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Published by: Michelle Lopez on Mar 27, 2011
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome, commonly called ARDS, is a sudden failure of the respiratory

system that occurs when fluid builds up in the tiny, elastic air sacs in your lungs. In a short time, breathing becomes difficult, depriving your organs of the oxygen they need to function. ARDS usually occurs in people who are already critically ill or who have significant injuries. Severe shortness of breath ² the main symptom of ARDS ² usually develops within a few hours to a few days after the original disease or trauma.

Signs and symptoms
Severe shortness of breath Labored and unusually rapid breathing Low blood pressure Confusion and extreme tiredness Cough or fever, in some cases Causes 


Severe viral or bacterial pneumonia Infection spreading through your bloodstream (sepsis) Heart failure with fluid in your lungs Multiple or massive blood transfusions A serious head or chest injury Fractures of long bones, such as the femur, which can release fat particles that are carried through your bloodstream to your lungs (fat embolism) Prolonged use ² from several days to a week ² of large volumes of supplemental oxygen Accidental inhalation of vomit or chemicals, such as ammonia or chlorine Smoke inhalation Risk factors 



Have a widespread infection in your bloodstream (sepsis) Have chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) Use a breathing machine (mechanical ventilator) Have had certain types of surgery recently

Interventions y y y y y y y Identify and treat the cause of the acute respiratory syndrome. Abnormal lung function. Bacterial infections. Diagnostic tests      Chest X-ray Arterial blood gas analysis Computerized tomography (CT) scan Blood tests to determine infection Heart tests to rule out heart problems that can cause fluid to build up in your lungs. Asthma y y y chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes varying degrees of obstruction in the airways. Memory. acute or cor pulmonale or respiratory arrest Signs and symptoms y y y y y Restlessness Wheezing or crackles Absent or diminished lung sounds Hyperresonance Use of accessory muscle for breathing . anticoagulants or corticosteroid as prescribed. Muscle wasting and weakness.  Are a heavy drinker Are a current or former smoker Complications       Pulmonary fibrosis. Administer oxygen as prescribed Place the client in high fowler¶s position Restrict fluid intake as prescribed Provide respiratory treatments as prescribed Administer diuretics. Collapsed lung (pneumothorax). Marked by the airways inflammation and hyperresponsivenes to a variety of stimuli Status asthmaticus is a severe life threatening asthma episode that os refractory to treatment and may result pneumothorax. Prepare the client for intubation and mechanical ventilation using PEEP. cognitive and emotional problems.

hairdressing and manufacturing Low birth weight Complications    Sick days from work or school during asthma flare-ups Permanent narrowing of the bronchial tubes (airway remodeling) that affects how well you can breathe Emergency room visits and hospitalizations for severe asthma attacks  . such as smoke Certain medications. aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Strong emotions and stress Risk factors          Having a blood relative (such as a parent or sibling) with asthma Having an allergic condition. mold. cockroaches and dust mites Respiratory infections. including beta blockers. such as pollen. such as the common cold Physical activity (exercise-induced asthma) Cold air Air pollutants and irritants. such as chemicals used in farming. animal dander.y y y y y y y y Tachypnea with hyperventilation Prolonged exhalation Tachycardia Cyanosis Diaphoresis Pulsus paradoxus Decreased oxygen saturation Decreased airflow rates Causes       Airborne allergens. such as atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis (hay fever) Being overweight Being a smoker Exposure to secondhand smoke Having a mother who smoked while pregnant Exposure to exhaust fumes or other types of pollution Exposure to occupational triggers.

severe asthma and chest injuries are among the common causes of atelectasis. Pneumonia. amount. . Narrowing of major airways from disease. . Pleural effusion. Side effects from long-term use of some medications used to stabilize severe asthma Interventions Monitor vital signs Monitor pulse oximetry Monitor peak flow Position the client in semi fowler¶s position during acute attacks. Blood clot. and consistency of the sputum. Treatment depends on the cause and severity of the collapse. Pneumothorax. Administer oxygen as prescribed Stay with the client to decrease anxiety Administer bronchodilators as prescribed Record the color. cystic fibrosis. Injury. . during and after treatment Atelectasis y Atelectasis a complete or partial collapse of a lung ² is a possible complication of many respiratory problems. Scarring of lung tissue. inhaled foreign objects. Symptoms y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Causes Difficulty breathing (dyspnea) Rapid. Mucus in the airways after surgery. if any Administer corticosteroid as prescribed Auscultate lung sounds before. Atelectasis can be serious because it impairs the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your lungs. shallow breathing Cough Low-grade fever (in a child)           Mucus plug. Tumor in a major airway. Foreign body.

a more serious condition. yawning and sighing Lung disease. if the lungs aren't fully developed Any condition that interferes with spontaneous coughing. often due to smoking. which allows mucus to drain better Supplemental oxygen. which can elevate your diaphragm and hamper your ability to inhale fully Intervention Medications :    Acetylcysteine (Acetadote. Chronic bronchitis. which is used to clear mucus plugs in children with cystic fibrosis and is gaining acceptance as a treatment for atelectasis for people without cystic fibrosis. Bronchitis may be either acute or chronic. DNase (Dornase Alfa). due to muscular dystrophy. Maxair. which carry air to and from your lungs. with infrequent change of position Abdominal or chest surgery Recent general anesthesia Shallow breathing ² a result of abdominal pain or rib fracture.      . for example Respiratory muscle weakness. bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis Confinement to bed. Risk factors         Premature birth. Inhaled bronchodilators (Foradil. is a constant irritation or inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes. Xopenex). which can help relieve shortness of breath (dyspnea) Bronchitis Bronchitis is an inflammation of the lining of your bronchial tubes. Clapping (percussion) on your chest over the collapsed area to loosen mucus Performing deep-breathing exercises (incentive spirometry) Positioning your body so your head is lower than your chest (called postural drainage). Serevent. such as asthma. A common condition. which open the bronchial tubes of the lungs. Proventil. Tumor. acute bronchitis often develops from a cold or other respiratory infection. which thins mucus and makes it easier to cough up. spinal cord injury or another neuromuscular condition Obesity. Mucomyst). making breathing easier. Ventolin.

either clear or white or yellowish-gray or green in color Shortness of breath. but not enough to suppress your cough   . use enough OTC cough medicine so that you can rest. so antibiotics aren't effective. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). moist air Taking an over-the-counter (OTC) cough suppressant and acetaminophen (Tylenol. Cough medicine. If you have a chronic lung disorder or if you smoke. If your cough keeps you from sleeping. It's best not to suppress a cough that brings up mucus. Exposure to irritants on the job. made worse by mild exertion Wheezing Fatigue Slight fever and chills Chest discomfort Risk factors     Cigarette smoke. Complications        Chronic bronchitis Asthma Other lung disorders Rest Drinking fluids Breathing in warm. Bronchitis usually results from a viral infection. others) or aspirin (for adults) Medications In some circumstances. your doctor may also prescribe antibiotics to reduce your risk of a serious. because coughing helps remove irritants from your lungs and air passages. your doctor may prescribe an antibiotic if he or she suspects that you have a bacterial infection. secondary infection. However.Symptoms        Cough Production of mucus (sputum). your doctor may prescribe medications: Antibiotics. Low resistance.

Intervention     Rest Drinking fluids Breathing in warm. not letting the air in your lungs escape. This reduces the number of air sacs and keeps some of the oxygen entering your lungs from reaching your bloodstream. your doctor may recommend a prescription cough suppressant. If you have asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The combination of emphysema and obstructed airways makes breathing increasingly difficult. As it worsens. Emphysema occurs when the air sacs at the ends of your smallest air passages (bronchioles) are gradually destroyed. Symptoms Emphysema symptoms are mild to begin with but steadily get worse as the disease progresses. Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema. moist air Taking an over-the-counter (OTC) cough suppressant and acetaminophen (Tylenol. another feature of COPD. a condition that limits the flow of air when you breathe out. contributes to emphysema. If your cough is seriously depriving you of sleep. so that they collapse when you breathe out. your doctor may recommend an inhaler and other medications to reduce inflammation and open narrowed passages in your lungs. emphysema turns the spherical air sacs ² clustered like bunches of grapes ² into large. others) or aspirin (for adults) Medications Antibiotics and Cough medicine.completely. The main emphysema symptoms are:     Shortness of breath Wheezing Chest tightness Reduced capacity for physical activity . irregular pockets with gaping holes in their inner walls. In addition.  Other medications. the process. Emphysema Emphysema is a factor in the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). but doesn't reverse. Airway obstruction. Treatment often slows. the elastic fibers that hold open the small airways leading to the air sacs are slowly destroyed.

which could also indicate chronic bronchitis Loss of appetite and weight Fatigue Causes Smoking. Arterial blood gases analysis. Chest X-ray. Occupational exposure to fumes or dust. Protein deficiency Risk fators          Smoking. Connective tissue disorders. Computerized tomography (CT) scan. Age.   Chronic coughing. Pulse oximetry. Sputum examination. Exposure to secondhand smoke. HIV infection. Test and diagnosis       Spirometry and other pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Exposure to indoor and outdoor pollution. Intervention     A target date to quit Relapse prevention Advice for healthy lifestyle changes Social support systems .

Place your fingertips on your abdomen.                   Lie on your back with your head and knees supported by pillows. Maintain good nutrition. The current thinking is that pulmonary fibrosis begins with repeated injury to the tissue within and between the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs. The damage eventually leads to scarring . Supplemental oxygen Pulmonary rehabilitation program. Stop smoking. Inoculations against influenza and pneumonia. just below the base of your rib cage. Avoid respiratory infections. Avoid other respiratory irritants. Exercise regularly. Practice pushing your abdomen against your hand as your chest becomes filled with air. Pursed-lip breathing Deep-breathing exercise. Antibiotics. Other medications Bronchodilators. Protect yourself from cold air. Clear your airways. Pulmonary fibrosis Pulmonary fibrosis is a serious disease that causes progressive scarring of your lung tissue. Inhaled steroids.

Your sex. Occupational and environmental toxins. Radiation and chemotherapy.(fibrosis). Respiratory failure. Complications Low blood-oxygen levels (hypoxemia High blood pressure in your lungs (pulmonary hypertension). The most common symptoms are shortness of breath and a dry cough. Diagnostic tests         Chest X-ray. In general. Oximetry. which stiffens your lungs and makes breathing difficult. High-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) scan. . Pulmonary function tests. men are more likely to have pulmonary fibrosis than women are. Risk factors            Age. signs and symptoms Shortness of breath (dyspnea) A dry cough Fatigue Unexplained weight loss Aching muscles and joints Causes Occupational and environmental factors Radiation. Right-sided heart failure (cor pulmonale).

 Exercise stress test. viruses. but antibiotic-resistant strains are a growing problem. Signs          Fever Cough Shortness of breath Sweating Shaking chills Chest pain that fluctuates with breathing (pleurisy) Headache Muscle pain Fatigue Causes    Community acquired Pneumonia Hospital-acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia. Get plenty of rest y y y y Pneumonia Pneumonia is an inflammation of your lungs. Stop smoking Exercise regularly. usually caused by infection. Some treatments. and no current treatment has proved effective in stopping the ultimate progression of the disease. It can also occur in young. fungi or parasites can cause pneumonia. The best approach is to try to prevent infection. may improve symptoms temporarily or slow the disease's progress. Bacteria. Pneumonia often is a complication of another condition. . Pneumonia can range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening. Intervention y The lung scarring that occurs in pulmonary fibrosis can't be reversed. Others help improve quality of life. Antibiotics can treat most common forms of bacterial pneumonias. Eat well. Aspiration pneumonia. such as the flu. Pneumonia is a particular concern if you're older than 65 or have a chronic illness or impaired immune system. healthy people. though.

Having COPD and using inhaled corticosteroids for more than 24 weeks. Blood and mucus tests. Diagnostic tests    Physical exam. Give prescribed medication      Pneumothorax . Exposure to certain chemicals or pollutants. Smoking. Drink plenty of fluids. alcohol abuse Hospitalization in an intensive care unit. especially water. Surgery or traumatic injury. Complications     Bacteria in your bloodstream. Risk factors         Age. Chest X-rays. Certain diseases. Intervention   Get plenty of rest Stay home from school or work until after your temperature returns to normal and you stop coughing up mucus. Pneumonia caused by opportunistic organisms. Fluid accumulation and infection around your lungs Lung abscess. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). . Ethnicity. Take the entire course of any prescribed medications Keep all of your follow-up appointments.

Complication Persistent air leak. depending on how much of your lung is collapsed A feeling of tightness in your chest A rapid heart rate Risk factors                Your sex. certain medical procedures involving your lung. Blood tests. Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxemia). A history of pneumothorax.A pneumothorax (a term for collapsed lung) occurs when air leaks into the space between your lungs and chest wall. Intervention Needle or chest tube insertion . In general. your lung may only partially collapse. Respiratory failure. A pneumothorax can be caused by a chest injury. or it may collapse completely. Age. or it may occur for no obvious reason. which may be more or less severe. Lung disease. Cardiac arrest. creating pressure against the lung. lung disease. sharp chest pain on the same side as the affected lung ² this pain doesn't occur in the center of your chest under the breast bone Shortness of breath. Signs  Sudden. Depending on the cause of the pneumothorax. Diagnostic tests   Computerized tomography (CT) scan. Shock. men are far more likely to have a pneumothorax than women Smoking.

Frequent observation . .

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