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An escalator is a power driven moving staircase. Developed in America and put in 1900 Paris exposition, a New York city subway and a New York store. Escalators are used around the world to move pedestrian traffic in places where elevators would be impractical. Principal areas of usage include department stores, shopping malls, airports, transit systems, convention centers, hotels, and public buildings Similar to moving walkways. Powered by constant-speed alternating current motors. Move at approximately 0.30²0.61 m/s. Continuous operation with out help of any operator. In the form of inclined bridge spanning between the floors.

0 m. 1. € For normal peak periods. the recommended Handling capacities for design purposes should be taken as 3200 to 6400 persons per hour depending upon the width of the escalator.4. or 2 for 0.Escalators operate at a constant speed and serve only two levels.8 m and 2 persons for a step width of 1.6. Where K = 1.1. 0.5 persons for a step width of 0.0 instep widths.6 m.8 and 1.5. € Calculation of Capacity: ¾ 0. ¾ Theoretically : 3600 x (rated speed in m/h x k)/O.4 m can carry 1 person for a step width of 0. € .

Parallel : up and down escalators "side by side or separated by a distance".€ Escalators have three typical configuration options: 1. seen often in multilevel motion picture theatres .

frequently used in department stores or shopping centers Multiple parallel: two or more escalators together that travel in one direction next to one or two escalators in the same bank that travel in the other direction 3. .2. Crisscross: minimizes structural space requirements by "stacking" escalators that go in one direction.

Landing platforms: These two platforms house the curved sections of the tracks. € Truss: The truss is a hollow metal structure that bridges the lower and upper landings. as well as the gears and motors that drive the stairs. € Tracks: The track system is built into the truss to guide the step chain. which continuously pulls the steps from the bottom platform and back to the top in. € .

€ € € € € € Steps: The steps themselves are solid.2 times the rated speed. Motor and Brake . one piece. Wheel Tracks :This shall be designed to prevent displacement of steps and running gear if a step chain breaks. Driving Machine. Combplates Speed governor :Escalators shall be equipped in such a way that they stop automatically before the speed exceeds 1. die-cast aluminum or steel. Handrail: The handrail provides a convenient handhold for passengers Step.

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The core of an escalator is a pair of chains. which rotate th-e chain loops. the steps collapse on each other. At the top and bottom of the escalator. An electric motor turns the drive gears at the top. € As the chains move. looped around two pairs of gears. € The motor and chain system are housed inside the truss. a metal structure extending between two floors. € A typical escalator uses a 100 horsepower motor to rotate the gears. creating a flat platform € . the steps always stay level.

flattening the stairway.Each step in the escalator has two sets of wheels. which roll along two separate tracks. and so are pulled by the drive gear at the top of the escalator. to give riders some stability. € The tracks are spaced apart in such a way that each step will always remain level. the tracks level off to a horizontal position. € In addition to rotating the main chain loops. the electric motor in an escalator also moves the handrails € This belt is precisely configured so that it moves at exactly the same speed as the steps. The upper set (the wheels near the top of the step) are connected to the rotating chains. At the top and bottom of the escalator. The other set of wheels simply glides along its track. following behind the first set. € .

€ Escalator Landing Zone: A space extending from a horizontal plane 40 cm below a landing to a plane 40 cm above the landing. € .Rated Load (Escalator) ³ The load which the escalator is designed and installed to lift at the rated speed.

75 m/s for an angle of inclination up to 30°and 0.0m 4500 6750 9000 CAPACITY PERSONS/ HOUR 0. .5 m/s for an escalator with an angle of inclination of more than 30° but within 35°.8m 1. but for rises not exceeding 6 m and rated speed not exceeding 0.5 m/s the angle of inclination is permitted to be increased up to 35°.5m/s 0.6m 0. ‡The rated speed of the escalator shall not exceed 0.75m/s 6750 10125 13500 Essential Requirements: ‡Angle of inclination of an escalator from the horizontal shall not exceed 30°.STEP WIDTH 0.65m/s 5850 8775 11700 0.

€ The parts of the balustrade facing the steps shall be smooth. € . such change shall not exceed 8 percent of the greatest width. Covers or strips not in the direction of travel shall not project more than 3 mm € Where a change in width is unavoidable.Horizontal distance (measured at right angles to the direction of travel) between the balustrade interior paneling at lower points shall be equal to or less than the horizontal distance measured at points higher up.

Exempted from this are the combs. The landing area of escalators shall have a surface that provides a secure foot hold for a minimum distance of 0. with which the teeth of the combs mesh.85 m measured from the root of the comb teeth. The width of the handrail shall be between 70 mm and 120 mm. The surface of the step treads shall have grooves in the direction of movement. .38 m.€ € € € € For escalators arranged adjacent to one another either parallel or criss-cross the distance between the edges of the handrails shall not be less than 120 mm. The step depth in the direction of travel shall not be less than 0.

€ Escalators shall be equipped in such a way that they stop automatically before the speed exceeds 1.2 times the rated speed. € . € The truss or girder shall be designed to safety sustain the steps and running gear in operation. In the event of failure of the track system it shall retain the running gear in its guides.There shall be a combplate at the entrance and at the exit of every escalator.

7.5 KW train stations. department stores. with feet together A rare historic design. in Millimeters Single-step capacity Energy usage Energy Energy consumption.75 kW department stores Low-volume sites.5 KW 10 HP Large 1000 mm Mainstay of Two passengers metro systems. past another some retail usage 10 HP . uppermost levels of 3.75 kW department stores.Escalator step widths Width (Between Balustrade Panels). 7. when space is limited Shopping malls. one may walk larger airports. especially in older 3. in consumption. in Kilowatts Horsepower Size Applications Very small 400 mm One passenger. smaller airports 5 HP Small 600 mm One passenger 5 HP Medium 800 mm One passenger + one package or one piece of luggage.

€ € € € The vertical and horizontal distance to be spanned must be considered for pitch and the actual of the escalator Escalators should be situated where they can be easily seen by the general public. . Safety considerations. Aesthetic preferences.

They have no waiting interval (except during very heavy traffic) They can be used to guide people toward main exits or special exhibits. and they may be weatherproofed for outdoor use.€ € € € They have the capacity to move large numbers of people They can be placed in the same physical space as one might install a staircase. .

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