INTERNSHIP REPORT

INTERNSHIP REPORT

Submitted By:
NAME
DANISH HASNAIN MINHAS AHMER ADNAN BALOCH BILAL ABDUR REHMAN ZAIN UL WAHAB KAMRAN GILL SAQIB ZAIN

E-Mail ID
Danish.engineer@hotmail.com ahmer.adnan@hotmail.com Bilal_ittm@hotmail.com zainidc@yahoo.co Kamran_gill01@hotmail.com Smart_zain2004@hotmail.com

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We proudly present our report which is based on Wet processing. For this report we are extremely thankful to the talented people that worked and helped us in sorting out our circulated questionnaires and confusion throughout the internship especially we would like to thanks the skillful personalities and worker whose cooperating was very beneficial & studious for us. We are also very thankful to, Pretreatment.M Dyeing.M Finishing.M Printing.M Mr.Mumtaz Mr Tariq Mr.Hamid MR.Hamid

Special thanks to respected Mr.Abid and

Mr.Kamran

Technical.Dep guided us each and every step during our internship program.

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PREFACE

In line with recent trends toward high-quality production and diversification in the textile processing, much efforts is being exerted to improve the performance of mixed fabrics of natural and synthetic fibers and to introduce the new product with new values. The report includes information presents a detailed description of the standard latest working procedure in wet processing on Polyester/Cellulosic blends, CVC, PC fabrics. As continuous wet processing for polyester/cellulosic blends, CVC,PC fabrics involves a large variety of fibre substrates, processing methods for pretreatment and dyeing and finishing.

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YUNUS TEXTILE MILL
Yunus Textile Mills (YTM) is the latest addition to the Yunus Brothers Group of Companies. YTM is a complete vertically integrated textile mill with state-of-the-art machinery for the home textiles and the garment industry. It is also a major contender in the home textile and garment export segment of the Pakistani economy. The staff strength at only YTM unit is around 6,500 employees whereas the Yunus Group employs approximately 15,000 staff countrywide. Yunus textile group is a big name in Pakistan export and a winner of above 20 export trophy from the government of Pakistan for the highest exports from the country as well as the highest exports in the textile sector.

The sister companies of the group :
• • • • • Fazal textile mills limited. Gadoon textile mills limited. Lucky cement limited. International trading. Lucky textile mills.

Yunus textile mill basically deals with home textiles and has following international customers:

Germany:
MGB METRO, KAUFHOF.

USA:
JC PENNY, TARGET,WALL-MART,MARMAXX,KOHL’S,SEARS,LINEN-NTHINGS,BED BATH AND BEYOND

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Italy:
GABEL, CAMAGNOLO

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Products:
YTM has its own products includes:
• • • • • • • • • • • •

Bed linen, Curtains, Bath Shower Curtains, Kitchen Curtains, Table Covers, Blended Fabric, Cotton Fabric, Dyed Fabric, Grey Fabric, Printed Fabric, Bleach Fabric, Mercerized fabric, Finished fabric.

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FLOW CHART FOR WET PROCESSING

Grey Fabric Inspection ↓ Sewing or Stitching ↓ Singeing ↓ De-sizing ↓ Scouring ↓ Bleaching ↓ Mercerizing ↓ Dyeing ↓ Printing ↓ Finishing ↓ Final Inspection ↓ Delivery

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Planning:
Planning is the most important step of every stage of the process each and every person involve in the process must know flow of the material process and parameters .for completing the task accurately on time. A well controlled network system which connect the planning section with each and every department in processing and finishing. The planning section is sub divided , • Grey planning. -Seltzer 7.2-8 Million meter use age. -Air jet 2.2-2.5 Million meter production per month.
• •

Intermediate planning (dyeing, printing). Post finishing.

Process Flow:
Customer order Process Merchandizing calculation

Job Cards:
Basically there are three types of Job cards. 1. Master card. 2. Travel card. 3. Colored card.

Master card:
Master card is directly given to the department on which Job cards are stapled.

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Travel card:
Travel card travel with the fabric on each and every stage of the process from starting till finish it guide the operator that what is the process flow of the material.

Colored cards:
There are 4 different colored cards used for the following processes, • • •

White Green Yellow Pink

Bleaching. Dyeing. Sample. Printing.

GREIGH DEPARTMENT

This is the first department of the wet processing industry. In Greigh department inspection of fabric is done with the help of 10-100% inspection the fabric fault are counted and grading of fabric is done.

Production:
 Machine speed is 100 m/min.  Maximum width run on machine is 126-130 inches.2.25 lacks for three shifts.  Each shift process about average 32000 meter per machine.

GREY DEPARTMENT DEALS:
• • • • •

To inspect, mend & grade the fabric. Making lots. To keep the record of store fabric. The rejected fabric is sent back to the respected Mill. Make bath and transfer it to the next department.
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Inspection / Grading:

The main purpose of the inspection is to check the Greigh fabric for identify the faults.

Weaving Faults: • Double Ends, Loose Ends, Broken Ends, Wrong Dent/Draw, Loose Selvedge, Double Pick, Miss Pick, Design Cut, Knots, Hanging Threads, Float,

Mechanical Faults: • • Starting Marks, Rapping Marks, Mending Marks, Hole /Cuts, Oil Stain

Yarn Faults: •

Cockled Yarn, Weft Slub, Slubby Weft, CEP, Count Variation, Hair, Jute, P Propylene, Black Ends.

Others: • • • • • •

Oily Weft, Sizing Stain, Hard Size. Minor Faults: The faults can be removed easily in further processing such as in Scouring, Bleaching and Mercerizing etc. Major Faults: Those faults that can not be removed in further processing are Major faults such as starting mark, rapping mark, whole etc.

Tacoma (Spain) Batch Making: (2003 Model)

• •

Speed 90-100 m/min. Tacoma is brushing and batch making machine in greigh department. Batcher machine is used to made batch of the fabric.

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Maximum batching Length:
• 700-750 a/c to the density of fabric.

Components of the machine:
1. Conveyor belt. 2. Screy. 3. Expanding rollers and guide rollers. 4. Winder. 5. Brush.

The fabric is placed on conveyor belt the pile is threaded through the tension rods and the guide rolls works on the electronic sensing to run the fabric in center the fabric is than enter the scray than the fabric is passed through the expanding roll which expands the fabric to run in smooth through the machine. After it the fabric entered into the brushing section to brush the contaminants and fluff and fly because they may create problems in next process especially in dyeing and printing. The fabric is than rolled on a frame to make our required batch wheel rotaes and measure how much fabric is wounded. There are two Tacoma machines installed in YTM.

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Singe De-size Machine (Osthoff): (1999 Model)
Singeing is the removal of protruding fibers from the surface of the fabric in order to improve their surface appearance and sharp surface for printing and dyeing and also to remove the size material applied on to the warp yarns to avoid breaking of warp yarn due to mechanical stress. If not done, this will disturb the appearance of dyed and printed fabric.

Parameters for singeing:
• Singeing position • Flame intensity • Fabric speed • Distance between fabric and burner

Machine Components:
• • • • • • • • 2
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Guide rollers Pre drying Pre rushing Singeing chamber (4 burners). Cooling drums Post brushing De-sizing unit Winder.

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3

1. Tension rod:
The purpose of tension rods is to give tension to the fabric and to Stay away from crease formation.

2. Guide Roll:
Fabric is passed above the guide rollers for feeding the fabric in to the brush rollers.

3. Pre and Post Brush Rollers:
Before singeing the fabrics is brushed to loosen and protruding fibers and moved rapidly normally about 100m/min a suction system is installed to suck the fluff and ashes.

4. Singeing box :
After brush roller the fabric is moved over projectile of gas burner to burn protruding fibres.4 burners are installed on this machine. The flame is composed of 70% of air and 30% of gas. To avoid fabric yellowish shade that’s why we use blue flame.

5. Chemical Bath :
Later than the achievement of singeing the fabric immediately feed in to the chemical tank to remove the size of fabric.

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Recipe of de-sizing bath:
• • •

SDL de-size 1g/l RGN wetting agent 4g/l NE sequestering agent 1.5g/l Dosing of singe de-size 1 is manually and dosing of singe de-size 2 is automatically.

6. Winder :
The winder roll the fabric over the batcher and than it is left for 4 to 6 hours.

7. Cooling drums:
In singeing section the fabric passed over the cooling drums to down the temperature of the fabric after burners. The water circulates inside the drums.

8.Donier rolls:
The donier rolls move in to and fro motion evenly distribute the fabric. The time, temperature and pH must be maintained because the enzyme will be active when the conditions are provided.

Parameters:
• • • • • • •

Machine name Made Max. Width of singe de-size 1 Max. Width of singe de-size 2 Max. speed Flame intensity Pressure of the padder

OSTHOFF Germany 126” 110” 100 m/min 10-16 cm 2.5 bar Flame angles 90,45,90

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SCOURING & BLEACHING

SCOURING;
The process of scouring is to make material highly and uniformly absorbent. (i-e the removal of natural impurities like wax, fats, oils). When oils and fats are heated with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide, they hydrolyzed into glycerol and the alkali salts of fatty acid, these salts of fatty acid are soaps therefore his particular hydrolysis is referred to as Saponification ,

BLEACHING;
Scouring removes almost all the impurities except natural coloring matters which are ultimately broken down with bleaching agents. Bleaching is necessary for producing white goods either as finished products or for dyeing pastel shades. There are two scour bleach machines both the machines are continuous and gives average 2.5 production per day.

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Scour Bleach -2 step (Goller Germany ): 2004 Model
The machine is 2 step scour bleach machine with 1-1.2 lack production.

Machine parameters:
Speed Caustic H2o2 Stabilizer Wetting agent 125 m/min 48 Be 50% KEB RGN

The fabric after de-sizing is directly carried out on the bleaching machine for the process of washing, scouring and bleaching. machine parts and there functions and also process on the machine,

Pre washing:
100 lit water is present in 3 chambers of pre washing range. The temperature of pre-washing range is kept 98C.

Chemical Pad-1:
The fabric is padded with scouring chemicals.

Steamer-1:
After padding with scouring chemicals the fabric enters the steamer for reaction at about 103-105 C for 16-20 min.

Post washing -1:
The fabric after steamer 1 enters in to post washing 1.there are 4 washing chambers first 3 contains 98C and 2 contains 60C.

Chemical Pad-2:
The fabric is padded with bleaching chemicals.

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Steamer-2:
The fabric is again enters into the steamer for reaction.

Post Washing-2:
5 chambers present 4 chambers for hot washing at 98C and last one for neutralization at 0C.

Dryer cylinders:
24 cylinder dryers are present to dry the fabric and at last the batch is make.

Scour Bleach solomatic (Goller 1995):
Production of goller solomatic is about 1.23lack per day production.

Machine components:
Pre washing:
2 chambers for pre washing at 90-98 C.

Chemical padding:
Chemical padder in which scouring and bleaching chemicals are paded.

Steaming:
The fabric is entered into the steamer 103-108 C for 22 min.

Post washing:
4 chambers in post washing 3. chambers for washing at 70-98 C and last 1 for neutralization.

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MERCERIZATION
OBJECTIVES
 To increase luster.  To increase the affinity for dyes.  To increase the tensile strength.  To give dimensional stability  Use of dye after mercerizing is less  Width control  After mercerizing increase cost of fabric Rs 2.70 per meter. In this process cotton is dipped in a solution of NaOH so that NaOH penetrated in to the fibre and then NaOH is washed out completely by neutralizing by dilute acid like formic acid. When mercerizing fibre are examined under microscope. It is seen that each fibres in twisted ribbon like form. After mercerizing fibres become cylindrical and free from twists. To increase the luster cotton must be prevented from shrinkage. This can be achieved by stretching the yarn or fabric. Shrinkage of the fabric can also controlled by mercerization.

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There are two mercerize machine in Yunus Textile Mills

MACHINE 1:
• • • • •

Goller (Germany)

Per Day Production 45000 Mercerize chambers 1 Stabilize chambers 1 Washing chambers 5 Speed 36 m/min

MACHINE 2:
• • • • •

Goller (Germany)

Per Day Production 65000 Mercerize chambers 2 Stabilize chambers 2 Washing chambers 7 Speed 60 m/min

Process:
After bleaching the Ends/Picks of the fabric are disturbed and also fabric is shrink up to 5-10%, therefore to regain fabric original width and Ends/Picks fabric is conditioned to be passed through the STENTER MACHINE, it is also depends upon the material requirement. After pre-stenter the fabric batch is placed on a mercerizing machine The fabric is passed through a number of guide and Bow rolls. After that the material is dipped in to the main section, which is a STRONG LYE containing chamber. The number of chambers in mercerizing machine is different and depends upon the manufacturer of the machine. In this chamber the material is continuously treated with caustic soda of about 26-30°Be @ 60°c. The lye is showered in zigzag manner the fabric is rolled over a number of padder. Load cell are used to maintain tension to the coming fabric. If the material is subject able for reactive print mercerization is necessary, where as on the other hand for pigment print no mercerize

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material is required. After strong lye the fabric is passed through weak lye chamber. The temperature is increased up to 85°c and caustic concentration is decreased up to 7-8°Be, this gradually reduction in caustic concentration stabilize the mercerized material, then in the stabilizing section caustic concentration is decreased up to 4-3°Be through counter flow of water. The mercerized material is rinsed and washed and PH is maintained in a washing range. The next stage after weak lye section is washing. In goller machine there are four chambers as compare to FAISLABAD MERCERIZE. The temperature of starting chamber is about 90-95°c and last washing chamber contain room temperature. In continuous washing range of GOLLER MACHINES, neutralization is also alone by using formic or acetic acid. After neutralization the wet fabric is wound on a batch with the help of tension and winding arm.

IMPORTANT FACTORS:
During operation there are numerous factors, which can effects mercerizing process. Some of them are listed below;  Crease on the fabric can be formed this can be recovered by changing position of guider.
 Black spots or caustic spots can be produce on the fabric due to air

lock occur in the padder.  If proper neutralization objective is not achieved there is a chance of acid remains in the fabric, which will result in degradation of fabric.

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PAD THERMOSOL MONFORTS (2002):
Pad Thermosol is a high temperature dyeing. On pad thermosol we ca get dark shades we are not fixing the dyes on pad steam we can dye vat, disperse and disperse dyes. In YTM there are two Pad thermosol machines with 1.2 lack production per day. Pad thermosol 1 has 4 chambers and it is automatic and Pad thermosol 2 has 5 chambers and it is manual.

Types of Dyes applied on Pad thermosol machine:
• Disperse • Vat • Reactive • Pigment

PROCESS SEQUENCE IN PAD STEAM
Batcher ↓ Screy ↓ Cooling drums ↓ Padding ↓ IR ( pre-drying) ↓ Drying and curing chamber ↓ Cooling drums ↓ Screy ↓ Batcher

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Machine Components and there Working:
Brush :
The brush is present to brush any fluff and dist dirt contaminat.

Cooling cylinder:
A cooling cylinder present with water circulation inside to cool down the fabric if it contains soem heat becasue dye cracking may take place.

Padder:
Dye and otehr dyeing auxiliaries are padded on to the fabric.We can do one bath or two bath dyeing.

Airing zone:
Airing zone is used because some times the light GSM fabric has face back variation so we use airing zone.

IR :
IR is used to dry the fabric upto 25-30% and alo to avaoid thermal shocking becasue we are padding at low temperature and the dryin temperature is far away from padding temperature.

Drying and Fixation:
The fabric is dryed in first 2 chambers and the remaining chambers are for curing or fixation of dyes.There are 2 burners and 2 exhaust fans for each chamber and 2 circulating fans in the chambers. We use dry air in chambers through burning of oil and gas.

Chamber Chamber

1 2

120 C 140 C

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Chamber

3,4

210 C

Working of Machines:
The fabric is unwound and then pass through brushing section here the fluff is brushed and fabric is collected and stored in screy. fabric passes over cooling drums to cool down the temperature of fabric because when we are dyeing PC fabric then after RC fabric is hot enough.the fabric is then passed through Kuster padders, two types of pressure used in Kuster padders hydraulic and neumatic.the central pressure is hydraulic and sides pressure is neumatic.we can adjust the pressure of the padders . Then there is given I.R system the temperature of I.R is about 60- 50 c. there are two I.R installed the temperature of first I.R kept 850 c and second 800c.the function of I.R is to remove 30-35% moisture. the fabric is then passed through the thermos, 5 chambers are provided,  1-2 Drying.  3 Drying.  4-5 Fixation. The fabric is then passed through cooling drums and finally fabric is collected on a batcher.

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PAD STEAM MACHINE :(GOLLER 2000 germany)
Pad steam is used for dyeing light shades and the fastness propertiws of the pad steam is better than pad thermosol.on pad steam fixation of dyes also done.the max temperature of the machine is 100 cand speed 80 m/min.we can done RC,VAT develop,wet on wet and chemical pad. In pad steam there are three types of flows, 1-Counter flow 2-Static flow 3-Over flow In pad steam there are two I.R for high production. We can plant one I.R for normal production. In pad steam we use urea and steam for increasing the moisture but we use steam in the replacement of urea because is less costly then urea also the urea damage the environment. In pad steam there is an E control or economical control. E-control provide good results but initially produce some variations.  Production of Pad steam is 1 lack per day.

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Machine Components and there Functions:
Inlet:
The fabric is transferred from batcher to the J-screy for storing the fabric.

Kuster Padder:
Dyes and other auxiliaries are padded to the fabric.

Steamer:
The dyed fabric is entered to the steamer for fixation of dyes. Two chambers are provided .the temperature of the steamer is 103-105C but the roof temperature kept higher about 108-109 C to avoid dropping effect.

Water Lock:
The function of the water lock is to stable steam to come out from the steamer and also to avoid thermal shocks and also to avoid dyes to be diluted its temperature kept about 40-45C.

Washing range:
There are 8 chambers counter flow system is used. The chambers are used for number of process a/c to the requirement of dyes by showering of different type of chemicals.

• • • •

Light and hard soaping. Washing. RC. Vat develop. Neutralizing.

Chambers of Washing Range:
Chamber Chamber Chamber 1,2 and 3 4,5,6 7,8 soaping, RC,VAT develop Hot Washing Neutralizing

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Cylinder dryers:
There are 20 cylinder dryers last 2 cylinders contain water and 18 cylinders contains super saturated steam 120 C.

Exit:
There is also provided a J-screy at exit to store the fabric and the fabric is wounded on to the batcher.

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PRINTING
In YTM there are 3 m/c of REGGIANI having max fabric length 130” and 97” and length is 40 m. on Printing 1 and 2 ,16 colors can be printed and on Printing 3 12 colors can be printed at a time. • Production is 1-1.3 lack per day.

CAM CAD:
The design given by the customer may be on a paper or directly they given a sample fabric to the cad cam department they scan the design in the computer.

Software used:
• • • Ram Set Photoshop......Lucher Stork

After the approval of the design by the customer design is sent to the engraving department.

Screen Coating:
The screen is made up of 100% nickel. Screen is coated with coated material SCR 64 or SCR 61. Screen is coated upside down for 15-30 min at high temp over 180-200c and left for dry about 10-30 min.

Screen exposing:
There are 3 exposing machine in YTM, • Wax exposing machine.
 Contain black wax which fired on the screen. When light strikes on the screen

wax become hard. • Ink jet. • Laser exposing. Laser light bombarded. SCR 102+101 coat is used only curing, exposing and endering.

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Screen Developing: The screen is developed which means only that parts where patterns are printed on screen are removed from coating while other remains same

Oven Heat (polymerization):
The screen is again oven heated.

Hindering:
The screen is thoroughly washed normally to make sure the patterned area is open i.e. Mashes are not closed by coating or another dust.

Dried and Heated:
Finally the screen is heated and dried and sent to the rotary machine

Types of sheets/mashes for screen:
1. Standard 2. Panda 3. Nova 30,40,60,80 100,125,125 V,155,155 DHL,165 mesh 135,135 DHL,165,195 mesh.

Repeats:
1. 640 mm 2. 819 mm 3. 914 mm

Recipe:

Thickener

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• • • •

Liquor Binder Water Pigment

For reactive:
• •
• •

Urea Sodium bi carbonate Alginate
Revatol

Process flow:

Entry → Printing → Dryer→ Exit

Components of machine:
• • • • Entry Suction Flat rollers Trolley

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• • • •

Printing zone Sensor Conveyor belt washing Dryer

The fabric is passes through guide screen rollers to the suction area here the sucker sucks the fabric fluff and dust particles. Flats are provided when we use knit fabric. The fabric enters into the trolley where PVA is applied to stick he fabric with the blanket belt. The machine is provided with an I.R system and cambered plate to give temperature to the thermoplastic glue. Then the fabric enters into the printing zone. The fabric is sandwiched b/w the rollers and the blanket, magnetic system of printing is used. Color is dozed into the squeegee through pumps automatically. The first screen roller is to press the fabric and the second gathers the remaining fluff. The printing starts from the third screen. each screen prints a single color. the number of the screen depends on the type of design. The sensor is used to control the speed of the blanket. The fabric than entered into compact HC dryer 160-180 c. the dryer has 5 burners. The dryer has three passages air is blown into the chambers 2 times. Finally the fabric is collected by a crank gear mechanism to a trolley.

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AGER ZIMMER (ARIOLI):
There are three AGER present in YTM.2 for pigment fixation and 1 for reactive dye. The main purpose of steam agar is fixation of the print. Three processes can be done on the ager.300 meter fabric can run at a time. The machine consists of 4 circulating fans and 2 exhaust speed of machine is 80 m/min. • Pigments fixing Hot air from oil boiler. • • Reactive Dyes fixing. Steam (saturated) Disperse dyes fixing. High temperature from oil boiler. Time and temperature can be set a/c to the process, • • • Disperse Reactive Pigments 6min 8-10 min 170-180c. 10-12min 102c. 110-165c.

PROCESS:
Entry ↓ Curing ↓ Exit

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The fabric entered into the curing chambers for about 80 min in loop form for the fixation. Suction system is provided the rollers present in the machine for loop formation moves with the help of chains.

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FINISHING
Stenter machines (Monforts Montex):
The purpose of the stenter machine is to bringing the length and width to pre determine dimensions and also for heat setting and it is used for applying finishing chemicals and also shade variation is adjusted.

Components of Machine:
• • • • • • • • • • • • Padders Weft straightner (Mahlo) Burners Heat recovery Attraction rollers Circulating fans Exhaust fans Winder Clips Pins I.R Cooling drums

The fabric is collected from the batcher to the screy and then it is passed through the padders where the finishes are applied and some times shade variation is corrected. The fabric is entered into the mahlo (weft straigtner) the function of the mahlo is to set the bow and also weave of the fabric is griped by the clips and pins are also provided but the pins has a disadvantage that they pins make holes at the selvedge but the stretching of the pins are greater than the clips. These clips and pins are joined to endless chain. There are 8 to 10 chambers provided on the machine each chamber contains a burner and filters are provided to separate dust from air. The circulating fans blow air from the base to the upper side and exhaust fans sucks all the hot air within the chambers. Attraction rollers are provided to stretch the warp yarn.

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After stentering we can increase the width of the fabric up to 1.5-2 inch. The speed of the machine is about 7-150 m/min.3 meters fabric can run in each chamber. Temperature is adjusted that a/c to the fabric as for, • PC

110-130 c • After dyeing 160-170c and after print 130-140c. THERE ARE 6 STENTERS IN YUNUS TEXTILE MILLS S/NO STENTER 1 STENTER 2 STENTER 3 STENTER 4 STENTER 5 STENTER 6 Production/ day 75000 65000 60000 85000 105000 80000 Purpose Heat set for dyeing Finish dyed fabric Stenter dye Print finish Heat set & set for print White,set/wet, set/print,dyed finish

210 c Cotton

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Calendering Machine (KLEINEWEFERS)
Calendaring is an operation carried out on a fabric to improve its aesthetics. Purpose of calendaring is: • • • • • To upgrade the fabric hand and to impart a smooth silky touch to the fabric. To improve the opacity of the fabric To compress the fabric and reduce its thickness. To impart different degree of luster to the fabric. To reduce yarn slippage.

The mechanical finish is done for softness and shining of the fabric or stiffness according to the nature of the chemical, this process is done after the chemical finishing as per buyer requirement. Speed of the machine is 10100 m/min.  There are two calendering m/c in ytm  production of 1 machine is 1.5 lac / day

Components of machine:
• • • • • • • • Winder Metal detector Seam detector Rollers (cotton, reclon and steel) Anti static rod Oscillating roll Batcher sensor cooling drum

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Seam detector:
Function of seam detector is to bypass the seam.

Metal detector:
Metal detector to detect metal partials.

Anti static rod:
Anti static rod is used to remove static charges.

Small winder:
When we have to calendar short width fabric and we can also run short width fabric with long width fabric.

Oscillating roll:
To avoid selvedge overlapping on batcher.

Cotton roll:
For soft finish the fabric is passed through cotton bowl. This roller is made up of cotton.

Steel roll:
To give smoothness and luster. The temperature is provided to steel roller about 32-200 c with help of electric heater as we increase the temperature shining will increases only used for cotton CVC and percale and PC.

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Reclon roll:
When fabric passes through Reclon roll and steel roll giving smooth and luster effect is generated. When it runs with steel roll and reclon roll and cotton roll dull effect is generated. When it runs b/w steel and reclon gloss effect is generated.

Cooling drum:
Cool down the fabric water circulates inside the cooling drum.

SANFORISING MACHINE:
Monforts Sanforizer: (Germany 2003)
The processed fabrics are subjected to elongation during processing. The shrinkage is controlled in the mercerize and stenter to some extent and it is ultimately brought within the norms in the latest monforts sanforizer made in Germany. The width ranges from 40cms to 325cms. Sanforising is a mechanical of treating the textile fabrics to prevent the normal dimension alterations of warp weft, which occur in the finishing operation; especially those carried on in laundering &allied operations.  Production / day70,000  Speed 50 m/min but max is 120 m/min  Rubber roller length 305- 312

MECHANICAL COMPRESSIVE SHRINKAGE: The fabric is compressed by the contraction of the conveyor surfaces on which the fabric has been made to adhere. The conveyor takes the form of a rubber belt or sleeve. The outer end expands as it passes over a roller and at this point the fabric is applied. The surface contracts with it, expansion and contraction are controlled, precise and predetermined length can be obtained, hence the process is positive.

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EVASET PRINCIPLE a specially made rubber sleeve is tensioned b/w roller 2 and 3. A driving roll on the outside of sleeve and deflects the upper run of sleeve into a reverse curvature, the driving roller 1 is steam heated. The outer surface of rubber sleeve is expanded as it moves round the tension roller. The driving roller nips the fabric into contact with the expanded surface contract on taking up the reverse curvature around the driving roller.

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Textile testing lab:
The YTM processing laboratory has latest testing equipments for testing fabric, yarn and also shade matching. the lab is divided into 4 portions.  Lab dip.  RND.  Physical.  Online Q.C.

Lab Dip:
A lab dip is a swatch of fabric test dyed to hit a color standard. Several lab dips may be submitted for feedback until the standard is achieved and the lab dip is approved. There is also now a machine used to read lab dips called a "spectrometer” which will give the same feedback. As not everyone sees color as well as the next (and you can be tested to see how well you see color) a machine can take out human error.

RND and Color Matching:
The main functions of RND department are to check all the running chemicals used in the industry and also to find our troubleshooting and investigate the problem and solve it. They also check new chemicals available in market which fulfills the running chemical and it is cheaper than the running one. Important tests conducted by RND portion,
 Whiteness.

 CMC.  Formaldehyde test.  Water testing.  Raw material check.  Barium activity test.  Core pH.

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 Troubleshooting.
 New product assessment.  Degree of de-size.

 Absorbency test.

CHEMICAL TESTING:
WASHING TEST:
Sample size= 10x4” Standard=ISO -105 CO1 CO6 CO1 and CO2 are for the leather garments CO4 for the Vat dyes CO6 for the fabric

Recipe:
EC soapSoda ashSodium perborate 4gm/l 1gm/l 1gm/l

SHIRINKAGE TEST:
Sample Size: For ISO=50x50 cm For AATCC=38x38cm Standards: SO-6330 2A-9A AATCC-135 Washing machine for ISO wascator Washing machine for AATCC=Whirlpool Sample is washed in its washing machine and dried. Then, its size is checked and change in size is noted. Both warp and weft shrinkage is tested.

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pH METER:
It is important machine in any chemical lab to check out the pH.

PERSPIRATION TEST:
Perspiration test is performed for both acidic and alkaline mediums.2 samples that are sandwiched between the multi-fiber fabrics are dipped in acidic and alkaline solution. then these fabrics are placed on perspirometer under a weight of 5 kg for 4 hours for ISO and 6 hours for AATCC. Then the stains on the multi-fabric are matched with the grey scale.

HARDNESS TEST:
To check the hardness of water, 1 ml of buffer of pH 10 is added in the sample and is titrated with EDTA. Eurochrome black t (EBT) is used as an indicator. The point at which the sample gives blue color is noted and is hardness of water. Hardness= burette reading * 20

DETECTION OF IRON PARTICALES:
Iron particles present in fabric create pinholes after bleaching and they appear visible after dyeing. In order to detect % of iron particles in fabric, 10% of potessium thiocyanide and 5% of nitric acid are used. Dip the fabric in nitric acid for 5 to 10 min, dry then dip in potessium cyanide solution. The iron particle on the fabric will appear as red spots and are easily detected.

BLEND RATIO:

VC blend,
60% sulphuric acid at 20 C for viscose and for cotton 70% sulphuric acid is used at 38C.

PC blend,
Cotton is dissolved in sulphuric acid because metacresol is hazardous to use as it is carcinogenic.

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PURITY OF CAUSTIC:
The % purity of Caustic used by titration with acid and by using phenophtalein as an indicator.

% purity=Burette reading x 2/ weight of the sample.

Spectrophotometer meter:
Spectrophotometry involves the use of a spectrophotometer. A spectrophotometer is a photometer (a device for measuring light intensity) that can measure intensity as a function of the color, or more specifically, the wavelength of light. We can take each and any type of test including shade matching, CIE whiteness test, Burger whiteness test and also this instrument give us the composition of shade. Data Color D650 Dual Beam Spectrophotometer.

Physical Testing:
All the physical tests on a textile sample or material is conducted in physical portion of the lab. The tests conducted by the physical portion are,

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INTERNSHIP REPORT  Tensile strength

 Seam.  Abration  Air permeability.  Pilling.  Appearance.  Rubbing fastness.  Washing fastness.  Color fastness.  Water fastness.  Perspiration fastness.  Dry cleaning fastness.  Light fastness.

Physical testing machines:
Random Tumble Pilling Tester:
Random Tumble Pilling Tester RPT is using UPC controller, to determine the pilling and fuzzing characteristics of textile fabrics. Stainless steel impellers rotate within individually testing chambers constantly tumbling test fabrics against cork liners. Compressed air is also injected into the chamber to assist the tumbling action.

Standards: ASTM D3512 , DIN 53867

Abrasion tester Martindle: Used for testing abrasion resistance of wool or blend of wool's woven, knitted and non woven fabric in specified pressure, also used for testing balling in light pressure for most fabrics, especially for wool woven fabric. Controlled by microcomputer, displayed by LCD, printing

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reports, simultaneity show accumulative used times of every standard abrasive and working state of each test head.

Standards: GB/T4802.2, FZ/T20020, ISO5470, IWS TM112/196, DIN53863/53865,
BS3424/5690, BS EN388/530, JIS L1096, ASTM D4966/4970, SN198.525.198.529, SFS4328

Whirlpool:
Whirlpool Washing Machine is recommended by AATCC for AATCC test methods requiring repeated home laundering.

Standard:
AATCC 135

Gyrowash:
This tester is an instrument for fabric, cotton, wool, linen, silk chemical fiber, knitting and woven fabric etc to test the fastness to washing, to milling and to dry clean. Also it can be

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applied to exam the fastness of the colorant. So it is necessary apparatus for textile quality monitor department.

Applicable standard:ISO105-C05: 1989,GB/T3921.5, BS, JIS, DIN
NF, AATCC, CIN/CGSB, AS, GB571

Whirlpool Tumble Dryer Model :
Front-loading dryer, recommended AATCC test methods requiring for repeated home drying. STANDARDS:AATCC88B/C , AATCC124, AATCC130, AATCC135 AATCC159/172 , AATCC142/150

Tensile strength tester:
The tensile strength test is a modified grab test for determining the breaking strength and elongation/stretch of fabrics

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Srandards:
ISO 5034,1393 ASTM 5035

Elmatear Digital Tear Tester:
Digital Tear Tester Elmatear: simplifies and accelerates routine tear testing. Simply select the unit of measurement and the number of plies and you are ready to test. The test results are displayed digitally. No calculations are required.

Air Permeability Tester:
Air Permeability Tester for textiles consists of an arrangement for holding the test specimens between two flat faces so as to expose a known area to the flow of air through it, a vacuum system to draw air through the exposed area of the test specimens.

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GSM Cutter:
This instrument is a circular fabric sample cutter with which a uniform circular fabric is cut without measuring. The specimen which is cut with the help of the Fabric GSM Cutter is 100 cm2 areas. This instrument is complete with a piece of cutting board and 12 spare blades.

Light box:
light box is used to check the fabric in following conditions; • day-light • incandescent • back-light • U-V light

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Folding
Taking samples from each and every roll and faults are detected and the grading is done then shade is forwarded to the shading department. The rolls are separated in shade wise. The defected fabric is separated. The grading is done a/c to the customer requirement.

There are two types of machines in YTM namely, • Rolling machine. • Flat folding machine. The rolling machine is used for making the rolls of A and B grade fabrics and other graded fabrics are separated and folded on flat folding machine.

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Utilities
YTM has its own mill utilities based on latest technologies and work 24 hours to supply and complete the energy requirements of the mill. Average load of the mill per hour is 2.5-3.2.the utilities are as follows,

• • • • • •

Turbine. Generators. Boilers. Compressors. RO plant. Caustic recovery plant

Turbines:(TURBO MAKE):
• • •

Two turbines production is 1.2 M watt per hour. Run on diesel or gas. 1 K watt cost R.S 4 on gas. 1 K watt cost R.S 20-30 on diesel.

Engine (Generators):

Two Caterpillar generators.

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3516-C 1600 K watt per hour. 3516-A 1000 K watt per hour on stand by.

Boilers:

• •

5 boilers are equipped. The steam of all boilers combined and distributed on machines as per requirement. 3 gas boilers and 2 exhaust boilers (1 turbine exhaust and 1 generator exhaust).

Descon production= 10 TPH. DDFC=8 TPH Ruston=5 TPH Turbine exhaust boiler=8 TPH Generator exhaust boiler=1TPH

Compressors:
• • 6 compressors are equipped. 1 on stand by and 1 is off..
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The air is compressed and transferred to the machines.

Water filtration plant:
Water consumption is 8-8.5 billion gallons per day. 1. softener: • use KDA water it contains some hardness. • The water is stored in a tank. 2. RO plant: • Two RO plants.
• Well water is used in Ro plant.

Process:
Pretreated water is pumped into the membrane housings along the membrane surface. Pure water is permitted to pass through the membrane while ionic, organic, colloidal and bacterial contaminants are swept away in a concentrated solution. Consequently, a reverse osmosis system always creates two continuous exit streams: pure water (permeate) and brine (concentrate). Normally 50 to 75 percent of the feed water can be recovered as permeate.

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