Chapter 2 ² Life Cycle Models

Software Life Cycle y Life Cycle Models y Classical Waterfall Model y Iterative Waterfall Model y Prototyping Model y Evolutionary Model y Spiral Model y Comparisons of the various Models

Software Life Cycle

Software life cycle (or software process) series of identifiable stages that a software product undergoes during its life time 
Feasibility study  Requirements analysis and specification,  Design,  Coding,  Testing  Maintenance.

Life Cycle Models
A software life cycle model - a descriptive and diagrammatic model of software life cycle y Identifies all the activities required for product development, y Establishes a precedence ordering among the different activities, y Divides life cycle into phases.

Why model a life cycle?

written description:

yforms a common understanding of activities among the software developers. yhelps in identifying inconsistencies, redundancies, and omissions in the development process. yHelps in tailoring a process model for specific projects.

y Helps development of software in a systematic and disciplined manner y There must be a precise understanding among team members as to when to do what y . The development team must identify a suitable life cycle model and then adhere to it.Contd..

y It becomes easier for software project managers to monitor the progress of the project y ..Contd. A life cycle model defines entry and exit criteria for every phase. y A phase is considered to be complete only when all its exit criteria are satisfied.

.g. etc. The project manager can at any time fairly accurately tell. design.Contd. test. ) of the project is ² proper tracking y Non compliance will lead to 99 percent complete syndrome y . at which stage (e. code..

Classical Waterfall model y Classical waterfall model divides life cycle into the following phases: feasibility study requirements analysis and specification design coding and unit testing integration and system testing maintenance .

Analysis Design Coding Testing Maintenance .Waterfall model Feasibility Study Req.

Test . Maintnce Design Coding Among development phases. Sp 0 development phases. y y testing phase consumes the maximum effort. y Among all life cycle phases y maintenance phase consumes maximum effort.Relative Effort for Phases y Phases between feasibility study and testing y 60 50 40 30 20 10 Req.

. project management. testing. y They also prescribe specific methodologies for: specification. etc.Contd. design.. y Most organizations usually define: standards on the outputs (deliverables) produced at the end of every phase entry and exit criteria for every phase.

Feasibility Study Most important phase y Main aim of feasibility study is to determine whether developing the product y financially worthwhile technically feasible. processing needed on these data. output data to be produced by the system. various constraints on the behaviour of the system. y First roughly understand what the customer wants: different data which would be input to the system. .

and x development time. y Formulate different solution strategies. . y Perform a cost/benefit analysis: to determine which solution is the best.Activities during feasibility study Work out an overall understanding of the problem. y Examine alternate solution strategies in terms of: y x resources required. x cost of development.

.Req Analysis and Specification y Aim of this phase is to understand Exact requirements of the customer Document them properly y Consists of two distinct activities: requirements gathering and analysis requirements specification.

Goals of Requirement Analysis y Collect all related data from the customer analyze the collected data to clearly understand what the customer wants find out any inconsistencies and incompleteness in the requirements resolve all inconsistencies and incompleteness .

Requirement gathering process y Important to gather relevant data usually collected from the end-users through interviews and discussions y The data you initially collect from the users: would usually contain several contradictions and ambiguities each user typically has only a partial and incomplete view of the system .

Ambiguities and contradictions: must be identified resolved by discussions with the customers. y Engineers doing requirements analysis and specification are designated as analysts y .Contd.. requirements are organized: into a Software Requirements Specification (SRS) document. y Next.

software architecture is derived from the SRS document Two design approaches x traditional approach x object oriented approach .Design y Design phase transforms requirements specification: into a form suitable for implementation in some programming language during design phase.

Identify data flow among the functions. Carried out using DFD·s y . Identify data flow among the sub functions as well.Traditional Design Approach y y y y Structured Analysis Identify all the functions to be performed. Decompose each function into sub-functions.

Traditional Design Approach y Structured Design Architectural Design (High level design) Detailed Design (Low level design) y y Architectural Design decompose the system into modules. represent invocation relationships among the modules Detailed Design different modules designed in greater detail data structures and algorithms for each module are designed .

lower development time. better scalability . further refined to obtain the detailed design y OOD has several advantages: lower development effort.Object Oriented Design y First identify various objects (real world entities) occurring in the problem: identify the relationships among the objects. better maintainability.

Implementation (Coding) y Purpose of implementation phase (coding and unit testing phase): translate software design into source code each module of the design is coded.a set of program modules that have been tested individually . each module is documented. and debugged. The end product . each module is unit tested x tested independently as a stand alone unit.

During each integration step. the partially integrated system is tested.Integration and system testing y Different modules are integrated in a planned manner: modules are almost never integrated in one shot. Normally integration is carried out through a number of steps. y M1 M3 M2 M4 .

. y After all the modules have been successfully integrated and tested system testing is carried out..Contd. Goal of system testing To ensure that the developed system functions y according to its requirements as specified in the SRS document.

y Perfective maintenance: Improve implementation of the system enhance functionalities of the system. y . to a new computer or to a new operating system. y Adaptive maintenance: Port software to a new environment. development effort to maintenance effort is typically 40:60. e.g. y Corrective maintenance: Correct errors which were not discovered during the product development phases.Maintenance Maintenance of any software product: requires much more effort than the effort to develop the product itself.

. in practice: x defects do get introduced in almost every phase of the life cycle.Iterative Waterfall Model y Classical waterfall model is idealistic: assumes that no defect is introduced during any development activity.

.Contd. y Once a defect is detected: we need to go back to the phase where it was introduced redo some of the work done during that and all subsequent phases. y Therefore we need feedback paths in the classical waterfall model..

Contd. Analysis Design Coding Testing Maintenance .. Feasibility Study Req.

. y .Contd. For example: if a design problem is detected in the design phase itself y the problem can be taken care of much more easily y than say if it is identified at the end of the integration and system testing phase. y Errors should be detected in the same phase in which they are introduced.

.Phase containment of errors y y Reason: rework must be carried out not only to the design but also to code and test phases. The principle of detecting errors as close to its point of introduction as possible: is known as phase containment of errors. y Iterative waterfall model is by far the most widely used model. Almost every other model is derived from the waterfall model.

Prototyping Model y Before starting actual development. y . a working prototype of the system should first be built. low reliability. inefficient performance. A prototype is a toy implementation of a system: limited functional capabilities.

Reasons for building y y y y Illustrate to the customer . reports. messages. Examine technical issues associated with product development: It is impossible to ``get it right'' the first time We must plan to throw away the first product if we want to develop a good product . or interactive dialogs.input data formats.

y The developed prototype is submitted to the customer for his evaluation: Based on the user feedback.Contd. requirements are refined.g . Carry out a quick design. y y y Start with approximate requirements. Prototype model is built using several short-cuts E..A function may use a table look-up rather than performing the actual computations. . This cycle continues until the user approves the prototype.

Build Prototype Requirements Gathering Quick Design Customer Evaluation of Prototype Customer satisfied Design Implement Refine Requirements Test Maintain .. y The actual system is developed using the classical waterfall approach.Contd.

.overall development cost might be lower systems with unclear user requirements. y Design and code for the prototype is usually thrown away: However. y Requirements analysis and specification phase becomes redundant: final working prototype (with all user feedbacks incorporated) serves as an animated requirements specification. systems with unresolved technical issues . y Even though construction of a working prototype model involves additional cost . the experience gathered from developing the prototype helps a great deal while developing the actual product.Contd.

Evolutionary Model y Evolutionary model (successive versions or incremental model): The system is broken down into several modules which can be incrementally implemented and delivered. The initial product skeleton is refined into increasing levels of capability: by adding new functionalities in successive versions. y y First develop the core modules of the system. c A A B A B .

difficult to subdivide problems into functional units which can be incrementally implemented and delivered. y y y Helps finding exact user requirements: much before fully working system is developed. Often.Advantages and Disadvantages y Users get a chance to experiment with a partially developed system: much before the full working version is released. Core modules get tested thoroughly: reduces chances of errors in final product. evolutionary model is useful for very large problems where it is easier to find modules for incremental implementation. .

y There are no fixed phases in this model . and so on.Spiral Model y y Proposed by Boehm in 1988. the next loop with system requirements definition. Each loop of the spiral represents a phase of the software process: the innermost loop might be concerned with system feasibility. the next one with system design.

Contd. Determine Objectives 1 Identify & Resolve Risks 2 Customer Evaluation of Prototype 4 Develop Next Level of Product 3 ..

Quadrant 2 ² Identify and resolve risks For each identified project risk a detailed analysis is carried out. . if there is a risk that the requirements are inappropriate: a prototype system may be developed.Contd. y For example. y y Steps are taken to reduce the risk. y Examine the risks associated with these objectives. Quadrant 1 ² Determine objectives y Identify objectives of the phase.. y Find alternate solutions possible. Risk: x any adverse circumstance that might hamper successful completion of a software project.

Contd.. Quadrant 4 ² Review and Planning y Review the results achieved so far with the customer and plan the next iteration around the spiral. . Quadrant 3 ² Development and Validation y Develop and validate the next level of the product.

Life Cycle Models Comparison y Iterative waterfall model most widely used model. y The spiral model suitable for development of technically challenging software products that are subject to several kinds of risks . But. y Prototype model is suitable for projects not well understood user requirements technical aspects y Evolutionary model is suitable for large problems can be decomposed into a set of modules that can be incrementally implemented. suitable only for well-understood problems. incremental delivery of the system is acceptable to the customer.

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