MILDRED. and TESSMANN. Curtiss P W . graph and tab. of 23 items. 361-379. G. 1934 (1935). pp.9 and Consolidated N2Y biplanes were used in the tests. ARNOLD E.. graph data... Report 488 in NACA. 1934 (1935). 2 5 1 270.. bibl. WILLIAM C. and SPENCER. . W. drgs. of 5 items. 1934 (1935). G. 111-123. pp. 53-61. Vibration response of airplane structures. 395-411. diagrs. Pioneer basic research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology on the phenomenon of detonation in spark-ignition engines.. extensive graph data. R. 20th Annual Report. Single-cylinder comparative tests. Infra-red radiation from explosions in a spark-ignition engine. 20th Annual Report. CLAY. illus.. Report 491 in NACA. pp. 20th Annual Report. 1934 (1935). and on the discharge from a pump-injection system. bibl. BIERMANN. 21st Annual Report. Effect of viscosity on fuel leakage between lapped plungers and sleeves. FRANK R. Some factors affecting combustion in an internal-combustion engine. graph and tab. graph data. 1935 (1936). of 17 items. and COHN. extensive series of photos and diagrs. 21st Annual Report.. 125-141. 1934 (1935). and ROLLIN. and STEELE. graph data. data. E. bibl.. 131 . 1934 GERRISH.. pp. 1934 (1935). Report 486 in NACA. of 5 items. Report 511 in NACA. 319-337. 1934 (1935). T h e effect of baffles on the temperature distribu- tion and heat-transfer coefficients of finned cylinders. S. of 18 items.. Report 476 in NACA. bibl. of 15 items. graph data.. SPANOGLE. graph data. bibl. A. bibl. Report 477 in NACA. pp. 1935 (1936). diagrs. SYDNEY. 223-234. . 445-461. Report 495 in NACA. of 23 items. bibl. 20th Annual Report.. THEODORE. illus. pp. CALDWELL. DRAPER. Effect of moderate air flow on the distribution of fuel sprays after injection cut-off. bibl. and PINKEL. bibl. VERN G.. 251-288. diagrs. MARVIN.. pp. Report 483 in NACA. 1934 (1935).. Improved airplane windshields to provide vision in stormy weather. DANA. E. of 6 items. pp. LEE.. Report 520 in NACA. and GALALLES. of 20 items.. J . Relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in exhaust gases from internal combustion engines. bibl. A comparison of fuel sprays from several types of injection nozzles.. Report 498 in NACA. T h e physical effects of detonation in a closed cylindrical chamber. THEODORSEN. graph and tab. 20th Annual Report. diagrs. OSCAR W.

graph data. bibl. pp. and ROLLIN. graph and tab. of 13 items. 1936 (1937). 22nd Annual Report. Report 533 in NACA. of 4 items. pp. diagrs. 327-338. 1936 (1937). diagrs.. Further studies of flame movement and pressure development in an engine cylinder. pp. bibl.. bibl. HAROLD C . of 11 items. J. 22nd Annual Report.. graph and tab. and SPENCER. diagrs. 1936 (1937). graph data. pp. Cooling characteristics of a 2-row radial engine. bibl. p p 237-249. drgs. of 16 items. Some effects of argon and helium upon ex- plosions of carbon monoxide and oxygen. Distribution and regularity of injection from a multi-cylinder fuel-injection pump. Report 565 in NACA. and FOSTER. 22nd Annual Report. graph and tab. WHARTON. illus. D. M. illus. 177-186. M. E. and ROLLIN. of 8 items. FOSTER. D. 22nd Annual Report.... 22nd Annual Report.. illus. pp. C. 119-127. Report 561 in NACA. data. H. M .. 22nd Annual Report. 132 . Measurements of fuel distribution within sprays for fuel-injection engines. illus. J R .. Report 555 in NACA. and ROEDER. graph data. data. diagrs. VERN G. C. pp. pp. Report 531 in NACA. 213-222. M. T h e effect of water vapor on flame velocity in equivalent C O . pp. bibl.. Report 525 in NACA. 1935 (1936). ERNEST F. diagrs.. Some effects of injection advance angle. drgs. 1936 COHN. graph data. 21st Annual Report. of 3 items. HAMPTON H. Report 550 in NACA. 22nd Annual Report. ERNEST F. 1936 (1937). 21st Annual Report.. Report 556 in NACA. 495-510. diagrs. ROTHROCK. bibl. 1935 (1936). M. 445-450. illus. . C. 1936 (1937).. Report 545 in NACA. Report 535 in NACA. bibl. of 13 items. KENDALL... A. drgs. bibl. H. diagrs.. 22nd Annual Report. LEE. of 10 items. graph data. 1935 (1936).. MILDREN. 429-448. graph data. 251-263. illus. illus. of 9 items. of 4 items.. Air flow around finned cylinders.O z mixtures. FIOCK.ROTHROCK. of 4 items. and speed on combustion in a compression-ignition engine. MARVIN. and WALDRON. data.. bibl. ROBERT C. pp. of 10 items. 22nd Annual Report.. engine jacket temperature. Report 568 in NACA. T.. — . 22nd Annual Report.. drgs. T h e soap-bubble method of studying the combustion of mixtures of C O and 0 2 . Effect of nozzle design on fuel spray and flame formation in a high-speed compression-ignition engine. 1936 (1937).. of 19 items. 21st Annual Report. 465-476. GERRISH. Effects of air-fuel ratio on fuel spray and flame formation in a compression-ignition engine. diagrs. graph and tab. graph data.. illus.. diagrs. bibl. 1936 (1937). CARL H. D. and ROEDER. 7935(1936). bibl. graph data. Report 544 in NACA. and KING. ARMISTEAD. 21st Annual Report. 1936 (1937).. pp.. and MARSH. 343-357.. 389-403. Report 553 in NACA. ROTHROCK. illus. CHARLES F. Report 532 in NACA. pp. CARL H. illus. data. Combustion in a bomb with a fuel-injection system. A. and WALDRON. H. and WALDRON. SCHEY. FIOCK. ROTHROCK. bibl. of 12 items. 1935 (1936). graph and tab. Hydrogen as an auxiliary fuel in com- pression-ignition engines. Carl H.. 451-464. OSCAR W.. A. data. T h e quiescent-chamber type compression-ignition engine... bibl. pp. DANA W. bibl. 1936 (1937). and ROEDER. 107-118. A. BREVOORT. pp. VERN G. 21st Annual Report.

PINKEL. pp. of 14 items. HERMAN H. Report 577 in NACA. THEODORE. graph data. 23rd Annual Report. Report 616 in NACA. CHARLES S. graph and tab. STICKLE. and Voss. p p . 1938 (1939). and ELLERBROCK... bibl. 147-159. of 30 items. and COLLINS. M . HAROLD C . D. SCHEY. 1938 (1939). Airplane used was a Curtiss B F C . 91-107. diagrs. Based on very high speed moving pictures through transparent windows in cylinder head.l fighter with a Wright SGR-1510 twin-row. 25th Annual Report. bibl. diagr.C. data. 24th Annual Report.. SELDEN.A.C. J R . drgs. pp. of 7 items. bibl. pp. Fuel spray and flame formation in a compressionignition engine employing air flow.A. GEORGE W . 49-68. pp. 1939 SCHEY.. M . bibl. bibl. of 9 items. of 3 items. data. 1937 (1938). cowlings. Report 580 in NACA. J. drgs. N . M. 23rd Annual Report. 269-280. . p p . A photographic study of combustion and knock in a spark-ignition engine. of 6 items. Auto-ignition and combustion of diesel fuel in a constant-volume bomb. and WALDRON. graph and tab. graph and tab.. ROBERT F. and STICKLE.. BREVOORT. BENJAMIN.. FRED. bibl. 1938 (1939). of 30 items. of 10 items.. 23rd Annual Report. 24th Annual Report. illus. ROTHROCK. 1937 (1938). OSCAR W. data. 361-390. 23rd Annual Report. and SPENCER.A.. A. of 3 items. Cooling tests of a single-row radial engine with several N.A. pp. diagrs... .. 24th Annual Report. 14-cylinder engine. illus. drgs.. Inter-relation of exhaust-gas constituents.A. 1937 (1938). p p . J R . Report 587 in NACA. bibl. illus. of 8 items. Report 593 in NACA. graph and tab. 1937 (1938).. Blower cooling of finned cylinders. nose-slot cowling. Correction of temperatures of air-cooled engine cylinders for variation in engine and cooling 133 .. illus. bibl.. data. Heat transfer to fuel sprays into heated gases. bibl. many photos. Pre-chamber compression-ignition en- gine performance. GERRISH. J O H N H. C. R. p p . diagrs. data.. 1937 (1938). bibl.. . illus. J R . Report 588 in NACA. 391-400. HERMAN H. Report 592 in NACA.. illus. . and Cooling of airplane engines at low air speeds. A.. 439-447... 213-233. data. BENJAMIN. bibl. 49-64. A pioneering work.. Report 617 in NACA. of 22 items. HERMAN H.. 281-295.23rd Annual Report. diagrs. diagrs. 1937 M O O R E . 24th Annual Report. graph data. and SPENCER. cowlings. OSCAR W. pp. graph and tab. THEODORSEN. ROBERT C. 1937 (1938). ROTHROCK. C. 23rd Annual Report... ROBERT F. illus.. Report 595 in NACA. BREVOORT.. data. and GOUGH. and ELLERBROCK. diagrs. Report 596 in NACA. . Report 612 in NACA. 1938 PINKEL. M . and ELLERBROCK. Full-scale tests of a new type in N. graph and tab.. diagrs. M. 1937 (1938). p p . bibl. Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders. Full-scale tests of N.. 24th Annual Report. data.. 449-458. of 18 items..A. Report 622 in NACA. drgs. diagrs. SELDEN. p p . 23rd Annual Report. J R . GEORGE W. extensive graph and tab. 23rd Annual Report.C. graph and tab. 23rd Annual Report. 139-146. 1937 (1938). 1938 (1939).. J.

313-326. 1939 (1940). Report 655 in NACA.. graph data... Report 653 in NACA.C. Report 662 in NACA. pp. and BIERMANN. 383-393. illus. bibl. T h e knocking characteristics of fuels in relation to maximum permissible performance of aircraft engines. of 7 items.. 25th Annual Report. ROTHROCK. data. bibl.conditions. bibl. illus. 49-72. ARNOLD E. 1939 (1940). graph and tab... Report 645 in NACA. of 20 items. Important contribution. A study of air flow in an engine cylinder. 267-288. of 15 items. and SPENCER.. diagrs. LEE. 227-239.A. Report 657 in NACA. pp. Design of N. . p p . 25th Annual Report.. pp. graph data. diagrs. 1939 (1940). R. DANA W. STICKLE. bibl. 25th Annual Report. drgs. illus. cowlings for radial air-cooled engines. 1939 (1940). M. 1939 (1940). 25th Annual Report. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1970 0-31S-338 . diagrs.. of 8 items.S. C. drgs. of 3 items. T h e influence of directed air flow on combustion in a spark-ignition engine. pp. A. diagrs..A. 134 U.. illus. 25th Annual Report. bibl. GEORGE W.


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