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naval commander. For other uses, see Francis Drake (disambiguation). Sir Francis Drake February–March 1540 – 27 January 1596 (aged 55)
A 16th century oil on canvas portrait of Sir Francis Drake in Buckland Abbey, painting by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger. Nickname Type Place of birth Place of death Allegiance Years active Rank Base of operations Commands Battles/wars El Draque (spanish), Draco (latin, "The Dragon") Privateer Tavistock, Devon, England Portobelo, Colón, Panama England 1563 – 1596 Vice Admiral Caribbean Sea Golden Hind (previously known as Pelican)
Anglo–Spanish War (1585) Battle of Gravelines Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral (1540 – 27 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, a renowned pirate, and a politician of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588, subordinate only to Charles Howard and the Queen herself. He died of dysentery in January 1596 after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. His exploits were legendary, making him a hero to the English but a pirate to the Spaniards to whom he was known as El Draque, 'Draque' being the Spanish pronunciation of 'Drake'. His name in Latin was Franciscus Draco
He is famous for (among other things) leading the first English circumnavigation of the world. 2nd Earl of Bedford was but age 17.2 A most consequential action 3.1 Slave trading 7.1 Entering the Pacific 3.000 ducats. Contents [show] 1 Birth and early years 2 First victory 3 Circumnavigation of the earth 3. Although Drake's birth is not formally recorded. for his life. when his namesake godfather Francis Russell. .3 Nova Albion 3.1 Cadiz raid 4. by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581 Sir Francis Drake was born in Tavistock.4 Execution of Thomas Doughty 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links Birth and early years Portrait miniature of Drake. about £4.3 Drake-Norris Expedition 5 Final years 6 Cultural impact 7 Controversies 7.2 Conflict in the Caribbean 7. Devon. and his wife Mary Mylwaye.000.('Francis the Dragon'). Drake's family immediately removed to Kent where he was raised. from 1577 to 1580. He was the eldest of the twelve sons of Edmund Drake (1518–1585).000 (US$6. it is known that he was born while the six articles were in force and that 'Drake was two and twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith'(1566) this carries back his birth to 1544 (at which time the six articles were in force). who became a minister among the seamen in the king's navy to read prayers to them.4 Home and knighting 4 Spanish Armada 4.2 Defeat of the Spanish Armada 4. in February or March 1544 at the earliest.5M) by modern standards. King Philip II was claimed to have offered a reward of 20. a Protestant farmer called in question for his religion by the six articles.3 Ireland 7.
being unmarried and childless at his death he bequeathed the barque to Drake as his inheritor. James Froud states. Drake married Elizabeth Sydenham—born circa 1562. He meant merely that he was proud of his parents and made no idle pretensions to noble birth. the heir of the earldom." As with many of Drake's contemporaries. 2nd Earl of Bedford. the exact date of his birth is unknown and could be as early as 1535. the Drake family fled from Devonshire into Kent. Drake's father put his son to the master of a barque. ” —Gonzalo González del Castillo in a letter to King Philip II in 1592. and must have stood well with him. Francis Drake's maternal grandfather was Richard Mylwaye. the other painted in 1594 when he was said to be 53. Sir Francis Drake did not have any children. In 1585. such as Sir Richard Grenville. His father was a tenant of the Earl of Bedford. However. the only child of Sir George Sydenham. “ The people of quality dislike him for having risen so high from such a lowely family. Mary Newman. who carried on coasting trade transporting merchandise to France. and pleased with him. . for Francis Russell. and his estate and titles passed on to his nephew (also named Francis). the 1540 date being extrapolated from two portraits: one a miniature painted by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581 when he was allegedly 42. his neighbour. Amy Grenville and Geoffrey Chaucer. and soon afterwards was ordained deacon and made vicar of Upnor Church upon the Medway. from 1569 until her death 12 years later. "He told Camden that he was of mean extraction. John White. Ivor Callely. Elizabeth eventually married Sir William Courtenay of Powderham. and throughout his cousins' lineages are direct connections to royalty and famous personages. that. The ship master was so satisfied with Drake's conduct. was the boy's godfather. Francis Drake was reportedly named after his godfather Francis Russell. Richard Drake. After Drake's death.  The elder Drake is sometimes confused with his nephew John Drake (1573–1634). Francis Drake was married to his first wife. where the father obtained an appointment to minister to men in the King's navy. note 2).In the days of religious persecution. who was the son of Edmund's older brother. (cf. the rest say he is the main cause of wars. sheriff of Somerset.
This was the point at which the silver and gold treasure of Peru had to be landed and sent overland to the Caribbean Sea. He became owner-master of the ship at the age of twenty after the death of its previous captain. He planned an attack on the Isthmus of Panama. Drake and his men. the Hawkins family of Plymouth. of which little is known. their boats had vanished. he joined up with a French buccaneer. Guillaume Le Testu. downhearted. He left Plymouth on May 24. His first raid there came late in July. This raid succeeded beyond any of their wildest dreams and Drake and his companions found that they had captured around 20 tons of silver and gold. the Pascha (70 tons) and the Swan (25 tons). The small band of adventurers dragged as much gold and silver as they could carry back across some 18 miles of jungle-covered mountains to where they had left their small raiding boats. in 1570 and 1571. exhausted and hungry. In 1568 he was again with the Hawkins fleet when it was trapped by the Spaniards in the Mexican port of San Juan de Ulúa. He rallied his men. Le Testu was wounded. sailing. leaving the treasure. 1572. Drake made his first voyage to the New World. At this point Drake showed exceptional leadership. 1572. where galleons from Spain would pick it up at the town of Nombre de Dios. First victory Following the defeat at San Juan de Ulúa. who bequeathed it to him. on one of a fleet of ships owned by his relatives. now had nowhere to go and the Spanish were not far behind. He escaped along with Hawkins but the experience is said to have led him to his lifelong revenge against the Spanish. Sir John Hawkins. However his men noticed that Drake was bleeding profusely from a wound and they insisted on withdrawing to save his life. Drake started his sea career when he became an apprentice member of the crew of a barque trading between the Thames and the cross-Channel ports. It was far too much for the few men to carry off and so much of the treasure was buried (which may have given rise to all subsequent stories of pirates and buried treasure). when they got there. Drake vowed to get revenge and thus made two minor voyages to the West Indies. raiding Spanish shipping and attempting to capture a treasure shipment. captured and later beheaded. It was in 1572 that he embarked on his first major independent enterprise. He remained in the vicinity of the isthmus for almost a year. known to the Spanish as Tierra Firme and the English as the Spanish Main. However. the family was forced to flee to Kent.During the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549. In 1573. Drake and his men captured the town and its treasure. in an attack on a richly laden mule train. with a crew of 73 men in two small vessels. to capture Nombre de Dios. in company with his second cousin. Before he turned thirteen. At age twenty-three. buried the treasure on the beach and built a raft to sail himself and two volunteers ten miles along the fearsome surf-lashed coast to where he had .
Circumnavigation of the earth Entering the Pacific With the success of the Panama isthmus raid. Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation of 1589) along the Chilean coast. After this passage the "Golden Hind" was pushed south and discovered an island which Drake called Elizabeth Island. like navigators before him. they pushed onwards until they reached their ship. 1573. aboard Pelican. pulled a necklace of Spanish gold from around his neck and said "Our voyage is made. at the southern tip of South America. Fearing the worst they asked him how the raid had gone. The raft was continually awash up to their chests and the salt water and the burning sun caused them much suffering. he was back in Plymouth. A few weeks later (September 1578) Drake made it to the Pacific. because his descriptions do not fit the first and his shipmates denied having seen an open sea. After this major setback. Then he laughed. in 1577 Elizabeth I of England sent Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. with four other ships and 164 men. A modern replica of Drake's Golden Hind Drake's fleet suffered great attrition. it seems unlikely that he reached Cape Horn or the eponymous Drake Passage. Despite popular lore.left his flagship. in spite of everything. Ferdinand Magellan had called here half a century earlier and here he had put to death some mutineers. while the first report of . lads!" By August 9. Drake. tried and executed his own 'mutineer' Thomas Doughty. but bad weather threatened him and his fleet. but violent storms destroyed one of the three ships in the strait and caused another to return to England. leaving only the Golden Hind. Nuno da Silva. he added its captain. Here Mary was found to be rotten and was burned. a man with considerable experience navigating in South American waters. following Magellan's example. He soon added a sixth ship. he set sail once again on the 13th of December. who were forced to take refuge in Falmouth. He set out from Plymouth on 15 November 1577. from where they returned to Plymouth for repair. He then made landfall at the gloomy bay of San Julian. When Drake finally stood on her deck. could not resist a joke and teased them by looking downhearted. The three remaining ships of his convoy departed for the Magellan Strait. Drake. Drake then decided to remain the winter in San Julian before attempting the Strait of Magellan. Cornwall. in what is now Argentina. he scuttled both Christopher and the flyboat Swan due to loss of men on the Atlantic crossing. his men were alarmed at his bedraggled appearance. However. More importantly. Mary (formerly Santa Maria) a Portuguese merchant ship that had been captured off the coast of Africa near the Cape Verde Islands. Drake's men saw weathered and bleached skeletons on the grim Spanish gibbets. Drake. probably reached a latitude of 55°S (according to astronomical data quoted in Hakluyt's The Principall Navigations.
Drake gave chase and eventually captured the treasure ship which proved their most profitable capture. landed. It would come to be called the Cacafuego. Drake visited Mocha Island where he was seriously injured by hostile Mapuches. which was sailing west towards Manila. repaired and restocked his vessels. Drake captured a Spanish ship laden with 25. A most consequential action Near Lima. Drake found 80 lb (36 kg) of gold. Drake also discovered news of another ship.000 pesos of Peruvian gold. Assertions that he left some of his men behind as an embryo "colony" are founded merely on the reduced number who were with him in the Moluccas. Nuestra Señora de la Concepción. Later he sacked the port of Valparaíso further north in Chile. He pushed onwards in his lone flagship. All first-hand records from the voyage. Oregon. amounting in value to 37. although to date there is no evidence to suggest this.000 ducats of Spanish money (about £7m by modern standards). keeping friendly relations with the natives. A bronze plaque inscribed with Drake's claim to the new lands -Drake's Plate of Brass. and several of Drake's maps may even have been altered to this end. The precise location of the port was carefully guarded to keep it secret from the Spaniards. Nova Albion Main article: Nova Albion Drake's landing in California. Some Spanish ships were captured. attacking Spanish ports and rifling towns.fitting the description in Drake's own account was discovered in Marin County. Samuel Bawlf marshaled indications that "Nova Albion" was established at Comox on Vancouver Island. during an undocumented "secret voyage" north. paintings and charts were lost when Whitehall Palace burned in 1698. He found a good port. but was later declared a hoax. Aboard Nuestra Señora de la Concepción. He claimed the land in the name of the Holy Trinity for the English Crown as called Nova Albion—Latin for "New Britain". California. a golden crucifix. 13 chests full of royals of plate and 26 tons of silver. Drake landed somewhere north of Spain's northern-most claim at Point Loma. and Drake used their more accurate charts. including logs. then stayed for a time. Another location often claimed to be Nova Albion is Whale Cove. other than a general resemblance to a single map penned a decade after the landing. Before reaching the coast of Peru. It is known that Drake and his men sailed north . jewels. now renamed the Golden Hind in honour of Sir Christopher Hatton (after his coat of arms). engraving published 1590 by Theodor De Bry On 17 June 1579.his discovery of an open channel south of Tierra del Fuego was written after the 1618 publication of the voyage of Willem Schouten and Jacob le Maire around Cape Horn in 1616. The Golden Hind sailed north along the Pacific coast of South America.
[dubious – discuss] The reason for this false record. After three days of waiting for expedient tides and dumping cargo. "Drake never set foot in California as we know it today.from Nova Albion in search of a western opening to the Northwest Passage. fauna. the barque was freed. and were forced to turn back due to freezing weather. While there. Garry Gitzen's "Francis Drake in Nehalem Bay 1579. Drake's brother endured a long period of torture in South America at the hands of Spaniards. was for political reasons: competition with the Spanish in the Americas. and a few months later reached the Moluccas. language. When he landed. Golden Hind became caught on a reef and was almost lost." Drake now headed westward across the Pacific. floral. with the result that the location of Nova Albion and the highest latitude the expedition reached is still a source of controversy today. Gitzen states. Drake and his men befriended a . These territorial claims became important during the negotiations that ended the Mexican–American War between the United States and Mexico. Drake was seen to be gaining prestige at the expense of the Papacy. Bawlf writes. his chaplain held Holy Communion. who sought intelligence from him about Francis Drake's voyage. a group of islands in the south west Pacific. What is certain of the extent of Drake's claim and territorial challenge to the Papacy and the Spanish crown is that his port was founded somewhere north of Point Loma. present-day British Columbia and Alaska. a potentially valuable asset to the English at the time. The colonial claims were established with full knowledge of Drake's claims. They had a rough voyage among the islands of the Alaskan panhandle. topography and a sixteen century survey land claim that Drake made. that all contemporary maps label all lands above the Kingdoms of New Spain and New Mexico as "Nova Albion"." The Oregon Archeological Society Newsletter December 2008 describes the book as "magnificent and without parallel. which they reinforced. geography. [dubious – discuss] Bawlf argues that Drake's ship reached 56°N. Queen Elizabeth wanted to keep any information on the Northwest Passage secret. this was one of the first Protestant church services in the New World (though French Huguenots had founded an ill-fated colony in Florida in the 1560s). and that all colonial claims made from the East Coast in the 17th century were "From Sea to Sea". Maps made soon after would have "Nova Albion" written above the entire northern frontier of New Spain. much farther north than was recorded. His voyage to the west coast of North America is important for a number of reasons. in eastern modern-day Indonesia. and remained valid in the minds of the English colonists on the Atlantic coast when those colonies became free states. Setting the Historical Record Straight" disputes all other hypothesized landing sites by comparing ethnographic. During this venture the sailors accurately mapped the westward trend of the northwestern corner of the North American continent.
the actual dubbing being performed by a French diplomat. her aim was to keep Drake's activities away from the eyes of rival Spain. the story was promoted that Elizabeth I had done the actual knighting. Elizabeth was gaining the implicit political support of the French for Drake's actions. and one that Drake sported proudly in his portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts. the Queen gave Drake a jewel with her portrait. Francis. Drake was awarded a knighthood by Queen Elizabeth aboard Golden Hind in Deptford on 4 April 1581. as it is known today. In 1580 Drake purchased Buckland Abbey. Monsieur de Marchaumont. Drake was hailed as the first Englishman to circumnavigate the Earth (and the second such voyage arriving with at least one ship intact. Spanish Armada Main article: Spanish Armada . along with a rich cargo of spices and captured Spanish treasures. and its participants sworn to silence on pain of death. it is conserved at the National Maritime Museum. bore an African diamond and a ship with an ebony hull. and it remained in his family for several generations. He made multiple stops on his way toward the tip of Africa. and was a Member of Parliament in 1581. On his return Drake presented the Queen with a jewel token commemorating the circumnavigation. and reached Sierra Leone by 22 July 1580. an uncommon gift to bestow upon a commoner. for an unknown constituency. and again in 1584 for Bossiney. During the Victorian era. taken as a prize off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Greenwich. By getting the French diplomat involved in the knighting. For her part. Home and knighting On 26 September. Golden Hind sailed into Plymouth with Drake and 59 remaining crew aboard. It was made of enameled gold. 1591. until his final voyage. is a rare documented survivor among sixteen-century jewels. Buckland Abbey is now in the care of the National Trust and a number of mementos of his life are displayed there. a regal woman and an African male. He lived there for fifteen years. The Queen ordered all written accounts of Drake's voyage to be considered classified information.sultan king of the Moluccas and involved themselves in some intrigues with the Portuguese there. Elizabeth I handed the sword to the Marquis de Marchaumont. Also considering the friction with Spain. a large manor near Yelverton in Devon. The "Drake Jewel". In September 1581. and asked him to dub Drake as the knight. The Queen's half-share of the cargo surpassed the rest of the crown's income for that entire year. who was negotiating for Elizabeth to marry the King of France's brother. eventually rounded the Cape of Good Hope. ambassador from France. after Elcano's in 1520). in a spirit of nationalism. Duke of Anjou. on the other a sardonyx cameo of double portrait busts. On one side is a state portrait of Elizabeth by the miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard. on the occasion of the knighting. he became the Mayor of Plymouth.
along with Howard. destroying 37 naval and merchant ships. Drake was present at the Battle of Gravelines. As the English fleet pursued the Armada up the English Channel in closing darkness. On the night of 29 July.000 barrels (4. These acts of piracy encouraged Philip II of Spain to order the planning for an invasion of England.War broke out between Spain and England in 1585.S. Drake sailed to the New World and sacked the ports of Santo Domingo and Cartagena. Drake is said to have remarked that there was plenty of time to finish the game and still . enough to make 25. causing the majority of the Spanish captains to break formation and sail out of Calais into the open sea. prior to the battle. after coming upon part of the Spanish Armada. Over the next month. Drake put the fleet into disarray overnight. The Spanish ship was known to be carrying substantial funds to pay the Spanish Army in the Low Countries. two of Spain's main ports. The next day. Drake patrolled the Iberian coasts between Lisbon and Cape St. By extinguishing this for the capture. written aboard Revenge on 31 July 1588 (21 July 1588 O. and occupied the harbours. Drake's ship had been leading the English pursuit of the Armada by means of a lantern. Cadiz raid Main article: Drake's 1587 expedition In a pre-emptive strike. he was playing a game of bowls on Plymouth Hoe. ” — Letter to Admiral Henry Seymour. The attack delayed the Spanish invasion by a year. he captured the Spanish fort of San Augustín in Spanish Florida. and as far as we perceive. Drake "singed the beard of the King of Spain" by sailing a fleet into Cadiz and also Corunna. Vincent intercepting and destroying ships on the Spanish supply lines.000 to 30. they are determined to sell their lives with blows. there has passed some common shot between some of our fleet and some of them. Drake estimated that he captured around 1600–1700 tons of barrel staves. Defeat of the Spanish Armada The Spanish Armada Drake was vice admiral in command of the English fleet (under Lord Howard of Effingham) when it overcame the Spanish Armada that was attempting to invade England in 1588. Drake organised fire-ships.) The most famous (but probably apocryphal) anecdote about Drake relates that. “ Coming up to them. along with Admiral Pedro de Valdés and all his crew.800 m3) for containing provisions. On the return leg of the voyage. Drake broke off and captured the Spanish galleon Rosario. On being warned of the approach of the Spanish fleet.
 This delayed Drake. They were ordered to first seek out and destroy the remaining ships. the year after defeating the Armada. and he was forced to forgo hunting the rest of the surviving ships and head on to Lisbon. Drake's will was the focus of a vast confidence scheme which Oscar Hartzell perpetrated in the 1920s and 1930s. Final years Drake's seafaring career continued into his mid-fifties. that Drake's fortune was being held by the British government. The boulevard runs between Drakes Bay at Point Reyes to Point San Quentin on San Francisco Bay. Adverse winds and currents caused some delay in the launching of the English fleet as the Spanish drew nearer so it is easy to see how a popular myth of Drake's cavalier attitude to the Spanish threat may have originated. and following a disastrous campaign against Spanish America. If . London. He convinced thousands of people. and had compounded to a huge amount. California. but he survived. circa 1581. Drake and Sir John Norreys were given three tasks. In Devon. while anchored off the coast of Portobelo. This portrait may have been copied from Hilliard's miniature—note that the shirt is the same—and the somewhat oddly proportioned body added by an artist who did not have access to Drake. and third they were to take the Azores if possible. England there are various places named after him. A large hotel in Union Square. Each end is near a site considered by some to be Drake's landing place in Central California. as well as the high school in San Anselmo. National Portrait Gallery. In 1595 he failed to conquer the port of Las Palmas. There is no known eyewitness account of this incident and the earliest retelling of it was printed 37 years later. second they were to support the rebels in Lisbon. Drakes Bay and Sir Francis Drake Boulevard of Marin County. mostly in the American Midwest. Portugal against King Philip II (then king of Spain and Portugal). he died of dysentery when he was about 55.beat the Spaniards. where he suffered a number of defeats. Drake-Norris Expedition Main article: English Armada In 1589. Drake and Norreys destroyed a few ships in the harbour of La Coruña in Spain but lost more than 12.000 lives and 20 ships. Before dying he asked to be dressed in his full armour. In 1596. He was buried at sea in a lead coffin. The Spanish gunners from El Morro Castle shot a cannonball through the cabin of Drake's flagship. Cultural impact Sir Francis Drake. he unsuccessfully attacked San Juan. San Francisco also bears his name. especially in Plymouth. Divers continue to search for the coffin. Puerto Rico. near Portobelo. Panama where some Spanish treasure ships had sought shelter. where a roundabout has been named Drake Circus. California are both named after him.
its expansion by Hawkins (and Drake) is now widely seen as a great blot upon their records. Nathan Drake. with all but . on a ship owned and commanded by John Hawkins. While negotiating to resupply and repair at the Spanish port. In general. making fortunes through the abduction and transportation of West African people. These activities undermine the tendency to view Drake as simply an untarnished English hero.their last name was Drake they might be eligible for a share if they paid Hartzell to be their agent. The Englishmen sold their African captives into slavery in Spanish plantations. although legal protection did not extend to slaves. non-Protestants or criminals. and the 2009 US television movie The Immortal Voyage of Captain Drake. searches for lost treasure supposedly found by Sir Francis during his circumnavigation in the video game Uncharted: Drake's Fortune. and then exchanging them for high-value goods. His hostility is said to have increased over an incident at San Juan de Ulúa in 1568. ultimately the English were to dominate the trade. The first Englishman recorded to have taken slaves from Africa was John Lok. While Hawkins made only three such trips. a London trader who. Although slavery was legal throughout the world at the time. at least in part due to their Catholicism and inherent mistrust of non-Spanish. the other was attacking Portuguese slave ships. Controversies Slave trading Drake accompanied his second cousin Sir John Hawkins in making the third English slave-trading expeditions. Modern workings of stories involving Drake include the 1961 British television series Sir Francis Drake. The swindle continued until a copy of Drake's will was brought to Hartzell's mail fraud trial and he was convicted and imprisoned. Drake took an immediate dislike to the Spanish. a fictional descendant of Sir Francis Drake. Despite the exploits of Lok and Towerson. when Drake was sailing with the fleet of his second cousin John Hawkins. in 1555. Around 1563 Drake first sailed west to the Spanish Main. One was military attacks on African towns and villages (with the assistance of rival African warlords). the fleet were attacked by Spanish warships. with a cargo of people forcibly removed from the coast of West Africa. Conflict in the Caribbean During his early days as a slave-trader. John Hawkins of Plymouth is widely acknowledged to be an early pioneer of the English slave trade. brought to England five slaves from Guinea. A second London trader taking slaves at that time was William Towerson whose fleet sailed into Plymouth following his 1556 voyage to Africa and from Plymouth on his 1557 voyage. the kidnapping and forced transportation of people was considered to be a criminal offence under English law at the time. Hawkins' own account of his actions (in which Drake took part) cites two sources for their victims.
women. Francis Drake was in charge of the ships which transported John Norreys' troops to Rathlin Island. Drake was present at Rathlin Island. he was charged with the task of keeping Scottish vessels from bringing reinforcements to Rathlin Island.  The most celebrated of Drake's adventures along the Spanish Main was his capture of the Spanish Silver Train at Nombre de Dios in March 1573. they dined also at the same table together. each cheering up the other. commanding a small frigate called Falcon.two of the English ships lost. as cheerfully. part of the English plantation effort in Ulster when 600 men.  Ireland In 1575. Execution of Thomas Doughty “ And after this holy repast. the government signed a temporary truce with King Philip II of Spain and so was unable to acknowledge Drake's accomplishment officially. Drake survived the attack by swimming. as if some journey only had been in hand. because it was too heavy to carry back to England. the families of Sorley Boy MacDonnell's followers. With a crew including many French privateers and Maroons—African slaves who had escaped the Spanish—Drake raided the waters around Darien (in modern Panama) and tracked the Silver Train to the nearby port of Nombre de Dios. by drinking each to other. and taking their leave. with a total complement of 25. He made off with a fortune in gold. ” . Drake was considered a hero in England and a pirate in Spain for his raids. It was during this expedition that he climbed a high tree in the central mountains of the Isthmus of Panama and thus became the first Englishman to see the Pacific Ocean. He remarked as he saw it that he hoped one day an Englishman would be able to sail it—which he would do years later as part of his circumnavigation of the world. and children were massacred after surrendering. but had to leave behind another fortune in silver. The people who were massacred were. in fact. in sobriety. When Drake returned to Plymouth after the raids. At the time of the massacre. as ever in their lives they had done aforetime.
Drake then denied his requests to see Drake's commission from the Queen to carry out such acts and was denied a trial in England. Doughty was charged with mutiny and treason. and also that Doughty admitted to telling Lord William Burghley of the voyage. . Thomas Doughty was beheaded on 2 July 1578. The two main pieces of evidence against Doughty were the testimony of the ship's carpenter. Edward Bright.—Francis Fletcher in his account of the Communion Main article: Thomas Doughty (explorer) In 1578 Drake accused his co-commander Thomas Doughty of witchcraft in a shipboard trial. Drake consented to his request of Communion and dined with him.
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