AUTOMATIC CAR PARKING SYSTEM

A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by

AVINASH CHAUHAN AJIT KUMAR ABHISHEK DEBROY RACHIT SAXENA
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING At JIET GROUP OF INSTITUTION JODHPUR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY NH-65, NEW PALI ROAD, MOGRA, JODHPUR (RAJ)

RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, KOTA
2010-11

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “AUTOMATIC CAR PARKING SYSTEM” is the bonafide work of “AVINASH CHAUHAN” having “ROLL NO. 07EJIME010” who carried out the project work under my supervision in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering affiliated from Rajasthan Technical University, Kota.

SIGNATURE PROF. M.R. BAID HOD – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING JIET, JODHPUR

SIGNATURE PROF. ASHWINI MATHUR ( ASSOSIATE PROF.)

SIGNATURE PROF. RAKESH NARAVAT ( PROFESSOR)

Internal Examiner _____________________ External Examiner _____________________

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “AUTOMATIC CAR PARKING SYSTEM” is the bonafide work of “ AJIT KUMAR” having “ROLL NO. 07EJIME003” who carried out the project work under my supervision in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering affiliated from Rajasthan Technical University, Kota.

SIGNATURE PROF. M.R. BAID HOD – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING JIET, JODHPUR

SIGNATURE PROF. ASHWINI MATHUR ( ASSOSIATE PROF.)

SIGNATURE PROF. RAKESH NARAVAT ( PROFESSOR)

Internal Examiner _____________________ External Examiner _____________________

R. BAID HOD – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING JIET. M. RAKESH NARAVAT ( PROFESSOR) Internal Examiner _____________________ External Examiner _____________________ . JODHPUR SIGNATURE PROF. Kota. 07EJIME002 ” who carried out the project work under my supervision in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering affiliated from Rajasthan Technical University. ASHWINI MATHUR ( ASSOSIATE PROF.BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report “AUTOMATIC CAR PARKING SYSTEM” is the bonafide work of “ ABHISHEK DEBROY” having “ROLL NO.) SIGNATURE PROF. SIGNATURE PROF.

JODHPUR SIGNATURE PROF. Kota. SIGNATURE PROF. BAID HOD – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING JIET. RAKESH NARAVAT ( PROFESSOR) Internal Examiner _____________________ External Examiner _____________________ .R.BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report “AUTOMATIC CAR PARKING SYSTEM” is the bonafide work of “ RACHIT SAXENA” having “ROLL NO. ASHWINI MATHUR ( ASSOSIATE PROF. M. 07EJIME045 ” who carried out the project work under my supervision in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering affiliated from Rajasthan Technical University.) SIGNATURE PROF.

5 2.4 Puzzle Parking 1.3. TITLE ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LIST OF TABLE LIST OF FIGURES 1.1.2 Full Automatic Electro Hydraulic Cable Lift 1.4 Idea Lift 1.5 High Lift 1.1 INTRODUCTION CAR LIFT 1.1 Electro Hydraulic Scissor Lift 1. 1.3 Square Parking 1.3.3 Major Lift 1.3 Post Mechanical Vehicle Lift PAGE NO.2 Opti Lift 1.TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO.2. 1 2 3 3 4 5-10 5 7 9 10-15 1.1. 10 12 13 14 16 17-24 17 19 21 23 25-28 28 30-31 LIST OF EQUIPMENTS USED WORKING LITERATURE REVIEW .3.1.3.2.1 Multi Parking 1.1 Sub Lift 1.2.2 Tower Parking 1.3 TYPES OF PARKING SYSTEM 1.2.2.2 TYPE OF LIFT SYSTEM 1.5 1.

the gate will not be opened since there is no space. LCD is provided to display the information about the total number of cars that can be parked and the place free for parking. The number indicates the maximum capacity of park in this project. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. The project is designed for car parking.e. . The gate will be closed only after the car leaves the second IR pair since the microcontroller should know whether the car left the gate or not. This project uses regulated 5V. And now if any vehicle tries to enter the park. Now the microcontroller decrements the value of the count and displays it on LCD. i. if the park is completely filled. the controller will increment the count and allows the other vehicles for parking. If the count reaches ‘0’. Whenever the mains are switched on. Two IR TX – RX pairs are used in this project to identify the entry or exit of the cars into/out of park. In this way. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer. If any vehicle leaves the park. the microcontroller will display “NO SPACE FOR PARKING” on LCD. 500mA power supply. the LCD displays the message “parking space for 10 vehicles”. ABSTRACT The Project Automatic Car Parking System using 89C51 Microcontroller is an interesting project which uses 89C51 microcontroller as its brain. Unregulated 12V DC is used for relay. the microcontroller decrements the count whenever the car leaves the park and displays it on LCD. The TX and RX are arranged face to face across the road so that the RX should get IR signal continuously.1. These two IR TX – RX pairs are arranged either side of the gate. the IR signal gets disturbed and the microcontroller will open the gate by rotating the stepper motor. Whenever a car comes in front of the gate. The aim of this project is to atomize the car park for allowing the cars into the park.

Above all I pay my sincere gratitude to parents. Rakesh Naravat (Project Guide) for their valuable suggestions and for sharing their valuable knowledge and suggestions that have contributed immensely to the evolution of ideas on the subject. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We consider our self exceptionally fortunate that we had indulgent guides. We are extremely thankful to JIET faculties who provided us challenging opportunity to work on this project. This work has been possible through the direct and indirect cooperation of various people of JIET towards whom we wish to express our gratitude. . It’s not only my duty but a matter of joy and pleasure to once again convey my thanks to all. who blessed me with patience and vigor to complete this work with full efficiency. Today when our endeavor has reached its friction. Without their guidance this project would have not reached its completion in such a successful manner. Ashwini Mathur (Project Guide) who allowed us to work on this project. learned philosophers and caring friends to successfully steer us through one of the most interesting period of our academic career. we look back in mute gratitude to one and all without whose help we are sure this reality would have been a dream. We are also thankful to Prof. Our special thanks to Prof. He provided us with all the possible help and advice.2.

MULTI PARKING 10. HIGH-Lift 9. SUB LIFT 5. SQUARE PARKING 12. ELECTRO HYDRAULIC SCISSORS LIFT 2. POST MECHANICAL VEHICLE LIFT 4.3. IDEA LIFT 8. PUZZLE PARKING . OPTI LIFT 6. MAJOR LIFT 7. LIST OF TABLE 1. EQUIPMENTS USED LIST OF FIGURES 1. FULL AUTOMATIC ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CABLE LIFT 3. TOWER PARKING 11.

4. It consist of an panel which is attached to varies electrical devices from which a single person can handles all system from one position This operations are controlled by microcontroller. This project deals with designing of one such product which can be used multifariously in various commercial and official activities. The desired physical results hence all operations can be easily managed with the PC. An introduction to the Project can be given as designing of an Automatic Car Parking controlled through a microcontroller. So as we found out there are some areas where we can provide a single unit control which will be must beneficial for providing an efficient working in the industry. With the advent of modern technology. the human brain is working day by day to develop complex and more technology specific products which have multifarious applications in the different aspects of work field. As the industry performing the manual work function so we are trying to provide a single unit control to drive the multiple application under the regulated control format so a single person can handle many application at a time with more easy and comfortably. INTRODUCTION As the technology advances there is an increasing need for improvement in the existing technology. .

Requires a pit of 10 cm up to 150 cm depending on the travel distance.5. ELECTRO HYDRAULIC SCISSORS LIFT This particular system is used for lifting distances of up to 6 meters (19'8'') or less. CAR LIFT There are many kinds of car lifts some of are defined as: 1. Plese contact for quotes and more.. Preffered when there is not enough room for side posts to elevate with 4 post mechanical lifts or the cable lifts. .

 Control Panel: PROKONT-WEBER.emergency and hand pump 7.6. central 4 panel  Floor Gate Dimensions: 2300hx3000w mm.Wemin micro processor  Control installation : LAPP KABEL or DRAKA  Cabin control buttons: micro touch buton  floor control buttons: micro touch buton  Emergency control : 12 V. Technical Specs:  lifting speed:  Hydraulic Pack: KLEEMANN T-600  Elevator cabin : DKP steel DIABAR model  Cabin Gate : WITTUR full automatic. central  Floor Gates : WITTUR full automatic. .

2. Available for lifting distances of up to 40 meters ( 130 feet ) . FULL AUTOMATIC ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CABLE LIFT This is the most popular type for car lifting requirements especially for architectural projects where car parking has been designed within the basement floors of the buildings or old buildings rennovated with car parkings re-designed to be above or below the street level.

central • Floor Gates : WITTUR full automatic.8. • Control Panel: PROKONT-WEBER. Technical Specs: • Lifting speed: 31cm /sec ( 12'' / sec) • Hydraulic Pack : KLEEMANN T-600 • elevator cabin : DKP steel DIABAR model • Cabin Gate : WITTUR full automatic. POST MECHANICAL VEHICLE LIFT .emergency and hand pump 3.Wemin micro processor • Control installation : LAPP KABEL or DRAKA • Cabin control buttons: micro touch buton • floor control buttons: micro touch buton • Emergency control : 12 V. central 4 panel • Floor Gate Dimensions: 2300hx3000w mm.

emergency and hand pump .Wemin micro processor • Control installation : LAPP KABEL or DRAKA • Cabin control buttons: micro touch buton • floor control buttons: micro touch buton • Emergency control : 12 V. This is an economical type of vehicle lifting: The drawback of the system is that it requires 4 posts and lifting speed is relatively slow due to its mechanical working principle. • Control Panel: PROKONT-WEBER.5 meters ( 11'6''). central • Floor Gates : WITTUR full automatic. System is good for elevatons up to only 3.9. central 4 panel • Floor Gate Dimensions: 2300hx3000w mm. Technical Specs: • Lifting speed: cm /sec ( / sec) • elevator cabin : DKP steel DIABAR model • Cabin Gate : WITTUR full automatic.

OTHER TYPES CAR LIFTING SYSTEM 1. SUB LIFT .10.

Each vehicle can move in and out of the system independently without disturbing the others.  Roller Chain drive  Operation. . vehicles on the lower layer(s) can be parked when the system is raised. touch screen / push button / IC card  max retrieval time: 45 seconds for the 2 layer system and 70 seconds for the 3 layer system 11.

OPTI LIFT Ideal to double existing parking spaces for offices. apartments. 2.12. . residential homes.

13. for both indoor and outdoor installations.hotels. public and private parking lots. car collectors car rentals and dealers. 3. Please view "lifting up short movie" at the bottom of the page under the heading "related downloads" . these lifts can be positioned next to each other for maximum space utilization. This particular model comes in 4 different sizes: 1) HIGH WIDE 2) HIGH NARROW 3) LOW WIDE 4) LOW NARROW Typically electro-static owen painted but also can be completely hot dip galvanized on demand. Being a dependent type parking system. Adjustable height clearance with electric switch. MAJOR LIFT . Where there is a large parking requirement. using low cost commercial power units. Highly suitable for places with low height constraints (Height clearance as low as 270 cm / 106”) No site building works required for installation. makes this unit suitable for valet operation.

 Industrial type prefabricated park-lifts can be used by Municipalities in hightraffic city centers to deminish traffic caused by parking-space searching cars and increase parking capacities. Hot dip galvanizing of all steel components protects these lifts for life. Cars are much safer at the parklift against burglary or theft. 14. Getting extra space is major advantage but there are other advantages.  At an auto gallery to demo more cars to get extra attention at the showroom.  At a pay parking lot to increase the capacity of the premises. 4. airport. Just like the Opti-lift. Needs almost no maintenance.. Please review files at "related downloads" section at the bottom of this page.  At a city centrum hotel garden. Cars at a parklift is extremely secure. Systems can be used indoors or out. Major lift is a dependent type parking mechanism.. IDEA LIFT . shopping mall to increase the parking capacity.  Increase the car parking capacity of your office building. The chance of getting hit by other cars up above is simply none..

Suitable for both indoors and outdoors. The IDEA lifts come in 3 different models each with various height clearance options: • 1) IDEA STANDART: Most popular type. 15.Idea 3-high is only supplied in mono version (single deck) All our idea models are typically completely hot-dip galvanized. if overall height clearance is limited 3) IDEA 3-HIGH: To stack 3 high independently Each of these models have mono versions (picture on the right)and duo versions(picture on the left).. This lift will allow all vehicles to be removed freely without disturbance of the others.  steelcable safety system against chain failure.These independent type lifts are suitable for new housing and commercial developments.  Dual opposite gear safety mechanism to ensure balanced lifting  Hydraulic security system: 1) stop valves for emergency use 2) parachute valves/hose rupture valves  adjustable wheel stoppers for parking  Installation time: 4-6 hours w/ 4 men  Removable key control panel  Bosh-Rexroth Power Packs . Comes in various headroom options suited for various size vehicles • 2) IDEA LOW: Suitable. Technical Specifications:  Completely hot dip Galvanized for better protection.

of Buildings. treated with an anti.5. During manufacture..corrosion coating and then painted giving a long operational life. 4 highs and 3 highs come in 2 different height versions for sedans and suvs. these units are sand blasted. Systems are approved by City of New York/Dept. Structural Analysis for these lifts has been carried out in accordance with UBC-97 (Uniform Building Code) & ASCE-7(American Society of Civil Engineers) with EQ and wind loads taken into consideration. HIGH-Lift 16.. . They are engineered to lift motor vehicles for parking purposes but also suitable for car dealers to use as a showcase with glasscover around the steel construction.

entry and exit is quick. There are many types of parking system. • Has mechanical security system that prevents undesired moves. Retrieval time of a vehicle is less than two minutes. Some of are as follows 1. • Can be installed indoors or out. MULTI PARKING • Because each elevator and cart is operated independently on each level. • 45 seconds lifting time for each deck • Lifting height 2m each deck /78" or optional 60" for low height clearances. • Lifting capacity is 5500Kg /13750 lbs for the 3 HIGHs and 7500Kg / 18750 lbs for the 4 HIGHS • NEW security system against steel cable failure. • Can be lifted up or down manually in case of power failure. • Multiple units can be linked together for commercial applications. • Endurance approval issued by The City of New York Department of Buildings . .MEA PARKING SYSTEM: 17.Technical Specifications: • Hydraulic engine Triple Phase.

• Entry and exit is very quick and convenient.levels. Elevators never touch guide rails. It is therefore suitable for large scale projects.• Low noise and vibration. 18. The multi-parker can accommodate as little as 20 vehicles to several thousand units. . This system is suitable for middle and large-scale buildings as well as independent public parking garage. A self malfunction diagnostic control provides you with an excellent level of safety and reliability. use of urethane rollers minimize noise when transferring pallets from elevator to carts and then to parking slot. It can move more than 2 vehicles at the same time for maximum efficiency. • Completely equipped with multiple sensors and triple safety devices. The carts then travel horizontally and place the vehicle in its appropriate slot. We incorporate a built in turntable on each elevator. • The Multi-Parking system has been designed to automatically move the vehicles by lift which then transfers it to a waiting cart on one of the multi.

19. .

• Completely equipped with multiple sensors and triple safety devices. Very fast retrieval time is 20. An area of 7mx7m can park up to 50 vehicles. • Has the capability of holding cue memory when multiple patrons come to retrieve there vehicles during rush hours. • Low noise and vibration. The elevator type often called the Parking Tower. A self malfunction diagnostic control provides you with an excellent level of safety. • Entry and exit is very quick and convenient. is designed to automatically move the vehicles on a pallet vertically on the elevator. Elevators never touch guide rails. it then transfers it horizontally left or right for storage. TOWER PARKING • Minimal land use. . We incorporate a built in turntable on the elevator and retrieval time is less than two minutes. use of urethane rollers minimize noise when transferring pallets from elevator to storage area.2.

We incorporate German motors and components are used in every system by world known SEW Eurodrive. 21. It can also be used as a stand alone tower for a parking garage business. Since it is controlled by an integrated computer system. the overall operation can be viewed with one screen and its operation is very user friendly. . This system is suitable for medium or large scale buildings.accomplished in less than two minutes.

• Up to six levels can be equipped with this new technology. The multi floor circulation type is suitable for small and mid-sized buildings because of its high space efficiency.3. thereby significantly shortening the time required for entering and leaving. The garage consists of several levels where the vehicles are moved horizontally which rotate the pallets in conjunction with the elevators. this system can use the narrow basement spaces to its maximum capacity. it is convenient because the built-in turntable allows for easy entry and exit. After entering the vehicle in the parking garage. • With our upper entrance design. SQUARE PARKING • With eight times the space efficiency of a ramped garage. the elevating speed has become very quick. 22.. the parking system is designed to move the vehicles vertically with elevators on each end. . • With the adoption of the high speed lifting mechanism.

23. .

prevents failure and accidents. low maintenance 24.4. . • Max time to retrive cars is 60 sec with 2 & 3 high systems and 90 sec with 4 & 5 High systems • PLC control. • Photoelectric checking system which controls vehicle size • Emergency stop pushbutton • Steel construction with complete galvanization • Safe operation. 3. Puzzle Parking in 2. 4 or 5 HIGH versions • Independent parking • The top layer pallets can move up and down lower layer pallets can move either left to right or up and down. push button • lifting with chain at 2 & 3 highs and steel cables at 4 & 5 High systems • Built in drop-protection. easy operation.

LIST OF EQUIPMENTS USED .25.

2x16 Characters LCD Display 1. Wooden Pulley 2. Light Emitting Diode 8. Voltage Regulator 7805 4. Crystal Oscillator 9. RVFM. Steeper motor 10. Light Dependent Resistor – LDR 7. Transistors 6.1. Systems & Control. Wood 3. Wooden pulley Wooden pulleys. Capacitors 5. available in a range of diameters. Wooden pulleys 26. • • • 4mm centre hole Supplied in packs of 10 Cams. . Gears & Pulleys.

When a capacitor removes or adds electrons to the circuit in this fashion. 4. The most common part numbers start with the numbers 78 or 79 and finish with two digits indicating the output voltage. Wood There are many types of woods we can used some of as follows 3. Capacitors Capacitors store electrons by attracting them to a positive voltage. They are available in a variety of outputs.2. . converts varying input voltage and produces a constant regulated output voltage. When the voltage is reduced or removed. 27. the electrons move off. it can work to smooth out voltage fluctuations. Voltage Regulater 7805 This is usually having three legs.

Crystal Oscillator One of the most important features of an oscillator is its Frequency Stability. 5. gallium-arsenide. Applications include smoke detection.” 6. Transistors The transistor is an arrangement of semiconductor materials that share common physical boundaries. or in other words its ability to provide a constant frequency output under varying conditions. 28. 6. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. and are increasingly used for lighting. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices. . automatic lighting control. Light emitting diode: A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. Light Dependent Resistor – LDR:Two cadmium sulphide(cds) photoconductive cells with spectral responses similar to that of the human eye. batch counting and burglar alarm systems. into which impurities have been introduced by a process called “doping. and germanium.5. The cell resistance falls with increasing light intensity. Materials most commonly used are silicon.

Steeper motor:A type of motor which takes DC pulse input and gives rotating motion in steps . A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin. Each floor consist of two sensors. Car Parking – Parking process starts with the car enters in the slot.7.It contains 32 character space on screen arranged in 16 columns and 2 rows. It informs whether the floors are 29. . WORKING The initial condition for the lift is at ground.A display is provided at the ground floor which is basically a counter that displays number of cars in each floor. 2x16 Characters LCD Display It is a display device used in Embedded system to display information . flat Electronic visual display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid cryseals(LCs). The rotation is very precise and can be made to stop at an angle. They are of two types   Unipolar : which moves in one direction only Bipolar : which moves in both directions 8. Stepper Motors operate in DC voltage and rotate in steps. upper extreme & lower extreme to set/stop the position of the lift. At the ground controller always check for the car to park and to retrieve car.

There is facility of lift to carry the car to up and down. he is expected to focus the headlight onto the LDR placed in that floor. and if it finds that the first floor is fully filled . it comes back to its normal position and that time. the display counter at the ground floor increments as to indicate the floor capacity has decreased by one. After the lift places the car in a particular floor. the motor that drives it . As soon as a car is placed in a particular floor. As soon as the lift reaches that particular floor car should come inside the lift.fully filled with the cars or is it having place in a particular floor or not. the processor compares the filled amount to that of the already fed capacity of that floor. the display counter at the ground floor decrements by one as to indicate the floor capacity has increased by one. the motor that drives it . 30. also stops. also stops. Lift comes back to its normal position and that time.When the lift reaches the first floor. Now sensor section sends signal to motor that the lift has to be send back to that particular floor and sends a signal to glow RED LED indicating that the lift is busy.When a person needs to come down from a particular floor to ground floor. Movement of Lift is controlled by stepper motor. it goes to the second floor and thus the procedure stops here. LITERATURE REVIEW .

The parking spaces at Houston international airport have wires embedded at the entry. These wires act as sensors and record the entry and exit of the card to update the central database. Information from this central database is used to display information at the “way-find” signs at the end of each row of the parking area and advise the drivers whether parking space is available or unavailable in that particular row. the notable ones are Houston International airport and the Baltimore airport at Massachusetts. These advanced car park systems also provide advanced. It describes how useful these advanced car parking systems are in providing drivers with information about the structure of the car park system and the spaces available for them to park their cars. Among these. there are ultrasonic sensors at the top of each parking space which sense the availability or unavailability of each space. Smith and Roth (2003) also compare the parking techniques used at various airports in the United States.This article by Smith and Roth (2003). exits and the various levels of the parking lots. which count the number of cars that enter and exit from the parking space. At the Baltimore airport. These sensors update the central database. The idea behind these electronic payment options is to . The availability of the vacant parking spaces is calculated by means of sensors installed in the parking areas. electronic payment options for the customers. All this information from the sensors and the ticket counters is used to update a central database which stores all the information about the areas of the parking space which is vacant or occupied. the number of parking tickets issued at the ticket counter can be used to calculate the vacant spaces. talks about how advanced Car Park techniques are being implemented using the SMS services available on cellular phones. Also.

10 minutes before the parking time expires. The customer would be sent a reminder SMS. one-time registration process. the location code of the parking area where they want to park and the time duration (in minutes) for which the customer wants to park. . In return.  Reduction in congestion due to fewer cars driving around searching for spaces. The SMS message would consist of the license plate number of the car. in their article. The bill for the parking ticket would come up on the customer’s mobile bill. cite examples of mobile parking or “mparking” facilities that are being used in Vienna (Austria) and Melbourne (Australia). This completes the initial. customers initially register their mobile number.  Elimination of queues entering parking facilities because drivers will not go to a facility where there is no available space.prevent the customers from having to wait in long queues to but a ticket. Thus. they would send an SMS text message to the number provided by the car park authorities. to create what is called a “virtual parking ticket account” [2]. the license plate number of the car and their credit card number with the car park authorities. the customer would then receive a text message from the car park message centre.  Reduction in illegally parked vehicles. with the confirmation and the expiry time of their electronic parking ticket. Smith and Roth (2003). Whenever the customer needs to park. these advanced car park techniques provide the car parking authorities as well as the customers with the following advantages (Smith and Roth.  Better distribution of flow and parking demand through the area. “Queues can cause congestion in areas within and outside of parking facilities” [1]. 2003):  Reduction in time spent and fuel consumed while searching for available parking space. Under the m-parking technology.

 APS systems result in higher revenues and profitability for the parking facilities. .

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