Abstract

During the early winter of 1928 an investigation was conducted at Ann Arbor, Michigan, to ascertain to what extent mycorrhiza were present on the roots of fruit trees (apple, pear, plum, cherry, and peach) in orchards of different types. The soils were as follows: sandy, cultivated, well drained; clayey, cultivated, poorly drained; well drained sod land; humus soil; and a hill overgrown with locust [Robinia pseudacacia]. Endotrophic mycorrhiza of the type with vesicles and arbuscles were found on all the trees, but ectotrophic mycorrhiza were absent. As a rule, the infected rootlets had the typical beaded appearance, but often they appeared to be perfectly normal. Most of the mycorrhiza in the cultivated soils, where the surface roots had been destroyed by ploughing, were found at a depth of 6 or 8 in. In the sandy areas they were sometimes found down to 10 in. In places where the roots had not been affected by ploughing, mycorrhiza were found on the rootlets nearest the surface as well as lower. down. On the hill they were found on the upper 3 in. of the soil, and in the humus-rich soil they were always present in the humus, but few were found in the underlying soil. In the cultivated sandy loam, humus, and sod land they were very abundant, but in the clayey soil, which was very wet, and on the hill, which was very dry, they were scarce. Both the last-named situations contained relatively small amounts of organic matter.

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