Phase Diagram of a Ternary System
1. Abstract The purpose this experiment was carried out was to determine the bimodal curve and the typical tie lines of the water-ethyl acetate-propanoic acid system. The points on the bimodal curve was determined using the mass fractions of ethyl acetate, water and propanoic acid of mixtures A to F after the propanoic acid was slowly added until a single phase clear solution is obtained. The tie line is drawn using the mass fractions of ethyl acetate, water and propanoic acid of mixtures S, T and U with the ratio of mass of SE/mass of SW using trial and error method. Three phase diagram will be drawn in this experiment. 2. Introduction Separation process in which a solute in a feed stream is extracted by contacting the feed with a solvent is called solvent extraction. The solute has to be soluble in both the feed and solvent in order for the extraction to take place. The solvent and the feed for industrial extraction operations are normally partially soluble in one another. A ternary system will be formed consists of the feed, solvent and solute. The composition of such a system can be conveniently represented on an equilateral triangle plot with each corner of the triangle representing one of the three components. In this experiment, the three components are ethyl acetate (the solvent E), water (the feed W) and propanoic acid (the solute A). 3. Experiment Methods and Materials The apparatus used in the experiment include conical flask, 100ml measuring cylinder with stopper, hanging weight of known volume, 4 decimal place balance, top loading balance, spring balance, vernier callipers, burette, stirrer, dropper, beaker, stand and clamp, filter funnel, ethyl acetate, water and propanoic acid. The experiment procedures include: Determination of Points on the Bimodal Curve First, a mixture of 20g of water and 4g of ethyl acetate was prepared in a 250ml conical flask. The mixture is cloudy upon shaking because it is a two-phase system. Water was added dropwise to find the solubility of ethyl acetate in water. The mixture was shaken until the solution turns clear. Then, the exact weight of both components was recorded. The procedure was repeated with the reverse amounts of the two components. Ethyl acetate was then added to find the solubility of water in ethyl acetate. After that, 2-phase mixtures of ethyl acetate and water were prepared according to the amounts as shown in the table below. Propanoic acid was added dropwise and the mixture was kept shaken and more propanoic was added until a single phase clear solution was formed. The weight of propanoic required to achieve a clear solution was recorded. Finally, the weights were converted into mass fractions and plotted on the triangular graph. All the results were recorded and tabulated.
Determination of Tie Lines First, two-phase mixtures were prepared in a 100ml measuring cylinder according to the amount as shown in the table below. The cylinder was enclosed with a stopper and was shaken well. It was then allowed to rest until mixtures have settled in two phase with a clear interface. The volumes of the aqueous phase (the lower phase) and the organic phase (the upper phase) for each mixture were read off. After that, the density of the aqueous phase and that of the organic phase was determined using the hanging weight and digital balance with the application of Archimedes Principle. The mass, ME of the organic phase and the mass, MW of the aqueous phase were computed. Then, the ratio ME/ MW for each mixture were obtained. Finally, tie line for each mixture was plotted using the inverse Lever Rule and the ratio ME/MW by trial and error method. All the results were recorded and tabulated. Phase diagrams for the three mixtures were plotted. 4. Data Analysis The specific results from the experiment allow us to determine the mass fraction, density, mass and ratio of S E/mass of SW. Mixture Ethyl Water Propanoic Ethyl Acetate Water Propanoic Acetate (g) Acid (g) Mass Mass Acid Mass (g) Fraction Fraction Fraction A 16 2 10.1 0.57 0.07 0.36 B 12 3 12.9 0.43 0.11 0.46 C 10 4 13.4 0.36 0.15 0.49 D 9 7 13.8 0.30 0.24 0.46 E 6 14 20.0 0.15 0.35 0.50 F 2 16 24.2 0.05 0.38 0.57 Mixture Ethyl Acetate (g) 40 37 30 Water (g) 40 37 40 Initial Volume (aq) m3 0.000042 0.000041 0.000043 Propanoic Acid (g) 9 15 20 Ethyl Acetate Mass Fraction 0.45 0.42 0.33 Water Mass Fraction 0.45 0.42 0.44 Propanoic Acid Mass Fraction 0.10 0.16 0.23
S T U Mixture
S T U Mixture S T U
Volume (org) m3 0.000049 0.000054 0.000053 Density, (org) 679.5787 1019.3680 1359.1570
Force (in air)N 0.3 0.3 0.3
Volume (org) m3 0.000052 0.000058 0.000056
Final Volume Force 3 (aq) m (org) N 0.000046 0.28 0.000044 0.26 0.000046 0.26
Force (aq) N 0.23 0.24 0.26
Density, (aq) 1783.8940 2038.7360 1359.1573
Mass of SE (org) g 2.0387 4.0775 4.0775
Mass of SW (aq) g 7.1356 6.1162 4.0775
Ratio of Mass of SE/ Mass of SW 0.2857 0.6667 1.0000
5. Discussion The bimodal curve was drawn using the mass fractions of ethyl acetate, water and propanoic acid of mixtures A to F after the propanoic acid was slowly added until a single phase clear solution is obtained. The densities for organic phase and water phase are calculated using Forg = org Vorgg and Faq = aq Vorgg. The mass of SE and SW are calculated by org Vorg × 1000 and aq Vorg × 1000. The tie line was then drawn using the mass fractions of ethyl acetate, water and propanoic acid of mixtures S, T and U with the ratio of mass of SE/mass of SW. Relationship of Mass of SE/Mass of SW = Length of line SSW/Length of line SES also used in drawing the tie line by trial and error method. The tie line for mixture S was unable to draw because of the errors occurred during the experiment. These errors include that the propanoic acid was added in excess or insufficiently. Hence, the amount of the solution needed for the mixture to turn clear may excesses the actual amount needed. Besides that, the solution was not confirmed 100% clear. The sensitivity of the measurement of the force was not good enough. Accuracy of the points draws using free hand may not accurate enough. The decimal places used in the calculation will also affect the results. 6. Conclusion As a conclusion, the orientation of the tie line and the bimodal curve together determine the composition of phase SE and SW that are equilibrium with one another. In order to get more accurate results, the experiment should be repeated several times. Application of this experiment is the extraction of metal in industry or extraction of solution in lab experiment.