CONTEMPORARY TEACHING STRATEGIES

Discovery ± Inductive Strategy. This strategy moves from the particular to the general and is used to guide students to develop a concept by discovering common features and using the features as basis for grouping the items. The main steps are the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Observe and discuss items or data to be used in developing the concept. Identify common features for use in grouping them, noting distinguishing differences. Decide on a basis for grouping them. Label, name, or define each group. Have children use the term and find new examples.

Discovery ± Deductive Strategy. This strategy moves from the general to the particular. A rule or attributes that students have learned, or that the teacher provides, are given so that students can discover applications or new examples. Students proceed deductively from what they know or what is given to find supporting instances as shown in the following example: 1. Review or teach rule or main attributes to be used by students. 2. Have students supply the rule or main attributes. 3. Review the rule or main attributes. 4. Have students find or do other examples. Directed ± Inductive Strategy. In this strategy the teacher directs instruction step by step from the particular to the general, moving from examples or attributes to a generalized meaning of the concept. The expository role of the teacher in the following example of instruction on the concept value should be noted. 1. Identify the examples or critical attributes of the concept to be developed. 2. Identify non-examples (nonexemplars) of the concept. 3. Have students give examples (exemplars) and non-examples (nonexemplars) of the concept. 4. State the general meaning of the concept. 5. Have students use the term and find other examples and non-examples. Directed ± Deductive Strategy. In this strategy, the teacher starts with the definition of the concept and moves to particular examples of it. The teacher provides direct instruction in all phases except the last one in which students state the definition and give examples of the concept. 1. State the concept to be learned. 2. Identify critical attributes of the concept. 3. Provide examples to clarify the concept. 4. Present non ± examples to further clarify the concept. 5. Have students state or write a definition and give examples. Discovery ± Transductive Strategy. This strategy is useful in creative expression in a variety of forms in which divergent thinking is emphasized. It is also used in situations in which students are to associate, relate, or compare words, numbers, patterns, themes, forms, and other items in a variety of ways. The teacher¶s role is primarily that of facilitator and stimulator. The student¶s role is that of manipulator and experimenter. Main phases of the strategy are the following: 1. Arrange materials or provide data for students to use.
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2. Introduction. Directed ± Transductive Strategy. 4.Have students conduct the interview according to plan. Conclusion. Convergent thinking is emphasized in this strategy which is highly structured in moving students from particular to particular. minority group members. 3. inviting questions from the group. Which of our questions were answered? How can we improve interviewing procedures? Recording procedures? Reporting procedures? Experiments Experiments are used extensively in the science education program and somewhat less in health education. Have students identify needed improvements in response to such questions as. how to introduce oneself to the interviewee. or other experts. Clarify hypothesis to be tested and procedures to use. and other areas of curriculum. art. Provide assistance to students who need it. Possibilities for using interviews exist in all subjects as needs for fresh data are related to contributions that may be made by artists. Preliminary preparation by the teacher includes clarification of objectives to be served by the interview. make specific plans. energy and environmental technologists. Identify interviewee(s). musicians. not trying to prove a foregone conclusion by following a recipe. 2 . 4. enjoy. gathering needed equipment and materials. scientists. and identifying the individual(s) to be interviewed . Provide opportunities for practice. Discuss needs for new or additional data. Have students explore equipment. Use data to solve problems. including questions to ask. 2. Evaluation. Development. formulating questions related to the objectives. demonstrating use as necessary. Introduction. Direct students¶ attention to the items to be associated or related. map skills. nutritionists. and discuss the different outcomes of the activity. It is used in teaching specific motor skills. Main steps are: 1. word association skills. experiments must be planned and conducted so that students are involved in actually testing a hypothesis. Strategies for Using Techniques of Inquiry and Selected teaching Procedures Interviews Interviews are especially helpful in getting firsthand information from individuals who have expertise on topics under study. Provide opportunities for students to share. Provide time for students to use the materials or process the data. Urge students to raise additional questions to clarify points and to get data on unanticipated topics. and importance of expressing thanks when finished. recording procedures during the interview. Stimulate creative thinking by questions or comments. 3. Provide for application in other situations. Have students summarize data and report findings. Discuss conditions and procedures. and the like. Preparation by the teacher includes clarification of the hypothesis to be tested. and arranging working spaces for students. Carry out related activities in the unit under study. music. public officials. To be effective. Discuss procedures for recording data.

collecting needed materials. Plan recording and reporting procedures. environmental problems.Development. equipment and materials. rhythm and other musical instruments. Check on students¶ completing of assignments and recording of information for later sharing. Repeat to any questions that arise. and other items and activities related to topics under study. Evaluation. and other items. Respond to any questions.Have students raise questions. Discuss findings to find out if hypothesis is supported or not. Do each step according to plan. What improvements in procedures do students suggest? What changes are needed to attain initial objectives more adequately? How can ideas be more effectively applied in follow ± up activities? Demonstrations Demonstrations are widely used to teach students how to use equipment and materials. waltzing. making eating and toileting arrangements. Develop charts. making travel arrangements. Involve students in any steps in which their involvement will clarify understanding. State conclusion. exhibits and collections. time schedule. Plan and send a letter of thanks. Conclusion. displays. and rulers. business and industrial activity. 3 . weighing. appropriate dress. obtaining any needed assistance to help supervise students. Assist guide as appropriate . They are also used to develop skills and concepts such as skipping. or other materials as appropriate. Be sure students record data. Have students state main idea or other conclusions. Conclusion. Development. obtaining administrative and parental approval. graphing. compasses. Repeat any steps as needed to clarify understanding. Review standards of behavior. diagrams. Clarify objectives with students. Have students summarize data and report findings. Introduction. candle making. deciding who is to do the demonstration. Have students raise questions as needed to complete collection of data. planning the time schedule. Plan individual and small ± group assignments. Respond to any questions that arise. and instructions to students? Field Trips Field trips give students a firsthand view of people at work. Identify specific questions to be answered. They may be used in any neighborhood to an extended trip to another community. Development. Evaluation. lifting. Ask additional questions to clarify difficult points. Clarify objectives for students. Questing demonstrations are designed to foster discovery of a concept or its application. Be sure each child can see and hear the demonstration. farming and processing of produce. safety precautions. Preliminary preparation by the teacher includes specification of objectives for the trip. Consider needs for more data. and informing the guide on the questions to be raised and the maturity and background of the students. Preliminary preparation by the teacher includes clarifying objectives. Expository demonstrations are designed to impart information directly or to illustrate a skill as students observe. measuring. Introduction. plants and animals in natural or man ± made settings. Was the hypothesis clear and testable? Were procedures for testing the hypothesis adequate? What changes should be made in the procedures. Respond to questions and give assistance as needed. and a host of other activities.. Have students proceed according to plan.

Having the role playing or enactment of the situation 6. The main steps of procedure for any simulation game are the following (Michaelis. Relate learning to the unit under study. are encountered in units of instruction. Evaluation. and so forth 8. and predicting. Consider any problems and summarize key learnings. generalizing. Provide for immediate follow-up and application in learning activities. Conclusion. Having students share experiences and generalize Simulation Games Simulation games serve as simplified models of real activities. Development.Conclusion. Warming up the group (problem confrontation) 2. rules. rules. and use of materials? How can any distortions of reality be corrected? Teaching Strategies for Cognitive. Evaluation. and materials restrict players to realistic portrayal of the activity being simulated. How can use of the game to attain objectives be improved? What needs to be done to clarify roles. next steps. Roles. Clarifying objectives and relating the game to the unit under study are critical elements to emphasize both during the introduction and the debriefing at the conclusion. Having further enactments to play revised roles. or Inquiry Processes A variety of teaching strategies may be used to develop cognitive. or are presented by the teacher. and time limits. or ask students to summarize or demonstrate steps in order. In what ways are students applying what was demonstrated? What aspects need further clarification? To what extent are initial objectives being achieved? What changes should be made if the demonstration is to be repeated? Role Playing In role playing students enact situations that arise in daily living. or inquiry processes. or other objectives. 1972): Introduction. Selecting the participants in role playing 3. Observe players and handle questions on roles and adherence to rules. The strategies are presented below with focusing questions in the order in which they are recommended for use: Concept Development (Classifying) 4 . insight into the feelings of others may be developed. Discussing and evaluating the enactment 7. Clarify concepts. Values may be clarified. skills. rules. Preparing others to participate as observers 4. thinking. The main steps in a strategy for role playing are as follows (Shaftel. Setting the stage 5. Three strategies that have been developed by Hilda Taba and refined by her associates for use in the social studies may be used in any subject field in connection with concept development. Describe player¶s roles. 1967): 1. Providing for further discussion and evaluation 9. and practice in decision-making maybe provided. Note points to consider in debriefing. Thinking. use of materials. Focus debriefing discussion on objectives. Use a chart or the chalkboard to summarize.

Two examples have been selected to illustrate skill development strategies. How do you account for these differences? What does this tell you about.. If that happened. First.1. and other areas of the curriculum. setting purposes of reading. Teaching Strategies for Reading. and clarification of need for the skill. Second. Main steps in the strategy are as follows: 1.) here? Do any of these items seem to belong together? Why would you group them this way? What would you call these groups? Could some of these belong to more than one group? Inferring and Generalizing 1. etc. Finally. physical education.? Applying Generalization (Predicting) 1. They have been systematized in developmental programs of instruction based on researches and studies over the years. Can someone give a different idea about what would happen? 4. Diagnosis of needs and assistance at the point of need are ongoing activities of the teacher during skill development. 3. introducing and explaining skills to be developed. practice. What makes you think that would happen? 3. what would happen? (What would happen if«? 2. evaluation is systematically provided in most programs. Preparation for Reading. Suppose that a particular event occurred given certain conditions. demonstration or explanation of the skill followed by actual practice on the part of students. the emphasis on preparation. The next phase typically involves silent reading in line with objectives. Extension and application of the given direct attention so that students will be able to use them in other situations. Although there are differences among various strategies for skill development. find. 3. 4. What did you see (notice. followed by the discussion and sharing of ideas and by oral reading of selected passages. building interest. What do you see (notice. and evaluation are provided through the use of workbooks or independent activities provided by the teacher. what do you think would happen after that? Teaching Strategies for Developing Skills Teaching strategies for the development of basic skills in reading. extension. readiness building including development of meaning. Development of readiness and background for reading selection. it is possible to identify several common features. 4. etc. arithmetic. especially in the early grades. This strategy begins with preparation for reading which serves as an introduction and the establishing of specific objectives for reading the selection. 2. practice being recognized as the essential ingredient in skill development. read. 2. The first is used in many programs of developmental reading instruction. and other areas of the curriculum are among the most highly refined approaches to instruction. Follow-up.)? What differences did you notice (with reference to a particular question)? Why do you think this happened? Or.. 5. music. 5 . The second is used to develop motor skills in physical education. presenting vocabulary to be encountered in the selection.

4. and other skills. Clarify need for the skill. answer to questions. taking notes or completing exercises related to the selection. 2. Pose a problem. how the ideas might be applied. Follow-up. Have students graph. related activities in art. Opportunities for students to read aloud while the teacher observes to note any aspects needing attention. Teaching Strategies in Science Waetjen has suggested the following teaching strategies in science: 1. or other areas of curriculum. sharing of most interesting passage. at times students may do the demonstrating themselves beginning with simple aspects and moving to increasingly more complex ones as they develop the skill being emphasized. 5. 5. word analysis. the relationship of the data to the other problems and so forth. Teaching Strategy for Developing Motor Skills. 4. 5. 6 . new ideas obtained. Have students gather data related to solution of the problem. Evaluation. practice on vocabulary development. individual assistance by the teacher as requested by the students.2. Use of workbook and independent activities prepared by the teacher. We now turn our attention to some of these strategies. reading for main ideas. Have students generalize on the basis of their data. 3. 3. a short lecture might even be in order at this point. Guided Oral Reading. 8. observing to note those in need of guidance. individualized practice materials. emphasis on interpretation of selected parts. Provide individual assistance as needed. Related readings in a textbook take on genuine meaning now that they can reinforce and argument the results of the of the student¶s personal experience. and interpret their data. applications in other areas of curriculum. Demonstrate the skills. In fact. 3. not included in the preceding discussion. study. The principal steps in the teaching strategy for developing motor skills are as follows: 1. OTHER TEACHING STRATEGIES There are other teaching strategies. Practice. Proceed to a group discussion of the meaning and limitations of the data. If enough interest has been generated and there is sufficient demand. The strategy involves demonstration plus immediate involvement or participation on the part of students. and other objectives set during the preparation. or have a student demonstrate them. Extension. Opportunities for students to discuss and share interesting parts. Reading of the Selection. music education. Discussion and Sharing. Provide for immediate use of the skill. 6. This strategy may be used for developing psychomotor skills in physical education. Establish an experimental design aimed at solving the problem. 7. which may also be labeled contemporary. Silent reading in line with the objectives. Provide for immediate practice. reading for details. 4. 2.

organize his own data. The following is an example of a structured activity: 1. Require the student to answer a series questions about his data. developed by Wilson Taylor in 1953. rather. Pose a problem Suggest a procedure for gathering data. inquiry skills. Taylor´ said that a person who understands the message of a printed passage even with the words removed from it can replace these words exactly and therefore experience a form of closure. Accordingly. Programmed Instruction Instruction which makes use of a programmed text. 5. With the mode of inquiry. and making tentative conclusions-are utilized in the modern method of teaching history. Understanding why and how major events happened will enable our schools to develop among our youth enlightened patriotism and make them better equipped for dealing with today¶s events. Attitudes to be promoted in history and/or social studies classes are willingness to listen to all sides of an argument. teaching-learning activities in science may be structured or unstructured. 2. the cloze procedure. Require the student to organize his data in both tabular and graphical form whenever possible. instead of conventional texts. Allow the student time to gather the data in the way prescribed. willingness to make decisions based on proof. is called programmed instruction. Require the student to generalize on the basis of his data and to be prepared to defend his generalizations in front of the class. 2. formulating hypothesis. teachers do not focus on knowledge objectives or memory level learning. Inquiry skills are developed through the use of ³analytical concepts´ and ³analytical questions´. Students are also led into identifying values and develop their own value systems. recognizing a problem. 6. the teaching of history must be done through the mode of inquiry. They focus. hence the term cloze. was adapted from the word cloze by Gestalt psychologist which means filling in the parts in an incomplete message in order to arrive to a conclusion. values. 3.According to Waetjen. Allow the student complete liberty to devise his own procedure. The Closure Procedure in Reading According to Alegre (1974). and wanting to continue to learn. on four major objectives: attitudes. 4. Here is an example of an unstructured activity: 1. and arrive at his own generalizations. gathering data. Pose a problem. A programmed text is one in which the content is arranged in either a linear or branching of a program. and knowledge. 7 . These steps of mode of inquiry-namely. Modern Method of Teaching History History is the study of controversies and demands interpretations.

Without our child we could not enjoy ourselves or be creative. They develop their ability to separate fact. there are three basic modes or ways of behaving. conduct a meeting. and opinion. students are expected to question the authenticity of the source material. or dilemmas that encourage identification of issues and development of tentative hypothesis. Adult and Child behavior. and criticize. to think. We are in our Parent when we nurture another. 8 . cases. There is nothing good or bad about Parent. wants what he want and is spontaneous. Each has its own purpose. The child in us wants to have fun. 3. internal analysis follows. Finally. or some may favor two of them to the partial inclusion of the third. We need our Child when we want to express emotion. fiction. but some of us use them as needed while others favor one of the three to the exclusion of the other two. 2. control and order people about. The P-A-C Strategy According to a relatively recent psychological theory called transactional analysis. We use our Adult to process information and decide upon a course of action-in its broadest sense. we could make a great deal of sense but we would probably be a pretty dull company. Students should be urged to consider their own values as they synthesize explanations. Adult and Child. If we are Parent all the time. everyone uses each of the three modes of behavior at times. In practice. Students are confronted with problem situations. As evidence is renewed. is emotional. preparatory to rendering a judgment. Once evidence is accepted as authentic. These are Parent. After all available evidence has been evaluated and the students consider their own values. and we could not order students out of the classroom in case of emergency. we would appear so domineering that all people would feel stifle and be wary of us. students arrive at conclusions or make generalizations. we could not reason and resolve conflict constructively. help someone. teach someone. 5. Without our Parent we could not teach. If we are always in our Adult. Following the presentation of data. enjoy ourselves. we might experience a lot of fun but we would get little or nothing done. Evidence is weighed and evaluated as students compare various primary and secondary source materials. love a small child. or be creative. Without our Adult. The only ³bad´ aspect of P-A-C is becoming stuck in any one mode of behavior to the point where one cannot shift into using the appropriate mode at the right time. They consider conflicting testimonies and probe for internal consistency and logic. they make decisions always subject to later revision. 4. students gain practice in interpreting data. If we are constantly in our Child. conflicts.1.

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