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1. Abstract This objective of this experiment is to study the jet forces impacting against stationary deflectors. The deflectors used in this experiment can be categorised into three geometries. Plate, hemisphere and slope deflectors are used for this experiment. Calculated force, Fth and the percentage of error will be calculated in this experiment. 2. Introduction Water turbines are widely used throughout the world to generate power. By allowing fluid under pressure to strike the vanes of a turbine wheel, mechanical work can be produced. Rotational motion is then produced by the force generated as the jet strikes the vanes. One of the common types of water turbines is Pelton wheel. In this type of water turbine, one or more water jets are directed tangentially on to a vanes or buckets that are fastened on the rim of the turbine disc. The impact of the water on the vanes generates a torque on the wheel causing it to rotate and to develop power. To predict the output of a Pelton wheel and to determine its optimum rotational speed, understanding on how the deflection of the jet generates a force on the buckets and how the force is related to the rate of momentum flow in the jet are needed. This experiment aims at assessing the different forces exerted by the same water jet on a variety of geometrical different plates. Under this experiment, the force generated by a jet of water striking a deflector is measured. 3. Experiment Methods and Materials The apparatus used in this experiment are hydraulic bench, deflectors (plate, hemisphere and slope), water jet apparatus, weighing tank, stopwatch and loading weight. Before the experiment was carried out, a quick inspection was performed to ensure that the unit is in proper operating condition. First, a hose connection was made and is connected to the nearest power supply. Then, the discharge pipe was opened. When assembling the deflector, the 3 screws on the cover were first loosened and the cover was removed together with the lever mechanism. Plate deflector was then fitted. After that, the lock nut on rod was tightened and the cover was screwed back onto vessel. The pointer was set to zero using adjusting screw before placing any loading weights on measurement system. Desired loading weight: 0.2N, 0.3N, 1N, 2N and 5N were then applied. The main cock was closed and the pump was switched on. The main cock was carefully opened until the pointer is on zero again. After that, drain cock was closed and the flow rate was determined. Time required for the level in the volumetric tank to rise from 20 to 30 litres was recorded. Then, the pump was switched off and the drain was opened. These steps were repeated for hemisphere and slope deflectors. All the results were recorded and tabulated. 4. Data Analysis The specific results from the experiment allow us to determine the properties of force acting on each type of deflector and to calculate the calculated force, Fth and the percentage of error. Plate Flow Rate, Q (m3/s) 2.01 x 10-4 3.648 x 10-4

Calculated Force, Fth (N) 0.5144 1.6944

Measured Force, F (N) 0.2 0.3

Time, t (s) 49.76 27.41

Percentage of Error (%) 157.20 464.80

4.272 x 10-4 4.554 x 10-4 6.693 x 10-4 Hemisphere Flow Rate, Q (m3/s) 9.599 x 10-5 1.773 x 10-4 2.456 x 10-4 3.357 x 10-4 5.179 x 10-4 Slope Flow Rate, Q (m3/s) 1.899 x 10-4 2.947 x 10-4 5.882 x 10-4 7.77 x 10-4

2.3237 2.6406 5.7036

1.0 2.0 5.0

23.41 21.93 14.94

132.37 32.03 22.81

Calculated Force, Fth (N) 0.2346 0.8005 1.5360 2.8697 6.8302

Measured Force, F (N) 0.2 0.3 1.0 2.0 5.0

Time, t (s) 104.28 56.41 40.71 29.79 19.31

Percentage of Error (%) 17.30 166.83 53.60 43.49 36.60

Calculated Force, Fth (N) 0.2296 0.5529 2.2026 3.8435

Measured Force, F (N) 0.2 0.3 1.0 2.0

Time, t (s) 52.66 33.93 17.00 12.87

Percentage of Error (%) 14.80 84.30 120.26 92.18

5. Discussion For this experiment, we used 10 litre of water and a nozzle of diameter 10mm. Based on the time recorded and the information above, we are able to calculate the calculated force, Fth and the percentage of error. First, we convert the unit of the flow rate, Q from L/min to m3/s for the easier of calculation. For the calculated force, Fth and percentage of error, they are calculated according to the formulas below. Formulas used to calculate the calculated force, Fth:Plate: Hemisphere: Slope: Formula used to calculate the percentage of error: Percentage of Error =

In this experiment, when the measured increased, the time needed for the level in the volumetric tank to rise from 20 to 30 litres decrease. This results in a decrease in the flow rate. When comparing the three types of deflectors, the flow rate for the hemisphere is found to be the lowest. The percentage of error ranged from around 14% to around 470%. Some of the percentages of error are very large due to several errors made during the experiment. One of the errors may be the error made during setting the pointer, the pointer may not precisely set to zero due to parallax error. Another possible error is the error made when recording the time. Other than that, error made when adjusting the main cock is also possible. The main cock may not properly open causing the pointer not exactly at zero.

6. Conclusion As a conclusion, the calculated force is correlated with the measured force. Both of the forces will have directly proportional relation. Theoretically, the calculated force should be the same as the measured force. However, this cannot be achieved experimentally due to the errors made during the experiment. Form this experiment, the flow rate for the hemisphere is found to be the lowest and thus require a longer time for the volumetric tank to rise from 20 to 30 litres.

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