Bataille Theory of Religion | Science | Philosophical Science






T r a n sla te d


Ro b e r t

Hu r leY






reveoledto itscll b.v Desireis r''hot trctnsformt IJcin11J,
( t - lr 9 t l9 Ur zo n c, ln c' Z o N F BOOKS 6 r l R r o a ( l\\' a v Su itc 8 3 8 N c s Ytr r k, NY t o o t I A l l r i g h ts r cse r te r l b c r cp r o tlu cccl ' sttl rcd i n r' N o p ar t o t th is b o o k m a v il' r a n v lirrm or trv r c t r i t :r ' a l svstcn l, o r tr a n sn litte ltl m cch a ni cal ' photo. ' ' t r . "",r ., in clu d in g e le ctr o n ic' r t- co r d in g ' o r o thtru i sc c r r y r 'in g , n licr o f iIm in g ' ti ons, t't7 ct) l) \in g l) t r n tittt' tl lr r .Stt 1 . t , . 1 ,t lilr lh ' ll D\ C"p r r ig llt I ' tr r ' tttr l( \(( |t J r l ( l r,' x,,1 r lr , tl' \' l ri ttt'n th c p u b lic llr e ss) * ith o u t r c v i e u tr s lo r r' p c r t t' tissio n{ io n ' r th c f' u b lish e a s lfilo r ic de l a R tl i tl i ort O r i g ir r a llv p u b lish ccl in F r a r ice O r 9 7j b v F .d itio n s Ga llir la r cl' o l i\m cr ica P r i n tctl in th e L ln ite r l Sta te r s ss' l ) i s tr ib tr tctl b r ' f h c N' ll f Pr e L o n tlo n' Lngl antl C a m b r id q c, N' la ssa ch u sctts' ' r n tl i c'rti on l )'rta [ - i b r a n o f Co n g r css Ca t' r lo u in g - in - Pr ' rbl R . r ta illc, Gco r g cs' r 8 9 7 - r 9 6 2 ' ' l- h co n o f r clig io r t' ' li- .r n sla tio no { : T lr lo r ic d c la r clig i on' 1 3 ib lio g r a Ph r 'P' : - litle ' r . I{ e lisio n . I' I r l 48 .lr ]7 ll 198() 2oo''l ( 2 l s l lN o - 9 :1 2 9 9 - o lt- ir a lk' p a p cr ) I s l lN o - 9 4 2 l9 t) - o 9 - 4( p b k' : ' r lk' p ' r p cr ) fl 8-utt5cl t

to into on "object" revectled d itselt'in (true) know'leclge, "tubjcct" dit't'erent t'rom the objcct ttnd "opposecl"to it. It is in oncl b.r'- or betterstill, as - "his" Desirethat mtrn i.s Jormerlan(l is ret'cdled- to himself and to othert dt different t'rom, antl raclian I, as the I that is csscntiall.v to, call.r'opposed the non-|.'lltc (hunton) I is the I of a Desireor oJ Desire. beinyl,thereThe verv hcing oJ mon, thc selJ-conscious the Desire. Consequentl.v, t'orc, in'rpliesand presupposes humttn reolit.r.cdnbelormed and mdintdineclonlv within an a biological re(1lit.t', animal hJe. Ilut, if animal Desire lt is conditionof se\-consciousne.ts, not the is the neces.sctn' onlv condition. By itself, this Desireconstitutes suJt'icient thc SentimentoJ sell. man in a posIn contrastto the knowledllethat kecp.s him to him ancl move.s Desirecli.s-quiets sivc c1uietude, it, oction tcnds to satist'v' antl can oction. Ilorn ol Desire, or thc "negation," lhe cle.struction, ot \east rlo so onl' b.v' hunthe tronst'ormotion,o;f the desiredobject: to .sotist'r' or, ger, t'or cxomple, the Jood must be cle.rtroved in (1n)' Thus,oll oction is "negdtin[1." cose,tronsJormcd. - Alcxanclr c Kojdve ot' lntrocluctionto the Recttling IIegel


ll'here'l'his BookIs Situated Introtluction



D . { TA

I Il



I Iu m o n i tv a n d th c D cvcl o p n cn t o f th e ProJane Workl 2r


the Fcstival,ond the Principles Sacrit'ica, of thc Sacrec!World 43
I.HI I -I N , , I I ' I . S O F RLASON




I II lll IV

The tN[ilitar)' Order

65 69

Dualism crnt! ,l'lorolit,v M cd i a ti o n rs 8r

The RiscoJ lndustr.v To Wh o m ... ro7

General Tablettnd ReJerences L 1'7

'fht' u. in f-act. firr to . not and just a pilc of scral>s.Where This Book Is Situated 'l'hc fbuntlationof'one'sthought is the thought of anotlrcr.rthcr a srlf-consciousncss. u'ho asscmtrlcs.Thus the adjoiningbricks. thc bcing u'hri tl. but r. lrr-rt must bc the cnsenrble u'hich it is inserterl:it is tht' in rrholc human asserrblage etlifice. uhich is thc book. In a st'nst'thc unlimitccl asscmblagc tlrc inrpossible. in a book. tlrc uork is that matters. is It takt-scc)uragc anclstutrbornncss to go slack.rvhich must be. in his kroking batk on hirnst'Il'. should not be lt:ssvisiblc than thc nov brick.ork clf thr: mason.rinksscr-s fl-ccbrick anrl nr>ttht' prict' tlris a scmlrlanc'c' lrecrlonrcostshinr: hc <loc'sn't tlrt' lastc st'r' of to ground anrl tlrt' hcapsof <letritus uhich a setrsitivt'r'anitv consignshinr u ith his brick.llli'rr'not thing invitcs on(' to <lropthc substancc tht' sha<lou. thought is likc a l>rickccmcntc<linto a uall. It is a simulacrum of thought il. cannot trt'an clt'mcnt. What is offered the readcr.

thcre is the impossibilitvof thc final statc. incomplcticln is not thc rcstrictedto the lacunaco{ thought. witha out secking its dcfinitive state. 'l'his condition of impossibilitv is not thc cxcuse for 11 r0 .is a constructionsitc. in<lissolublc the not thcrefbre rcmain opcn to the der.totc:onscious or at rlt'fincs an apcx tlf pclssillilitr'' I'his Srou'crlt'ssll('ss impossibilitvopcns tlonsciot'tsness tt[ l.) R Y 'J F R F L I C J I O N thought inipcrsonll mrlvcmcrrt of tilrsakc thc opcn antl is Of tt"t"t thc isolatctlopinion for thc isolatedopinion' of rcvealing rvhat thc asscmblagc also the shortest mcans Btrt it has this dct'p meanc. .. at evcrv point. but it mankind. .thc inrpossiblc. u'ho ref'lccts cscaPcs anYr(x)m fcrrhinl' that thcre is no lrll. .tgt'r Introduction This "theon' of rerligion" outlines lvhat a finished rv<rrk rvoulcf be: I have triccl to exprLrss mobilethought. parts and onlf its lr'holc prt'sents our striving for cohersivcncss.clopmentsthat r. But its incompletionis not it Scit'nceclrarvs a nrultitu<lco1'finishccl that of scienc'c. at each point.^. up uhereasin cmptv spacL-s. ot'thc t'rct' ing onlv i[ it is t.r'illfbllorv. A philosophvis a coherentsum or it is nothing.ho think. rvhere those u.rtlo... in human thought a hclr-rse.scntiallvis .''rt'ss thc placc' li'r it to think' In this gatht'rin{ to all that is possibltrvhich at tht bountlarv of that shcrc vitllcucc is rifc' rt-alizes rvithin cohcsion he c'ohcsion. lt must exprcss('s inclivi<lual. insofar (that u'hich thcv are not) are as thev rejcct tht'ir othe'rness alrearlvlost in thc universaloblir.A philosopht'is nc-r.

r'e anv other outcornc than thc ncgation of individual pcrspcc.ondcmnccl useltrl rlistinc_ to <ftrntains.t. . no onc tan mcct tlnc lirnitt'tl thc movclirst crc'cpt apllrorimatclY: r-rnlcss mt'.itablc focto an dc in. [) tl . and lrhilc it mal not lre arbitrart'.rcam. T'ht.cmcnt .rrlox of this "thcorv of rcligion.rr a .ill moves to lcss it is necctssarY bring one's thinking.ise of thought c'annotha..t The basic par. this .hich posits thc intlil'irlualas a "thing.r'"ltrp".. strrtngl_v opposr-dto thc motlcrn insistcnct.porl. consubstarltial of antl .tl k'<l* lt'tlgt.r.". n'hich fbrrrithin clomainsalreadv crplort-cl.r. ancl."". I)oubtseck a rlefinitirc statc that r..rssirnil. Tht'sc prinriplcs art' lar renrovcrllrorn a nal. being a\ of u'ithout ('sscn( . Nlore.1(. t.f thought to r('stri(. acticln.rc.up to thc lcvcl of itsclf is knou'lcdgc. cclultl. ofhc pulr lic.iling if ncit thc <.rttathcs to tlrc indirirlual an<lthe inrlir.rboratitln.Fr cn if t lr o. btrt tlie rrv of this to poucrlt'ssncss a prclurlc to thc clccpt.rct. in thc rt-sponsc. to sclf-consciousllcss coltsrioLlsnt-ss thr. if it ilv given helbrc thc t'laborationof a philosophv 'rnd tht' ." anrl a negationof intimacr.rttr. ar c at t .rig<lrrlt'ma. itlea of philosophr':hon.an_ not bc anv philosophr of the is . or*g". sr..u.p_ tanc' c lcastt hc r .tct . tht' essentht' lil '.rl tIi t rt t r r nr lit ion. sit r .rsstturcs. l{ou' to shift frorn a cl. to get otrt of tl.t. but he cannot tlo so lergitirnatclv'I'hilosophv Ncl rcspontls from thc start to an irrcs<llvablccxigcncv' one can "bc" inclt'pendcntlyof a rcsponscto the questitln -fhus thc philosoplter's is rcspottsc nt'Lt-ssrrthat it raiscts.rrnpk'tiri.cls clt'arrt.but limits all rcal philosophi 'fhc philosopherhimsclf to scientistis hc u'ho agrces u'ait' \\'aits.flecticlr-r suborrli_ natccl to ncccssan.(\.tir.idual's isr>lation. basic problenr is linkccl A to thc vcrr.c.r. that .somctimcs trvclt oning to them' to be rcsults obtaincd.'rp.t ..l.thc tlissatis{bction incornplctent-ss t}rought' uhilc carrvitlg one's So it is . On thc contrarv..II]EOF]Y OF REL L GION Th. a contcmPt for the all tion and an extrcnlc rnobilitv clf thought' opi'n to movclncllts. ft cannotiusilfrablv subordinated of pltilosophical cannot bc an cflect I'hilosophv'srcsPonse labors.fact mcaninglessunlcss it is that of an intellcctuallv concli.the truth of a sc.tsciotlsness. indivi<lualposigircn fiom tl'rc start.r'cr.rc hunran situation.r'l'rich a mor.l irrdiridtral.itlualanrl thc cxcn. linketl to the previous or sub-seguent lvith thc .nsc is thc lac'k of a responsr'. in tht el.' lrom thc start.brings a poucrlessness light.crc it in a st. ur io.rgniti..And in anv cascthc responst' n.ious? LThc inevitableincomplction rlocsr-rot anv rvav dclar.' I Irt' all PnrtosoPnv' undcniabledclicicncies.rte .ientists r.t' tial incomplctionof thor-rght this arl<ls int. it gives it thc truth of thc impossiblc. of philosophizing that is currt'ntlt' r-t'i.1nact <lf cot.rulatccl in .totto to t'luci<lation thc limit o[ irnmediatepossibilitics' ncrer bc granted.But if thc scconclof thcsc the tions must bc satisficdbclbrehand..

PR nr ON U T he Bas i c D ata .

but lrctu thcre is ncltransct'nrlcncer ecn thc catcr and the eatcnl there is a rlifft'rencc.of coursc.avs tLrc creatLtre the one that eats.hich is firnrlamcntal.p11ow perccir.ill become clear in the coursLr thc cxposition. but its value u.crv conclusionof mv statcmcnts r.villrerturnto this startingpoint: thesituation is4rlcn x'lten oneanimttl eats another. From this vieu. creaturc as I <lo not mean a. What is given u'hcn onc animal eats anclther is alu.animalitv of is immc<liacv <lr immanence. thc importanceof lr. u'ill not spcakof it continualh.rt I u. the r. qpr t n Anim alit y I Imman ence of t he Eat er and t he Eat en I considt'ranimalitv frclm a narro\\' r'it'upoint that sci'ms questionablc to mt:. but this animal that cats 1a .point. It is in this sensc of -fellow that I spcak of immancncr'.ill not be ablc to losc sight of it. br.CH. Thr: immanenccof thc animallvith respcctt<lits milieu is given in a prccisesituaticln.etl such.

Elcmentsof this situation can be graspcdbv human intclligcncc.l" that eats.1'he animal situation tlocs contain a componcnt of tht'human given the possibilitvof rt:ganling itsclf in this lr.1. this is onlv providecl it managesto ts cotlsumr:d.r.aterin v.l l i k e th a tc . That onc animal cats anothcr scarcelyalters a fundamcntal situation: everv animal is in rhe world like v.ar7- BA:JIIJ DAIA in an afflrmation clf that thc othcr callnot confront it dif fcrcncc. the animalcan bc rcgarded as a subjcctlor which the rcst of the lr'orkl is an the othcr' Animals' since there is never anvthing are of ul-requal strcngth' but diffcrcnce' Thc betrveen thcrn excepi that qttantitative in thc movemext o[ thc lion is not thc king o[ tht' bcasts: u.t an.r. therc djna ti o t.clestroved' nothing is posited beyoncl appearanccrn a rvorlcl rvhere the present. likc thc plant.l lh" o.ater.vithoutneeding anvthing from r. lI. If it docs not. l'he immancnce of a liling organismin the lr'orld is verv diffcrcnt: an organism secks elemt-nts ar'ound it (or outside it) rvhich are immancnt to it and rvith rvhich it must cstablish (rclativclv stabilize)relatior.btrt the animal cannclt reolrze them. For thc animal' nothrvho rcluses to be vicu'ed u' u thlt'g' insofar as \\'L-arc hunlan ing is givcn through time' It is its duration is perccpthat thc obiect exists in time rvhcre another exists this side of tible..An atom of nitrogen. Ilothing in animal life hc commands' nothing relation . Or if it is.. not cat one anothcr' ' ' ' Animals of a givcn speciesdcl if thc goshau'k cating I'crhaps.aters he is only a higher u'ave ovcrturning thc other.vhatsurrounds thcm. but thiJ tloes not matter it crlearlvfrom itsclf in the tht hcn tlocs not clistinguish an object from ourselves' s311s\\dY that u'e distinguish of thc obiect as such' Thc distinction requires a positing differencc if the obicct 'l'hcrc cloesnot extst anv rJjscernib/e that anothcr animal eats has not been posited' Thc animal immancnce.orld. they remain in a state clf perfi:ct immancnce: there is nevcr a necessitv.av. llut the animal caten b1' anclthis is only a discluraticln. animal that is is rrot yct given as an obiect' Betr'r'een is no rclation of suboreate.tOman.n. it sufand Independence l8 I9 .if nced be.o n rre c ti n g a nobj cct' athi ng. u. or a rnolecule of water cxist r. Dependence of the Anim a| It is true that the animal.btrt it is no. has no autonotny in relation to thc rest of the r.Alreadv of it is no longer like water in watcr. ancl more generallv nothing evcr matters in thc inrmancnt relation of one atom to another or to others.eakcr oncs. of gold. .f the n-'a't-"rto the onc on ont: side and depenthat might cstablish atttonom)' thcv cat one another' . that introduces thc Th.

cach organism is clt-tachcd from other organisms: in this sense organic lif'c.I'F_ f'ersancl tlies: the flow (thc immatrcntt) from tlutsirlc tcr w'hich is organic life.ision.Nothing is mort. '.ater.hich \\'c scc nothinq. u.erse lvhich onlv the animal's in gazen. f t no or lanrl.ision in u. stupidlv contemplatingthat absence of'vision.oukl bc optncrl to thing:. cotlsciottssince rtr artr) Wc cau dor-rbtindeliblv to tht:ir Prcscnce. anr 20 2l .hv u.\asno r. and txrdies of ll. as a mattcr of lact. isolates tl'rc plant or thc animal <lravn's u'hich can thcoreticallr bc rt2arded as autonomousrvorltls' so long as the fi.e of mv consci<lusness. nou. t icr l t o t h( .ard thc unknou.cll as plants. In rcalitr'. in mv mincl's crrnfusion. pr(. lr t r t t o dcst r ihe a hnr lst apt . . fhis is lr.ere thi ng:. it a kint l . is mrlrc closerlto us than this The Poetic animal life from u'hich rvc arc dcscentlcd. l r lcat h. half\rav clistant fiom our consr._ ablc.onlvb<.here indeetl. This is a sinrplc trtrth. a trnir. And if'. describe.scntsu. ( ( ) n( litions is only nonsense. t las t sttn < l t' r t' rt. imaginc things rvithout consciottsncss rlur imaqineimplv consciousness.<tnc tlav t-'t'cnlor gcxxl' But thc of appcararrcc a thing is never ctlnccivablct'xtt'pt itt a consciousncss taking the plat. ()r rather.sint't' tlre objcc..rptvintoxication limitcd br. 'l'here u.Just as we can speakfictir. morcover. at the samt: the timc that it acccntuatcs relationu'ith thc u'orld.tcrror.n. thc animal being neithcr a thing nor a man.c can onlv call up a l. In picturing the uni_ vcrsc u'ithout man. rvithlronr thc n<lrld. rve spcak finally of prehistoric animals.saltpcarccl. su[_ f-cri ng.e cannot clcscribc such an objcct in a precise rrar.nor the meaninglessness a ('ol1things as soon as \\'c trY to imagine thcm u'ithclut that rcllects them. in our terms. in that poctr\.scape a world uhcrc the'c1. as u.slipto*.s rrothing that dot'"s not .aclhcring lcss tt-ll ourselvcs that this aclhcsionis fragile. il rline has rli.crc a present. but animal lifr'. the cycs did not see.anoverilt.poetic. \\. nhich gar t .ti ttto tl (l i l i ()n s ' An organism. ness. rocks. FallacY of AnimalitY Nothing. s( . \\'e can ncvcr sciousness cxccPt arbitrarilv. as r/' thcv n. onlv insirlc.s u-ith a morc disconcertingcnigma.therc uas nclthingnothing but an en.t'5 in that c4>encrl not clirl apprehend u'hat the_vlookccl at.tol this Visionis a nrort. in that n't: nill ceaseto be there. . is separatcil from processcs that arc similar to it.rndami'ntalrelation of nutrition is lcft as id c . flom insitlt-to ot-ttsiclc.clvof the past as if it w. the corrcct rvav to speako[ it (. themselves to thc rvorld full of mcanin-qimplietl bv man giving cach thing his ou._ mcnt that glides from things that have no meaning br. I begin to sal': "-l-here\.forcign to our rvav of thinking than the' earth in the midillc of thc silcnt uI-riverseand having neither the of mcaningthat man givcsthings. . a poctic lcap.iousness.

Srrch truth is the extent that uc cannot <lisccrn it an abilitv is to in to transccnditself.rt ability in anim.rr.uuv bv u'hich a mall gocs from a uorld full of mt'aning to u'hich the tlnal clislocation of meanings' of all mt'aning' soon proves to be unavoidable' There is olllY olrtr diflerthe absur<litl' of things t-nvisagedu'ithout ence l.l halo for it: that is its richness' its nrakt's a fascinatirrg is onlv a glorv. The Animal Is in the Wortd like Water in Water I r'r'ill speak of that unknor.In the c.antl nevcr cntirch'' rerlucible to that kind of infcrior reality rvhich $c attrihute to things. and a sign of bc able to establishit absolutelv. In a sensc. from thc standpointof cxpcricncc.of thosc cmbrrt-rnic aptiturlrs can be donc. I am able to sav tlrat the anintalworlcl is that of intnrane'nccand immercliacv. that rvhich descrves the name depth. a antl rr t.rls.e cannot <li.rt. from th. .l'r.ic'u' in'rmanent our of animalitv. appcars to me onlv tcl slip ar...thc distinct c.ill no longcr rloubt this . *h"reas the lattcr hantls us over to the stickl' tenrptation of poetrv.Ilut this Poctrv . brings me cl<iseto the mclnrent uht-n . it is that the tbrmt-r absurditv immcdiatcly rt' . Whilc a studr. Somcthingternrlcr.all that I can maintain is that such a r.roualso that rvhich is farthest removed lrom me.lut dispensc r'r'ith a fulguration of r'vorclsthat -ii. I need to set apart frorn the da.Wr: can at leastimagine. u. ug.ur-. iust as ncar) as that of stonesor air.r'ar'. such a studl' rvill not vielclanv l)erspectives that invalirlater r. extcnclingits glimmer into that animal darkness.s.l. u. an cmbrvo of is orrlyu.I n. w'hich mcans prcciserlv rfiar ro nlricl is ttnlathomable me..substitutinga thc lulguration lor the nothing of ignorance' I knon': . anclpainful rts th t' a l )Pa r(' l )t tl ttcti ont' f the exa(l s(i .rct.s out the intin'racv rvhich keepsvigil in us.orkl.v vaquc I arn onlv abusinga poctic capacitl'.ill finallv.larity of c'onsciousness mo\..(' me thrthcst a. abstrrditv is just as dircct (if ont' prefcrs.tAcol poctry that rvhich. trom mvst'lf to thc u. se(.1lllc truth u''.or its if I cnslareit or treat it as an obit'ct of science). not bcing simplv a tlring. but it is not lrhich is nclt that of ancltheraniulal . thc animal is not close<lan<l inscrutable to us' Thc animal opcns before mc a depth that attracts mer and is familiar this depth: it is rnv orvn' It is to mc. that u'orkl.appcarsdistinctlv and clearlv.'.Q. u.vable later.ern but it clearly enough. uhich plungesme into thc night ancl dazzlcs r.hich is closcrl to for u.ettueel'r is man's gaze and that of things among which tht' animal or"r. But this too is poetrY' ' ' ' (if I cat it see lnsof'aras I can oLso the animal as a thing in mv clun uar-.itlrin thc limits of lor )2 .u'hich u'ill remain unavoidablc us.nd. For the moment.rt unknorr'.i* kr. rr ill n.

rnimarl 'fhe anisitttations.iolatesthc la$.c or distrcssing phcr. lik c u a tc r i n u a tc r.rcirlcntitr of dcsircsof tu o heingss(. If thc anim. othcr phcnomena do not cclrrespondeither to indiriduals of the samespecies.rvirlg llt-cn rt'ntor.-fhc apathr. Nothing brcaksa cor.crsc sciousclistir. a cotrtinttitl' bet*t-tn itsclf ancl thc u.mav suflicc to removc an cltrstacle clf thcre being an a\\'arcn('ss its h. under t'crtait. so that rvhat appears has no llt-aning. Attractir. dccrt-cing that or<lirlarilYrr'. or is a siqn of somcthing clse. it h'rssimrvhcre thc l'rrv rro l'rngcr ph' fbunclitself in circumstances applics.rviclr so that a nc$.'hich clo not eat a f-ello* crcature of tl'rc sanre it still do ttclthave thc.lpprehend thc otht-r'sdeathasdoesa man beharing tritrrtrpl.'s It not eat oneanother.ronrcna arisc lx-fbrc it.ause riral hatl not its bnrkcn a contiltuitv that thc rival'srlt-athdoestrot recstabl i sh." incapalllcof basingtiurst'lves lrnstahlt'ttragulattl anrl\\'c must con{lnetlttrsc'lvt's regardinganimalitr' ti<lns tlf in tronr the otttsirJe.rantlr'.Thc dot's trot cstablishan\' (otlbehaviclrs rlirt-rsitYof .rntial' Wc cannot sav conccrning a $cllf $hich c'rts itl()thL-r \\()lf . situation.immutablv.rction mals lr.V ttr clf thc human that the transccntlcncc things in relation is ir. the light of an absent't' transt't'nr lt ' nc t' U n a ro i tl a b l r'i.rinst tht'other in mortal combat.Intlecd transct'ntlcnccis ntlthing is t<i embrvonic. to Thc animal has diversebcharirlrsaccorcling diverse arc Tht'st'bchar'iclrs thc startingpoints ftrr prl*situatious. Fi rcn the f ight ing bct ucen r ir als is anot hcr convulsion u hcrc insubst. foo<I. to r>rto anvthingattractirt. thcrc is.' n.thatthc gazcof the animal cxprcsses aftcr thc combat is the sign of an existencetha t is essent iallr c ani mali s i n thc rrorl < l ..but distingtrishingivould clemantlthe of transccndence the objcct havirrglrecomc <listinct. )1 25 . ul'rich given contlitirlns'In rt'alitt ' sav.rl tlocslrot .rlthat has brought clow.t manifestt'rl. cloesnot Yiolatethis la$'. frrr tlre uolf. anvthing that nright bc distinguishcdbcfore being cleacl.s cnrcrqc fr-orr the inevitablc r('sponsr-s stimuli. sible rlistinctions. or re ltcllcnt. ' l -his cont inuit v r r .In spite clf this.if it is not constitutedas solidsare. but r.tolte ag.t on r. ls not callcd int o qucst ion.rthcr tl. this is bc-r.rbilitY tcl recogtrize as strch' species is the trclnnalllch.1r.r (or consciousncss of consciousncss rclation to things) if it i: rr.1o that it r. on lcvcl nit h t hc uor ld in uhich a i t moveslike nat cr in uat cr . in $'hich $'ithclttt not triggcrt-cl. amonq tlre clir.n to its rir.rtilruitr-in uhich fi'ar itself rloesnclt announcc.n rl ttr c \t' s .

rs tit s pr ivilcgccl dom ain.e thc fbregoing a firmcr support. What I har. I uish t o passr r it hout firrther clc.r.rvhich is not givcn in anirnalitv. The clcrelopccl tool is thc nascentfbrm o[ thc non-|.esaiclimplics an excursionof the intcllcct outsidt' the domain of the cliscontinuous u. consciousness posits them as objects.r i s at l e. I rr ill not trv to gir.elopcd rvith thcir end in vicw. as interruptions in thc indistinct continuitv. that the: t/ .hit.r'c to think rrc can rclt'.l.rln Humanity of the and the ll Development World Profane I-or thc momcnt.lav that solid milicu on lr'hich. if the tools as middle terms are adaptcd to thc intendecl rcsult . is in thc human ust-of tools. Insofar as tools arc der.if thcir uscrs perflcct them. J'hc tool brings extcriority into a rvorlcl u. The Positing of the Object: The Tool Thc positingof thc otrject.V Culr.

Thc time spent in making it directlv establishes its utility.truc encl" rcintrocluc.cluklhavc to bc sought on thc plane of utilitv. on tl'rc contrar\. btrt is nrxrethcless imperviousto thc subiect. that stan<ls as rlistinc'tas a tool.rtai r.Lrut onh in relation trl an anticipated result.rl otrjt. thc plant is cultivatcd in to ernsure order to be caten.rlarr. of all t hat is * uhich it t r ans_ cencls. an animal.V ND T HF PNOF ANE W ORID lr'hcre subject has a part in thc elcmcnts it distinguisl'res. is subortlinatedto thc man u'h<lusesit.t as a ^rl t' prc rt' nt the. and means nothing: it onlv has a value in itself.c.omplcte. of thc tcxrl. a plant .* I knou. thc It sul'rjcct's thing.r scnsc a tool .t' no purposc.onv ers c u. The stick digs the ground in ordcr the grou'th of a plant.. not u'ith a vicvr.r. n'hich anrl .e.Thc pr'rrposcof a tool's usc ahvaYshas thc same meaning as the tool's usc: a utility is assignedt<l it in turn and so on. thc sutrjec't But thc tool scnsc.lperf-cct cdge that thc subjt'cthasof the object is entirelv extcrnal. llut art itself rkrt'sn.It is strictlv alien to the subject.r part .ranu_ l acture<lobjt. scrvcs no purposc.Unfortunatelv thc end is thus given in terms of the means.-tttlt. is thc subjcct'spropcrtv.or-rltl longcr be.if it u." Therelcment in u'hich the subjt'cthas . What a . it rcsults fiom manulhcturc. u'ho can mt"lif\ in it as he plcasc-s. Thc absurdity of an cndless cleferral only iustifies thc equivalent absur<litv of a truc cnrl. uhat the obiect I xAs ont'(an secr I havc placcd thr tool antl the ett i t emhel l i s hc s om bei ng us t' tl frrr fi 28 29 . lost in the is lvorltl likc uatcr is lost in uatcr-:or clsc. and its subordination to this cnd.means of frec i ng thc manul htturerl obj ec t l rom the servilitv of thc tool is art. or the u'orkl. it has a part in the u'orld and rcmains "likc r'r'ater in watcr. has nothing to clo. has a mr:arringthat breaks the undiff-crentiatcd continuitv. it is catcn in order to maintain the life of thc one u'ho cultivates not subordinatc<l it (likcin an immt-tli'rtt' lle cannctt subortlinated.this othcr thing fbr still another anrl so thc elemcnt r'rith u'hich it sharcs). in<lis_ criminatclv lost is snpcrfluous.. to the self still immcrsetl in immanenc. ' . unrlerstoorl as a trut. . t.thc to urrrkl. vit'u of a llartitr. at thc' samc time it establishcsthe clear distinction betu'een thc end and thc mcans ancl it flocs so in the very ternns that its apPcarancehas tlerflncd. 'fhe tool has no valuc in itself-likc thc subit'tt.erea bt. its subordination to the one u'ho uses it u. Thc onh.t on thc samc planc.ith an enil in the continuous bcing. in terms of utilitl'' This is one of the most remarkablc and most lateful aberrations of somethingelsc.a manul ac turc rlobj ec t i s i n a tr. nisr'. the rcason being that the tool is first of all a n. Tl-rcobject. no a " truc cn<l.clear and distinct . 'l'he .r'ouklscn. or the elcme'ntsthat are tlf tht' samc traturc as tht' subjcc't rlr thc u'<trld . its meaning w. "O nlv a uor ld in ulr ich t ] r c bcingsan.cltcr i mmanen ct 'or t o t l'r c1lolr .knon. cn<I.

other men.erc comparable to thc digging stick. u'orld .* Language clcfines. at lcast so it appcars. i n tht. Ferv indccd\.rs objt'cts. or thc chippcd stone clemcntsthat u. of the subject considcred objectir. a u'orld.r ttivilr ' .c scc ourselvcs from the outsicle as anothcr. a planeron vi'hich it is possible to situatc clcarlv and clistinctl].or the subject itsclfl onto thc planc of objects is aluavs prt'carious. that lvhich to t..isivc possibilitvo[ a r.rro ourselvers. plants. 'fhis t-xtcrnal knou'ledge is perrhaps supcrficial' but it from the tlbalone rs capableof rctlucing man's clistance although jccts that it dctermint's. l0 ll .elv.ect.erc anclnonetheless ) remained continuous rvith thc w. ht the cncl. such as animals.ithrespc(. nor do I knorv r.But this rel. this rvill clcpendon our first having rlistinguishccl other on the thc plane u.esdistincdv ancl clearly until the clay u. I can makc anothcr onc likc it. the objects that har.rtire prccariousncss mattcrs lcss than thc dec.unccrtain.from u'ithin an<lfirrr-nuithotrt . . This bringing of clcments of the same naturc as thc strbject. from one plane to the other. having determinccl stablerand simple things rvhich it is pt-rssiblcto makc.rotabul arl .irtue of serving tro lunct i u n in tltt . and as a matter of fact I don't knorv w'hat thc being is that I am. mincl. and uncvcnlv rcalizerl./i r rrs ef thc ofrj ect i s t t' rmerl . is ncart'stantl most to thev remain r'lost-d us. tn i ts c l l .that rvhich in theory cannot be knou'n in the samc rvay.hcre manufactured things have appearcrl to us rlistinctly.. Moreoverr.clcarly and clistinctly knou.r'hatthc I'r'orld is and I u'ould not bc ablc to producc another one by anY means.ier.r'cclo not knou.s amt.'n from the outsidt- in the Sphere of Objects The positing of thc objcct knou'n clearlY ancl distinctlv from without gcnerallv defines a sphcre of objects. ourselr. animal.F ND IHE PROFANE WORLO havc made is.orld. and finallv.a table. mcn situatcd on the same plane u'herc the things this or that: a houst-. or a garment are no ltss uscful than a hamDtcr. thc subject determining itsclf.r'point from u'hich the imnranentclemcnts are pe'rceivccl lrclm the ontside . t.r'riliar us. *Oursel re suhat ex i s tc nti al : phi l os ophv < al l s . bclth as cclntinuity. the category of subject-object. \. The Positing of Immanent Elentents appeared(as if thcy \\. but I w'ould not be able to make another being like me in the r'r'avthat a rvatchmaker makcs a u'atch (or that a man in the "age of the rein<lccr" madc a bladc of sharp stone).It makcsof thcse'objects.'fhis means in clthcr uorrls that r.ethe r. ancl as ob. l.rr.f u st ftr l . Thus. w'e pcrceive each appcarance subjcct (ourst-lr.rt the same timc.aftc r H egel .

in tht' irlagirration is of thc onc uho c'onceilcs . thinking.rl.rttributc to it thc r.rtttrreti-rnanufattttring tool.<lncthinks of tht'r-rnst. is f lr st ol' prcmc )l ti . a nran can rt'gard this objcct.asc'ribed them.u h ith I harc l i tral l r ]tr. If I trv to graslr uh a t n r \ th o u g lr t is d csig n a tin g t th c Iroment rrht'n i t takestl i e. an arro\\'sa\'.rthc light thc of an cxistcnce that is continuous (in relation to thcir intimac'r'. t ht ' uor lt l. as his fcllou lrt'ing. thc uorld is gircn both thc fornr of isolat t 'cl in<lir idualit v r r lcr eat ivcpr lucr . as a rfirnc analogous to thc manul. In a scnsc. rcm. ancl s1>caking" (just as m(. anr l spcakinglikc hirl.r's to continuousu'ith respectto thc rlorlcl tinuum. o[ 'a "suin l rcing.thosc plants. has l>t't'n fb llcr l. " t list inr t anr l linr it ct l likt 'a t hing. In this rcduction to a rfiinq. iio n r o tttsitlt' ttt in sitle . planc of'subjcc'tsa objects being delincd. u ithout taking au al tl'rc oltcrativc ltou cr anrl transc'cntlcnc'c tht' arro\\.rddlcis probablv the most turious one.rimal.irtucso1'a thirrq "t'apableol'at'ting.a b su r d itvo fth e *orl tl as a seP arate t'tt. The Supreme Being If rrc norv picture mtn cor.r'orl<l still. thcv are also attributcd to thc t-ntire u'orld. is imr. S<it hc p<isit prt's. o n ce th t. r atsuit shim . f i'onruhat he him sclfis: t his it arro\\.ritts confuscd: that elemcnt kceps all tl'rcattributcs of a subicct of'thc anclan objcct at thc sametinrc.rcciving uorkl ir.* The Positing of Things as Subjects 'Ihis first confirsionbeing cstablisht'd.rscdlv attributt-tl to dre ar. i rr his eves.n rlo).or those mcn that the objcct's frorr thc contranscendcnce.l ttt tl i stol tt': I tatl n o t in la ct a scr ih cto su b je ctivitvth c li mi t o{ rnvscl for of httman sel rts. It bccclmcs xThis last mr. is r apablt ' of act ing. tl-rc plant.It then reccivcsthe attributcs of thc subjcct anrl takes its place rlc:xt to those aninrals.indistinct. clcar as to the scparatepositing of onc element. and inrntanclrt existcnce. tlrc meteor. in a lundamcntal uar'.trrrl <l a obj as its o b je ct.r r r r r o lir r r it it ir r Jr ) \ \\a \ t as a u' hok'llr t it r cm ainsscpar at ( 'as r r as in t ht 'm int l it of thc ont 'uho nr ar lcit : at t hr m ( r r ( 'lt t t l. u'ithdrar.But ar-r objcctivitv of dris nature. I c. Ont' r'ou]rl t'\'('n sav that an of objcct thus transposc'tl not rlitiert'nt. uc must alsclpcrceirc the nccd for them to . insolar as this is possiblc. the tool itself can be placcd on it if ncetl lrc.nancncc rvithor-rt clcar limit (an inrlistinct flolv of a bt'ing into bc'inq. 'l'he objcct that the tool is can itsclf bc regarclcd as a subject-obicct. thc r. But ar this pcrsonallv rlistinct po\\'cr has at thc samc tirnc thc Jil'lnc charactt'r oi a pt'rsonal. t hinking. tht'ir rlccp subjcitivitr'). those mctc<)rs. th is u o r l< l r t' m a in s in m e a s that ronti nui tr from i nsi tl t'to outsitlt' .'nccof satcr i n u at er ) . Thc transccndctrce tool and thc crcative facultv connectcd r'r'ith its usc are confr.

mt:tcors. of lir. The S acr ed All pcoples har c cloubtlessc'once ived this suprcme bcing.- in Thcrt' is tloutrtless. it u'as a kinrl of u't-akcningof an animal sctrsc' ollt coml)cnsatiotr. tht' invcnall an impovcrishrncr-rt. olferecl man all the lascination of the sacred u'clrlcl. This continuitt'. and later that of the Christians. thcv distinguishedthc animal from thernsrlvcs1>crhaps. a clctt'rmirrationto rlc{ltri' a valile that is grcater than anv othcr. . this aspcctof trnintcntional I am obligcd to ernphasizc ('hristians rkr impovcrishmcnt and limitation: nolr'atlavs in not ht'sitateto rcc'ognizc tlrc various"suprt'mt:btings" of uhicl-r "primitivt's" hare kept somc mclnorv.1'hc suprcmc being apparentlvrlid not have rn\. but tht' opcration secmsto have failed cvcryu'hcre.c must attribute to animalsno longer irnprcsscd itself on the mind une. The^reis no ultimatc equalitr' Irt'tn'cen cliscontinuous likc tht' othcrs.r'as obtain.o(the positing of distinc'tobjccts u'as in fat't its nt'g.. bcing ol this tvpc. irnpor.c indiviclualitv. 'fheri: is everv indication that the first mcn wcre closcr than \\'e are to thc animal s. but fronr u'hich it is clearlvclistitrct. Mcn. but not uithout a fceling of rloubt mixed r. plants.lerivcd ne\\' significancefrom the a (ontrast it (brrncd to thi' u'orltl of things. distinguisheri frorn anvthing clse. Thus.orld harl at first sccmcd limitcd. animals.r'ithterror and longing.rcallv tion). all can spcak thc language of linc up on thcv basicallv man.the supreme being has the highest rank. As if thc opr-rationhacl to takc'rrplacc at a timc u'hen thr scnsc of continuitt' uas too strong. likc thc others.rot bc.crtv of the pr<lfanc tool (of the discontinuousobiect). a planc of cqualitv.. u'hich fbr the animal could r.w.. prestrgccomparablcto that rvhich the God of thc or beings r. all can l>c. hcavcnlv bodies. Btrt all are of the sarnekind. -l'l'rc sense of thc' sacrcclobr iotrslv is not that of thc animal krst in the n"ristsof cclntinuity w'herc nothing is 34 t5 . The senset>fcontinuitl that u.r'ith thc lr.e but this nascent clf \\'as not a blossomingfbrth.'n. is in thc rvorl<I. nextto a suprem(thrv can bc cnvisaqcrl u'hich.'ervthing.erished a lirst clumsy attempt at a rccluctionto bv an objcctir. consciousness the God thcv be'licr.s. in r'vhichimman.cprir. If thrsc arc' at thc sarnt' titlc things and intimatc bcings.rirnal divine continuitr. subjectsantl objt'cts at thc samt'time. on thc corrconsciousness u'ithtrarv. The objt-ctivcpcrsonalitvof thc sul)rcme bcing situates it in thc 'uvorlrlnext to other personal bcings of the samc lratllrc./ilinean<lcncloucd u'ith an opcrative po\\'(:r. like it.' and pcrsonalitvare rlingled. But it had c. tior"rof a supreme bt'ing. Bv clefinition. in spitc of cr. as against the por.orld. .r. But tl'ristlt'sirt ttr itttrt'ast' rtsults in a diminution.hichuas in it ancllbr it thc onlv possible mode of being. a first in. as if the ar.

. . 'l-he spirit that is not sulror<linatcd to thc realitl."l.r.vhichit is not. the spirit of a dc'adman docs not depi:nclon a clear matcrial of rcalitv like that of a living one. rvhich is clcar...cntalclistinc'tirl. the connecticin t he a n i ma l o r p l i rn t s p i ri t (o r th e l i kt' ) ui th. establishetl oppositc a lrolv arr<l mt. nence that subme rr.i.u..lllctcor. sirr.tir. in a lirnrla_ is mental \\'av. is generallr.icrr. r. T he Sp i ri ts a n d th e Go d s all of Thc cqualitr anclinec. thc hierarchv of spirits tcnds to bc basctl on a lirnrlar.r. Thc suprcme bcing.thir. autonomous spirits of the supremc being.. r . ar-r objcc. onlv a morc po\\.orld. This aggrcgatc appearsdistincdv at thc boundan of that u'hich is t'xtcrnallr'. o.\. Morcor-cr.. This horror is ambiguotrs. r t t ' ri ts p ri r i l t' g ttl tl t.hich tcnd to ftrrnr a honr<igeneous rvorkl. likc thosc of mt-n. r l a u.. . the god of heavcn. n'soh.of animals.s rcalitr'.hcrc thc r.m a i n . thc lattt'r tltr opposc an opaque aggregatcto a clear purclv drrjnc(sa_ credl.but he is not su1trt. lrom that clear: it is at least <listinguishabler.but at thc sarnc sittru hcrc r.7 IlUMANITY AND TFIE PROIANE W(JRL D (listinct.rt animals.ts(u. Insofhr as hc is himself a spirit. . as its r. But thc unreal u. A scale is built into this conccption: thc a supr(-mebcing is in a st-t'tst' ptlrc spirit. finallv.nankind ous firr th.rt clcar anrl prolanc n orltl .ipirit.plants. ancl tht. LIr. or of a <lomain of objcc. Thc gotls are sinrplvmvtltical spirits. .e valuc). is rcal.rnd so olr..ualitv thcse variouscxistenccs. a mvthical .of dead pccplt. hc of Things and of the Bodv as a Thing With thc positing of a thing.thc animal acccptetlthe immargctl it u ithor.hcrcasman fccls a kind of impott'nt hrlrror in the scrrse of drt' sacrctl. in a lirst reprcscntation. .Utrdoubtc<llr'' an uhat is sacrcd attracts an<l posscsscs incomparatlle dangt'rr timt' it aPPcars crtiginotrslv valut'. trr. arc spirits. similarlv. l l.rn i ndi ri cl tral animal or plant is vcrv vagu(':such spirits are rnvthicalinrlepcndcnt of the givcn rt'alitics.. r r lt l of t hing.orkl.rcler thcse condi1 t) tions.cnspirits trrat <repc'ti cln a bodv..t. of a prol . thc sovcrtign rlcitr.a tool. n.alu.abor-rt still.Mcn ancl thc suprcnre bcing.of a mortal bodl is a gocl.a contir-ruitv frorn thc subject'spoint of r. an im1>lc_ lnent. be'tr'r. The Positing of the World J1 .arious cocqualsof thc subject itst'lf assumean objcr. also.r nc uor ll.rcnces usu_ arc allv slight.'es a hierarchv of .rt appar('tlt Protest.u'ithin u'hich thc hierarchical cliffe.. tht'u'orkl in uhich rrlcn movr. intcl oppclscclto the rhingsthat pure objccts are. uhile it is truc thal the confusion has not tcast'd in thc' utirld tlf tnists.ithor-rt anv sub_ stratum of rcalitv.crful gorl of thc' samc naturc as thc clthcrs. li. .orltl of sorcrcign spirits or gorls estab_ lish<. In thc first plac'e. 'l'he rcalitr. nran is dilinc (sacred).

Thcrc is uncloubtctllv measurc of falsitv in thc fit't of rt'gartlingthc animal as a thing. At ltrast in cirtlinan tirt'umtl<lthtrred fdrr itl tllJt matl is atr animal tlrat <lot's stanct-s. C)nlv starting lrom thc mlthical represcntationof autonomousspirits doestl-re borlv fin<litsclf on thc sirlcof things. ln thc first immanence. thc prc'paration mcat is not primaril)' c<<l a sclf. Insofaras it is spirit. Yct thc studr rlf attatomt t'cast'dt<r son. an<lalt cr it as ot t t ' nhi ch h t 'eat fhct it is clftcn unrcastlnablt'notto do uith nran.'ith a gastronomical ltursuit: bt'lbre that it has tcr r-rcctt'rl rlo uith thc lact tltat nr. of tht'rt' is no opposition o[ the minrl an<lthe boclv.rf divinc thc rvorld: rcal animals and plants separatctl f rclm thcir spiritual truth skrlr'lvrcjoin the cmptr. thc mortal bodv is grarlu. lim plicit lv alf ir r n t hat rfiar has ncvt'r bt'en anvthing ltut a thing.rstcd. er. 'l'hr : anint all'r as man. The Eaten Animal.sentin sovt-reign spirits. dciesno harm to anvonc. l'ht' diffc'rt'nccbctu. grillctl.of tools.HIJMANITY AND TI]t Pf]OFAI!E WORI D Within the limits of continuitv. But t o kill t hc anit 'nal plcascsis trot tltrelv to chartgeirtto a thing tlrat uhich u'as not a thing from differcnce is possiblc bt'fbrt' thc positing of tbc manufhcturc'dtool. rcal u'orld rcmainsas a residuumof thc birth <. uhi ch I cut up. rcgardsit as a detect. Animals.ritv ) objcct.]lut thc positing of a norld of mvthical spirits anrl the suprcme raluc it reccivt'sarc naturallv linkcd to thc tlcfinition of thc mortal bodv as lrcing opposcd to thc mintl. it is f'ullva thing onlr in a ro. The definition of thc animal as a thing ltas bccomc a basic l<lstit s st at t t sas t nan'sf elhurnangir cn. no means (imnrancnce and thc thc sameas that bct*ecn continr. brrt fallen. Antl clcspit.thc mind is r. Tcl titt u1l.rcthing al)l)(aronlv a shrtrt tirlc ago. or boilcrl fbrm.' bc scan<lalotts l8 Jc) .rllvassimilatcdto thc nrassof things.rotvet distinct fnrm thc botlr'. It an<lt'. uhich I cook.ern thc mind ancl thc borlr. a uorlil subjcc't anrl tralcrse<l to lrr' <livinr'fortcs.ruclot'sttot t'.rtanvthing beforehc l'rasmarlc an objcc't of it.plants.crvthingis spiritual.took.rt a nlan is on tht' c()ntrarvatrominalllc'. insofhr as it is not pr(. is b\. Likorise.-l'hr. an<l otht'r controllablc things firrrn a rcal rvorkl u'ith the borlicsthat control them. n'ith thc positing of the suhject on the planc ol obiccts (of thc' subject-objrct). Inclcc<l as posite'd an obicct onlv provided it is catcn clcatl. but it is profinc insofaras it is rcal. objcctivitr. thc human realitl' is holr'. and the Thing the Corpse. pt'r<'ciringthe anirnalitvirr hin'rlou c'rcaturc.Cotlcerning that u'hit'h I kl l l . it is to tlefinc the tloubtless aninral as a thinq bciirrehantl. An arrimal exists fbr itself ancl in ortk'r to lrc a thinq it must 'fhus tlrt' catcn animal can bc br rlcarl or (lorncsticatcd.

hcr of crcatc<l it.rtclr a calf. Naturc becomt. thc tirmcr's 10 +l .nscthc ('orpscis thc most comit. anrl rrith grcater rcason. Ercrvthing in n. or lurnber.heator the cal f i n an anim al uar '.7 \flLl T lrE PH()f.s that I havc conrpclle<l that uhich is ccltral m(.'l'his is thc basi<princ.atcs thc u hcat is a larmcr..era thing ('xccpt to is v ir t u a l l r' . thc ont' n ho raiscsthc stccr is a stock raist'r.ultural is production. lost 'rtlo hir .cr rlcrlart.finitilc' impcltenccand abscnccrcvcals is the r. is true of a grain of u. ner.rvpou. Convcrsclv.r. The Worker and the TooI Generallvspcaking. nt t lr at ht . fbr inrn. What dcath's<l thcrclbrc ther living animal. f hc placcst he t I uorl i l i n lr is poucr .rlu is a hcaclof livcstock.a ro a s ccascs bc hauntc<|.and tht onc u'ho cultir.orlcl: rlenicstht' u'orltl but it is hc himst'lf that hc dcnics. Nou'. t ht 'r .rlcstrovcrl as n' ht' atan<l.('\'enharclcnc<l materialists still so religiousthat arc it in thcir evers is alu'at'sa crimc to make a ntan into a t hing . f br gct s that hc is himsclf the r. thc c.rdrc subordinateilclcmcnt but to bt.civcrl a as fillcn rrorkl. In a l t\' (' A sc. htrntan atti tht' tr-rclc torlard thc lro<lr is fbrmirlablv compler. Thc purpos('of a plou' is alien to thc rcalitv tlrat constitutts it.a trtilitv of thc samt-naturt' Ascanvas. Insolar as he is spirit. during thc tirnc rvlrcn ht'is longer to to exist firr its rtun purposebut ratht'r fbr a purp<lsc that is alicn to it. but it tics man to subjugatcd nature. In thqrrv thc bodr. The tool c'hanges naturc an<l nran at the same timc: it subjugatcs natLrr('torran.. It t'ntails tht. th c s p i ri t i s n rc l rt' prcstntthan cvcr: tht' bodv that has betraverl it reveals it more clearlv than u'hcn it sen'e<l Irr a st.but it ccascs bc imnrancntt<l hinr lt is to hi s on c'ont lit ion hat it is r . The grain of 'nvl'rcat a unit clf a-qri. Anrl tht' spirit is so closelv linkcd to the bodv as a thing that thc botlv ncr. u. but it is thc glorv of tht' hutnan bodv to be thc substratumof a spirit. t his is t <l t hc cxt t .erv csst'ncc thc of spirit. uoukl also bc r lir cr t t t l f r <lm thcir oun purposr-. start. btrt thev lrould be surklcnh. ple'tc allinnation of the spirit.s man's prclpertr. altcrcrl onesclf. man's corpse rcvt'als thc c'omplctc reilucticln of thc animal boclr'. ont. At no t im r : uoult l t lr c uheat an<l hc t calf bc thc rhinqsthat thtr art' front tht.hich is of ncl cclns('qu('nc(' itst'lf . uho rnakcsantl uscsit.rtc t[rt' u.. to thinghoorl. n. r scalf .\fJE W ORI D ances.s o m u c h s o th a t i l rl t' a th rccl uctsi t to thc conr lit io n o f a th i n g .thc uorlrl of things is pcrc.iplc: sr-rborrlinatc r-rot to is onlv to alte. If I . just as thc sr. u.hc. the slrnt. a s l e \\.rcamof thc onc that is killed is the suprcmc aflirmation clf lifc. is a strictlv subordinatcclcmcnt. it is man's misfortunc to have the bcldvof an animal and thus to bc like a thing. alit-nati<ln tht.

ill immolatr-it. In the clcgret'that that hc is bcing. o/ thc norlcl.toto gctl-ri'r r. uhcrt' thcre arc neithcr separationsnor limits.ith thc lhrmer and thc stock raiser. man is a stratrgerfbr himst'li.onlv thc thing . it <lraus thc victim out <lf the world <l['utilitv and restclres it to that of unintelligiblccaprice.<luringtht.r.tinlt' thev arc uorking. to uhich hc furnishcstht' cncrgv. from thc r'vorld of things.thc dcstruction that sacrillce is intcnded to bring about is not annihilation. but though it sometimesgoes so fhr as to destroy completely (as in a holocaust). it passesfrom the u'orlcl of things u'hich are closcclto 12 +J . Sacrilic'e dcstror-san objcct's real tics of sr-rbrtrdination.Thc agricultural proclutt ancl the'livestock arc things.Wht'n thc ofli'rerl animal entcrs tht'cirr'le in uhich thc prit'st u.ho t-atsthc breacl' At the limit.Y pu1x)se is not his orvn PurPosc' antl during thc tirnc uhcn hc is tcntling the u'hat sacrillcenreansto destrol' in thc victim. Sacred and the of the World The N e ed That I s M et by Sacrifice and Its Principle Thc flrst fruits of the harvcst or a he.rclof livestock arc sacritlccdin <lr<ler rcmove the plant and the animal. tht: purpost' of thc stock raist'r is not his o\\'n PurPosc. ancl the thrmt'r rlr thc stock raist'r. that he is he is the immancnt it'nmcnsitv. arc alsclthirlgs' All this is forcign to the immancnt immcnsitv. Principles the Festival. The principle of sacrifice is dcstruction.thing . thc act of thc eatcr himst-llis alrcatlvagricultural labor. Thc farmcr is not a man: hc is tht' plou' of the onc u. CHAr''rr-u I I I Sacrifice.

is knoun as the r'r'if'e knor'r'n in scxual consunrption (concharnelle\. riflcer <lec'larcs: "/nfinrotelr'.to the uorld that is immancnt to it.lJut the greatcst ncgation <lf'the real ordcr is of the onc most favorablcto thc appcarance thc mvthical ordcr. the uorlcl o[ r'iolcr.rngdontl that killinq al)])cars a \\'a\'of rcrlrcssing to thc aninral.nvths.iust as my u if'c bckrr-rgs mv to rlt-sircs.But onc cannot . Sacrifice essentiallvturns its back on rcal rclations.r. u'ithdrau vr>u.rcriflct'r'sprior separation tl'clr. bevclnd thc alrvavsunrcal imagesof a thinking bascclon participation. rvhich is prccisclv thc oppositc of +4 ." T he U n re a l i tv o f th e D i v i n e W orl d that urrrlcl of things on u.Y lnan an(l arc nothinq to'ss of sacrific'c as thc rvr.In fact it death is nothing in immanc:nce. bctrrccn thc in subjcctanclthe object.rictim.t :) Of coursc this is a mcrnolrigucand thc victim can ncithe-r understand nor replv. it invaclcs evcrlthing rvithout giving rise to any rcsistancc.of immanence betuccn man anrl the r. bccauseit tht're is no diffr:rcncc bertrvecn and Iifc.rt to uncalculatcdgcncrositr'. u'hich hc knous lrom thc outsi<le. llecauscclc-ath has no meaning. sacrificial killing rcsolrcs thc painliLl antinomv <lf life and dcath [rl' mcans <lf a reversal. be rccluc'ccl thc contlition of to a thing. This assLrmes that it has ccasctlto bc sumotion separated frclm its oun intimacv. from tht' uorlrl in uhich I \:'ou \\'crL' and could rvoul<l go against its or.rtion of labor. because is nothing. As a matter of flact. The rcturn to immanent intimacr implies a becloudcd consc'ir>usncss: consciousncss is tierl to thc positing of objects as such. but a being is ncver trulv scparatecl fronr it.rorltl.I belong to the sorcrt'iqn uclrld clf the go<ls anrl and t. Thc s. The Ordinarv Association of Death and Sacrifice t'r'engocs so far The pucrilt' unt'onscir>ust. This is rvhat gives thc lr.If it took them into account. I call roLr back to the rntlmocro[ thc rlivinc rvorld. apart from a vaguc pcrception.orld of sacrifice an appcarancc of puerilc gratuitousness. It could not derstrov animalas a thing u'ithout denving thc the animal's objcctive realit. as it is in the subclnlitl. of the profounrl irnmanenccof all that is.n rrrlrlcl of things is n('(('ssarlfilr thc rcturn to intlnrocl.hich clistinc'trealin is founded.killing in tlrc litcral st:nsris not ncccssary.The sacriflc'cr nct-dsthc sacrifict' orler to scparatchimsclf lrom thc u'orltl of things anrl thc victim could not bt' separatcd from it in turn if the sacrificerllas not alrea<lv The sac'-l scparatcdin arlvance. having a mcaning that uas fbreign to vour intimate natllrc.v.nnatur('. miscrablv rccluct'cl thc c'onclitionof a to thing. Morcovt'r. graspccl n. inrimrite.rt the sametimc destro_l' values tlrc that fbund rcality an<laccePt thcir limits. and tht're is no fear of it or dcfcnsc against it. .

the rcal has a lasting purpose likc coal or breacl. What the real socit'tv has lost is not a member but rather its truth. all at on(c that cntitr'.l)uration ceascsto haveranl.cs thc rt'al order.cntlife's ditappcarancc in dcath from rocaling thc inli. 'l'hc objcct is <lcfinctl as an clpcrativcpou. What has r no placc in thc n.rocalccl onlv in death.hich it is constitutcd as an objcct.aluc. or it is there only in ordcr to produce thc morbid <lt:lcctation anguish. lJut it canncltprcr. r-rnlcss subsequenttime is a thcrc lvhern it'. it is destroveri foorl If as or fucl contradiction) of the r. Thc real order does not so rnuch rcjcct thc ncgationof lifc that is death as it rejccts thc aflinnation of intimate lifi.'hichn<r longer cxists.orkl of things. When an clcmcnt cs('apcsits tlcmanrls. No onc knt'u. 'fhcrt'is no morc qucstion of it and uhat clcathbrings in tt'arsis thc trst'lcss c<lrrsumotion the intimatc ortler.discloscsthc imposturc of rcalitv. of lr. that lif'c's intimacv docs not rt'r't'al its dazzling consr. that is a sr-rpcrficial ieu . grcat affirmcr. I lenccfirrth it rnatt('rs verv littlc that this rcal order is the ncr'<llbr the rluration of that u.nt'trtralizt'. l'ht'n it is not thc loss of thc thing. hascomplctclv dissipatcd. r. r.hat is unreal in thc real lr'orld is not cxactlv rlcath. in thrt thc alrrcnccof tluration givcs the lie to it. l)cath rcvcals lif'c in its plcnituclcand dissolr.reason that dcath mcans cventhing to it.c a neutral image. of 41 .iclual in thc is societvof labor.of lifc. but abovc all be'causc rlcath is tht..vrcach mc. of the usefulmr:mber. not onlr. thc eatcr or thc manulbctured object prcservcs its value in r'r.that intimatc lilc an<l rcplacc it u'ith thc thing drat thc.sihle brillianct:of life that 'I'he po\ver of rleath significs that this real is ncrt a thing.that is taken into consideration. llut rleath sucklenlv sh<lrvs that thc rcal sociertvwas lving. u'hich hacllost thc abilitv to full. That intimate llf-e.rmptionuntil the moment it gives out. As a mattcr of fact.r'as in onc rcal tl-ring among others. rvorlcl can onlv har.orltl is ticcl to the positing of thc bodv as a thing insofar as it is vicw. an afflnnation that is fulh. But it is for this ver1.Thc real orrkrr must annul .On of thc contrarv. n. I)eath actuallr. Futurt' time constitutcs this real rvclrlclto such a tlegreethat death no longcr has a placc in it.vorlcl things is that of it imparts an unrcal characterr clcathcvern to though man's membership in this w. is firllv rcstorc-d to mv scr-rsibilitvthrough its atrscncc. thc u'ondcr-struck cn of lifc. thc objective anrl in a scnsc transccndcnt (relativeto thc subjcct)positingof thc u'orld of things has cluration as its floundation:no thinq in fact has a separat(] existcncer. xhich I rcgarclccl primarilv as a thing.inclir.crlookt-d thvclrof real things:dcath r.r'as.vhcise 46 mcasurclcss violcncc is a danger to thc stabilitt'of uas or. u'hat rcmainsis not an cntitv that sr-rf}i'rs bt'rcavcment.erronly if its rluration is implicidl' untlcrstoo<I. has a mcaning. The (thc r.

it is cclnsuntpticln that is conccrnerl onlv u'ith thc moment.rnhas ing of does not sacrifice luxurious ob. Therc could bc no sacrillcc if thc offi'ring u'ere dt-stro1'cd befirrehancl.lranc'coI duraticln.rkcs us enrlt.qis onlv thc cxhibition of a rleep me.suclrlcnlv rcplaccsprcst'nce.Jf TFF fF ST IVAI Itst .ncss is nt'r'r'r keener than at thc momcnt r'r'hcn ab. 'l'hertcars of the lir ing. u. onlv in thcon'.rning.What is important is t<t pass from a lasting orclt'r. the impossibilitvof duration lreres us).arc fhr themsclves from lraring a mcalringoppositcto jov.]R IFI. that onc sacriflcesn. The Consummation of Sacrifice not to kill but to rt'linquishand to givc. But death is not necessarilv linkcd to it. rvhose rt-alitv derives from a long tcnn opcration anrl nevcr rcsirk-sin thc momcnt . This is so clcarly the precisemt-aningof sacrificc.jcc'ts.arcncss sharedliie graspcdin its intimacv.but u. Killin.r kccn au.hich is accomplishccl rvith a vicr. To sacril-ice is is to give as onLrgives cclalto thc furnace. in as rleath or mere sr. an<lthat.aluc through a relinquishmcnt of that the violt'nccof an uncontlitionalcclnsumption. lJut tht' lurnacer orclinarilvhas an undcniableutilitv.1 C) Thc pou'cr that death generall_v illuminatesthe mc. to u'hich the coal is strborclinaterl. lar bcrond thtc on( (' rn fo r I ftrtrrrcti me . it is clear tlrat the nccd lirr dtrraticln conccalslifi: fi'onr us. rvhat is important is to lcavt' a u'clrltl of real things.ith it. depriving thc labor o1' . rvhich functions like death in that it rt'stores a lost r..a norlrl that crcatcs an<lprcscrrcs (that crcatcs for thc br. Far fronr bcing sorroulirl.rRLf) It is a naivc opinion that links dcath closclvto sorrou. but aluat's madly. but it is precisclvthc disappc.'iors assclciatt:d u. to goo<lfortunc that m.Anrl in this casc.paration. l-his is the mc-aningof "sacriflcing to the rleity. ancl the most solcmn sacrificemav not bc bloodv.Act]EI) W .onsumptionof rcsources is subordinatcrl to tht' nt'etl fbr cluraticln. Nolr. that uncovers a ground of things that is <lazzlinglv bright tin other rrords.Sacrifict'is thc antithesisof procluction. 'l'cl sacrificcis .." uhose sacrcdcsscnce comparableto a firc. in rvhich all r.vto the fluturc. n.antl of the neutral bcha'.SA. 'Ihis is thc scnsein u'hich it is gift anclrclinquishmcnt.fioris usefirl.oming.hich respond to its r. rvhereasin sacrifice tht' ollcring is rt'sc'uecl frour all utilit\'.nr'fltof a lastingrealitvy.hat is givcn ('annotbe an objcct of presen'ation for the rect'ivcr: the gilt of an o{fcring makcs it pass prccise into thc n orld of ahrupt h' cclnsumption. thc tcars arc the cxprcssionof .+8 . It is of truc tlrat this auart.senr:e . thc consolation(in the strong scnscthc u'orcl has in thc "consolations" of the mvstics) is in a sensebitterlv tie<l to thc fact that it cannot last. In othcr cases the tears rcspond insteadto unexpectecl triumph.

rtion lbr that u'hich is articulatcd.and it is destnrcl'aracloxicallv. thc clistinctarticr. just as the sacriflceris the intlividual. in the vcrv monrcnt. suc'has animalsor plant sutrstanccs.rlomcsticatccl.In fat't rlt'nt. But man is not. that harc but trecorncthings an<lthat neeclto bt'restorcd to the immatrcncc x. u hat has thc i.ithrlrau'nfr<lm immancnce. thc ragc and thc r om il i n q . thc sinking fi'.rl. dt'flnition. or rathr:r thc anxiousnessto remain pcrsonalh' ali"c that is t'stablishcs pt'rson'sinclivirlu. thc fbrn.To sac. intimacv is r.crl bt'ing a to thing. ncvcr har'ing l>elongccl immancnce. T'he su'elling to the bursting point.Br.r illc c a l u x u n ' o b j c tt u r> trl <llrc to sacri fl ccthc samc o[rjt ' c t tu i c t' . thc su.the: rerason that the indiviclual takcs part in it.oukl havt lteen spirits.that which.V SAL ]FIf CF IF E F ES]T IVAI T HE S]A']RED W T )I] I manuf. and Sacrifice Intimacv cannot be c-xprcsscd discursir.rt-r it is not cvcn nc(cssan'to lvork in or<lt'r to be thc tAlncl to of [c'ar:man is an inc]ividual the cxt('nt that his il)preht'nsion ties him to thc results of labor.t'd pallor. in thc . Sacrificcis rtrarleof objt'cts that c.II one descrilrcs the indiviclualin the if opt'ration of sacrifice.rlationncvcrtheless.thc n'hitt'-cr.cly.rt sachc is rifice is .strongscn. 'fhese statcmcntshave thc vagut'clualitvof inacccssi- ble rlistances.cct satlncss. luxun. the malicc that brt'aks out rvith clenthccl teeth anrl \\'ccps.(turc of its uscfi. llut ncither coul<l one sacrificc that w'hich \\'as not flrst u. it tion. st'parateindivirlual is of tht' sam('nature as thc thing.'ling that ckx'sn't knou uhcrc it r'orn('sfiom or nhat it's alrout.uoulcl not har. rvork and the fi:ar of dving are intcr<leperninrplics the thing antl vicc vt'rsa. but on the othcr hand artictrlatccl <lefinitions strbstitutcthc trcc lbr the forest. thc inrpcrccptiblc sonoritv of a rivcr. is tlefincd bv anguish. l>ccausc is not compatiblcu'ith thc positing of thrscparateindividtral. lras at alrcaclvdevro. .s passionof an abscnccof in<liridualitr-. tht' cmptr' lirnpiditv of thc skl': this is 50 5l .rlness tht' outsct. thc ft'ar that singsits hca<loff in thc clark. Thc indiriclualiclentifies uith the victim in thc (to it strrklcnnrovomcnt that restclrcs to inruranence intithat is linkerl to the rt'turn to nrac\'). a r(' s () I)l a n \ (' \a s i o n s .ved that labor. anrl rt'rluc.rlitv linkc<lto tht' intethe gration of cxistencc into thc u'cirl<lof things. What is intimatc. To put it rliffcrcndy.hencc thcl. it has clissipated in vainit glon. lrom uhich the csscntial is stilI a nergative missing. it has lost it for goocl.but the assirnilation is bascdou thc lact that the ricimmanerncc noncthcless -l'hc tim is the thing. Anguish. I u'ill resrlrt to articr. The Individual. to the vaguc spherc of lost intimacr'. colnc.iolcncc.cbct-nseconrltcl arilv subjugatt'tl.

learnsanguish.a tti ri t_r th the rri preci pi tatc anrl contagiousmovemcnt of a purelv glorious consumption. lV1an afrairl of thc intimatc ordcr that is not is recon_ cilable rvith thc ordcr of thirrgs.or. tht' rr:sistancc immant' is insofar as rht.-.sthat prcxligiousefk. Sacrifice burns likc thc sun that slo* lv dies of the prodigious radiation rvhosi'brilliancc our ('vcs cannot bcar.hang. ststr:m of projec.C)thenvisethcre rvoulcl bc no sacrifice.rcdangrrishof the intlividual. intimacr.rlrl hc Hc havc no anguishif he-rlcre not the intlir.ati. us. is afraicl. T he F e s ti v a l l-lre sacrcd i.AaRELl WC)nLtr as onc might it sucldt'nlv inflanrcs an<l blinds in tun'r.uorkl nf ihi.orlrl is contagiousand its contagion is clangcrous.ondition of his uorth.n. it racliatcs hr-at an<l liglrt.. llccau.rnd it is .the order of things holclsin of c. into violencc'. has positerl his duration as tl.action of lightning: in therirv thcrc is ncl limit to tht'contlagraticlrr. but it is nevt-r isolatcrland. order u. calls it for thc gencral ncgation of indir.l'al thlrt fucls his anguish. far'orshuman lifc an<lnot It anirnalitr.ithin that ordcr.ith auguish. and that this hokling thc rlenranrls .f thc tl-ring. The i'timat.antl suflusc-rl rl. . for thc saker cluration. that hr.rt'basic r. It constarrtly tlrreatcn.r.. a thing bccaust..It is in .hc u'or-rld shrlrt of humanlall itv..iduals.rnlirnitcdfire is. Thc initial movenrt'nt of tht' fcstiral is givt'n in clcrnentarvhumanitv. Death clisturbs thc ordt'r ol things anrl thr: orclerof thinq.herck.lulcl re'car itserfin the clestruc'ot tion and the it sprcads.iclual ( thc trtnrbling o1' thc incliviclual.But if rnan strrrt-n<lt'rcrl unrcsenccllyto holr. in a uorkl <lf in<lir.I{e is alraitl of death as soon as hc entcrs thr.ts that is the order of things.ssentiallv the fac. u. l-rcw'oulclachievcit onlv to losr it an<levc'ntuallv lif'e rroulclreturn to tht' unconscious intitrracvof anirnals. yroignantin tcars an<lso strong in thc so turavorrableplcastrrcof anguish.s into a hrl.tof lx-ing an irrriiri.rclcr to .rrcc lifeof tlrat. n lrat is startcd in tlre operation o[ sacrificc is likc tht. but it reacht'sthc plcnitutle of an cf-fusion onlv if tht' anguishc<l conccntration of sacrificc tr) )) . lt is that oppositc of thc a thing u'hir:h an r.s to brcak the dik c s .aking loose. Thc constant problem poscd bv the impossibilitv of bcing human rvitl'rout being a thing ar-rrl csc'aping linrits of o[ tht' things uithout returning tcl animal slrrmbt'rrcccilcs thr limitcrl solutionof the fcstival.icluals such. holtJ.rt rnan is not squarclyu.and thcre rroirkl bc no mankincl eitht.esct.tcc u'hat rcgulatcs is to its resurgcncc'. but onlv partakcs o[ it through a thing that is thrtatcne<lin its nature (in thc projectsthat constitutc it). sacrc.In thcon'. as The clivinc lr.v HF gASIC O A IA .to c o n l ro n t p ro < l u c ti v t.. Thc sacrcclis cxactlv c'omparable thc flame that to clcstro-vs u'ood bv corrsumingit.

.al. J'hus the letting kxrsr.l rrsi orrr l l hc orrtsi rl c." is a conse^.t th..rl rz e d to rt.But consciclusness.ns nrt-lt in thc intcnsr heat of ir-rtimatc lifc.rtion.bctucen the irlcompatillltrnecessitics' Of coursethe communitv in the festivalis not positcd sirnph as at.tce rathc'ratr arnital>le of anguish. 's.rl rl. au.rclbici:t. <lillercntarts contribute to making the fbstival thc place and thc time of a spec_ tacular letting loose.. that n.thc fcsas tiral is limiterl: it is itsclf intt'gratt'cl a link in thc ton.cssitics (.rl positing of tlrc s4 55 .t. and the positing of the Group 'l'hc fi. it is thc cruciblc *.tsE BAS]C DATA tIE sncuaD WiIFLL) sets it loosc.orrtagio.-. fecunclating fickls and thc herclsis gircn to ritcs u'host'least scnile opcrativc ftrrtns are aimccl.pens 'f up to a c. a dcfinite indiviclualization 'l'hc festivalis not a trtle rctllrn rvith a vit'n to tlttration.'<l a thing.'r-he fi'sti'al is t. . thcn at least conflnt:d to therlimits of a realitv of *hich it is thc nt'gatir'. a st-.sal in commanderlbv arr inabilitrlto g. Fclr tht' sak''''rf a fat't that is gircn as a tlrirrgof rcol ctttnrnutritr'.p a r' . .it thcn cvcn exc'ct'<ls limits of slill t lr or cm t 'r r t s thc hvb r i<lnor l<l of spir it s.but it s r it t t al into the r'..c i rea n i rn p .leratt-cl to thr extent that it r('s('rr thc ncc.stiral. On thc one hand.'orltl of immanence <tnlvthrough thc rllctliatior. 'luluor ks.hcrc rlistincti.i. r.through a cotrcessiot.of the f'estiralis llnalh.stiral is thc firsionof hunran life.rcft. proicct and a shar. .cial of a commclnopcration in vit'u of a futtrrc timt' . anv cast'.-rlt<l t'fli'ctivcrrt'ss trot clttcsthc of tioncd.bttt more gt'nerallvas a spirit (as a the Iltilitarian Interpretation of the Festival.r.atrr.bcing f-cttcrecl by nature an<l s t ' lf .it to thc neerd that the orclerof things has. For thJ thing an<l tlrc indi'id.iththc letting l'ose. Thc fcstival assernbles mcn rvhom the con_ the c. clpcrativcl)()w('r u'av it is attribtrtcd to things' In thc t'nd thc festivalitself is its is vicrrc<las att <llteration. The possibilitv of prodr'rcing. orgv. ctlt'lt violcncc of thc clivint' ting thc losscsliom the drea<lfr-rl nt'g.n for destruction that brcaks. cnscmblt'that is at stakc in thc rituals. but one that is limitecl by a counter_ sumptio' r.c prudcncethat regulatr:s and linrits it. ln<lo r r lt oscir r t it lr acvhc vit t im s is attributctl in the same an arc rt-storecl. BLrt its intimac.. ntusicand tht.s of thc prclfanc rr c. al'ng r.ttirelr in in In u'orl<1.ubo. filll rccont'ili.l-. is rlisposcrl.h. ltut t<l iurrnant't.hich it tcnclsto bc. a revcr. if not fert_ tcrcd.ailing prudence: thcre is an aspirati.s ..t.t o uhom t t of thc sacr if lct 'is f cr ct l..To t hc spir it s bt >r nt 'bv t hc f cst ival.akein ung.r.ut in tl..1t<tsitivt'lv f'ccuntlation' in tlrt'col'ttmttnit\ tlrst al)Pcars the fi'stiral as pr<lpitiation. it tlrouns clcnthing irr 'hat scxt lal clf catctrat ion us.onflagration. Limitation.f-fcri'g (co'r'runi'n) . As <lr unkcr it r css..t. immancncc in a scnsc. all thc possibilitiersof consumption arc brought togt-ther: dancc anclPoctrv.r of spi rit s.vis tlis_ solverl in thc rt'al antl in<liriclLralizi.

'.Y INt SA! IIF D W ORLLI subjec't-objcct). but this shous the fi:stival's pcculiar impossibilityanrl man's limit.efilrms.rose tlestrovsothcrs or thc u.s<lfitrtirnatv is llossiblt' ()l)t'r'lti()n $h<lst'otttcomt' (onscionsnt'ss nrl lonqt'r in is that is.ithin.of ..f things.i. Violence 56 51 .ar constioLrsrrt'ss rightlv opp<lscs t<r it .'.ealthof <lthcrs'lt can ht' t'xt'rtccl uithin a grouP' but thc constitutcrl grottll incliviciuallr'.searchfbr ltlst intinlacv. War: The Illusions of the Ilnleashing of lotlgt r to the Outside indivirlualitv.'.uhich the lusion of thc festival A soc'ictv's rvorks . thc thing aspcctis acccntuatcrl. tlut thc trnitv of a groLlP tlestructiveviolcncc to thc outside' abilitv to clireclt A.a lirnit to but of the irnmanenccol' tht' fcstiral integrate sacrificc thr"rshas the .r. whosc violencc u'clrks that tlestrovs lr.Man is the lreing that has of lost.ptas it is intr'grate<linto the rluration o[ thc conrmunitr'. thc crops. is tleflnctl flrst of all in tcrrns of rcal into tht agrarian prtic|-rt'tiol.hatit is at the momt'nt of its lt'tting loosc... Only rtiigion cltsurcs a consttmptictn rvhom it movcs' Armcd attion thc very sttltstanccclf tl..r thc comis consciouslr' tcl of nron thing.alactuall)'is(of w. r>rncr If longcr.i.leratir. anclthc' hcrds.. its positing has the r. un<lcr vl'ar'. it <lraus ncar to it. this c{-fort is firtilc' u'ht'rc onll at a lcvel .l .. u'hose c'hicfcnds arc the procltrcts of labor.l .tht' c<lmmunity link to thc festivalis given in o. u'hich is thc cfli't t clf thc ollcration. it is not huntanSo itr' . a vaguc intirnac_r'.cotn('stlrlull trl lvhich natlts to lrt a ctrmctlirrt ol clt'ar tonsci<)Ltsllcss sinct' but ulctt' st'11-tot"tstiouslrt'ss.restorctltcl immancncc.'l-hr.'. lrom its an kn'arrl ( ont('rits..rl. tit'<l as he is t<l clt'ar consciousncss.that *'hich hc obscurelv is.alut. is n" gl \ (' matter of [act.rl.r'irtuc of thc' fcsanirnalitt' tiral is not intcgrate<l into its naturt: and convcrscl_r.urn. nhich prt'r'cnts it lrom cnduring). Therc is no clc'ar conrciousnerr of'wh. could not have bec'omt: C't>nsciousltcss clcar in tht'coursc rif tirnc lf it had not turnr<l aual.This is n'hat thc fi'stival (irrcendiarv sacrific'tand the outbreak of flre) (subordinatcrl that rluratior.lirr. 'fhe basic problenr o[ rcligion is given in tlris fatal misun<lcrstanding has bct'n possiblc onlt' bccaust' of this pont-rlcssncss ccllrsciousn('ss takt' it lbr uhat of to it is. at thc lcvel u here claritr" implies <lurati<tn. firr this reason. uh<lsc obscurt' intintacv of conscitlttsncss thc is cssencc tht. and cvt'n rcjectt'<I.. tht' not <llttsitlt' it. antl ulrat it mttst ()f ctltrrscu'hat it has lost is . thc fi'stivalis not vet. cons(lollsllcss turlls A\\av fiom itsclf' Rcligion.ut <:lcarc'onsciousnt'ss itsclf is krsc looking firr rrhat it has itscl{'lost.r.insoLrr as clr. erxternalviolcncc is antithetical to havoc sac'rifice or the fcstival. l.g. thc lctting krose of thc l'estir.rt tht'fcstir. and thc fc'stiral is not situatcrl <listinctlvin tonst'iousnr'ss txr'r.

Sacrilice is 58 .. Thc glorious indlritlual introtluces.u. the rvarrior recluces fbllorvmen to scrvitude. ani l i t i s thcn that i t bc gin sto rl t' r.t. Btrt the lrcc r.. llut u.c thc indir.atc. limits.ring of thc l.'F ] L tsASII] I]AIA c an l)ri l tg i t t< l b e a r o n th t. 1[ncleecl.ill to make the ncgation oi. takt.r'orker rras a thing vc>hrnt.llativcuagt.r.t' l < li1 t i .r nt.r'orks favor of a prcclomi'l hc sacrcd nance of the rcal orcle'r.IIe thus subordinaters his violcncer thc most complete rerluction of mankind to to thc ordcr of things.rcmains <limlr..s anrl pillagcs.ltrration durable.rt thc cornplctc colrscit quences of the rerluction. o u ts i < l ()\.hom thc nrilitan' or-dcrhas maclc a comnroclitr'. it cannot hclp is not limitc<l to thcse t. \\.... intlirirlual of l. in massacrt. it is not a slou action as sacrific.'rJs in it.ah-rc of his ou'n life. that tr hic.or stupi<lit_r. l'ith a r. Human Sacrifice 'l'ht' sacriflces slar.xulo_ sir. the truth of uhich is st'll'-intcrcst.rrilv and fclr a givcn time'.rperficial charactcr has sc'rionsconscquenccs.r that makcs ther slavc a thing prcsupposccl thc prior institutiotr of u'ork.IJc has thc contra<licton. War rcprcscntsa boltl arJvance. battlcs. as strcngth _ to bc intlil_ fi'rcnt t. fnu.. Thc narrior's nobilitv is likc a prostitute's .. but it is thc t.auare of a calling that rules out the sclf-scckingbehavior of work.. n.s to himst'lf is the falsepretenseof .h()'(. C)nlv the slavr'.r uorld brought don'n to thc ncight of utilitr.gorv tht.riich e_rprcsscs the ortler of things in a basicu.l ff' ri o r. t.gation inrlir. It is a rljsonlc_. intimacv hc attair. War is not limitccl to fbrrns o[ uncalculated havoc. <lrarls oi. Although has a rneaningakin to that of fi. ltri<lt.w.rrrior. strength is in ltart a strcngth to lic.n c .r. llrcstigc hc is..rr alu.a l u t. Thc opcratior.).ut enhance-his valuc in thc ( our s c o f' ti m e b -v ma k i n g tl rc s u n. not is trcatctl as a thing. l)oubtless thc uarrior is not tht' initiator of the reduction.e .c forces an<i.rlv cruption rvhosc cxternal dircction robs the uarrior of thc. is nectssan' tcl spccifvthat n ithout slavcrvthe rvorlclof things u. War dett'rrninc-s the illustrate tht' principle accorcling of t<r rvhich uhat i.<rr-rkl not Thus the cru<lcunronsr'ioLrshavc achicvt-cl plcnitucler.i<lual through .. that in thc cnc.mrlcst kind of ailvance : onc ncctls as muc'h nalvct6 .i vi ng i nrl i vi tl ualthc bencfician'of the-rvagcr.t' corducte.) its in ncss of thc uarrior mainlv r.s.rr.s t.i.a\ to clissoh. through a lirst nc. ts In deadh. o From the Unfettered Violence of Wars to the F ettering of Man-as-Contmodity This lalse anrl sr.. of thc divine orr:lcr into the thcsc verr. n.1 i.o n s c q u rlcstincrl fbr sacrificc. a return to to lost intimacv. An<l if it is t^rc that r'arfarc har ing tl c c mc rl< l n t.ekrpmcntcif the inrliviclual bev on tlth c i n < l i v i d u a l -a s _ th i nn th c ig gl ori ousi nrl i vi cl ual _ itv of tht: u.

e him. the mythical order's rlemanrlfbr consumption.riflcerages mainlv afllrrns the rejection of a disequilibrium nf th" trr. one coukl nclt go morc recklcssly life substancc. Such an intensc movemcnt of consumption rcsponds to a movcment of malaisc bv crcating a greater malaise. It shoulclnot be confusedu.human sacriflceis the acutc stagcof a clis_ pute setting the movcmcnt of a measurclessviolcnce againstthc real ordt'r and duration.. and of intcrnal violencc.first of all. But this dcmancllor consumption is broLrghtto bear on the slar. as their obiect.but.rf . in a spcctacularfhshion.rgh oncrous. Thtr primacv of consttmptioncould not rcsist that of militarv lorcc. sr-rch the as thc sovc'rcign thc children (u'host'ki[ling finallv realizcs or tu'ice clvcr). clcmcnts that signifv it and that uill be dcstined lbr sacrifice. sourcc of rvcalth.r s l. but rathcr the moment rvhcn it condemns itself: r'vhcnthe old fbrms har"elost part of their virtuc. He u.It is not thc apogce ol a rcligious svstem.spropcrtv antl llis thing. quitc thc (ontrar\.vof utilitv.centuates thc dcgrarlationof the-human or<ltr..the t-sserncc sacrilice. Numt-rous signsinclicatethat thcse cnx'l dcmands thc ucrer not t'asih'tolcratcd.lulences.a flall. or at lcast. make a glorious use of this nc\\.cry. orl'ing to an cx(cptional prclximitv.HE BAS]C t]ATN surr('ndcrs thc slave. the ln t lr i s r(. onlv thnrr.Thus a continual surpassing tor.If he reduccs the enc. rvhclsc scrr.ard dcstruction clenies.s p c (t th r.greeof an unleashing of intcrnal vio_ lence. it can maintain itself that are too through inn<lvations cxcesscs. It is the most radical contcstation of the primac.l'thesc_things that sen.r.. It is at the same timc the highest de.s a tri fi not satisfiecl bv it. than this. .rrc i * l ar l rom h.irh. .itudc ac.i nt purer. to thc baleful intimacv of unfcttcred violencc. but this peoplc itself. at thc same time that it outsidc. thc indir.he must.this time not orving to an alit-nation from the sacrerlu'orlcl . the encmv. In gcneral..ith thc movcmcnts of l'iolencethat har.mvto slar.Trickerv rerplaccd king u"ith a slave on uhom a tcmPorarv rovaltv r'vasconfi'rred.e insofar as the lattcr is Ai.In a senseit is an cxtcnsionof militarv combat.ho unlcasheshis lorccs of destruction on ther outside cannot be sparingof his resourccs. 60 6l . The society in u-hich this sa. Intensc consulnption requires victims at thel top rvho arc not onlv the uscful lr'calth of a pcoplc. IJc must partlv <lcstro. clf perfbrrnancc a sacrifice One could not go further in the dcsireto consumcthe Indecd.ralstatus of thc grouP. for there is nothing uscful around him that can fail to satisfv.

th . nl T w c t R el i gi on Li m i ts W i thi n of R eas on the F ro m to tl-rc Militarv Inrl ustrial Orrler Grou.P.

The princ'iple of militarv orclt-r is the mcthorlical divcrsion of violcncc to tl. It thc 65 . Antl it suborclinates clivrrsionto a rcal t'ntl. Tht'nrilitan'ordcr pr.thc extt-nt to it can. 'fht' is mcthorlicalspirit of c'onqucst c'ontrarvto thc spirit of sacrillcc an<lthc nrilitan' kings rcjt'ctetl sacritlcefrom the beginning.t t''t t.C tt . lf violcncc ragt'suithin. it opl>oscs that violcr.rt cnclto thc malaiscs an that corrcsponrlcd tcl an orgv of cclnsumption.It clrganizcrla rational use of fbrces firr thc constant incrcaseof pou'cr.rc'r. I t gcner of allv led to the'con<lemnation thc rather stablenen systcms u'hosegrou'th u'as slight anclin u'hich the cxpcnditurc \\'as (olllrcnsuratc rrith tht' rt'sottrce's. tt I The M ilit ar l'O r cler From a Balance of Resour ces ar r d E xpendi t ur es Forces with t o t he Accum ulat ion a View to Their Growth of Human sac'rific'e tcstifies at thc same tinrc tcl an cxct'ssof' it neal th an r l t o a ven'painf ul uav of spcncling .rc outsirle.

beyond its intangiblc qualitit's. At this lercl. insofar as its t-ssenc'c a divcrsicltrof devt'lclps the larv that violcncc to thc otrtsitle. larv of gives thc attacks against it thc sancti<tn an external r. ket'ping In uith its principlcs. the thing that cannot have a sovcreigncharactcr cannot clraractcrcitlrer.rmc rt'lations llv thc sanrtion of an itrtt'rnalviolcnte of thc irltlividual. But it consttmes it itself in a sovercignu'av.tcrl a prirrciplcof maxito nrum viclcl:if the fbrcesarc spcnt.litr. Thc cxprn.rf firrct'scolrtinucs. .t of c.hich 61 . It posits itst-lf e-ssentiallv a thing. It nrakcsc'onquest mctho<1ical a cipcration. ancl thc movcmcnt clf consumJrtionmust (omc to it li'om tht' outsicle.rras <linatcsitst'lf to cntls that it afllrms: it is the aclministration of rcason.r'clefincs obligatorv rclations of each thing (or of them rvith othcrs anrlgtrarantces eachinrlividual-as-thing) bv the sanctionof public firrt c.onquest. It .Thc militarv orcler organizcsthc viekl of *'ars into slavcs.rtlotrblet of thc moralitl' that guarantcestht' s.bcing tht.haic.iolcncc that corresponcl more to an r.For ('sscntiallv is alual's a thing. this In rval' it losrs tht simplc indivirlualizecl characterof ther[imitt-cl comntunitl. in that it bears rvithin it.neccssarilv ensures the stabilitv of the order of things.rr-. tht.It no lorrger rimr at tht' greatestcxpcn(litur('of firrt't's. thing at the momcnt rvhen it is undone. Lar. But hcre lau' is onlr' . Thus the nrilitarr orrlcr is contrarv to the lorrns clf spectac'ular thc accluisitionclf grcatcr f<rrces. it is u'ith a r. societv conflnecl itsclf in uarlarc to tlre rounding trp of slavcs. than to the rational cak'ulationof elfcctircness. it is itsclf thc ordcr of things. the Universal Thing 'l'he empirc submits from thc start to thc primacv of thc real orrlc'r. liverv prcscnc'e arounrl it is or<lerc<l rclative to it in a projer.Archaic.for thc grou'th of an cmpire.. an art.rnbrirllcdcxplosion of fun. it is no longcr a thing.rnd it is a is onlv the possible. sincc irt theorv it is havc a subordinatr: At to an opcration der.limit.clopecl thc limit of its opening to all that is But in itself this opening is a thing (rvhose universalitv is rcveals the void ). In fact.npcnsate thcse acquisifor tions bv mcans of ritual slaughters. It is not a thinq in the senscin n..<locsscl irr a gencral uar'. as s<lcial svstcm clirl in u'arfart an<l f-cstir als.llut it could nevcr allorv anothcr cmpire to cxist at its fronticr as an cqual. Law an d M or alit y Tht: ermpirc. Positing of an Empire as things lit into the order that bclongsto thcrl.but it is coultl cor.ioletrctr. rcvealing thc impossibilitv of infinite subordination. that of slavcsinto lalmr.

rermains Moralitv only touches this s1'stcmat thc border r. thc profhnc starting lrom to impurity. moving trllvar<l is univcrsalempirc from the start. And thc connection of the one and thc other is thc middle terrn bv r. thc bencficcntand Originallv.u'ithin the divine rvorl<I.- Larv and moralitv also have their placc in the empire ncccssity of tht: rclation of in that thcv rlefine a universal each thing r.iottsthings. consciousncss <listinctlv rcflectittn clf thc uorld tlf rlcterrnincd in thc mcasttrertl tltttornination of cont.from the outside to the cmpirc. And this aLltonomous ncss brings about.vhich oner gocs from the empirc to thc outsicJc. in duolism.a pr<lfbuntl altcration in tht' of rcnrt'sr-ntation thc uorld.thc divinc appcarslinkeclto pttritr'. and clcstrovsthrough 69 6lJ . But tl-rc po\\'cr of moralitv forcign to the svstem basedon extcrnal violcncc. pure elcments opposcclthe malefic antl impure clcments.vhere lar'r'is integratcd. In this u'av a shift is eff-ccted the premisc that divine immant-nce is tlangcrous.r'ith thc othcrs. that n'hat is sacred is malcflc first of all. The Positing Shifting Dualism Cu. qp r l: R I I and M or alit y of Dualism and the of the of the Borders Sacred and the Profane bv In a u'orlcltlominatc<l thc militarl'order. cquallv distant from the prolane' and both tvpes appearccl But if onc considcrsa dominant mo\'('mcnt of rcflt'crtivt' th<iught.

i n a gencral l vav. shilts lrorn thc dark in <lcitl'to thc *'hitc.mar-r had in practic'c suborclinaterl thc clivir. at lcast <locs llot slll)port.rt uhich it t:ttmesclost' to. Btrt rtroralitv chooscsfrom amrlng the or rules of the intim.s. like thc. In thc tirst rcprt'scntaticln. tl<lun rult's th. Rcason ancl mclralitv unite<l. that cnsr.both resulting from thc r. TItt'r' rati<lnal i zcand m or alizcr lir init r '. links tht'nr t<ithc ortler of rhing. the irnnrancnt sacrcrl is on thc prcclicatcd the animal intimaur of rnan ar.. cvcn of tious <lcstrttcrtion ncalth (thus l-ruman b l o o tl s a c ri fl c c . bv r irtut' o1'ashiliing of briundaries anrl an ovcrtrrrningof Yalu('s.crsal of thc mvthir'. n'hereasdre prolanc u'orlcl is prcdicatcdon tht' transcenrl enccof t hc objcct .ri:has d're onc ftrrhidding murclcr).alucsof thc intimatc ordcr.rlortlcr.-al or<ler'snecessitics prescnltiorr of antl opcrat i<) n.rc <lrtlt'r. thosc ltrohibiti<lnstltat cannot bc grantecl lit>crtr' vah.7 ('ontagionth.Theserobligaton' relations arc t'sst'ntiallvthose that cnsurc the <lr<lcrtlf takt' up prohibitions that u'cre rhings. al l tusc'lcss cclnsumpticlr.rt tilllo* ttnivcrsallvfrom tht'nature of the '.otht' It con<lentns cxtrcme lilnns tlf the <lstcntaor sacrificc. ln this u'av thcrc app('ar thc clt'rnc'nts thc u'orkl o1' vicu' tl'rat is commonlv callc<ltlualisnr anrl that rliffcrs fl-om thc lirst rt'ltrcst'ntation.uhich hasr r <l inr ir cv cl r r 'lr iclr anm int t 1(l 1l . lJut it lrccclrncs possiblconlt' *hcn sclvcreigntr'.rcl u'orltl.rtt'or<lcr. It is thcrelforcopposedto the scalc of r. prt-r'isclv moralitl'.Thcv somctitnc-s establisht'd bl' tht' itrtintatc ordcr (sr.In fbct it presul)l)oscs sanctionof thc thc clivir. I Ie slou'h' rccluccdits t ht ' r 't 'n'nr or cm t 'ntu'hcr c rnoralitv anrl rcasonan' rlir inizt'rl.ersallvobligator-vrclations betu'ccrt indivich.proridcd that thc rcal orclcr confonns. it grtluncls thcm. thc <lirinc norltl. ( '( 'nit h t he <livincf ir nt t ion t hat t 'xt 'r agr c iscsa bcncvolcntsovt'rt'igntl or t'r tltlt onlcr. in to the univcrsalclrder of rt-ason.ln rt'alitr'. that clearlvdt'pcnd cln a capricicltls runir.cthought <lefincs ancl socir. ).ancl sct'tn lcss sacretlin comparisonuitlr tl'rc tlark tlt-itics.real. 'l'his earlr shift scts tl'rc stagt' fbr a clt'cisivt' changc.ratmrtralitv constitutcs. rcason is thc univcrsalfirrm of thc thing (i<lt'ntical itsclf) anrl of thc to opcration (of action). that thc bcncflbt'ttvt'cnthc profanc rv<lrldarld arc ccnt s1>irits rrretliatclrs thc unleashingof rlirint' lbrtes . lt st-tsasi<lc. n'hich placeil the mt'aning is gircn in the highcst valuc on that 'nvhose thc moment. [t trl n d c m ns.r'ithout u'hich prclfane uorld.n prt-stribes uniRcflectir..iolcnccto thc to sanctionof thc real orclcr tl. Antl t'rcn if it gcts part of tht' lans fnrr. it <lecrt-t-s Moralitv lavs it in reason.ineover tht.rals ctv or bctr'r. moral rulc's.rc thc rcal.trethc <luratior"r thcre can be no opcratirln.. In granting thc opcrative pclu'r'r of the dir. also bast'rlon a biytartition. from the nralcficrlt'itr to thc' protcctor of the real orclcr.eenintlividuals thcmselvt-s.

u. not r omplctclv intclligible. and and <ltht'rtinrcsis not. In the manipulation of objccts and. thcrt' appcar. The Negation of the Divine Transce ndence of the Immanence and lt s Posit ing of Reason in t he Thc moment of changc is givcn in a passage: thc intclligiblt' sphcrt' is rt'r'ealed in a transport. generallv. M or c cxac.r' onlv anil tunstablc.thc intt'lligibk' uorkl 7) 7) .host' unitv cannot be brokcn dor'vn.rins. opcrativefirrms.onccpt. <langcrous. Thc intcllcct rtr thc (. (of violcncc.rtcrl fr-ornthc uorkl of thc' scnses. In this nav the intelligiblc uorld has thc ( rpl x' aran( ' . this nas in a ltror.' l ' h eu o rl d ol ' thc spi ri t (l rari ngf' cu' connections lr'ith tht' first u'orkl of spirits . opposite thc sclrsuous uorl<1.rctransccndcncc a morr ratlicalrlualisnr thc cif is fr <ir l <lnt 'u<lr lcl o t ht 'ot ht r .isional u.tlivisirln into bt'ncficentan<lmalt'tic is lbuncl againin tht'norld of''re tangiblc mattt'r is surpasscd./orercr sc'par. it uas if transcendent. as it subordinatcdthc gods jrrst of mvthologv. 'fhe sacrcd is itsclf dividccl: thc dark and malcfic sacrt'd is opposc<lto thc rvhitc ancl bt'neficcnt sacre(land the deitiesthat partakc of the onc or the otht'r are ncithcr rational nor rnoral. ' . but rcmait'ts in its opcrativepou'c'r). of thc clark and malcfic sacrcd). Ilut its transtor<lcnccis of a <lif{crentnatrlr('f1'orn thc int'onclusivctransccnclcncc thc divine of archaic reliof gion. Tl. This secclndary transccn<icnc.c \\. in a su<lclcn movcment o[ transc't rrdcncc.Y kincl is immanent.rn nho ac'tc<l the real order but uas rituallt rcstorcd to thc in irrtimatc'.of thc scream. tht' lcaring of tht' u. t lr .orld. or nith subiccts rcgar<lcrlas objects. blirrrlanrl unintclligiblc. u'ht'rc thc tangiblc fcrrnr is somctimcs altprt'hcnsiblt: (in its idcntit_y n. is rleltincdas a sor. the t i B v c o n tra s t.ith itsclf an<lnith its intclligiblcfrrnn.for prolixrndlv cliffcrcnt from that ol thc intclligiblt.crc-ign clr<lcr.u'herc thc disto tinct lbrms of the objcct u'crc joine<1 thc inrlistinctionrlf thc intimatc or<ler) is the intclligiblc urrrltl of thc iilc-a.the principlesof reasoll and moralitr'. ulrich rt'm. tct att<lthre'atens <lestrovthc stablc ancl chance. in lirrrns that arc implicit but linkc<lto thc profane u'orlcl.situate<l riutside tirnc. lht. n th c tl tra l i sc rol uti < l n di vi nt' bectl mcs rational and moral and relcgatt'sthc malcfic sacrcclto the s p h e rt' o f th c p ro l a n c .to uhic.h the lrorlcl of things is strborrlinatccl. rrorlrl. u. lir inc. in rclatiotrs u'ith objects.of bt'ing in cruption. is t it l )assagc t[rc'lcaring of this u orkl. The <livineu'as initiallr graspcdin tcnls of intirnacr. [rcr-iorl . r f t h.

r.l)oubtlcss intimacv is not foreign to in that it is separated from itself-: is thc thing anclthc to bring him bac'kto it at the propcr timc. man of lost intimac'r'.escapesit.ssarill.t r r bt .s it. lr r .akening that rvhich cannot be graspcdbut u.avs separatedfrom him . from this intimaq. for tl.r'hyfor hirn transcenclencc tlocs not at all hale thc valucofa scparation but rathcr of a rcturn. rr but .hic:h slips awav precisclv as a d61dyu.r. thc rituals alu'avs kcpt the pou. gircn is ncccssarilv bc gircn in the u-ar:that a thing is. arc pr<lfloundh scparatctl from hinr.7 SM AND MORAL TY is not so much a <lifli'rcntu'orki as it is outsidc thc u'orkl. But man of the dualistic conccption is oppositt.iolcncc clf intimacv. scparatcd l}om it. it could not bc said that hc knou's nothing of it.hich goes be1'ondhis or. uhom rcflectionconstitutr-s.rv data.aration. thu.separate things).r being. is nt' rt' r'anvt hinglr r r t a ( ont r ar \ ' . insofar as hc is tlefinctl bv drings. sincc hc has a rccollcction of it. and tht' beings thcmselvcsarc n'raintained irr thcir incomrnunicablcin<lividualitr'.r he brings his reflec'ticlntcl bcar. It is that rvhich is intclligibleto him.on u hicl. But u. hc glimpsesin the sucl_ den au. At thc lt-r'elof the clualistic concr:ption.richis alu.akcns the recollectionin him. No doubt it is inacrcessible.hich au.. This separate bcing is precisclva th. is.anclfbr thc samc rcason from itsclt.s outsidc him a u-orkl in u.bcing a distinctlv separateinrliviclual.ontrarv an intimacv that is n()t .p.\.l.clf in thr ?c 14 .ith it thc rrholc rrorl<l of' . This uorlcl is in fact inrmanort to him but this is insofar as hr.reoperator.r.sclf.\r.sentl. intintacv is nr.hilc thc inclividualthat he is cannrt lea'e this *'or[cl rlr corllcct hirnsclf*ith that n.u. . The intimac.crrtl'rings.ref is cln thc (. rvhich reestablish separatiorr .scparatc. at the momcnt of liis ftrlfillment. and u. is no longcr charactt'rizerl br.n limits. For him this d6jd vu is uttcrlr.hich is immediatelvlost in thrin'asion of scns.r_ ratcrl frorr anvthing (cxcept that rvhich . different from that rvhich he sees.'hich thcre is nothing that rt'spor-rrls thc to longing hc has &rr it. but u. But this rccollection. .y intimacl' bctucernhinr and this *'orlcl.rg. The Rational Exclusion of the Tangible World and the Violence of Transcendence A great virtuc in the paracloxof a transcentlenct<lf inti_ macv resultsfr<lm thc crlrnplctcncgation of tl. r aust .t<r archaic man in that thcrc is no longer an. gilen in_ rlnroo' that transccnrience Fclr thc gircn rntrmar.sir. btrt if he u as removed from it.r. of bcing immanent to thc outcomc of thc opcration. intimacv.r all sirles.r. . fron. vestigcof thc ancicnt t-estivals no can prcvent reflcctirc man. f int im a. Of coursc archaic man did not continuallv participatc in thc contagious r. Irr this norlcl t'r. lrcing transccndcncc:in its operation it cstablishes the inrpossibilitv. and is himsclf a thir. to It is alrt'adv to be a thing u'host. This is '.

:cts: the trattsct'nclent'c reasoll arlrl moralitv givcs againstviolencc (the contagioushavoc clf an sovercigntv.i u th e auakuri ng.f'thingsthat tht' Lrst intimacv is rcgainctl. an empirc of thc rcal ordcr that is a sovereigntl'of scn.hich one is at thc same timc that of goo<land the mind. A u.facto violcncc. that rs inrpersclnallt' the n'or.iolcnccthan it is to the thing that violent'ctlestrols.cmcnt. lbllouing an incltrt'tatrlc the orclerof things. In lact it is in learing thc u'ori<lt-. cloes ol the lirnitcd unlt'ashings de. of u.hich violcncc alone has thc filrcc tcl raisc us.s. it is by raisingit to thc negatior. But if it is true tl.thc positingof the'<lualistic long au. it is truc at if that it is thc vcrv arvakeningof possibilitv . thc affinnation of a dangcrous so'. It did not tlestrov the thing univcrsallv b-v a single operation.itudc.r the sotnnolcncc to that folkrus it.'e'reigntv of violt'ncc.r its rt'al <l[ cff.ld.ratan cxc't-ptional violcnce is rcleasccl in transct'ndcncc the momcnt of its m<lr. the sanctionof thc ordcr of things' Like ther in it not c'ondctntr.enin thc initial shifts and u.bLrtdcllnes rights in thc as thctr as cril as s<loti the\'ltlact-that onlcr in tlangcr. themsclvcs. it that is (lcstrove(l hv the thing takcn irl isolation.maintaincrllirr . u'ithin the sctrsuotts once too crtmplctc antl impoter-rt. on a lcvel tcl u.hich onlv sleephclps onc to tolerate)of the lr'orlcl's division betrvc'cntu'o principles.' dcstinr. thc ncqation Nou'. 'l'hc dualism of transccnclence succeedt'dbv the is slcc'pvpositing (uhich is alreadvgir. to is no lcss o1l1l<lscd tion the movcm('nt of transct'nclc'nc'e r. 'l'hc u'eakncssof sacrific'e' lost its u'as that it e'r'entuallv jrrst virtue and finallv establishcd onlt'r of sac'rt'd tliinri. u'hich havc rvorld next to tl'reorder of things. J'hc thc precctling analysisclc'arlv sho'nvs timiditv of that bolcl It aclvancc.R F L I 'J I O N WI T H l N TIlF L {M l TS OI RI movemt-r)tin nhich it is gilt'n.akcning thc mcaning has of an introductior. a tlcstruc'tion tclligibilitv) is.u'ithout opposition. at the sacriticc. an as st'rrile as that of rcal objects.nhich is..tlut if sametime to lift and to Prescrve of it lifts that order. becausc complete a vir>lcncc so cannot lrt. Doubdcss the clestructionof thc thing in thc' archait' u'orld hacl an oppositc virtuc and impotence. both includc'rl in this rvorld.prccisclr. fh. 76 l1 . opcration clf sacritic'c.Btrt in realitv the u'orld of things is not the norld bv itsclf ancl touard a pure intclligibilitv (rvhich is purc transcenrlence als o . to unleashing). Henct' thcre is gir. a l l ttrc ttrri l tat n'orld. undotrbtedh'has thc samc intention as archai. and the other that of evil ancl matter. at least tenrlctl to maintain an anguish that brought a longing fcrr intirnac! to an arvakencdstatc.l l la t o Irc e . in its negain tiolence. dcep afflnnation of sacrifict:.orlcl is tleflnccl in which free violcncc has onlv a ncgatile plac' l i n rp s c d .

Dull-mindcrl <lualism positior.rprior to thc au'akcning: thi' malefic u. The llatness tcl u'l.ea sens(' the inevitablt' slet'o that fbllrl*'s it rcir. an<l thcir ?() .rd to tl.n lll M cd i a ti o n The Gener al Weakness of M or al and the Strength of Evil Divinit v Prt-cisch' bccausc a'. The sor.rtroducesevil as a major force.v anrl rcalize<l the sleepof dualism is also a rcduction to thc orclcr of things that leavesno opening exct'pt tou'ard rcturns tcl tht' a retllrn to violcncc.ercigntr' gooclthat is inrplicil bv thc au'akening of l.u'hich tlid not har.orld takcs on a value much the sam('as tl-rt'oncit haclin thc arcl'raicr position.rt transccnrlcncc is limiterl opens up the mir.r'akcningis thc meaning of rlualism.rc sovcrcigrrtvof cvil nhich is thc unleashingof violcnct'.C a dualism n'itl'ror. but clf the firrct's of cvil no'cr lost thcir divinc valuc cxcept uithin the limits of a doclopcrl rcflcc'tion. It is lessimportant than it uas in tht'sovcrcigntv of a purc violcnce.

rvithclut r.eakcningof the In moral divine in favor of ervil.but this thirst lbr intimacv r'r.r'ithin him. to Thus a first possibilitv of mcdiation manifests thc cxccptkrnally slipperv naturc of a god of goodncss:hc is dir.t'r'ilas such. rvhich he does not havc the rigor to excluclc. onll' insofar as hc in lact prcscn. The major r.c'an t<l tht. The Mediation the Impotence of Evil and of the Avenging God A first mediation of o'il has alu. no intimacy.ill nevcr bc cluenched. on thc part of thc belit'ver.For onlv r. is givcn in mediation.hich is thc truth ht' of gooclncss. insofar as the vcngcancedoes not bccomc an extension of thc irrational r. it rvill cluicklv closc that r. In thc divine disorcler of crimc. in thc mournful rer. the violcncc introclucesintimacr.confuscdcclnsci<lusness it is uorth m<lrt.vcaknerss dualism is that it offt'rs no of legitimatc place fcrr violencc cxccpt in the moment of of purc transcenclt-ncc.'orld.But thc' clivinitv of the good cannot bc maintainctl at that clegreeof pr.vhichcrime oPcnccl.engeance that is c'ommandedbv passionand a taste for untrammcled violenceis dil'inc. A richer possibilitv.iolencc.The good is an cxclusion of violcncc and therc can be no brcakingof the onler of scparatcthings. in its most active fclrn.iner 80 8l .It is the object.cs thc old violencc r.u. before mv cvcs.llut in rcality it is not violencc but crimc that has opencd clivinc intimacv to mc. I call for the violcncc that lvill restore therdcstrovccl<lrder.indeed.and tcr this cxtcr-rt is not the gocl of rcason. it lalls back into thc sensuousu.iolcnc'c is nith u'hich he excludcsviolcncc. In thc statc of openness r.rrity.or t'r'il. Thc rcstorati<ln the of lau'ful order is essentiallv subordinatc'd profane realitl'. [Jut thc cliff'crc-nt frlr-ns of tht' rlualistic attituclc nocr of'flr anvthing but a slippervpossibilitvto thc mind (ll'hich must alu'avs ans\\'cr at thc samc tinte tcl ttvo irreconcilablc clcmands: lift anrl preserve thc orrlcr of t hin g s ). I am in accord lr'ith thc divinit-vof goodncssthat condemns a cruc'l act.I1. the real forc'csof cr.elation of clcath. Scvt'ral forms arc possiblc: cult of cxt'crationof a violcnccconsirla t'rcd to bc irrt'rluciblt'can capture thc intcrt'st of a blind consc'iousness.r'hich find mvself due to a vioin I lcnce undergone.statuscannot prcvcnt rlrdinarr'humanapparcnth'infc'ri<lr itv from cclntinuing tcl livc urrrlcr tl. thcorv this involves a u. u ith a vicu' to a subscquent rcvcal purification.rcir po\\'('r. rational exclusionof thc scnsuous r'r' kill mr' lricnd.avs been possible.thc gocl of gcxrdness limitcd bv right to the r. anrl hc is it that than gootl. thc intcrcst is opcnlv tleclarctl if thc an<l execrationimplies a completeopcning to cvil. And.iolence of thc crime.providing adequatedisplaccmcnts u'ithin its limits. open to intimacr'. of a scarchfor intimate communication.

If firr tht're u'as onh' man.ts thc but himsclf to annihilation.ho r-rndr-rgocs violcnce o[ cvil can also bc thc callc<l mc<liator.initv to a name. 1'hc principlc of mcdiation is givt n in thc sacriflct' u'ht're thc offcring is <lestrovccl as to opcn a path fbr so thc rcturn of the intimatc order.rth of an unleashingthat overturns thc orclcr of things. Thc onc u.not bc pursucd.and the moral tlivinitv. and as soon as sovcrcigntv is reduced to serving thc ordcr of things.'l'hc or<linarr'-r'ic'tim of evil.anclif he is a pur(' rationalmoralitv. Man includi:din thc ordcr of things w'ould not be ablc both to lift ancl to preserve that ordcr.What is sacrillcetl is niat serrc-i. it can be re'storecl thc divine.r'ith.t'ngeancc.rt'natur(' o1'uhich it t'xtcnrls inrmediatclv. coukl not rcccive this namc since hc hacl inl'oluntarilv unrlcrgont' tl'rc violenc'cof mcrliation.ed it as things thcmto to selvesare. Br-rtthc divinitr' intcntionallr. but thc ollered victim is itself the <livinitr'. As in thc positing ol a god of r.v). hc ou'cs his rcmaining rlir. 'l'his assumes the positing of thc clivinc in a bcing capablc of being really (phvsicallv) cloner an'av r.iolcncc onto itsclf ancl thus no krngcr scn'e's that ordcr: it ceases be er. thc crimc that a uorkl of thc sovcrcign lJ2 8l . tl. But in the me<liation of sacriflccthc sac'rifict'r's is not.sovcrcigngo<ltl. 'fhe violence thus lifts an<lprescn'csthc ordcr of things. mcdiation is the ioint accomplishmcnt violenccanclof thc being that it rcnds. C)r rather it makt's these'intclligiblc In thc sccond lorm of mcdiation thc violencc comcs to thc divinitv from thc outsiclc.It is the divinitv itsclf that undcrgocs it. ancl to a propensitv to enrlurc or. In this n'av it clcvatcstht.iolcnccof o'il must intcn'cne firr thc orrlcr to be liltctl through a clcstruction. irrcspcctil'c of a vengcanccthat mav or cxcluclingvicllence violcncc (anclhc is lcss so than lx thc cxcluderl violcncc.rslar. The Sacrifice of the Divinitv gootl has clcflncdas such is cxtt'rnal to thc moral divinitr'. Hou'cvcr. to as a thing. In dcath thc divinitv accepts the sovereigntrr. tht're coulrl not be anv tlccp communication bctn'ccn them. oltytciscd act to thc rlirini' ordt'r.abovc thc consen'ative an<loperatir. of tl'rcorder of things. uhicl'r is thc neccssarv mc(liation of his divinit.ordcr onlv through its destruction.sovt'reign rcason.insolhr as he rcnounceshimst'll.e principlesof the u'orld of things.but he is divint' onlv insofaras l-rc opposes rcasonantl tl'rcgoocl. this is insofarashc subjcc.r'okcs crimc. crimt'is nccessarv the rcturn of tht intimatc orrler.r tl. The r. of In realitv the sacrific'c of'the moral rlirinitv is never the unf-athomable rnr-'sterv that onc usr. in. rvho invokcd the gclrl of vcngcancc. in theon.rc part of that u'hich is not dcstrovcd from tht' outsidc. but it tleflccts the r.rallv imagines.

RELIGION WI T I ] L N fHE L IM S OF R EASC ) N fbnns that lrhich thc rnovcrncnt of transcendcncc made them: an intclligible l-rcr. n'hich scr.olvt:din thcr lilting anrl maintcnancr ol tht' real orde.ebecn dot's not rcst mcrelv on an intcrnal contrarlic. that strict mrlralitv contests. lrv Intintacv .h. So this r. In the end.r.. In actual fict the intimate ordcr is subordinatcrl the to rcal x'orld onlv in a supcrficial rval'.as of gir.rnftrsions.. -lhc r.scparation bctw'crn through that nhich it t ondcn-rns. and those uorks that escape it.s.lences than uas transccnclence.cinct-rn fclr u4 lJ5 . cln all siclcs.. Not onl_v its arc thc vicllcncers that moralit_v con<lcmnssct frct.e the real ordcr. all the operationsthat claim to cnsurc thc return of thc intirnatt: order arc thosc that the rcal u'orlJ reqr-rirt-s: extcnsive prohibitions that arc giren the as the precondition frtr thc return are aime-dprimarilv at prcsen'ingthc disordcr of the u orld of tlcstructilc consumptions clf thc intirnateordcr.r.ered Over to the Operation Thc paradox of a nrediation that shoulclnot har.l:lut the profoLrnd. llut the sacrifice of the clivinitv is muc_-h more indepcn<lcntly eril (in rcason'sbeing tclrn auar from the scnsuolls rrorlcl. The Div'ine cncluringthat is govemed bv the operation. sorcrcigntv ol moralitv. but a tacit debate is initiated betrvcenthc w'orksof salr. r'iolorcc w'ithout lr'hich tlre tlivinity could not have torn itsclf arvav from the oriler of things rs rcjectt'rl as bcing somethingthat ntust 'fhc ccasc.qeneral cxclusion clf the given r. controls thc contrarlictioninr. liturgv.ation. ticd to the .ceclc-d a multiplic. an<lcontemplativeicllcnerss.onrlof bcing. v.. the rnan of salvationclid morc to bring thc principlcs of the orclcr of things into the intimatc order than to subordinate that productive ordcr to thi.vorld of mcdiation and of rvorks of salvation is lcd trom the start to erxceed limits.idtralitv cluration(of thc ciperation).indir.r lntlmoc. and I)uration is giren to it as a firun<lation originatingin tht'r.'fhrough mediation thc rcal orclcr is subordinated to thc scarch lbr Lrst intimac'v. clirinitr' rt'mains rlir.hereit .r.ancl that derJicatc thcir uselul rcsor-trc'es thc sumptuarv dcstruc'tionsof arurhito tt' oi r.r anrl things is succ. a In it gcne'ralrva1..u'hosc nroventent of vicllence rcgartlt:d as a tl-ringcharactcrizc<l b. At thc same timc it is posited as thc result of opc-rationsanalogousto thosc of the rcal ordcr ancl pursued in that order.tion.rlvation. Unclcr tht. Deliv.

nonprodr. that is..rction. u'hich mattcrs mr>rcthan thc satislaction desircin the monrent. the contrarliction betu'ccn thc mcritorious act u7 . n I V The Rise of I ndust r y The Positing of a Conplete Divine Lack of I nt im acv and R el ati on s Bet wet n the R eal O r der -l'hc u'orld <lf mcrliation is csscr.r'rlrlrl n'orks. fronr violcnt impulscs and putting calculations asi<le.CH. {rneacts. qpl'r .-ttisfaction in this u'orltl.rctivcu'orks clo rese'rvca margin of s. but. besiclcsthc merit that is attributcrl tcr it.To bt' of exact. of intirlacv) here bclou. this act has its valuc in thc momt'nt.rtiallv r.rlvationin thc samc \\'av that onc spinsuool. Btrt sccing that cach possibilitymust bc subordinatedto thc busincss of salvrtion. rvith a vicrv to a futurc rt'sult..rccc. It is mcritrlrious to irrtroclucca rellcction o[ the divine splt'ndors (that is. Nolr'.not accordingto thc intinratc ortlcr. thc of One ac'l"ricves onc's s.rding thc principlcsof thc uorld of proto dr.

ri' in the nt'gationof the valtrcof and thc divine splcn<lors t'r't'nn-rorcpainful than in thc nroral uork. u'ithout dclav.Ilut the positinqof dil ine immarrrnct'in oncl thc ncgationol thc valucclf rvorkscon'r1tlt'tcs scparation thc of the bcvonclan<lthe here-lrclou':hcncefirrth thc ht'rcbclou' is re<lucccl thinghririrl.r. tht' transcr-nrlcncc rt'as<ln <lf morncntarilv rcscrucrl thought l}om thc prison of thc scnsuous u. t ht cannot p<-rsit dirint' intimacv unlcssit is in thc ll. u'hich surrcntlers and cclnfinesnlan to them. it is a question of tearing lrrdn awa\' lrom the ordcr of lr. I n anv cast -onc .. to ar-rcl rlivineorclcrcannot thc be brought into it .n dcvclopmcnt.but it is not a c'omplcte criticism. Tht' ncgation of their valuc replacesthc lr'orld of norks subordinated to the intimate ordt'r rvith a u'orld in rvhich a thcir sovereigntvis consummated. as thc'. changing thcir meaning. l>t'tnccn intimac\. T'o uphol<la salvation<lcfcrrerl thc to nc x t u rl rl d a n rl to rt' p tr< l i a tc o rks i s tr>fi rrgt' tthat i nti u rna(\' can lrc ri'g. Conscquenth'. bccausc t ht ' t of of absurdi tr of aban<loning 'her no other purposc than its ou.o n (c a gai nt< ithi nghoorl . No rlciubtthc rt'jcction of u'orks is thc krgical criticisnr of tl.anrl thc mt'diation that rlclircrs the <livine l}om thc rt'a[ ordcr i ntro< l uteshc poucr lt 'ssncss uor ks onlr .r a t rc s t' n c s thc rcturn of krst i nti macv lirr thc firtLrrt'and tbr thc u'<lrl<lbcvonil this onc misst'sthc csscnce thc rcturn.production alone is accessiblc and u'orthv of 88 89 .r'orks. anb t' s u b o n l i n a tc rl th a t n h i c h i t i s not. Th t' t' ffc c t o f rv o rk si s c v t' n tu al l vto rci l uc' t' rl i ri ni tr' l an< lth e rl e s i rr-b r rl i v i n i tr' thc aflirmatiorrof a complctc abst'r.if thc tuo t('rms arc present not intinracv u'ithotrt u<lrlrl of thc oltt''orn tht' or<lt'rof things. insoas far as hc limits himsclf to planning operations.orl<l. It is the most lreccssarl rcnuneiation in one scnsc: insof-ar man ties himself entirclv to the rcal onler.What tlclcsrt'storcrl int im a c r n rc a ni n i ts c l f i f i t c s i ' a p cs mc?' l ' hrouqh rccol l cc' - tion.orks.'orll an<lthc immolat ion ri f th c rl i v i n i tr' i s th c th i rd u av i n u hi ch tht' di r i nc i s urt'nclic<'t' rclations lrt'tut'r'n rlivinc qrarc an<l of 'l'hc m c ri ts . I-lutthis a<ln"rirablt' rclirsalmakcs one think of the fcroln'ho lumpc<lintcr thc rivrr to g('t out of the rain.hich is nclt onlr that it of . . u'orlcl of nclrks har.aftt' r thc rational cxclusicin tht: scnsuous of u.nct'of thc hcrc-bclo\\'.Ilut it is not a qut-stion of shor'r'ingthc por'r'crlessness the man of of '. n c g a ti o n o f th c ra l u c of rrorks ..irre ol man.Thc th pr in ri p l c o f' s a l v a ti o r. but that i t can to onlv bc givcn in tltc momcnt . u. justificrl bv rt' it rvasin tht: nronumentsancl thc religiousfcstivitics.anrl in thc immant. And prcciselv the' opposite is accomplishcrl bv thc ncgation of thcir valur.-l ' hc basicoppositionbt'tu ccn thc'<lirint-and thc thinq. . .r' cornpromist's thc <if uorltl of'mt'rliation.rincrl onlv lirr rnc . an immancnct' of thc of <'nrt'rqr's rlivir.

. rca< of an cn-rpirc..r.uotcJ nonproducti. this no k'ss nonrinal primacr':tlrc nroral orrlt'r.r' l l l ro rl trt i ' n * a r onl ' an .nctnproductit.1tr<lpose<l achit'vt'that cntl to through prodLrctivc' operations. l'r thr: supposetlto fivor pnrrluction <lu'ingprccisclr.r rrrri t..r.but uhcrcas in archaicsoc.hctl. ''iolc'rcc l ht ' ttrtt.rnrrirnitics tou'arcl thc unir. the usc <lf prorluction C)nce the Iimit of grorrth u. conrplcx.orks nrakcs possi[rlcis thc rcign of autonontousthings _ in a u.(.rj .nP.sorrr(. thc l'orld of i'<|"rstrv.e .rlrrl.s moralitv..l. but moralitv ancl thc rlivine lvorld u.rslrcctive.tingbevonclthc c. . protluction had militan' forcc as its prinrarr.crc allor.s(.rppingit. th. tht. its strcngth fiorn a riolent r.c rrl r succeederlbv thc apparcnt agrecment betu'r'cna nominal primacv of thc rlil'ine.militarv forr. t. ordt'r. strict[r' ovcrl.. rcac. Mort. hut 9l Re l a ti o n s o f P ro d u c ti o n Nonproductive What this ncgation of tht.rctirallv..s ambiguous but mort.arailablc r(..l nxi ' rrs r(.ere profbundlv intcrclcpcnclcnt. the sclcit.claiming salvaof tion as its unpr<l<luctivt' r'nrl..r-\Jtiorr.hetl. in gron. of the to Destruction rlas rccluircrl fbr the rational org.. of Unrlt'r thcst.rm a n.Solong as tlrc linrits of thc enrpir(.as subordinatcd to moralitr.stntt'tion a sovcrei. mc<liation brriught in rclations that u.haie s.rc'gation rvhich it conrlcmnccl.s of the u'orld of things u. hencc u ith thc orrler of pushcclinto thc backgr. tlivinc r.IEAS( JN ]ISF OF IIiDUST RY intercst h.aluc of u..t\. the principlt' of rlt.rthc rcal basi.e dc.rc-br'lo*'.rrot rt.loscrl .l.1rt u.The dir.. al tr.achcrl. anrl i t cann.rlrrr.. thr.(lts tlivinc naturc). and.orlcl rlren. spitc of its itlentificationn.l .or. principle. protluction rul.lou.s giverras an cncl lbr intintatc vicllt_nce. ticrl to 1'hc ltrorlur. thc lirst phascthc orrler of things maintaincrlambiguousrclations u'ith the archaicsocietv. anrbiguitv of archaicsocictv continut'rl.<lntracliction the of arc'haicu'orlil r.l.s l ll i .' rrrl .to tht.r. cclnsuming procluction.c'onrlitionstht' clvcrt r.. llut militarv activitv onl\ airns to givc-thc order of t lr in g s .itl.r. Thcorcticallv. In this ambigLrous pt.rvcr(.crsal.Irr art. nrctliation. in realitr.att. antl rt'mainerltlir.d.c u. but i t c o u l rl b c th a t e n rl o n l r.production remained nthordinated to nonproductircexpentlintre..cign.tir>n.ictv the <lt'strtrc tion of resotrrct's\\. arrrl u'hcn thesc linrits n' .qn kept share.rrrizaticin ln cnrpirc.rlrn.hat firr 90 .ine-u.r.ctl. thc rcal c'rl.rt it lrt. its unlrrorh-rc:tive to natur(.t l ra' c anv valuc firr tht' hcrt'-bt.o n onc conrl i ti on: that thi s bc rott.cs in prclrluc.r. r . thc rr orlrl of thinqs rr-. General View...s of con('crnsthe use <lf'thc rcsourc.lllN THE L M tTS OF l .'.<luc'ti'e s t ^ rc ti o n i s g i rt' n rn l ' i n th t' b c ' o.t Jc. in thcorv not l)rest'nting anl rlil}t'rt'ucc ficirn it.crc just a.

This projprojcct cct is nhat matters anrl thcrt. Logicallr.hich could not bc sought merelv bv the means it had.frecing productionfrom its archair. r. The World of Complete Reduction. If onc docs somcthing.clopment) bv rcr.emcntengagcs largc shareof proa duction in the installationof nov t'quipmcnt.quenccseventualh. For nonc of thc former sovereign entitics is able to step fcrrrvarcl ancl sclvercignlysav: "You r. This cornpletescission surrcnrlerecl lifi' to a lnor.projcct.and u. But no onc clisputcsthe principlc of this sovercigntl'of sen.e forces grclu' morc ancl more. man nas ber'oming more estrangerl from himsclf than o'cr bcfbrc. to capitalist(or postcapitalist.iturle. 'l'herc is ccrtainlv nothing bcttcr that one can do. an'are of the futilitt of the operatir.iouslvthis must be a participationin tht.'. or . unlcss onc struggles to rnakc the latter mort' rational (morc effcc'tir..fferct \\rassupposed t<t be cxerted in thc divine ordcr. his a movcment lvh<lsc cons(.cased har.hosc procluctir.t he pr oducti ve op er at i on g ener alh' domi not ed r'. It has t'liminated thc possibilitvof an intcnscconsumption(commensuratc u. frightencd him.vth of the productivc cquipment. IndeecJ. The exccssprocluction could bc der. Wc shall meet mclre ancl more of our matcrial nccds. purpos(' (from the nonproductive destruction of its suryrlus) and from the moral rulcs of'mediation.e nothing prcfcrableto it.r.oted to the gnx. one arrived at the rcign of the autonomous procluctivc opt'ration.olutionarvmcans.nothing can ber opposcd to it that might dcstroy abancloned bv productive mankind. in ordcr to obtain the ncccssarv currencv.or to the bringing of divinc splcndor into this u'orld).efrom thc stanclpoint of der. It soon bccamcapparcntthat bv bccomingman of thc autonomous thing.'this mor.ith thc volumc of production) of thc exccss rcsourccsprorltrccd:in fact. Acts c.r.c a to subordinatc value u'ith regard to recliscovt-rcd intimacl.Rf I IGION WI T H I N THE I I M I TS Of FFASON t !r'r.'hat presumLrs go on existing to 92 9l . Thus thc way \\'as clear for thc inrlefinitt: development of clperative forces.cmt'ntthat hc no longercontrollecl. thc protluc.::': ol.en its conscnt to the industrialentcrprise. mcrclv bv disputing thc value of the ope-rationinsof-aras its e.orld u. Man bcgan to sav: "Lct us construct a lr.::.crerl onlv if. (to salvation.ollaborate the cornmon in of devclopingtht: mcansof prorluction.illserve m e.ays.thc consumers agrcc in practicc to Consecluently. th e R e i g n o f T h i n g s Thc millcnial qucst for lost intimac'r. Thc complcte scission bctw'een thc intimate ordcr anrl thc onlcr of things had the effcct ol . but unable to continue searching for that lr.accumulation." The majority of mankinclhas gir.ts can bc delir.

can intimac'yaffirm itself *'ithout anv morc compromiscs than thc thing. l'he imprlrtance of clperative forms and the development of manulacturing techniques in the movemcntstl'ratucrc aimcclat an impcrial (r. rcllectingback on itself. but it u. is the ncccssarycondition lbr the c:onscious antl fully do. on thc intimacv of sacrificc. of Although consciousncss turncd au'ay from thc intimate order. In thc first cclnception.obscssccl thc fcclbv ing of thc sacrccl.hcn attcntion u. it uas onlv in thc of form of thc spirit that consciousness rlefinerlits confuse<l object.ay: thc distinct pt-rccir. Anrl it is itself nothing br. Br"rt momcnt the u'hcn cclnsciousncss. It is clear that thc majoritv of mankincl i.rinations.orld of things.hercu hat r.elopeclposingo[thc problem of man's reduction to thinghood.c .as clircctcrl mainl". thc rcst is insignificant. S ci cncci s closclr tic<l to thc autonorrv of things.I)oubtlcss this majoritv has let itsclf be reduced the orderof things. Science Thc conclitior-r achier. It rvas drarvn au. to But this generalized reduction.en onlv to the extt'nt that mclst of tht' attenticln u.n'hcrc the tclol cstabhshcd thc transcentlencc thc object.'as oncc opposed to it rcvcalsthe povcrtv of equivocalpositions. When attention u. thcn cntirclr:'consumcdbv anguish. T he C l e a r C o n s c i o u s n e s s o f Things. Thus the clear consci<)usncss objccts of \vas gi\.rtthc autonomv of thc consciousncss things. o f th t' u ' o rl tl of obj tcts).rt ol thc means of procluction is capalrlcof fullv rcvcaling thc meaning of procluction. r.av from thcm.vhich. So it vvasnot a c'lcarconsciousncss therobject of u. as far as knorvledge goes.orld r. is thc orclcr of mvthologv. was at least separatcdfrom rcflcction on consciousness thc profanc thing. u. r.rr"rivcrsal) organizationbrought back a part of the attention tcr the u.rness iIr the lrec outbursts of thc intimate orrlcr. Only thc gigantic rlcvclopmcr. Human thought escapedthe rigid rleterminationsof thc mvthical orcler 95 .as focused on sacrifice.compared to thc industrial rise.alongsidcit givt-sthe imprcssion of a clcthroncclsovercigrr.r.and incvitablc shifts . Onlv in a u.rcrcals itself to itsclf anrl sccs pr<xluctiondcstint'clto be consumt'd is preciselvu'hcn the u'orlcl of prclductionno krnger knous n'hat to do u'ith its proclucts. this perfcct firlf'illment of the thing. uhich is the attainment of a clear consciousness of t hc rc a l o rrl c -r(i .r. to things that gcncral lrccdom and tht' t ontradic:tion of jucJgmcntsbccamc possiblc..hich is tl're nclnproductivc consumption of u.ealth.herethe thing has reducccl crven'thing.thc fulllllment of scf-consciou.sright'. it could not bc a clcar consciousncss of objects so long as it u'as deltendenton mvthical detern.cdin a scparate(transcenrlent) cclnsciousness the object lvas still nclt free clf thc st'ntiof ment of self.ingclear sclf-cclnsciousness scifor is cnce.


and got rkllr'n to the u'ork of scicr.rcr', u'hcrt' objccts are clcarlv and distinctlv knoun. Prccisc claritr. u'as thus brought into consciousncss and it organizcdthc rational llut modes of consciousness. as thc instrurncnt of knonlcdge developcd,pcoplc tricd to trscit to examincthc intimatc ordcr. In this u.av clear consciousnt-ss lvas gir,e'na hvbritl contcnt. 'l'ht' intimatc order, fundamentallv unreal, aclaptcdits arbitran mvthical rcprcscntations to the logical forms of thc consciousncss thus introof duce<lir.rtotht' u'hole domain of krrclrrlcrlgc sovcreign thc ilccisionsthat do not expressd'rt:intimatc ordcr itself but thc compromist'sthat cnablc it to rcmain intimate rrhilc submitting to thc principlt'sof the real onler. It uas onh' uith thc complete scissionof thc intimate an<lthc rcal, and in the u'orlcl of thc autonomous thing, that scicnce sloulv cscapcd from the hvbrirl fbrmr.rlations conof sciousness. But in its complctt' succcssit c'onsummatt's man's cstrangcmentlrclm himsclf anclrcalizt's, the cast' in of thc scicntist,thc re<luctionof all lifc to thc real onler. Thus knou'lt-dgc and activitv, <lcr,cloping concurrentlv uithclut subordinatingthcmsclvcsto one anotl'rcr,finallr. cstablish a real, consummat(' u'orkl anil humanitv, fbr rvhich the intimatc ordcr is rt'presentedonlr, through still have an prolongcd stammcrings. Thesc stammcrir.rgs uncommon filrcc bccausc thcv still havc tht. r'irtuc of gencrallv opposingthc rt'alitv principlc uith drc principlc of

intimacy, but thc goocl u,ill that rcccivcs thcm is aln ar,s rnixcd rvith disappointment. FIolr. meek these voices sccm. l'lorv defcnscless their cquivocations leave us, laccd u,ith thc clcar cxpression of rcalitv. Authoritv and authenticitv arc entirclv on the side of things, of production and consciousncss the thing produced.All thc rcst of is vanitv and confirsion. This uncqual situation linallv posr.s the problem in clerartenns. 'l'he intimate ordcr is not reached if it is not erlcr.aterd thc authenticitv and authoritv of the real to 'l'his implics, as a matter u,orld and rcal hr.rmanitv. of fact, thc rcplacement of compromises bv a bringing of its conte'nts to light in the clomain of clear and autonomous consciousncss that sciencchas organizt-d. implies SHI-FIt CONSCIOUSNESStaking up the lamp that sciencchas maclc to illuminatc objects an<l dirccting it tou,ard intimacy. Self-consciousn ess

Thc authcnticitvof a usc of sciencc adaptedto a knou'lerlgc of tht.intimatt'orrlcr immecliatclv rulcs out thc possibilitv of giving a lcarnt.rlfclnn to thc autonomousdcclarations of mcn or intimacv. In thc rclationship bt-tuecn otrjcctive knoulcdge anrl intimacr-' thcrc is doubdessa primarv <lif'tcrcnce: thc objcct can aluavs cxpcct thc light that uill illuminatc it u hcrt'asintimac'r' scckingthc light cannot ('x-





WI f






of'tht' corrt'ctlr. tl thc rt'.storation IX'(t it to bc prcljcc'tt'<l cl i n tht' s1tht' rt' ttf carcol .t< ir r t ir . n a tcl rtl c ri s to b c a c h i c v t' tl r sciousncss, hich alonc has thc filrct' tcl rcscue intimacv it from t'quir'ocatiotrs, still cannot bt' achit'rc<lthr<ltrgha as Arttl suspt'rrsion intimatt-existc'trc't'. insclfhr thc u'ill t<i of is involvcd, intimac'vuill appcarto llc clcar consci<)usn(-ss 'l'ht' . lr immt'tliate gir cn in the sphcrcof tlistinct knou lctlge rlifllcultr, of making rlistint't knon'lctlgc atrd th.' intimatc is orclcr coinc'iclc clueto their contrar\.modcs of cxistence is nlrt'rcasknorvlerlgt' art is in tinre. l)ir ine lif-e imnrc<liatc, sttspt'trsiotr rr aitirtg.Ansrvt'ring antl opcratirinthat rt'cluircs to tl'rt' tt'mporal immctliai'v of thc rlivinc lifc, tht'rt u'as th<lught.Antl intimatt' rnvth and the lirrms of t:quir'<lcal crpt'ricnct' can tloulrtlcssabanrlonmlsticism, but t'r'crt' time it takesplacc it must bc a complctc ans\\r'r to a total quc s tro n . This lxing truc, llo onc corrcctlr attslvc'rthe rcquirement given in thc f<rrms of obicctive knou'lt'clge Irrespcctii'eof tht' except bv positing a non-knou'lcclgc. non-knouledge thct that tlre aflinnation o[a firtrtlamt'rrtal rnav l>cjustificd on othcr grounrls,thc clcar consclotlsnerss tics dil'ine lilc t.-,a r('({){of uhat is at stake irnmt'cliatclv nition of its olrscurcnatttrc, clf thc rright that it opcns t() <lf l'his immediatccttittc'itlcnt't' clcar discursivcknou leclgt'. of and consc'iousttt'ss thc unf-ettering thc intinrateorilcr is in not iust manilt'stc<l thc ncgationof tratlitiotral1>rcsup-

it; implics the h,r'pothesis fbrrnulatc,<l once,an<l for all: "Lrtimacv is thc limit of crlc.rr consciousncss; clcar consciousncss cannot clcarlr,and distinctlv knorv anvthing concerning intimacl', cx(,ept fbr thc mocliflcationsof things that are linkccl to it." (We rlon't ftnon.anr.thing corrccrninganguishexccpt insof-ar it is implie.din thc as fait of' the inrpo-ssi61c operation.) Self-c.<lnsci<lusnr-ss thus cscal)cs thc clilcmmaof tlre sirlultaneousrequirt,nrcntof immediacv an<lof the opcration.The immcdiatc negation clivcrts thc opcration touard things anrl touarcl thc tlclmain of rluration. The u.eaknessof traclitional understandingsof thc intirnate order resiclesin the lact that thev har.e alrvavs i nl ol verl i t in t ht ' opt 'r at ion;t hcr . lr . r r e, , it h. . rat t r ilr r r t . . t l thc opcrativer to qr,ralitv it, or thcy have sought to attain it bv u'ar,o[ tlre operation.Man placing his essence the in opcration obviouslr cannot bring it abor-rt that thcrc is not some link u'ithin him bctuetn thc opcration and inti_ macr,'.It uould be neccssarvcither for intimacv clr filr the operation to be elinrinated.But, being reduced to tliinghood bv thc opcration, all that hercan do is to unclertake thc contrar,v' operation,a reductionof' the reduction. In othcr uords, thc ucaknr-ss thc variou.s of rcligious positions is in having unclcrgonethe dcbasementof thc onler of things u.ithout har.ingtried to modifv it. Without t'xccption. thc rcligionsof mcdiation lcft it as it n,as,



tll:lF N THE lMll!:j OF RE (fF ll!DUST lty

crountcring it onlv \\'ith thc limits of moralitv. Likc thc an'haic religions,thev expressh'proposetlto mairltain it, ncvcr litiing it unlt'sstho' had first cnsurcrl its stabilitv. hr d're encl,thc' rcalitv princillle triumllhed o't'erintitnac:r" is What is rt'quircd bv sclf-consciousncss not rcallv 'l-heintimate ortler of thc dcstructic-,n thc ordt'r of things. cannot truh' destr<tvthc ordc-r of things (just as drt' orcler of things has never comllletelv dcstroved the intimatc ortlcr). But this rcal uorlcl having rcachcd tht apcx of its tlurt it tall bc rlclclopmcnt catt bc dcstrovcd,in thc sctrsc catlcctnsciousncss to rc<lucc<l intimacv. Strictlv spcaking, nclt makc intimacv reclucible to it, but it can reclaim its or'r'n operaticlns, rccallitulating thcm in rcI'erse,so that itsL'lf is t-l tht'r' ultirnatclr canc erttt anrl cotrscitlusnt'ss strictlv reducerlto intimact. Of ctlurscthis crlttnteroPcratcl tion is not in anr'\\'a\'oPPose(l thc movcmt'ttt of tonrcducctl to that uhith it csscntiallris - t<l that sciousr.rt'ss ktleu it uas' u'hich, lrom thc start, cach onc of tts alrvavs rlnlv in one st'nsc.It lJut this u,ill be clcar consciotlsncss In u'ill rcgain intimao'onlv it.tclarkness. so <loing,it uill havc rt-achc.ltht' highesttlegrcc of tlistinct tlaritr'' br-rtit u ill so fulh' realizcthc possibilitvof man, or rtf being,that intimatc u'ith thc it u'ill rcclisrovcrthc night of thc anin'ral it n,rrlrl - into u'hich will enter.

of Things T'r bigi' r'r'ith,*c l'rareclcar consc.iousncss its elab.i' ratcd fbrrn. []urtht'r, the of prrclut.tici., the ,^lcr 'orld of things, has rcachctl thc point of cler.clopmcnt u.hcrc it does nclt knou r'r'hatto tlr uith it. pr,,,lucts. -fht. first colrditi'n makt:sdestructior p'ssible; the secondmakesit ncccssar\'. Ilut this cannot bc donc in the cmpvrean,that is, in unrealitv, to w'hich thc religior-rs approach usuallv leads.The moment of decisionrlemands, thc contrarv, on a considcrationclf tlre poorcst and least intim.rtt.aspe(,ts of thc problenr. Wt' must dcsc.enrl nolr. to the lor.r.est el ler of the lr.orld of man's reducticin to thinghoorl. I can shut mvsclf up in mr. r..,n., .r-,-,1 look there for the clear an<l clistinct r.neaning thc objects that surrif round mc. Here is mr table, mv,mv bcd. J'hr:v are ht,re as a result of labor. hr ordcr to makc thcm and install thcm in mv room it u'as necessarv forcgo the itrtercst of thc to momcnt. As a matter of'f.ict I ml.sclf had to u.ork to par. for thr.m. tha t is, ir r t hcor r , I h. r . l r . , t om pcnsat t , t o. t h" labor of the r.r'orkers n.ho madc thcm or transportcd thcm, r'rith a picirc of labor just as uscful as thcirs. Thcse pro<luctsof labor allou. me to u.nrk and I rvill bc ablc to pav lor thc u'ork of thc butcher, the baker, and thc, farnt'r *ho *'ill (-'srlrc m' sur'i'al a'rl the ccirtinuaticln clf'mv vrork.

The General Destruction

r0 0


ts in tlre rcal rirrler.rt rr as a basis for cleor. furtivcl. In this u'orld thcre is Iro immense untlcrtaking that has anv other cnd than a dcfirtitive'loss in the futilc nrom('nt.or at le'astI liave <lcstrovcclthc I havedestrqr. .rous_ nessif I did not gir. momt.u'asted part of thc timer the rest cnablcd mc to livc.rbor' for a time harl than mv brcakingloosc' no otltrr pLlrposc I anr nou going to rccall thc use I have madc of the moncv carned at mv rvork tablc.l.rorld and mt. on In st'ttingmv drinking glass thc tablc.sncss.rat arc cliss'lr. lf u.v inr.. .olrc<lin minutc opcraticlnsbv the fear of letting onesclf 1o. hcavv u ith the chainsclf l. lu. cr l.\e. I havc lrought a tablc.stif ics pcjr r r at ir er aluc .ti.. it is i'rsofbr as clcar But c..-nr. the jobs that allou'edme to do so rvoulclsuddcnlv bc dcstroved. It is a mattcr of cn<llcsslv consum ing. lt : .ns. the dcstruction of thc thc Ilad I just oncc scizerd tablc is alreatlvmorc atlvanced.are to prescn.rlrorth.ercl anr] dcstr'rcd i'thc intir-natc monlert. moment bv the hair. l l t r m. li.t. t1. -l'he frcc vet submissir.r and opaqur. t .dr-str... * ithc^rt thc lcast con-scio. lc'sslr.vecl 102 l0l . a glass... t ht This introduccs.ailsthat thc .r'ecrr the rjmc is uhat Ju. Pr r .onsc. pciint at *hich tht' cxcessproduction r. r s*<'ll [ r c'r r ''.cbere'n But this tablc is IX)t a mcans o[ labor: it helps mc ttr clrink alcohol. fi.[rjects tl.likc a river.e.ethc mor. mass ol the cflbrts is nothing n('\t to thc lutilitr o[ a singlc mornenr.a Nou I plac'er largc glass of alcohol on rnv tablc useful.c my rlcstructiotrits. thev u'oulti drain cndinto the oct-anof that bricf instant. If I havc lr'astcd part of that l. Tl'rc real rcducti. .roultl alrea<lv bc in the po\\'cr of that tnoment seized. t in.bjects actualh.u hcrtils ml' absorptionhas onh' dcstr<llecl lahor' At lt'astthis ta[>lta nrinutt' amortntof thc carpcnter's in this room.scfconsciou.sjt?e.. of thc. Jtrst as thc urrrld of things is nothing in thc supcrlluous univcrsc u. all tht'preceding tirnc'.r.l rj t' tts th.t he . to thilt cxtent pl'.ious'ess prcr.hcre it is clissolr. rcal <>rderbrings a fr-rndamentalrevcrsal into the cc.snes.r of thc redu.rl. I har.l'his .r of'thc differcncebetuecn thc object and nrvsclf or thc general destruc:tion <lbjccts suclr in th.rkc it . deterrnine thr.r.or ilcst r or ing .l of as of consciousnt'ss. . a consideration of the . f or m . Of coursc I have llrst conrple'tclvdcstroved the labor of the u-itrtgrorvcr.rill flou likc a rir ff to rheour.l. l.r"qu.nt...cmentof thc econ()*Jr' *c nee<lt.ecl.screcnbctr. And all the all srrpplies. Ilut this table cor-rlcl not bc clcstrovcdin thc fleld of mv c. east . it is a negatior. (l (' Jr (()ns( iousnes\t.etc. rt is a return t<l thc situaticlnof the animal that eats another animal.his t ablc t . r onl iut ile.rt a r t t 'r lukl just .o_ nomic order. f t lr . Insofaras I clestrovit in thc-Iieltl of mr.nonev.

Thc destruction of thc subject as an indiviclual is in fact impliccl in thc tlestruc'tion of the objerctas such' but n'ar is not the inevitablc form of the destruction:at anYratc.REI IGION WI T I ] I N LIMITS OF R EASON uill not clestrov humanitv itself. in thc gcneral sensc. 104 . if sclf-consciousness to bc. it is not thc ctlnscious is form (that is.human).

: c F I .

" r09 . The spirit larthest rcmolt'd lrom thc virilitv is thc and consciottsnc. fbrm of religion.on both siclcs of that rrhich alrcaclvoriginates in a conrprotniscof tl. then at least its mvstical fbrm.sannvasi the Roman prelate. differs radicallv from the attcmpts at fusion that excrcisemintls anxious to remedy the u'cakness of currct'rt rcligious positions. complete tht: emasculation .r and r'r'oultlexcluclc.if not thc ecstatic clcar consciousn('ss. r'r'ho are tletermined to dcnv that to u'hich opposcstht. about Thost' in thc religious rvorkl u'ho arc alar-rnecl thc lack of harmonv.s-s spirit necessaryfor joining violence l'he endcavorto sun) up that u'hith scpaof "svlrthesis.rcintinratc ortlcr uith the orclcr ttf things.ho look f<rr the link betuet'n thc rliffi:rcnt disciplincs. lr.or thc Sufi to the Kicrkcgaardian pastor.Y Thc positing of a rcligious attituclc that q ould rcsult fron.

but it rathcr the sovereign rvhosc presencc in the world.av from itself. is that of unir. uniyersol ther sum is necessarily that of thc rcligious scnsibilitv in time. preciseh'. the bchavior of sacrifice. But the impclssiblethus rer. Sovt-reignty dcsignates the mor. but for anvonc to v'homhuman life is on cxperience to be carried as.t an ecluivo<'al position. Ancl if rve raisc ourseh. or tcars. is no longer the scn'ile thing in us.c revealcd.'es personallv to the highcst degrercof clear consciclusncss. thc u.laraspossible.Y ratc rcligious lr'orld (salient in thesc synthetic forms tliat abandonthe narrorvness a trarlition) u. thc least clear but the most dir. in particular. from hcad to fcrot. Svnthesisis most clearlr.eals impossiblc the in lat. and to makc their shared contcnt the principle of a human lifc raiserl to universality. from animality to sciencc and from thc archaic tool to thc non-senscof poetrv. 110 rll . like hieroglvphs that could be clcciphered only in a formal r. if.. This clear revclationof a declineof the rvholc lir.holc of human cxperience is rcstored to r"rs.rernching violcncc that animates the nholc. n.emcnt of frcc and internallv lr.iousncss not givcn so of long as thc archaic manifestations of religious feeling appeared to us indcpendently of their meaning. ceascsto be closcd to us. it is thc s<llcrcignsclf_consc.l i. into ecstasv and intcl bursts of laughtcr. rlissolvcs into ttars. sccms unassailabledcspite its insipicl rcsults. and rc'r. rvhat rcvcals the nced to firmlv link this u'orld to that rvhich the rcligious sensibilitvis in its univcrsalsum in and thc most common.ghter. no lclngi'r turns au.vay.ccstasv.ersal humanitv. but if that mcaning is norv given.

' You are not anv more tliffcrcnt lrom me than vour right leg is from vour left. FA R A S P OS S (IIL[.rvhat )*ou vourself think..fO WFI()M Ll l -l : IS A N l -. . but u'hat joins us N i s TH tr S I Ll -l l 'Ol i R IA S ()N . . .W Itl C tl I' R ()l )tl (' F.S { ()N SfLI{ S . ' l ' () ttl r (A R R l ti l ) A \ I have not meant t<l t'xprt'ssmv thought but to help vou clarifr.X I' l i R Il i N (l . ..

t-Nl)tx Gener al T abl e an d Ref er en c es .Apt.

notc ] t17 .Itrans . of Unfortunatelv this claritv has its draw'backs. clt'tachcdfrom an elabclrati on of i ts hist or ical or et hnogr aphic f or m s. *'['ht'etli tor of B atai l l c ' sc ompl ete tr' ork s nott.I fecl obligcclto prerscnt table* that makesit possible a to visualizethe successive possibiliticsas a singlc do'clopment. But abovc all it offcrs thc aclvantagc bcing clcar. As far as possible. It tcnds to dcprivc mv exposition of a virtr"rcthat it mtrst claim.I have excluded discussion thosc lorrns as *cll of as rcfcrenccs pcrtaining to thcm. that is.s that thi s tabl t' uas not fi runrl am ong th< ' author' s papers .I have tried to present the foregoing logical movement in thc forrn it rvoulcl havc in thc final statc of consciousncss. This figure emphasizesthe dialectical charactt'r of the rlevelopment rvhose phasesgo from opposition to opposition and from stagnationto movement. For t his rcason.

is a common crror of persllcctive to think that trv contesting a particular point onc contests thc soliditv of thc outlined lr'holc.there is not one of theseclatathat <lncshotil<l not trv to n:<lucc to the r. aln'ays secking hclp and ncvcr admiration.nothing to fcar.should rcsult It {iom such cliscussions. m les oblige t he one. I u'ould likc.r particular stagc may rtaPPear ancl bcconre operatilc at stlme subscqut-nt stage. n c c c s sarY .ntradictor easilyimagint:s. And authoritv is acquircd in thc courseof gamesrrhose trarliti < l nal . It is tnre that ther resultsof thought are strangelvtied to testsof rivalry.sion.rntestations them failcd to enrich it.I uas all thc less inclincclto link thcse develoPnlellts to an analvstsof thc particular rcalities as tht:v are dist inc t lv s c p a ra t(' fro m th c l a tte r: b v defi ni ti on thtsc realitics corresponcl in a callrititlus. J'his u'holc is ancl not onc of itself the rcsult of mv o\\'n ct. scussi ons.essarih' painful anrl opcn. O f c o u rs c th i s a p p a re rl t ta s tta l n cssdoes not at al l I di pr ec lude p o s s i b l c . rcsulting from contacts in time of rcrv also introduce conlusion' Finallv.'distancc itself from the capriciousclataof thc historical w'orlcl.rrc. although. imllerf'cct rvav to the necessitvthcl' cxpress. c l r ra th e r. (l it arn happv to citt' as an ('xanllllethe f rien<llvinten cnticlns of Mircca onc of thcm in particular that crrablcdrnc to situatc the "supreme lrcing" in the urrrlcl of spirits. I havt' had to articulatc the stagesof a mon'cment as il there \\'ere a discontinuitv.-' it u. Whilc it is truc that a cohesionmust n(.but it isolatesthought in bird-likc clisplarsthat ncl longer havc anvthing to clclu'ith a rcal proccss.r.In the last instancethis ncccssitv m av har e o p e ra tc c l u n rc s c n ' c d l v u ' i t hotrt t-r' er hari ng bccn inevitablc at a prccisc moment. I l9 . rvhcrcas continuity is thc rulc and transitional forrns havc a t:onsiderableplacc in historv' Ilvbrid forms. past a ccrtain point.ce. repeat that this piece of rvork is lar from completion' And in fact the completeclnork.hcllc and onlv insofar as thc u'hole has bccn polishedbv thesc rcrluctionscan it casilvreveal to others the contorts of tht:ir clw.nhcr cxpresses himsclf to give his thought tht' idea o[a flau'lcss and dcfi ni ti vc oper at ion. Forms that I have presentcd as being inti:gral u'ith one anothcr maY havt' devcloped at timcs one after the othcr. is a help.nthought. J'his is an cnt ir cly excusable comcclv.ssAr) ilr. it dilferent cir.'ilizations. substantial thalrges. to hclp mv t-cllou'beings gct uscd to thc idca of aD open movement rtf reflection.a just if ied cont r ar lict ir t n is not t hc attatk that thc c<. somc r vhat ar bit r ar l. at is clcar that conditions rcgularly 1>resent . This moveme'nt has nothing to conceal.(iircn thc gcnrral coht . I il8 <lid not lrarc to rlakc anr. No one can entirelv separateu'hat hc thinks lrorn the real authoritv thc cxpressionolr this thought nill h. if it is possiblc.

hat is true of carlv Islam is not at all trr.elopmcntof clear consciousness of philosophy (yct. Hven if rcpresentationsdo not take on their full meaning until thev dctach themsclvcs from therrcalities to u'hich they rcfcr (u..ra general rvav the frccdom that is nccessaryto this modc o[ intcrprctation.the. Islam rvas cven the most stable of thc diffc. limiting. surldenlyand discontinuouslv. Second.stlv spirituallilc. Therreshoulcl be some point in stating herc that Islam cannot gcnerally bc regardcclas a form corresponding tcr a s inglc o n e o f th c d e l i n i ti o n s g i v e n . thc distance that separatcsfrom rcality thc figuresof a to the rclatively small part plavcd by internal violcnce.villconfine mvsclf. Mvsticism and monasticism devclopcrl. From the outsct Islam u'as a military orcler. But lr.ithout being positivcl-v grounded in any of thcm in particular). they rvill not be fullv unclerstandablcif thev do not ir-rgt-ncral shed light on thc historical forms. Islam bccamc a perfcct cconomv of salvation. but it clid not realizc all t he po s s i b i l i ti e so f th c l a tte r.IN BLI: AND REFERENCES This iustification of thc mcthod follou'ccl dot's t. But like christianitv it ga'. through the cir ic:onoclasm that it opposed to thc }Jyzantinchicratism.on the one hand.tot lr'hich prevtrnt mc from sccing its rcal disa<lvantagcs. to tlnc cxample choscn u ith the intcntion of shorving ir. uhich needed to svstcmaticallvavoid prccise refercnces.reof latc Islam. concern intelligibility.erelcss pronouncccl ancl morc pathetic than Christianity. howcvcr. those activitics ll'hoscrPurPoselvas not force these pcculiarities: and militarv conquest. the arts remainccl in principle u. archaiccivilizationto a n' that bcst ensurcd the stabilitv of a societv. Olr.thev shoukl hclp l2l 120 .rent economicsof salvation.ation.But it pre'scnts lrom a spendthrifi it rvcnt. fo r o t the sameti me i t in expcricncerd. an abridged fonn as it u'crc. it n'ent furthcr than the crlassicr rnilitarrr ordcr in rcducirrq thc forms of ar t t o r cason) . event.Hencer its first phasc of it dicl not have'all thc charactcristics thc militarv or<ler nor all those of the cconomy of salr. I r. Once thel4oslemempi.'ithin the limits of iconoclasmbut escaperd rational simplification in every rl. 'fhc refercnccs that follolr. and on thc otherrhan<I. are subjcct to thc same rcservation. This schema. 'fhis kind of application of a method aims to shou. rise to a c.But likc thcst'applications. the possibilitv of rcciucing reality afler the_.e. rvhich conformed to the military tvpc of a violencc dircctccl to the outsidc.av. the devclopirt mcnt of an cconomv of salvation.In thc first placc it n'as nclt amenablcto the autonomousdcr.u'as nonethe-lerss to be folloned bl' an elucidationof history u'ith thc help of its figures. even more strictlv than others.It mcrelv had forms of mcdiation that <lispense<J t r vit mecl i ati on and upheld a t r anscendenccof t hc divine lr' rcachecl its limits of growth.

a n ti th c -s e sa n d s v n t hescsof (i eorgcs (on I)um6zil set forth the oppositionof pure violencrc the dark antl nralcfic sicleof the divinc norltl ." <lr rth<lsc r.rr. I)otrbtlessthis implies lrom thr." lrut hen: the contraries cclincicle(thev onlv c'<lincicle. Thc cclrrcspondcncesbetr. take m1'distance I from his dclctrir.aftcr Ouranos-Voruna ( ( 19I I ) .The diffcrcnces betrvcen the tu. lntroductionto the Reading Hegel.rl cloesnot o\.r'centhe Hegelian analvsisand this "thcory of religion" n'ould still nced to lrc specifierl.llitra-Varttna. Eulrt.l \vav to somc of their origins. interprctations of Indo-EuroPeanmythologv that are Pursued in thc a<lmirablcu'orks of GeorgesDum6zil.are substantiallv present in it. Alt.nulus u'ith prof'aneactilitv (Mitra and thc ordcr that ac:cortls Brahmans.ontents ol-fcr reft'rt'nc:cpttints that gr-ridcdmv stcPs' firllorl ing thc I rvill give thcm in ratrdom scquenc'e' alph. qfter the etent.xRNuRt' Ko1tvl.ath. Frct' l )ress . and the <lpposition rvhich thcv coincidc cannot this time be in ovcrcomc bv anv svnthesis:there is an irlentitl' of' the: particular bcing and the univcrsal.consci ousl v .and its rcsolution in the erternal and efficaciousviolence of a human anrl rational militarv <lrdcr.and thc unilersal is not trulv giren exccpt in the mediation of particularitv. l)unrnelr\{. The Groncts I)utl.crcorne pain [or painful jov] exc'cpt in dr.rbeticalordcr of the authors' not uithout retaining its essential but lessons. secnls1>ttssilllt'.cl rcprescntationsappcar to mc to be easill' recluciblc. . 1965.v opposedto Hegelian"satisfhction. Hegelian th e s e s . I clo this in thc lbrm of refcrt:nccsto n'ritings rvhoseauthors in somc tlav movt'cl tou'arrl thc prccisetonceptionsolthis "thcclrv.t(. 7he Elementor. 1980. but the resolution of the indivirlual into the non-inclividu.('orrtsPond to thc c ons t r uc ti o n s th a t I h a v e c l e v e l o p e d:tht. This rvork is an cxplication of Flegel's Phenomenologt the Spirir.raintainingthc tletac'hcrl or charactcrof n'rv statcmcnts.Whilt' n. nccessar .ztr. l9tl8.start a stateof mind radicall. hnr ile Dur khcim sccm s t o r ne t o bc unjustlv rlisparaged nona<lavs.neccssarilv unrealizable clf its adcquation to thc objcct. 9J C'ornell Llnivcrsitv Prtss. should I say.The ideasthat of I havc tlerelopcd herc. espei ially tlrost' lcrurrd in this voltrrl' F/amineBrahntone193l) .-r- AND to situatca constructionthat is rather ocltllvcliscorlnccted from its foun<lations. to conn('ct them in a gt:neral .\'artlna antl and thc Lupcrci) to tht' divint' thc Gandhana.Zone Books.t' Lorms the Religious ol Lili. [)ius Fidius and thc Flamincs). Thc main cliffercnce conccrns the conccpti on t hat m akes t hc dcst r uct ion of t he subjcct the conrlition . or in thc state of atararia * ccltrparableto thc <lcath<lf conrDlctt'satislartionllrcnte thr mainttttanlt' of the rcso- 122 l2l .

n'as c.rllirnarrl.s.rt.r spiritz'rrattcr.(l u.[rN(]ene Hi. of LI t ah pr ess. dualisntcdons l'11ist()re la Le de philttutphtc tlesrcli. M.onscrousness turns au. . r r co'dit i"s il.atcd withor. 1>r'rl PF. 1rs Llniversitv of Chicago Prcss. especially. 1969.Nt.rthaving assirnilatr-d contcnts.-l'ht' flrst of thesc uorks is thc atrthclritatirt'trt'atnrent <lf tht' 'l histclricral data on ancicrrts. .t thc I'hinos . 1967. l-haGili.rk.'f tr. xic. hr ". tht' tlualisr. Stlt'st- t25 .ays rig<lrcluslt' bascdon ec'onomicanah'sis.(. l)rcscuts thr.c'rlcr. an imager that shines through thcm mcasuresup to thc intimate ntovcmcnts that of rlt'str." [. 189U. of MAtt(tt't. r 'ar ch. 1974.. onr lur . his inclt r ir v int o t he human sacrificcs cclebratcdin grcat numhers in the tem_ pl es of Mexiccl. rol ol of' N crr . lualir 'r I t. r ii. fcrnnsun<lcrthe cloak of an allcgedmonstrousncss.dri's u'clrk is ont.) SyLi'. only uav to vicu' it is thc t hc r ar iou sa s p e c ts l h u m a n l i f' t . re l a ti rc l v a c c e s s i b l c . o[ tht.rrh'.xtremt. lrv atrthor.e acti'itr. 'f pri or to th c ( ionqucst . . rathcr.r. Startirg li.n u rrrnsirk-rerl tl. Onh..{HA(.i sh nro .lvain thc cssentialcontp()nents that interprctation. it ncsst s.rJlr r . hc st'<. Il a v i n g h a d to c i tc th t.iaiou.on()m\.strtr. Sacrilice: \'orure an<lFLtnctiL'tn. '. it is easv to see that thc present "tht-cln. . t is t hr m ir t r t .av lrom htrt that it mtrst ultimatell' rcturn e p ol i ti i al as1> ccts o in particular .r. liablr and t he I m'st clctailecl <lclcument ha'e c'ncerning the tcrriblc *'er aspcctsof sacrificc.l}.lRt. u'hic'his not a rt'solu). k's i'r 'est igat i.m hr-r < l ata.rrs.<lf S_r.litss. BrnN.No one today can claim tcl be t:rh.-rlis' *'itlr a 'l' r. sinril. fr<lnrMarxism. Norton.u rirk of A l cxantl re Koji'vc herc..rc nrt'nt' u host'moral position is that of the ancielrtgnostics.<liffcrenth'frrim the nav a chikl viovs tht' actions of arlults.r.r'ti. t eil using Azt t . I must emphasizt' one point: uhrtevcr oltint ion. l t he t r ar r sit io. Sirnor.rarkablc clarit' in this littlc [ro. ha' c.Thc interpretationof sacriflccis the fbundaticlnof "-se{-66n.1982.TABLT' AND REFERFNCES lution at the lervclprior to ecstasy. 1946.qrrestirn of tht' lrist'r' d." is alu. F' Lerour.rcc o1' or s('llsu()us or-kl.i s n o t onl y tht: pri mary instrttmcnt ol self-consciousnes.r<rrilkc. f his spa.\pui n. et p6trc_ G.lHnlno l)F S. this /nrropriint shriukl be assignt'rl duc t ion. ion onc may have of thc c'orrectncss his intcrytrctation of of Hc gc l (a n rl I b e l i e v c th c p o s s i b l e c' ri ti ci srns thi s on onlv a limitt'd valucl.ond filnus the t) J basisof anl undcrstanrlingol' (.lr <.tht' onh rlualisr.Llnir er sit r .ir t.rc.qion.' of tht' cxc't'ss'l' trc:tir. c inf br m ant s nho had bcen n. bcing tierl as to li doctrine sacrilice du dans1c-s hrahntanas.oukl also like its tcl unclerscorc the fhct that Alerandrc Kcljive's intulrctaticln clot'snot dcliatt' in anv n'at.llNI-it'1.Wc must nccessarily rejcct the rep_ rc'scntations man or clf religion that leare.

l .hich made accumulation basir.asat thc origin of capitalism. 197'7.of thc accumulatirin (of the use of w. Max Wcber's lamous studv linked. 1926. n'here thc autonomv that cnabled the rapid increaseof inclustrialaccunrulation. Max Wcbcr <lncllcd on the decisivc changc introduccd bv thc Rcfbnr-ration.e *.po.Hr-R.Pnrtcstantismintr<ltluccrl the possibilitv rif tlris disjurrctionbv rlcnting tlie rcligious value of u orks: the u orkl of the opcrative fbrms of ct'onomic . ..rrar'.ulation. ven.This book'. M.rnclp*l[a. H.ealth for devcloping thc forccs of produc.form ('calc.t. The ProtestontEthicand the Spiritof. Macmillan. Llar_ court.s that u.allr.tiorr)to the po.ableconncction u. Brace.sitingof a dirirrc u. baserlon a u.vReligion ond the Riseo-f Capitalism. for thc first timc in a preci.ssibilitl.Capitol_ ism..ith thc here-bclou.. I t26 .rctivitl thus rct.& L'o. eal th o f i n fo rma ti o n .selfishncs. of tlrc sat-rr. possiblc lrr.ivc<l but in the trrurse of time .orkl that had no conceir. u. s h o u th c i mpcl rtanccof the clclil>erate rlisjunc.s) ratli_ callv scparatestherglorious consumption of rvcalth from the divine ordcr.Y ]RY Of RELIG ON R.tio. clcnvirrg the r'alue of n'orks and by cclndcmning nonprocluctivc expcncliture. Morc than Tarvno. T'.qx Wl.qwNr.

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