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[13/05/2003]

A. Baker

Department of Mathematics, University of Glasgow. E-mail address: a.baker@maths.gla.ac.uk URL: http://www.maths.gla.ac.uk/∼ajb

The natural numbers 2. Groups 2. Convolution and M¨bius Inversion o Problem Set 3 Chapter 4. Subgroups and Lagrange’s Theorem 7. The Euclidean Algorithm and the method of back-substitution 4. Finite continued fractions 9. Permutation groups 3. Countable sets 4. The integers 3.Contents Chapter 1. The tabular method 5. Diophantine equations 11. Primes and factorization 7. Inﬁnite continued fractions 10. Basic Number Theory 1. Deﬁnition and examples of arithmetic functions 2. The real numbers are uncountable Problem Set 4 Index 1 1 3 4 6 8 11 13 16 17 22 23 25 29 29 30 31 32 33 35 38 43 47 47 48 52 53 53 55 55 57 59 60 61 1 . The cycle type of a permutation 5. Arithmetic functions 1. Inﬁnite sets 3. Symmetry groups 6. The sign of a permutation 4. Congruences modulo a prime 8. Groups and group actions 1. Pell’s equation Problem Set 1 Chapter 2. cardinality and countability 1. Finite sets and cardinality 2. Power sets and their cardinality 5. Group actions Problem Set 2 Chapter 3. Finite and inﬁnite sets. Congruences 6.

. Given x. . It is easy to see that least and greatest elements (if they exist) are always unique. . 1. Inequality is transitive The most subtle aspect of the natural numbers to deal with is the fact that they form an inﬁnite set. n + 1 ∈ N0 and n < n + 1. a0 = 0 = 0a.e. One of the most important properties of N0 is The Well Ordering Principle (WOP): Every non-empty subset S ⊆ N0 contains a least element. . which is also often denoted N.} and nowadays this is very standard notation. 4. • whenever P (k) is true then P (k + 1) is true. although some authors also use this to denote our N0 . y ∈ N0 exactly one of the following must be true: x = y. a1 = a = 1a. 1. . The natural numbers The natural numbers 0. 3. form the most basic type of number and arise when counting elements of ﬁnite sets. WOP is logically equivalent to each of the two following statements. A least or minimal element of a subset S ⊆ N0 is an element s0 ∈ S for which s0 s for all s ∈ S. In fact. 2. We can and usually do list the elements of N0 in the sequence 0. then a + b ∈ N0 and ab ∈ N0 . . ab = ba. . 3. 2. . 1. . which never ends. i.}. . It is perhaps worth remarking that some people exclude 0 from the natural numbers but we will include it since the empty set ∅ has 0 elements! We will use the notation Z+ for the set of all positive natural numbers Z+ = {n ∈ N0 : n = 0} = {1. x < y. . The Principle of Mathematical Induction (PMI): Suppose that for each n ∈ N0 the statement P (n) is deﬁned and also the following conditions hold: • P (0) is true. Similarly. 4. a greatest or maximal element of S is one for which s s0 for all s ∈ S. x. We denote the set of all natural numbers by N0 = {0. We can also compare natural numbers using inequalities. 4. . etc. 1 . b ∈ N0 . 3. a + 0 = a = 0 + a. if a. Notice that N0 has a least element 0. y < x. Of course we have the familiar properties of these operations such as a + b = b + a. but has no greatest element since for each n ∈ N0 . We can add and multiply natural numbers to obtain new ones. 2. if one of x = y or x < y holds then we write x y or y in the sense that x < y and y < z =⇒ x < z. 2. As usual. .CHAPTER 1 Basic Number Theory 1.

2 1. hence t s0 − 1. d ∈ N0 with 0 < d. In particular. t b < b + 1. then since k ∈ S for 0 k n. Theorem 1. since if m k. k ∈ T . Let P (n) be the statement P (n): k ∈ S for all natural numbers k such that 0 / k n.2 (Long Division Property).e. Combining these we see that s0 − 1 = t0 ∈ T . Then T contains a greatest element. Let t0 be the greatest element of / T . We will show that S = ∅. n + 1 would / be the least element of S. WOP =⇒ MP: Let T ⊆ N0 have upper bound b and set S = {s ∈ N0 : t < s for all t ∈ T }. Suppose that there is an m ∈ N0 for which P (m) is false. Then S is non-empty since for t ∈ T .. but we also have t0 < s0 . Thus t0 is the desired greatest element. Notice also that for every t ∈ T . i. hence t0 + 1 ∈ T . Then there are unique natural numbers q. BASIC NUMBER THEORY Then P (n) is true for all n ∈ N0 . Then P (t0 ) is true by deﬁnition of T . Notice that T is bounded above by m. It is easily seen that two greatest elements must agree and we therefore refer to the greatest element. P (n) is true for all n ∈ N0 . Hence these three statements are logically equivalent. which exists thanks to the MP. Hence. Proof. this means that n ∈ S for all n and / so S = ∅. n + 1 ∈ S and so P (n + 1) is / true. Let n. But then P (n) is true whenever 0 n t0 + 1. MP =⇒ PMI: Let P (n) be a statement for each n ∈ N0 . contradicting our assumption. Hence. hence by assumption P (t0 + 1) is also true. Consider the set T = {t ∈ N0 : P (n) is true for all natural numbers n satisfying 0 n t}. Proof. An important application of these equivalent results is to proving the following property of the natural numbers. t < s0 . If n + 1 ∈ S. P (n) must be true for all n ∈ N0 .1. contradicting the fact that t0 was the greatest element of T . Theorem 1. P (n) =⇒ P (n + 1). PMI =⇒ WOP: Let S ⊆ N0 and suppose that S has no least element. / Now suppose that P (n) is true. Notice that 0 ∈ S since it would be a least element of S. The following chain of implications holds PMI =⇒ WOP =⇒ MP =⇒ PMI. r ∈ N0 satisfying the two conditions n = qd + r and 0 r < d. By the PMI. . then there must be an element t0 ∈ T such that s0 − 1 t0 . Hence P (0) is true. If s0 is a least element of S. Suppose that P (0) is true and for n ∈ N0 . Consider the set T = {t ∈ N0 : td n} ⊆ N0 . there exists a b ∈ N0 such that for all t ∈ T . The Maximal Principle (MP): Let T ⊆ N0 be a non-empty subset which is bounded above. so b + 1 ∈ S. t b.

If m does not divide n. 0 Theorem 1. and so h | (xa + yb) since (xu + yv) ∈ Z. Finally. an integer c is a common divisor or common factor of a and b if c | a and c | b. it is straightforward to verify uniqueness. Then there are unique integers q. Given two integers a. b not both 0. . b. We can generalize the Long Division Property to the integers. But then qd n < (q + 1)d. If we write a = uh and b = vh for suitable integers u. suppose that q . Notice that this means q q since d > 0. Z− = {n : −n ∈ Z+ }. There are many useful algebraic properties of greatest common divisors. We can then unambiguously write gcd(a. If 0 < d. they form a basic example of a commutative ring. this implies d d r −r <d−r d. hence we must have h = ±h. r ∈ Z for which r < |d| and n = qd + r. Then a and b are coprime if gcd(a. By interchanging the pairs if necessary. So q = q which implies that r − r = 0. b) = 1. y we have h | (xa + yb). r with 0 r < d and −n = q d + r . Proof. (q − q )d. Given two integers m. THE INTEGERS 3 Then T is non-empty since 0 ∈ T . then 0 r = n − qd < (q + 1)d − qd = d. then xa + yb = xuh + yvh = (xu + yv)h. If r = 0 then take q = −1 − q and r = d − r . A common divisor h is a greatest common divisor or highest common factor if for every common divisor c. Then for any integers x. if d < 0 we can use the above with −d in place of d and get n = q (−d) + r and then take q = −q . So we must indeed have q = q and r = r. Let h be a common divisor of the integers a. For this reason it is standard to refer to the greatest common divisor as the positive one. c | h. Notice that if r = n − qd. contradicting the fact that 0 < r − r. we also say that m is a divisor of n. Since n = qd + r = q d + r . Proof. Let n. Proposition 1. b. v. Suppose that r = r . If h. If q > q . or equivalently that the only common divisors are ±1. b) for this number.4. Later we will use Long Division to determine gcd(a. we can assume that r < r . In particular this holds for h = gcd(a. The integers The set of integers is Z = Z+ ∪ {0} ∪ Z− = N0 ∪ Z− . d ∈ Z with 0 = d. t td. b).2. for t ∈ T . So T is bounded above by n and hence has a greatest element q.2. where Z+ = {n ∈ N0 : 0 < n}. hence t n. 2. hence and so d < d which is impossible.3. h are two greatest common divisors of a. then we need to show this for n < 0. To prove uniqueness. We can add and multiply integers. b). Also. Here is one while others can be found in Problem Set 1. By Theorem 1. If r = 0 then we take q = −q and r = 0. we have unique natural numbers q . Once again. indeed. n ∈ Z we say that m divides n and write m | n if there is an integer k ∈ Z such that n = km. then h | h and h | h. 0 < r − r = (q − q )d. r is a second such pair. we write m n.

v such that gcd(a. nk0 = qk0 dk0 . we have h | d. Now set n1 = d0 . Proof. By the Well Ordering Principle. A similar argument also gives d | b. this means that r = 0 and so d | a. b. . hence all common divisors of a.4 all common divisors of the pair a. rk−1 . hence we must eventually reach a value k = k0 for which dk0 = 0 but rk0 = 0. there is a least element d of S. . rk for which 0 rk < dk and nk = qk dk + rk .5. BASIC NUMBER THEORY Theorem 1. We can repeat this process. Set n0 = a. This result is theoretically useful but does not provide a practical method to determine gcd(a. at the k-th stage setting nk = dk−1 . r1 such that 0 r1 < d1 and n1 = q1 d1 + r1 . For example. b) = ua + vb. 0 < xa + yb} ⊆ N0 . By Proposition 1.4. which can be expressed as d = u0 a + v0 b for some u0 . But then r = a − qd = (1 − qu0 )a + (−qv0 )b. It is also easy to see that dk0 | nk0 . Using Long Division we can ﬁnd q. . Using Long Division. Then S is non-empty since one of (±1)a is positive and hence is in S. so it must be the greatest common divisor of a. d1 = r0 0 and choose integers q1 . choose integers q0 and r0 such that 0 r0 < |d0 | and n0 = q0 d0 + r0 . The Euclidean Algorithm and the method of back-substitution Let a. b). We might as well assume that a = 0 and set h = gcd(a. d0 = b. b). nk0 −2 = qk0 −2 dk0 −2 + rk0 −2 . This is always possible provided rk−1 = dk = 0. we can write dk0 = un0 + vr0 = ua + vb. .4 1. Let S = {xa + yb : x. n1 = q1 d1 + r1 . b which is divisible by all other common divisors. Thus we can express dk0 as an integer linear combination of a. So d is a common divisor of a. Since r < d with d minimal. The sequence of equations n0 = q0 d0 + r0 . Notice that 0 rk < rk−1 < · · · r1 < r0 = b. Then there are integers u. we have rk0 −1 = nk0 −1 − qk0 −1 dk0 −1 = nk0 −1 − qk0 −1 rk0 −2 . Let a. . dk0 −1 | nk0 −1 . nk0 −1 = qk0 −1 dk0 −1 + rk0 −1 . b ∈ Z be non-zero. r ∈ Z with 0 r < d satisfying a = qd + r. . Long Division can be used to set up the Euclidean Algorithm which actually determines the greatest common divisor of two non-zero integers. b. . Using this repeatedly. allows us to express each rk = dk+1 in terms of nk . dk = rk−1 and choosing integers qk . v0 ∈ Z. hence r ∈ S or r = 0. b divide dk0 . By Proposition 1. . not both 0. y ∈ Z. b be integers. r0 | n0 . b divide d. 3.

So the last non-zero remainder term rk0 −1 = dk0 produced by the Euclidean Algorithm is gcd(a. Working back we ﬁnd 12 = 60 + (−2) × 24 = 60 + (−2) × (84 + (−1) × 60) = (−2) × 84 + 3 × 60. 46 = 2 × 20 + 6. 2 = gcd(190. 20 = −72 + 2 × 46. Thus gcd(190. Working back we ﬁnd 2 = 20 + (−3) × 6 = 20 + (−3) × (−2 × 20 + 46). Taking a = 190. = 7 × (−72) + 11 × (190 + 2 × (−72)). 20 = 3 × 6 + 2. = 11 × 190 + 29 × (−72). THE EUCLIDEAN ALGORITHM AND THE METHOD OF BACK-SUBSTITUTION 5 from which it follows that dk0 also divides a and b. so set a = 84 and b = 60. Then 84 = 1 × 60 + 24. = 7 × (−72) + 11 × 46. 84) = 12 = 3 × 60 + (−2) × 84. and express it as an integral linear combination of these numbers.3. Thus gcd(60. b = −72 we have 190 = (−2) × (−72) + 46. 2 = 20 + (−3) × 6. . −72).6. = (−3) × 46 + 7 × (−72 + 2 × 46). −72) = gcd(190. 6 = 3 × 2. 12 = 60 + (−2) × 24. Solution. Find the greatest common divisor of 190 and 72 and express it as an integral linear combination of these numbers. 60 = 2 × 24 + 12. Example 1. b). Example 1. Solution. −72) = 2 = 11 × 190 + 29 × (−72). This allows us to express the greatest common divisor of two integers as a linear combination of them by the method of back-substitution. = (−3) × 46 + 7 × 20. Find the greatest common divisor of 190 and −72. Example 1. −72 = (−2) × 46 + 20. 6 = −2 × 20 + 46.8. 24 = 84 + (−1) × 60. 46 = 190 + 2 × (−72). Since the greatest common divisor only depends on the numbers involved and not their order. 12 = gcd(60. Find the greatest common divisor of 60 and 84 and express it as an integral linear combination of these numbers. 72) and proceeding as follows.7. This could also be done by using the fact that gcd(190. we might as take the larger one ﬁrst. 84). Hence the number dk0 is the greatest common divisor of a and b. 24 = 2 × 12.

= 11 × 190 + (−29) × 72. Taking a = 190. Thus gcd(190. The tabular method uses the sequence of quotients appearing in the Euclidean Algorithm and is closely related to the continued fraction method of Theorem 1. 72). 26 = 1 × 20 + 6. Notice that if gcd(a. = (−7) × 72 + 11 × 46. b = 72 we have 190 = 2 × 72 + 46. For example. −72) = 2 = 11 × 190 + 29 × (−72). 20 = 3 × 6 + 2.42. BASIC NUMBER THEORY Solution. the values of u. v − ta since (u + tb)a + (v − ta)b = (ua + vb) + (tba − tab) = (ua + vb). v are not unique. The tabular method This section describes an alternative approach to the problem of expressing gcd(a. = (−7) × 72 + 11 × (190 + (−2) × 72). = 4 × 46 + (−7) × (72 + (−1) × 46). = (−3) × 26 + 4 × 20. 46 = 190 + (−2) × 72. From this we obtain gcd(190. b. The tabular method provides an eﬃcient alternative to the method of back-substitution and can also be used check calculations done by that method. b) = ua + vb. 46 = 1 × 26 + 20. b and to adjust signs at the end. 83 × 190 + 219 × (−72) = 2. 6 = 3 × 2. we can modify the numbers u. Thus diﬀerent approaches to determining the linear combination giving gcd(a. 72 = 1 × 46 + 26. v to u + tb. 2 = gcd(190. b) may well produce diﬀerent answers. 2 = 20 + (−3) × 6. 6 = 26 + (−1) × 20. 20 = 46 + (−1) × 26. It is usually be more straightforward working with positive a. = (−3) × 26 + 4 × (46 + (−1) × 26). . Working back we ﬁnd 2 = 20 + (−3) × 6 = 20 + (−3) × (26 + (−1) × 20). = 4 × 46 + (−7) × 26. 4. 72) = 2 = 11 × 190 + (−29) × 72. b) as a linear combination of a. 26 = 72 + (−1) × 46. In general. I learnt this method from Francis Clarke of the University of Wales Swansea.6 1.

b = 207. the Euclidean Algorithm produces the following quotients and remainders. The previous entries are ±A and B. Back-substitution gives 3 = 27 − 4 × 6 = 27 − 4 × (60 − 2 × 27) = −4 × 60 + 9 × 27 = −4 × 60 + 9 × (207 − 3 × 60) = 9 × 207 − 31 × 60 = 9 × 207 − 31 × (267 − 1 × 207) = (−31) × 267 + 40 × 207. 6 = 2 × 3 + 0. In our example. 31 arises as 4 × 7 + 3. 1 3 2 4 2 1 0 1 3 7 31 69 0 1 1 4 9 40 89 Here the ﬁrst row is the sequence of quotients. The second and third rows are determined as follows. The entry tk under the quotient qk is calculated from the formula tk = qk tk−1 + tk−2 . 207) = 3. here 207/3 = 69 and 267/3 = 89. The key to understanding this is provided by matrix multiplication. The ﬁnal entries in the second and third rows always have the form b/ gcd(a. 267 = 1 × 207 + 60. THE TABULAR METHOD 7 We will illustrate the tabular method with an example. 60 = 2 × 27 + 6. so gcd(267. the value 40 arises as 31 + 9 in the back-substitution method and as 4 × 9 + 4 in the tabular method. So for example. where the signs are chosen according to whether the number of quotients is even or odd. Consider the matrix product 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 4 0 1 1 2 . 27 = 4 × 6 + 3. b) and a/ gcd(a. The last non-zero remainder is 3. in particular the fact that it is associative. In the tabular method we form the following table. In the case a = 267. b). 207 = 3 × 60 + 27.4. Why does this give the same result as back-substitution? The arithmetic involved seems very diﬀerent.

Congruences Let n ∈ N0 be non-zero. 1 3 1 4 0 1 1 3 = 1 2 1 4 0 1 3 7 = 1 4 4 9 0 1 7 31 = 1 2 9 40 0 1 3 7 = . then 1 q 0 1 the two rows are swapped. This shows that they give the same result. Two elementary row operations are 1 0 0 1 0 1 performed when multiplying by on the left. Thus back-substitution corresponds to evaluation from the right and the tabular method to evaluation from the left. we say that x is congruent to y modulo n if n | (x − y) and write x ≡ y (mod n) or x ≡ y. The partial products have determinant alternately equal to ±1. so n > 0. Giving a general proof of this identiﬁcation of the two methods with matrix multiplication 0 1 is not too hard. 1 q det 0 1 1 q1 0 1 0 1 ··· = (−1)r . Then ≡ is an equivalence relation on n n . 1 2 4 9 0 1 0 1 = 1 2 1 2 0 1 0 1 = 1 2 1 3 0 1 0 1 = 1 2 1 1 4 9 1 2 . 1 2 40 89 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 4 0 1 1 4 0 1 1 4 0 1 1 2 = .8 1. 31 69 40 89 Notice that the numbers occurring as the left-hand columns of the ﬁrst set of partial products are the same (apart from the signs) as the numbers which arose in the back-substitution method. 1 4 9 40 0 1 31 69 = . = 9 20 4 9 9 20 4 9 . Then for integers x. 1 q2 1 qr It is this that explains the rule for the choice of signs in the tabular method. 5. 1 2 4 9 0 1 7 31 = . = 31 69 9 20 9 20 31 69 = . By the associative law. Multiplication by on the right performs similar column 1 q operations. BASIC NUMBER THEORY in which the quotients occur as the entries in the bottom right-hand corner. 0 1 The determinant of is −1 and so by the multiplicative property of determinants. This provides a useful check on the calculations. y. the product can be evaluated either from the right: 0 1 1 4 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 1 or from the left: 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 4 0 1 1 3 = . Firstly q × (row 2) is added to row 1. The numbers in the second set of partial products are those in the tabular method. In fact it becomes obvious given the factorization of the matrix as 1 q 0 1 1 q the product of two elementary matrices.

x + y = x + y + (x − x) + (y − y) ≡ x + y. Theorem 1. 12 12 12 2 (ii) We have 3 × 34 = 102 ≡ 1. 10) = 2. n x ≡ y and y ≡ z =⇒ x ≡ z. neither t nor u can have a common factor with n. By Theorem 1. These make sense because if xn = xn and yn = yn . Since ut + vn = 1. y. (ii) 3x ≡ 6. n x ≡ y =⇒ y ≡ x. so we usually list the distinct elements of Z/n as 0n . CONGRUENCES 9 Z in the sense that the following hold for x. sometimes notation such as x or [x]n is used. giving (x − 4) ≡ 0 and hence x ≡ 4. then x y = (x + (x − x))(y + (y − y)) = xy + y(x − x) + x(y − y) + (x − x)(y − y) ≡ xy. Another important application is to the simultaneous solution of two or more congruence equations to diﬀerent moduli. These operations make Z/n into a commutative ring with zero 0n and unity 1n . This is impossible since 2 | (2x + 10k) but 2 7. n n The set of equivalence classes is denoted Z/n. 1n . In particular.5. there are integers u. Then there is a unique residue class un ∈ Z/n for which un tn = 1n . Let t ∈ Z have gcd(t.9. 12 101 10 10 Solution. 2n . hence wn = un . Example 1. r ∈ Z and 0 r < n. .5. Notice that if wn also has this property then wn tn = 1n which gives n wn (tn un ) = (wn tn )un = un . 52 = 25 ≡ 1. So we obtain the solutions x ≡ 4 and x ≡ 9. v for which ut + vn = 1. . in each case giving all (if any) integer solutions: (i) 5x ≡ 7. (i) By use of the Euclidean Algorithm or inspection. This implies that ut ≡ 1. We will denote the congruence class or residue class of the integer x by xn . . Since for each x ∈ Z we have x = qn + r with q. (iv) 2x ≡ 7. z ∈ Z: (Reﬂexivity) (Symmetry) (Transitivity) n n x ≡ x. (iv) This time we have 2x ≡ 7 so 2x + 10k = 7 for some k ∈ Z. This gives 12 x ≡ 5 x ≡ 35 ≡ 11. hence 101 x ≡ 34 × 3x ≡ 34 × 6 ≡ 2. We require that 2(x − 4) ≡ 0. . Residue classes can be added and multiplied using the formulæ xn + yn = (x + y)n . n xn yn = (xy)n . hence un tn = 1n . so the above method does not immediately apply. (iii) 2x ≡ 8. n) = 1. n We can also deﬁne subtraction by xn − yn = (x − y)n . n Proof. The next Lemma is the key ingredient. we have xn = rn . (n − 1)n . 10 10 5 5 10 10 . We will refer to u as the inverse of t modulo n and un as the inverse of tn in Z/n. so there are no solutions. the integer u satisﬁes ut ≡ 1. Solve each of the following congruences. 101 101 101 (iii) Here gcd(2.10.

hence the original pair of congruences is equivalent to the pair 4 7 x ≡ 3. n2 n2 so t is a solution for the pair of simultaneous congruences in the Theorem. Theorem 1. so the solution modulo 28 is x ≡ 2 × 4 × 6 + (−1) × 7 × 3 ≡ 48 − 21 = 27. Remark 1. Then we have the congruences t ≡ u2 n2 b1 ≡ b1 . Then if ua + vb = 1. Suppose that a. n1 n1 t ≡ u1 n1 b2 ≡ b2 . n2 has a unique solution modulo n1 n2 .13. Then the pair of simultaneous congruences x ≡ b1 . To prove uniqueness modulo n1 n2 . n2 are coprime. 7 Using the Euclidean Algorithm or otherwise we ﬁnd 2 × 4 + (−1) × 7 = 1. Since su + rv ∈ Z.14. this implies ab | n. 8 x≡2 3 . Consider the integer t = u1 n1 b2 + u2 n2 b1 . Solve the following pair of simultaneous congruences modulo 28: 3x ≡ 1. 28 28 Hence the general integer solution is 27 + 28n (n ∈ Z). u2 for which u1 n1 + u2 n2 = 1. n2 n1 n2 By Lemma 1. t are both solutions to the original pair of simultaneous congruences then they satisfy the pair of congruences t ≡ t. Begin by observing that 32 ≡ 1 and 3 × 5 = 15 ≡ 1. First solve the pair of simultaneous congruences 7x ≡ 1. 5 Solution. then ab | n.10 1. 7 Solution. The general integer solution of the pair of congruences of Theorem 1. b ∈ N0 are coprime and n ∈ Z. so the solution tn1 n2 ∈ Z/n1 n2 is unique as claimed. note that if t. 4 5x ≡ 2. If a | n and b | n. We can proceed in two steps. Example 1.11.12 is x = u1 n1 b2 + u2 n2 b1 + kn1 n2 (k ∈ Z). Suppose n1 . 8 x ≡ 2.12 (The Chinese Remainder Theorem). 4 x ≡ 6. n1 t ≡ t. BASIC NUMBER THEORY Lemma 1.11. Find all integer solutions of the three simultaneous congruences 7x ≡ 1. s ∈ Z so that n = ra = sb. there are integers u1 . implying that t ≡ t. Example 1. Since n1 . Proof. Let a | and b | n and choose r. n1 x ≡ b2 . n2 ∈ Z+ are coprime and b1 .15. 3 x ≡ 1. n = n(ua + vb) = nua + nvb = su(ab) + rv(ab) = (su + rv)ab. b2 ∈ Z. Proof. n1 n2 | (t − t).

13. 17. Then n has a unique factorization of the form n = p1 p2 · · · pt . Theorem 1. 89. so the congruences are equivalent to the pair 8 x ≡ 7. 120 120 120 This gives for the general integer solution x = 71 + 120n (n ∈ Z). 83. More generally. b ∈ Z. 73. a) = 1. Notice that apart from 2. Primes and factorization Definition 1.6. 29. Since gcd(p. qj . A positive natural number p ∈ N0 for which p > 1 whose only integer factors are ±1 and ±p is called a prime. 43. contradicting our assumption. 5. Consider the set S = {n ∈ N0 : 1 n and no such factorization exists for n} Now suppose that S = ∅. all primes are odd since every even integer is divisible by 2. We will prove this using the Well Ordering Principle. but the latter implies p | a. We begin with an important divisibility property of primes. 67. 8 x ≡ 2. Then we have 1 < u < n0 and 1 < v < n0 . s ∈ Z be such that rp + sa = 1. . v = 1.18 (Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic). then p | a or p | b. 3. 53.16. we have gcd(p. where for each j. 37. 24 x ≡ 1. Let r. 61. This can be proved by induction on the number n. 7. thus gcd(p. a) = p. 71. v = q1 · · · qs for suitable primes pj . Let p be a prime and a. we have the unique solution (−1) × 8 × 2 + 3 × 3 × 7 = −16 + 63 = 47 ≡ 23 ≡ −1. 11. pj is a prime and 2 p1 p2 ··· pt . PRIMES AND FACTORIZATION 11 modulo 8 × 3 = 24. 79. Some examples of primes are 2. 5 Notice that (−1) × 24 + 5 × 5 = 1. if a prime p divides a product of integers a1 · · · an then p | aj for some j. and after reordering and renaming we have a factorization of the desired type for n0 . Otherwise such a natural number is called composite. Proof. Proof. 59. Theorem 1. hence the solution is (−1) × 24 × 1 + 5 × 5 × (−1) ≡ −24 − 25 ≡ −49 ≡ 71. 19. Let n ∈ N0 be a natural number such that n 1. Notice that n0 cannot be prime since then it have such a factorization. S has a least element n0 say. hence u. 97. v ∈ N0 and u.17 (Euclid’s Lemma). Suppose that p a. 24 24 Now solve the simultaneous congruences x ≡ −1. 6. Then by the WOP. 47. Notice that 72 = 49 ≡ 1. a) = 1 or gcd(p. 31. a) | p. From this we obtain n0 = p1 · · · pr q1 · · · qs . 41. If p | ab. 23. So there must be a factorization n0 = uv with u. 3 Then as (−1) × 8 + 3 × 3 = 1. Then rpb + sab = b and so p | b. v ∈ S and so there / are factorizations u = p1 · · · pr .

20. b) = pt1 · · · ptk 1 k with tj = min{rj . Proposition 1. . pj N . there are no such primes. we eventually get down to the case where 1 = q1 · · · qs−r for some primes qj . Corollary 1. . There are inﬁnitely many distinct primes. 1 k . pj is a prime. which implies that pr = qt . b). t 1 2 where for each j. . hence pjj | gcd(a. qj satisfying p1 p2 · · · pr and q1 q2 · · · qs . Then by Lemma 1. Theorem 1. Proof. Let p be a prime. hence q | a and q | b. Thus we have p1 · · · pr−1 = q1 · · · qs−1 . We refer to this factorization as the prime factorization of n.12 1. BASIC NUMBER THEORY To show uniqueness. Hence gcd(a. b). We call this factorization the prime power factorization of n. p2 = q2 .e. b) and there is a prime q dividing m. sj }. .19. . which shows uniqueness. pr = qs . Consider the natural number N = (2p1 · · · pn ) + 1. By considering the sizes of the primes we have p1 = q1 . pt1 · · · ptk | gcd(a. p1 . . √ Proposition 1. i. . where we q1 . b) . Proof. we have pjj | a and pjj | b. . Every natural number n 1 has a unique factorization n = pr1 pr2 · · · prt . We can also show that certain real numbers are not rational.11. . Let the distinct primes be p0 = 2. Notice that for each j. . Then p is not a rational number. . 1 k We have not yet considered the question of how many primes there are.. By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. For each j. Then pr | q1 · · · qs and hence pr | qt for some t = 1. s. Let a. . . pn where 2 = p0 < 3 = p1 < · · · < pn . qs−1 is the list q1 . b) = pt1 · · · ptk . . Suppose not. . But this is only possible if s = r. . . . Then gcd(a. If 1 k gcd(a.22.21. suppose that p1 · · · pr = q1 · · · qs for primes pi . 1 k where 0 rj and 0 sj . t t t b = ps1 · · · psk . qs with the ﬁrst occurrence of qt omitted. . b ∈ N0 be non-zero with prime power factorizations a = pr1 · · · prk . Continuing this way. N = q1 · · · qk for some primes qj . . But then pr +1 | a and ps +1 | b which is impossible. This gives a contradiction since none of the qj can occur amongst the pj . in particular whether there are ﬁnitely many. This means that q = p for some and so pt +1 | gcd(a. 1 rj and 2 p1 < p 2 < · · · < p t . 1 < m = t1 p1 · · · pt k k then m | gcd(a. b).

then t is a root of the polynomial Φ0 (x) = xp−1 −1 p modulo p. hence a2 p = b2 . Begin by noticing that if c is root of f (x) modulo p. b) = 1 since b a2 common factors can be cancelled. then since p f1 (c )(c − c) ≡ 0 p we have p | f1 (c )(c − c) and so by Euclid’s Lemma 1. Congruences modulo a prime In this section. the degree of g(x) is then d − k. Then on squaring we have p = 2 and hence a2 = pb2 . If now the integers c = c1 . If f (x) has degree d modulo p. then the number of distinct roots of f (x) modulo p is at most d. we can evaluate f (c) and reduce the answer modulo p. p In fact. if tp = 0p . p | a. We say that f (x) has degree d modulo p if ad ≡ 0.24 (Fermat’s Little Theorem). to obtain f (c)p . . 7. contradicting our assumption. Proof. Then t is a root of the polynomial Φp (x) = xp −x modulo p. CONGRUENCES MODULO A PRIME 13 a √ p = for integers a. Writing a = a1 p for some integer a1 we have a2 p2 = pb2 . Moreover. If for each j. Thus p is a common 1 1 √ factor of a and b. p Hence f (x) ≡ f1 (x)(x − c). Suppose that Non-rational real numbers are called irrational. . see Section 5 of Chapter 4 for details. This means that no such a. ck are roots of f (x) modulo p which are all distinct modulo p. c2 . However it is hard to show that particular real numbers such as e and π are actually irrational. This implies that 0 k d. Proof.23. Thus b p | a2 . We will study Z/p. aj ≡ bj . Proof. Let t ∈ Z. but reduced modulo p. . p | f1 (c ). Consider the function ϕ : Z −→ Z/p. thus c is a root of f1 (x) modulo p. ϕ(t) = (tp − t)p . we write p a0 + a1 x + · · · + ad xd ≡ b0 + b1 x + · · · + bd xd p and talk about residue class of a polynomial modulo p.7. We can assume that gcd(a.17. We begin by noticing that it makes sense to consider a polynomial with integer coeﬃcients f (x) = a0 + a1 x + · · · + ad xd ∈ Z[x]. then c is said to be a root of f (x) modulo p. b. If c is another root of f (x) modulo p for which cp = cp . The set of all irrational real numbers is much ‘bigger’ than the set of rational numbers Q. Theorem 1. . We will also refer to the residue class cp as a root of f (x) modulo p. and so by Euclid’s Lemma 1. p For an integer c ∈ Z.17. We will denote the residue class of f (x) by f (x)p . If f (c)p = 0p . b can exist so p is not a rational number. . then f (x) ≡ f (x) − f (c) = (a1 + a2 (x + c) + · · · + ad (xd−1 + · · · + cd−1 ))(x − c). then f (x) ≡(x − c1 )(x − c2 ) · · · (x − ck )g(x). Proposition 1. Again using Euclid’s Lemma we see that p | b. p will denote a prime number.

For a prime p and u. The set Pt = {tk : k p 1} ⊆ Z/p is ﬁnite with at most p − 1 elements.14 1. Moreover. Writing p − 1 = qd + r with 0 we have 1 ≡ tp−1 ≡ tqd+r = tqd tr ≡ tr . The second part of Fermat’s Little Theorem can be used to elucidate the multiplicative structure of Z/p. notice that ϕ(1) = 0p and so for t t summands 1. Then for u. the order of t modulo p divides p − 1. By Theorem 1. notice that the Binomial Theorem gives p−1 (u + v)p = up + v p + j=1 p j p−j u v . If tp = 0p . the integer the following useful result. Notice that in particular we must have tr = ts for some p p r < s and so ts−r = 1p . ϕ(t) = ϕ(1 + · · · + 1) = ϕ(1) + · · · + ϕ(1) = 0p + · · · + 0p = 0p . p p p r < d. Theorem 1. (p − j)!. j For 1 j p − 1. p) = 1. then we have p | t(tp−1 − 1) and so by Euclid’s Lemma 1. p j = p · (p − 1)! j!(p − j)! p j is so divisible. p Proof. The order of t modulo p is the smallest d > 0 such that td ≡ 1.17. ϕ has the following p p additivity property: ϕ(u + v) = ϕ(u) + ϕ(v). We p p denote the order of t by ordp t. there is an inverse u of t modulo p. so we can replace t by a positive natural number congruent to it and then use the above argument. tk ≡ 1 if and only if ordp t | k.26. for k ∈ N0 . This gives and as none of j!. To see this. (p − 1)! is divisible by p. (u + v)p ≡ up + v p . Lemma 1. . ϕ(u1 + · · · + un ) = ϕ(u1 ) + · · · + ϕ(un ). Let t be an integer not divisible by p.25 (Idiot’s Binomial Theorem). since gcd(t. v ∈ Z. Let d = ordp t be the order of t modulo p. v ∈ Z. It follows by Induction on n that for n 1. t summands t summands For general t ∈ Z. BASIC NUMBER THEORY Notice that if s ≡ t then ϕ(s) = ϕ(t) since sp − s ≡ tp − t. Notice that the order is always in the range 1 ordp t p − 1. p From this we deduce (u + v)p − (u + v) ≡(up + v p ) − (u + v) p p ≡(up − u) + (v p − v). we have ϕ(t) = ϕ(t + kp) for k ∈ N0 . which means that r = 0 since d is the least positive integer with this property. p | (tp−1 − 1).9. To prove Fermat’s Little Theorem. For t ∈ Z with p t.

2. Theorem 1. Such an integer g is called a primitive root modulo p. gp . p Notice that the power g (p−1)/2 satisﬁes (g (p−1)/2 )2 ≡ 1. Thus (x − 1)(x − 2) · · · (x − p + 1) ≡ xp−1 − 1. Then for any integer t with p t. the polynomial xp−1 − 1 has for its p − 1 distinct roots modulo p the numbers 1. g p Proposition 1. gp . So d | k. If p ≡ 3. CONGRUENCES MODULO A PRIME 15 If tk ≡ 1. g 3(p−1)/4 are roots of x2 + 1 modulo p. It is also a consequence of our Theorem 2. there is an integer g such that ordp g = p − 1. · · · . this means that g (p−1)/4 . 4 4 Proof. Then if u ≡ g r . (g (p−1)/4 )4 −1 ≡ 0. . By Proposition 1. For a prime p. namely 4 p (p−1)/4 3(p−1)/4 1p . hence g 2r ≡ g (p−1)/2 . .7. p As (p − 1) is even. Proposition 1. gp . . If p ≡ 1. • two roots modulo p if p ≡ 1. .28.29.30 (Wilson’s Theorem). there is a unique integer r such that 0 r < p − 1 and t ≡ g r . But 4 p p p p then (p − 1) | (2r − (p − 1)/2) which is impossible since (p − 1)/2 is odd.23. If p is an odd prime then the polynomial x2 + 1 has • no roots modulo p if p ≡ 3. suppose that u2 + 1 ≡ 0. Let g be a primitive root modulo p. −1p . By Fermat’s Little Theorem 1. the result follows. Proposition 1. For a prime p. we have g 2r ≡ −1. This implies the following result. Proofs of this result can be found in many books on elementary Number Theory. (p − 1)! ≡ −1. p − 1.23 implies that p (p−1)/2 ≡ −1. gp . gp . p Proof. we have 1 ≡ tq d tr ≡ tr . so assume that p is odd. Since this number is not congruent to 1 modulo p. Let g be a primitive root modulo the prime p. p p hence r = 0 by the minimality of d. Proof. This is trivially true when p = 2. The distinct powers of g modulo p are then the (p − 1) residue classes 0 2 p−2 1p = gp .24. Theorem 1.27. . then writing k = q d + r with 0 p r < d.28. so the polynomial x4 −1 has four distinct roots modulo p. p By setting x = 0 we obtain (−1)p−1 (p − 1)! ≡ −1.

. Then [a0 . . Then r0 1 a = q0 + = q0 + = q0 + b b b/r0 1 q1 + q2 + · · · + 1 1 qk0 −1 + 1 qk0 and this expression is called the continued fraction expansion of a/b. . then qk0 = (qk0 −1)+1 and we obtain the diﬀerent expansion a r0 1 = q0 + = q0 + = q0 + b b b/r0 1 q1 + q2 + · · · + qk0 −1 + 1 1 1 (qk0 − 1) + 1 1 . a1 . . q1 . . written [q0 . In general. . q1 . rk0 −1 = qk0 rk0 . . r0 = q1 r1 + r2 .16 1. BASIC NUMBER THEORY 8. . a3 . a2 . . [a0 . b ∈ Z with b > 0. . . . an ] gives a ﬁnite continued fraction if each ak is an integer with all except possibly a0 being positive. . we also say that [q0 . . rk0 −2 = qk0 −1 rk0 −1 + rk0 . b = q1 r0 + r1 . an ] = a0 + a1 + 1 1 a2 + 1 a3 + · · · Notice that this expansion for a/b is not necessarily unique since if qk0 > 1. a2 . a1 . qk0 ] represents a/b. a3 . . . . . Finite continued fractions Let a. . qk0 ]. If the Euclidean Algorithm for these integers produces the sequence a = q0 b + r0 .

] represent? . . . . . q1 . qk0 − 1. . 1. q1 . 1. 1]. however inﬁnite continued fraction (icf) expansions turn out to be interesting too. 5 A5 = 1 + 1 2 which form a sequence tending to 21/13. 13 1 1 5 = . The convergents of the above continued fraction expansion are the numbers A0 = 1. 2] = [1. a1 . They also satisfy the inequalities A0 < A2 < A4 < A5 < A3 < A1 . . 1. are integers with all except possibly a0 being positive.] = a0 + a1 + 1 1 a2 + 1 a3 + · · · where a0 . . Of course. Example 1. 1. we might expect to have to consider questions of convergence for such an inﬁnite expansion and we will discuss this point later. 9. 3 A4 = 1 + 1+ 1 1 1+ 1 1+ 1 1 8 = . For example. . .9. . . 1. qk0 ] = [q0 . what real number α must the following inﬁnite continued fraction [1. 1. 1. . a3 . 1 2 1 1 1+ 1+ 1+ 1 1 1 1+ A3 = 1 + 1+ 1 1 1+ = 21 . a2 . the even convergents of a ﬁnite continued fraction expansion always form a strictly increasing sequence. . 1 A2 = 1 + 1 1+ 3 = . . . INFINITE CONTINUED FRACTIONS 17 which shows that [q0 . Analogous considerations show that every rational number has exactly two such continued fraction expansions related in a similar fashion. a2 . . In general. 1.31. a1 . a3 . Such an inﬁnite continued fraction expansion has the form [a0 . 1]. Inﬁnite continued fractions The continued fraction expansions considered so far are all ﬁnite. Assuming it makes sense. 1. 1. 1. . A1 = 1 + 1 = 2. while the odd ones form a strictly decreasing sequence. 1. 8 1 1 1 21 =1+ =1+ =1+ =1+ 13 13 5 1 13 1+ 1+ 8 8 3 1+ 5 1 1 1 =1+ =1+ =1+ 1 1 1 1+ 1+ 1+ 1 1 1 1+ 1+ 1+ 2 1 1 1+ 1+ 1+ 3 1 1 1+ 1+ 2 1 1+ 1 so 21/13 = [1.

a1 . . A3 = a3 (a2 a1 + 1) + a1 The general pattern is given in the next result. . .. a1 . and 0 < an ∈ R. a2 . . a3 . un = un−1 + un−2 (n 3). 1 a1 a0 + 1 A1 = .] be an inﬁnite continued fraction expansion. a3 . . a1 . In Example 1. . pn = an pn−1 + pn−2 . . a2 . ak ] is called the k-th convergent of A. a1 a2 (a1 a0 + 1) + a0 A2 = . . . hence α = (1 + 5)/2. 1. The ﬁrst few convergents of A = [a0 . α2 − α − 1 = 0. A2 = 1 + 1 1 5 = . pn . 8. 1 A1 = 1 + 1 1+ 1 1+ 1 1 1 2 = . Then for each n qn = an qn−1 + qn−2 . a2 a1 + 1 a3 (a2 a1 a0 + a2 + a0 ) + a1 a0 + 1 . q1 = a1 .] are a0 A0 = . Given the inﬁnite continued fraction A = [a0 . 5. qn 0 the n-th convergent of [a0 . α √ √ 1± 5 which has solutions α = . a2 . a3 . . a3 . A4 = 1 + 3 1 1+ 3 = . . a1 . . . an−1 . . an ] for which a0 ∈ Z. 0 < ak ∈ N0 . . i. Then for each k 0. a2 . . a2 . which is given by the recurrence relation u1 = u2 = 1. . q0 = 1. a2 . .18 1. a1 . p1 = a1 a0 + 1. a3 . 1.32. .]. 1 k n − 1. 2 Let A = [a0 .] to be lim An . the ﬁrst few convergents are 1 A0 = . a1 . a3 . 1. .e. the ﬁnite continued fraction Ak = [a0 . a1 .] is An = In the proof and later in this section we will make use of generalized ﬁnite continued fractions [a0 . . 1. Theorem 1. We will show that such limits do always exist and we will then say that A = [a0 . 2. n→∞ Using the convergents of a continued fraction. . .31. we might deﬁne A = [a0 . 1. a3 . 3. . a2 . . a1 . .] = 1 + 1+ 1 1 1+ 1 1 + ··· then 1 α = 1 + . . a2 .] represents the value of this limit. a3 . 1 2 1 1 1+ 1+ 1 1 1+ 8 = . If α = [1. . . 5 A3 = 1 + 1 1 Here the numerators and denominators form the famous Fibonacci sequence {un }. . provided this limit exists. . . It is ‘obvious’ that α > 0. while for n 2. BASIC NUMBER THEORY Solution. set p0 = a0 . .

. n→∞ n→∞ In fact. Hence each A2m is less than each A2n−1 and the sequence {A2n } is strictly increasing while the sequence {A2n−1 } is strictly decreasing. . a3 . Then pk+1 qk − pk qk+1 = (ak+1 pk + pk−1 )qk − pk (ak+1 qk + qk−1 ) = pk−1 qk − pk qk−1 = (−1)(−1)k−1 = (−1)k .] form a sequence {An } which has a limit A = lim An . Ak = . a3 . qn−1 qn Proof. a1 . INFINITE CONTINUED FRACTIONS 19 Proof. .35. Similarly. . . a3 . . Then qk Ak+1 = [a0 . Notice that the increasing sequence {A2n } is bounded above by A1 . 2. for (ii) we have pk qk−2 − pk−2 qk = (ak pk−1 + pk−2 )qk−2 − pk−2 (ak qk−1 + qk−2 ) = ak (pk−1 qk−2 − pk−2 qk−1 ) = ak (−1)k−2 = (−1)k ak . a2 . a2 . a1 . . Assume that the equations hold when n = k for some k 2.33. ii) for n 2. The convergents of A = [a0 . the decreasing sequence {A2n−1 } is bounded below by A0 . . The convergents of A = [a0 . pk Suppose that for some k 2. s with s > 0. a3 . pn qn−2 − pn−2 qn = (−1)n an . qk+1 Corollary 1. 2 clearly hold. Similarly. .34. a2 . ak+1 ] = [a0 . We will prove the result by Induction on n. . ak + 1/ak+1 ]. a1 . . giving the inductive step required to prove (i). The convergents of the inﬁnite continued fraction [a0 . . A0 < A2 < · · · < A2m < · · · < A2n−1 < · · · < A3 < A1 . Notice that = lim A2n lim A2n−1 = u. pn qn−1 − pn−1 qn = (−1)n−1 .e. . a1 . Corollary 1. a1 . . . We can easily verify the cases n = 1. a2 . hence it has a limit say. which gives us the inductive step Ak+1 = (ak + 1/ak+1 )pk + pk−1 (ak + 1/ak+1 )qk + qk−1 ak+1 (ak pk−1 + pk−2 ) + pk−1 = ak+1 (ak qk−1 + qk−2 ) + qk−1 ak+1 pk + pk−1 = ak+1 qk + qk−1 pk+1 = . . . qn−2 qn An − An−1 = (−1)n−1 . a3 . The cases n = 0. 1. An − An−2 = (−1)n an .9. u − = lim A2n−1 − lim A2n = lim (A2n−1 − A2n ) = lim n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ 1 n→∞ q2n−1 q2n . . ak .] satisfy the inequalities A2r < A2r+2s < A2r+2s−1 < A2s−1 for all integers r.] satisfy i) for n 1. n→∞ Proof. Theorem 1. a2 . i. . We will use Induction on n. hence it has a limit u say.

20

1. BASIC NUMBER THEORY

Notice that for n

**1 we have ak > 0 and hence qk < qk+1 . Since qk ∈ Z, lim
**

n→∞ n→∞

**u − = 0. Thus lim An exists and is equal to lim A2n = lim A2n−1 .
**

n→∞

1 = 0, hence n→∞ qn

Example 1.36. Determine the real number which is represented by the inﬁnite continued fraction [1; 2, 2, 2, . . .] and calculate its ﬁrst few convergents. Solution. Let γ be this number. Then γ−1= 1 , 1+γ

√ √ giving the equation γ 2 − 1 = 1. Thus γ = ± 2 and since γ is clearly positive, we get γ = 2. We have a0 = 1, 2 = a1 = a2 = a3 = · · · , giving p0 = 1, q0 = 1, p1 = 3, q1 = 2 and for n 2, pn = 2pn−1 + pn−2 , qn = 2qn−1 + qn−2 . The ﬁrst few convergents are 3 7 17 41 99 239 577 A0 = 1, A1 = , A2 = , A3 = , A4 = , A5 = , A6 = , A7 = . 2 5 12 29 70 169 408 Theorem 1.37. Each irrational number γ has a unique representation as an inﬁnite continued fraction expansion [c0 ; c1 , c2 , . . .] for which cj ∈ Z with cj > 0 if j > 0. Proof. We begin by setting γ0 = γ and c0 = [γ0 ]. Then if 1 , γ1 = γ0 − c0 we can deﬁne c1 = [γ1 ]. Continuing in this way, we can inductively deﬁne sequences of real numbers γn and integers cn satisfying 1 , cn = [γn ]. γn = γn−1 − cn−1 Notice that for n > 0, cn > 0. Also, if γn is rational then so is γn−1 since 1 γn−1 = cn−1 + , γn and this would imply that γ0 was rational which is false. In particular this shows that γn = 0 at each stage and γn > cn . Using the generalized continued fraction notation we have γ = [c0 ; c1 , . . . , cn , γn+1 ] with convergents satisfying the conditions pn γn+1 pn + pn−1 Cn = , γ= . qn γn+1 qn + qn−1 Then γn+1 pn + pn−1 pn |γ − Cn | = − γn+1 qn + qn−1 qn pn−1 qn − pn qn−1 = (γn+1 qn + qn−1 )qn (−1)n = (γn+1 qn + qn−1 )qn 1 1 = < 2. qn+1 qn qn

2 Since the qn form a strictly increasing sequence of integers, 1/qn → 0 as n → ∞, hence Cn → γ. Thus the inﬁnite continued fraction [c0 ; c1 , c2 , . . .] represents γ. It is easy to see that if γ is represented by the inﬁnite continued fraction [a0 ; a1 , a2 , . . .] then a0 = [γ], and in general cn = an for all n, hence this representation is unique.

9. INFINITE CONTINUED FRACTIONS

21

√ Example 1.38. Find the continued fraction expansion of 2. √ √ Solution. Let γ0 = 2 and so c0 = [ 2] = 1. Then √ 1 2+1 √ γ1 = √ = = 2+1 2−1 2−1 √ and so c1 = [ 2 + 1] = 2. Repeating this gives √ 1 1 γ2 = √ =√ = 2+1 2+1−2 2−1 √ and c2 = [ 2 + 1] = 2. Clearly we get for each n > 0, √ 1 γn = √ = 2 + 1, cn = 2. 2−1 √ So the inﬁnite continued fraction representing 2 is [1; 2, 2, . . .] = [1; 2], where 2 means 2 repeated inﬁnitely often. We will write a1 , a2 , . . . , ap to denote the sequence a1 , a2 , . . . , ap repeated inﬁnitely often as in the last example. √ Example 1.39. Find the continued fraction expansion of 3. √ √ Solution. Let γ0 = 3 and so c0 = [ 3] = 1. Then √ √ 1 3+1 3+1 γ1 = √ = = 3−1 2 3−1 and so c1 = 1. Repeating gives √ 1 2 2( 3 + 1) √ γ2 = =√ = = 3+1 γ1 − c1 3−1 3−1

and c2 = 2. Repeating again gives

√ √ 1 1 3+1 3+1 γ3 = =√ = = = γ1 γ2 − c2 3−1 2 3−1

and c3 = 1 = c1 . From now on this pattern repeats giving √ 3+1 1 if n is odd, if n is odd, γn = √ 2 cn = 2 if n is even. 3 + 1 if n is even, √ So the inﬁnite continued fraction representing 3 is [1; 1, 2, 1, 2, . . .] = [1, 1, 2]. The ﬁrst few convergents are 5 7 19 26 71 97 , , , . 1, 2, , , 3 4 11 15 41 56 This example illustrates a general phenomenon. √ Theorem 1.40. For a natural number n which is not a square, the irrational number n has an inﬁnite continued fraction expansion of the form [a0 ; a1 , a2 , . . . , ap ]. √ Furthermore, if p is the smallest such number, then the continued fraction expansion of n also has the symmetry √ n = [a0 ; a1 , a2 , . . . , ap ] = [a0 ; a1 , a2 , . . . , a2 , a1 , 2a0 ].

22

1. BASIC NUMBER THEORY

The smallest p for which the expansion has periodic part of length p is called the period √ of the continued fraction expansion of n. Here are some more examples whose periods are indicated. √ 5 = [2; 4] (period 1) √ 6 = [2; 2, 4] (period 2) √ 7 = [2; 1, 1, 1, 4] (period 4) √ 8 = [2; 1, 4] (period 2) √ 10 = [3; 6] (period 1) √ 11 = [3; 3, 6] (period 2) √ 12 = [3; 2, 6] (period 2) √ 13 = [3; 1, 1, 1, 1, 6] (period 5) √ 97 = [9; 1, 5, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 5, 1, 18] (period 11) 10. Diophantine equations Consider the following problem: Find all integer solutions x, y of the equation 35x + 61y = 1. Such problems in which we are only interested in integer solutions are called Diophantine problems and are named after the Greek Diophantus in whose book many examples appeared. Diophantine problems were also studied in several ancient civilizations including those of China, India and the Middle East. Since gcd(35, 61) = 1, we can use the Euclidean Algorithm to ﬁnd a speciﬁc solution of this problem. 61 = 1 × 35 + 26, 35 = 1 × 26 + 9, 26 = 2 × 9 + 8, 9 = 1 × 8 + 1, 8 = 1 × 8. Hence a solution is obtained from 1 = 9 + (−1) × 8 = 9 + (−1) × (26 + (−2) × 9) = (−1) × 26 + 3 × 9 = (−1) × 26 + 3 × (35 + (−1) × 26) = 3 × 35 + (−4) × 26 = 3 × 35 + (−4) × (61 + (−1) × 35) = 7 × 35 + (−4) × 61. So x = 7, y = −4 is an integer solution. To ﬁnd all integer solutions, notice that another solution x, y must satisfy 35(x − 7) + 61(y + 4) = 0, hence we have 35 | 61(y + 4) so by Euclid’s Lemma 1.17, 35 | (y + 4). Thus y = −4 + 35k for some k ∈ Z and then x = 7 − 61k. The general integer solution is x = 7 − 61k, y = −4 + 35k (k ∈ Z). Here is the general result about this kind of problem. Theorem 1.41. If a, b, c ∈ Z and h = gcd(a, b) set a = uh and b = vh. a) If h c, then the equation ax + by = c has no integer solutions. 26 = 61 + (−1) × 35, 9 = 35 + (−1) × 26, 8 = 26 + (−2) × 9, 1 = 9 + (−1) × 8,

35x + 61y = 1. Theorem 1. It turns out that the integer solutions x. 1.). where d is an integer which is not a square. 11. 2. . This illustrates a general result which is closely related to the tabular method of §4. If x0 . let d be a non-square natural number. . a) If the period p is even then all positive integer solutions of the equation x2 − dy 2 = 1 are given by x = pkp−1 . . (−1)m pm−1 a + (−1)m−1 qm−1 b = 1. Proof.44. Consider the continued fraction expansion 61 =1+ 35 1 1+ 2+ 1 1 1+ = [1. 1. .. y = y0 + uk (k ∈ Z). y = qkp−1 (k = 1. then the equation ax + by = c has integer solutions. This gives i. .32. .45. 1 8 The penultimate convergent is [1.e. This can be solved as in the preceding discussion to obtain the stated general solution. Pell’s equation Another important Diophantine problem is the solution of Pell’s Equation x2 − dy 2 = 1. then a solution of ax + by = 1 is obtained from the continued fraction expansion b = [c0 . We will describe the method without detailed proofs. . √ then u/v is a convergent of the continued fraction expansion of d. Apart from the signs involved.43. Find all positive integer solutions of x2 − 2y 2 = 1. a1 . . b) Dividing through by h gives the equivalent equation ux + vy = w. 2. Let [a0 . .11. . 2. Example 1. where c = wh. This is a consequence of Corollary 1. c1 . y = q2kp−1 (k = 1. b) If the period p is odd then all positive integer solutions of the equation x2 − dy 2 = 1 are given by x = p2kp−1 . 2.33(ii) where we take n = m. If a. bqm−1 − apm−1 = (−1)m−1 . y = (−1)m−1 qm−1 . .). ap ] be the inﬁnite √ continued fraction expansion of period p for d. y = v is a positive integer solution of the equation x2 − dy 2 = 1. then the general integer solution is x = x0 − vk. Theorem 1. If x = u. Theorem 1. 8]. PELL’S EQUATION 23 b) If h | c. From now on. y of this equation can be found using continued fractions. cm ] a pm−1 and setting by taking the penultimate convergent qm−1 x = (−1)m pm−1 . Proof. . a) This is obvious. 3. We end this section by showing how continued fractions can be used to ﬁnd one solution of the above Diophantine problem. . 3.4 are those appearing in the above solution.42. b are coprime positive integers. y0 is a particular integer solution. . . with n-th convergent An = pn /qn using the notation of Theorem 1. the numbers 7. 1. 1] = 7/4.

1. √ √ x4 + y4 2 = 577 + 408 2. 2. y1 ) = (pp−1 . From Example 1. we have (x1 . (26. 15). 2 The fundamental solution of x2 − dy√= 1 is the positive integral solution x1 . The positive integral solutions of x2 − dy 2 = 1 are precisely the pairs of integers (xn . . 1). y) = (2. √ √ x3 + y3 2 = 99 + 70 2. So the positive integer solutions are (k = 1. The ﬁrst few are (x. √ √ x1 + y1 2 = 3 + 2 2. 1. 1. 5. 3. .38 we have 2 = [1. y1 minimal. . y = q2k−1 (k = 1. q2p−1 ) if the period p is even. y) = (3. 1. Find the fundamental solution of x2 − 97y 2 = 1 and hence ﬁnd 3 other positive integral solutions. qn strictly increasing. Example 1. Thus since the convergents of d have pn . 5. . Find all positive integer solutions of x2 − 3y 2 = 1. x = p2k−1 .46. if the period p is odd. For d = 3. √ √ x1 + y1 3 = 2 + 1 3. √ √ x2 + y2 2 = 17 + 12 2. qp−1 ) (p2p−1 . The fundamental solution is (x1 . 2] with p = 2. 2. 2). Example 1. 6377352). 1. . 1. √ √ x2 + y2 97 = 7890099995189377 + 801118277263632 97. . 1. 4).24 1. We have 97 = [9.48. √ √ x4 + y4 3 = 97 + 56 3. yn ) for which √ √ xn + yn d = (x1 + y1 d)n . (7. while the ﬁrst few solutions are given by √ √ x1 + y1 97 = 62809633 + 6377352 97. (99. 1. 12).47. √ √ x3 + y3 97 = 991148570062293006927649 + 100635889969041933956760 97. √ √ x2 + y2 3 = 7 + 4 3.39 we have 3 = [1.). √ x4 + y4 97 = 124507355868174813917084187296257 √ + 12641806631167809665750389674528 97. Theorem 1. y = q2k−1 The ﬁrst few are (x. 1. For d = 2. 70). BASIC NUMBER THEORY √ Solution.). y1 ) = (p21 . 3. 18] which has period p = 11. q21 ) = (62809633. √ Solution. y1 with x1 . So the positive integer solutions are x = p2k−1 . . √ √ x3 + y3 3 = 26 + 15 3. From Example 1. (17. √ Solution. 2] with p = 1.

(e) 13x ≡ 36. [Challenge question] Using Maple. then p | aj for some j. Let p1 . 19. (c) If k ∈ Z is non-zero. 37 ﬁnd a primitive root modulo p. (d) 210x ≡ 97. 5n + 2) = 1. y ∈ Z.. gcd(936. (a) If a | b and b | c. −520). b) as an integer linear combination of a. 4. qs be primes which satisfy the congruences pi ≡ 1 (1 4 4 i r). . (b) 21x ≡ 7. 210x ≡ 97.5. s q q 1-10. qj ≡ 3 4 (1 j s). (c) 21x ≡ 8. . . then b = ±a. Let p. show that if n ∈ Z. Use this result to show that for any natural number n. then a | c. . 4n + 3 is divisible by at least one prime p with p ≡ 3. 7. s. 3. then gcd(ka. 0 < t}. Find all integer solutions x (if there are any) of each of the following pairs of simultaneous congruences: (a) 9x ≡ 23. For each of the primes p = 5. Find all integer solutions x (if there are any) of each of the following congruences: (a) 9x ≡ 23. 6. t ∈ N0 . 0 < xa + yb} deﬁned in the proof of Theorem 1. 17. gcd(1008. gcd(108. 8. gcd(−591. (c) 9x ≡ 23. 245 1007 77 37 245 77 1-7. Use the Euclidean Algorithm and the method of back-substitution to ﬁnd the following greatest common divisors and in each case express gcd(a. c are non-zero integers. q be a pair of distinct prime numbers. b. . (c) √ for any coprime pair of natural numbers r. −876). (a) Find two roots of the polynomial f (x) = x4 + 22 modulo 23. pr and q1 . q2 . b. . show that the set S = {xa + yb : x. 1-2. b). 691). 245 77 77 1007 37 1-6. determine all the solutions modulo n of the congruence x3 −x ≡ 0. Show that if a prime p divides a product of integers a1 · · · an . 1-9. 1-4. for a collection of values n = 2. 13x ≡ 36. Hence ﬁnd three factors of g(x) modulo 47 and explain why you would not expect there to be any other monic linear factors. 21x ≡ 7.5 agrees with the set T = {t gcd(a. . (b) (a) . 5. Hence ﬁnd three factors of f (x) modulo 23 and explain why you would not expect there to be any other monic linear factors. show that each of the following statements is true.. gcd(12n + 5. (b) Find two roots of the polynomial g(x) = x4 + 4x2 + 43x3 + 43x + 3 modulo 47. kb) = |k| gcd(a. p2 . If a. Use the method in the proof of Theorem 1. (b) 21x ≡ 7. 98). b: gcd(76. 7. For non-zero integers a. Show that p1 p2 · · · pr q1 q2 · · · qs ≡(−1)s . 11. 1-12. Use the tabular method of §4 to check your results. b). 1-3. . .PROBLEM SET 1 25 Problem Set 1 1-1. 23. Show that each of the following is irrational: √ r p p √ n p for n > 1. 120). (b) If a | b and b | a. 1-5. 4 1-11. . Can you spot anything systematic about n the number of solutions modulo n? 1-8. 13.

14159. If A = [a0 . 1-22. √ 1 1-19. 1-20. p Use the proof of Proposition 1.29 to show that −1 p = (−1)(p−1)/2 . 1 1 1-18. For t ∈ Z with p t. If n is a positive integer. . . Let p be an odd prime. n + n2 + 1 (b) 64x + 108y = 2. 1-16. deﬁne 1 if there is a u ∈ Z such that t ≡ u2 . a1 . √ √ b) Show that [ n2 + 1] = n and that the inﬁnite continued fraction expansion of n2 + 1 is [n. 3. 1-14.14160. Investigate the continued fraction expansions of 6 and √ . b are non-zero natural numbers. 1103/87. Let x > 1 be a real number. Determine as many conver5 5−1 gents as you can. . a1 . Determine the two continued fraction expansions of each of the numbers 1/3. a0 . 1-17. 51/11. Find the continued fraction expansions of √ and √ . a) Prove the identities n+ n2 + 1 = 2n + ( n2 + 1 − n) = 2n + 1 √ . n. 2/3. pn ≡ 1. BASIC NUMBER THEORY 1-13. What can you say about the case p = 2? 1-15. 2n]. the following congruences are true: (1 + p)p n−1 ≡ 1 + pn−1 . 2n]. 1193/1725. (c) 64x + 108y = 12. 30031/16579. Determine as many con6 vergents as you can. Show that (1 + p)p ≡ 1. . 1725/1193.26 1. . Find all the solutions of each of the following Diophantine equations: (a) 64x + 108y = 4. . t p = −1 otherwise. −1193/1725. p2 More generally. b/a when a.] Try to ﬁnd a relationship between the continued fraction expansions of a/b and −a/b. In each case determine all the convergents. Let n be a positive integer. . an ] with A > 1. what are the continued fraction expansions of −n and 1/n? What about when n is negative? [Hint: Try a few examples ﬁrst then attempt to formulate and prove general results. 3. Show that the n-th convergent of the continued fraction representation of x agrees with the (n−1)-th convergent of the continued fraction representation of 1/x. 1! 2! 3! 1-21. an ]. Let p be an odd prime. show that 1/A = [0. . . show by Induction that for n (1 + p) pn−2 pn 2. [Challenge question] Try to determine the ﬁrst 10 terms in the continued fraction expansion of e using the series expansion 1 1 1 e = 1 + + + + ··· . √ √ c) Show that [ n2 + 2] = n and that the inﬁnite continued fraction expansion of n2 + 2 is [n.

13. 1. 6. 11. . Find the fundamental solutions of Pell’s equation x2 − dy 2 = 1 for each of the values d = 5. 12. 2n]. 31. 8. 83. 1-23.PROBLEM SET 1 27 √ d) Show that [ n2 + 2n] = n and that the inﬁnite continued fraction expansion of √ n2 + 2n is [n. In each case ﬁnd as many other solutions as you can.

.

ι = 0 and x−1 = −x. C. (3) G = R. d ∈ R. f −1 = the inverse function of f . Let R = Q. ∗ = +.1. Gp2: there is an element ι ∈ G such that for every x ∈ G. y ∈ G to give another element x ∗ y ∈ G. c.3. Gp3: for every x ∈ G. 29 . ι = 0 and x−1 = −x. the unique element y associated to x is called the inverse of x and is denoted x−1 . ∗ = +.2. The following are examples of groups. 0 1 b d − ad − bc . = ad − bc c a − ad − bc ad − bc Example 2. Gp1: for all elements x. there is a unique element y ∈ G such that x ∗ y = ι = y ∗ x.CHAPTER 2 Groups and group actions 1. z ∈ G. ι = IdX = the identity function on X. ad − bc = 0 . Let n > 0 be a natural number. ∗). ι = 0 and x−1 = −x. ι is usually called the identity element of (G. (Perm(X). ∗) has a ﬁnite underlying set G. If a group (G. b. Gp1 is usually called the associativity law. We will study these and other examples in more detail. (x ∗ y) ∗ z = x ∗ (y ∗ z). Then (Perm(X). (2) G = Q. ∗ = +. ι= a b c d −1 1 0 = I2 . x −1 = −xn = (−x)n . Then (Z/n.4. written |G|. (1) G = Z. Example 2. Groups Let G be set and ∗ a binary operation which combines each pair of elements x. ι ∗ x = x = x ∗ ι. +) is a group with ι = 0n . then the number of elements in the G is called the order of G. c d ∗ = multiplication of matrices. ◦) is called the permutation group of X. R. ∗) is a group if the following conditions are satisﬁed. Example 2. Let X be a ﬁnite set and let Perm(X) be the set of all bijections f : X −→ X. Example 2. Then each of these choices gives a group (GL2 (R). In Gp3. y. ∗) with GL2 (R) = a b : a. ◦) is a group where ◦ = composition of functions. Then (G.

2. 2 3 1 We can calculate the composition τ ◦σ of two permutations τ. To do this we display the elements of X in two similar rows with an arrow joining xi in the ﬁrst row to σ(xi ) in the second. 2. . n). xn . • and so on.30 2. n . GROUPS AND GROUP ACTIONS 2. . . . x2 . C} can be displayed as B C A A@ @ A B @ oo C @o @@ o@o @@ooooo @@@ @ oo@ wooo B C . σ(2). 2 3 1 (σ ∈ Sn . . σ(1) σ(2) . A B C the permutation σ = acting on X = {A. . Permutation groups We will follow the ideas of Example 2. 2 1 3 Example 2. The Sn = Perm(n) is called the symmetric group on n objects or the symmetric group of degree n or the permutation group on n objects. Notice that we apply σ to k ﬁrst then apply τ to the result σ(k). 3 1 2 1 2 3 . In all. 1 2 3 1 2 3 . . 1 2 3 · C = A. Then there is an action of Sn on X given by σ · xk = xσ(k) 1 2 3 · A = B. k = 1. ι= 1 2 3 . 2 3 1 3 1 2 Let X be a set with exactly n elements which we list in some order. . . n taken in some order with no repetitions. 2 3 1 Often it is useful to display the eﬀect of a permutation σ : X −→ X by indicating where each element is sent by σ with the aid of arrows. . this gives n × (n − 1) × · · · × 2 × 1 = n! choices for σ. if X = {A. . ..4 and consider the standard set with n elements n = {1. B. n}. The elements of S3 are the following. Proof. . σ(n) 1 2 3 . 1 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 1 1 2 3 . For example.. For example. . . Theorem 2. . . x3 = C and so 1 2 3 · B = C. . C} we can take x1 = A. x1 .6. • n − 1 choices for σ(2) (taken from the remaining n − 1 elements).5. x2 = B. Sn has order |Sn | = n!. . σ ∈ Sn . 2. . so |Sn | = n! as claimed. σ(n) consisting of the n numbers 1. We will often describe σ using the notation σ= 1 2 . 1 2 3 3 1 2 = 1 2 3 . B. where τ σ(k) = τ (σ(k)). 2 3 1 For example. . Deﬁning an element σ ∈ Sn is equivalent to specifying the list σ(1). 1 2 3 3 2 1 In particular. 1 3 2 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 −1 = 1 2 3 1 2 3 = ι. . To do this we have • n choices for σ(1). 1 2 3 1 2 3 = .

A permutation σ is called even if sgn σ = 1.3. If we straighten out the paths starting at each number in the top row. so sgn σ −1 = sgn σ. σ ∈ Sn ). So (−1)cσ +cτ = (−1)cτ σ . Example 2. An is called the n-th alternating group. Proof. Thus A B C C A B can be determined from the diagram A@ @ A B C B C A A A B @ oo C @oo @@ o@ @@ooooo @@@ @ oo@ wooo OOO B C OO~ ~O ~~ ~~ OOOOO~~~ ~ ~~OOO ~~ O' B C which gives the identity function whose diagram is A A B B C C 3. . Note also that ι ∈ An . Hence. Thus if σ ∈ An . The elements of A3 are ι= 1 2 3 . −1 if cσ is odd. The arrow diagram for σ −1 is obtained from that for σ by interchanging the rows and reversing all the arrows. −1} is actually a group under multiplication. The function sgn : Sn −→ {+1. Proposition 2. Then sgn : Sn −→ {+1. τ ∈ An . otherwise it is odd. By Proposition 2. Proof. we see that the total number of crossings is cσ + cτ . 1 2 3 1 2 3 . The set An forms a group under composition. The sign of σ is the number sgn σ = (−1)cσ = +1 if cσ is even. so that we change the total number of crossings by 2 each time. then sgn(τ σ) = sgn(τ ) sgn(σ) = 1. if σ. 2 3 1 1 2 3 .9.8. The sign of a permutation Let σ ∈ Sn and consider the arrow diagram of σ as above. Notice that {+1. An is a group under composition. 3 1 2 We will see later that |An | = |Sn |/2 = n!/2.7. The set of all even permutations in Sn is denoted by An . then sgn σ −1 = 1. By considering the arrow diagram for τ σ obtained by joining the diagrams for σ and τ . Proposition 2. −1} satisﬁes sgn(τ σ) = sgn(τ ) sgn(σ) (τ. −1}.7. Let cσ be the number of crossings of arrows. Notice that ι ∈ An and in fact the following result is true. THE SIGN OF A PERMUTATION 31 We can compose permutations by composing the arrows.

(1 2)(3 4) =(2 1)(4 3) = (3 4)(1 2) = (4 3)(2 1). Then we have σ = (k1 σ(k1 ) · · · σ r1 −1 (k1 )) · · · (kd σ(kd ) · · · σ rd −1 (kd )). say rows r and s. The cycle type of a permutation Suppose σ ∈ Sn . . (1 2 3)(1) =(3 1 2)(1) = (2 3 1)(1) = (1)(1 2 3) = (1)(3 1 2) = (1)(2 3 1).32 2. . . . n occurs in exactly one row. It is unique apart from the order of the factors and the order in which the numbers within each cycle occur. 2. . 2. . . . . one of the types involves interchanging a pair of rows. Writing k1 = 1. • Form the sequence 1 → σ(1) → σ 2 (1) → · · · → σ r1 −1 (1) → σ r1 (1) = 1 where σ k (j) = σ(σ k−1 (j)) and r1 is the smallest positive power for which this is true. whose rows are obtained by applying the permutation σ ∈ Sn to those of In so that pij = δσ(i)j = 1 if j = σ(i). . n for which k2 = σ t (1) for every t. this operation is denoted by Rr ↔ Rs . which is the disjoint cycle decomposition of σ. In fact. The corresponding elementary matrix E(Rr ↔ Rs ) is obtained from the identity matrix In by performing this operation. we end up with a collection of disjoint cycles k1 → σ(k1 ) → σ 2 (k1 ) → · · · → σ r1 −1 (k1 ) → σ r1 (k1 ) = k1 k2 → σ(k2 ) → σ 2 (k2 ) → · · · → σ r2 −1 (k2 ) → σ r2 (k2 ) = k2 . • . 2. . We indicate this permutation using the cycle notation (ks σ(ks ) · · · σ rs −1 (ks )). . Form the sequence k2 → σ(k2 ) → σ 2 (k2 ) → · · · → σ r2 −1 (k2 ) → σ r2 (k2 ) = k2 where r2 is the smallest positive power for which this is true. The s-th one of these cycles can be viewed as corresponding to the permutation of n which behaves according to the action of σ on the elements that appear as σ t (ks ) and ﬁx every other element. . . GROUPS AND GROUP ACTIONS 4. . • Repeat this with k3 = 1. We usually leave out cycles of length 1. in S4 . For example. kd → σ(kd ) → σ 2 (kd ) → · · · → σ rd −1 (kd ) → σ rd (kd ) = kd in which every number k = 1. Now carry out the following steps. . n being the smallest number for which k3 = σ t (k2 ) for every t. Recall that when performing elementary row operations (ERO’s) on n × n matrices. so for example (1 2 3)(1) = (1 2 3). • Take the smallest number k2 = 1. . . we can do a sequence of such operations to obtain any permutation matrix Pσ = [pij ]. 0 if j = σ(i).

if n = 3 and σ = 1 2 3 . 1 0 0 Proposition 2.15. 5. One way to decompose a permutation σ into transpositions is to ﬁrst decompose it into disjoint cycles then use the easily checked formula (2. . A permutation τ ∈ Sn which interchanges two elements of n and leaves the rest ﬁxed is called a transposition. then 2 3 1 0 1 0 Pσ = 0 0 1 .11. Example 2.e. Let σ ∈ Sn . Proposition 2. C. Corollary 2. Let ϕ be a symmetry of S ⊆ Rn .1) (i1 i2 . B C . Symmetry groups Let S be a set of points in Rn .. 3.10. 2. Then there are transpositions τ1 . SYMMETRY GROUPS 33 For example. Solution. . A symmetry of S is a surjection ϕ : S −→ S which preserves distances. Then the set Sym(S) of all symmetries of S is a group under composition. Some alternative decompositions are σ = (2 1)(2 4)(2 5) = (5 2)(5 1)(5 4). Let S ⊆ Rn . τk such that σ = τ1 · · · τk . B. i. . where n = 1. v ∈ S). |ϕ(u) − ϕ(v)| = |u − v| (u. det Pσ = sgn σ. For σ ∈ Sn . Then a) ϕ is a bijection and ϕ−1 is also a symmetry of S. . . . b) ϕ preserves distances between points and angles between lines joining points. . 1 2 3 4 5 2 5 3 1 4 ∈ S5 Theorem 2. . ir ) = (i1 ir ) · · · (i1 i3 )(i1 i2 ). Example 2.12. We have σ = (3)(1 2 5 4) = (1 2 5 4) = (1 4)(1 5)(1 2). Decompose σ= into a product of transpositions. .5..13. Let T ⊆ R2 be an equilateral triangle A 1 111 1 11 11 11 · O 111 11 1 with vertices A.14.

B A C Therefore we have | Sym( )| = 6. −1). 1). C(−1. B O· C D A A symmetry can send A to any of the vertices.17. thus | Sym( )| = 8. |τ | = 2. A ·O C D Then a symmetry is deﬁned by sending A to any one of the 4 vertices then choosing how to send B to one of the 2 adjacent vertices. 1).34 2. D C B A A B C D . A B C A B C . B centred at the origin O with vertices at A(1. and then the long edge AB must go to the longer of the adjacent edges. Again we can describe symmetries in terms of their eﬀect on the vertices. D A B C A B C D . ι= A B C D A B C D A B C D B A D C A B C D C D A B A B C D D C B A Given a regular n-gon (i. with elements ι.e. A C B A B C C B A A B C . This gives a total of 4 × 2 = 8 such symmetries. . α. Here are the 4 elements of Sym(R) described in permutation notation. B(−2. C(−2. A D C B A B C D . thus | Sym(R)| = 4. C}. .16. . αn−1 . . A B C D A B C D . . Example 2. . hence there are as many symmetries as permutations of the set {A. . a regular polygon with n sides all of the same length and n vertices V1 . This gives a total of 4 such symmetries. Here are the 8 elements of Sym( ) described in permutation notation. D(1. αn−1 τ where αk is an anticlockwise rotation through 2πk/n about the centre and τ is a reﬂection in the line through V1 and the centre. B C D A A B C D . ι= A B C D . Moreover we have |α| = n. V2 . Vn ) the symmetry group is the dihedral group of order 2n D2n . τ ατ = αn−1 = α−1 . B. D(2. B C A A B C . −1). α2 τ. Let S ⊆ R2 be the square B(−1. τ. . . Again we can describe symmetries in terms of their eﬀect on the vertices. 1). . −1). Each symmetry can be described using permutation notation and we obtain the 6 symmetries ι= A B C . . GROUPS AND GROUP ACTIONS Then a symmetry is deﬁned once we know where the vertices go. . C B A D A B C D . C A B A B C . B A D C Example 2.. α2 . C D A B A B C D . 1). Let R ⊆ R2 be the rectangle centred at the origin O with vertices at A(2. ατ. . −1).

ι = g0.3. there is a group (GL2 (R). ad − bc = 1 c d GL2 (R). This follows easily with aid of the three identities det a b = ad − bc. x ∗ y ∈ H. τ = (V2 V7 )(V3 V6 )(V4 V5 ). (g n )−1 = g −n . a b c d = 1 d −b . H is a proper subgroup of G. Subgroups and Lagrange’s Theorem Let (G. Then H is a subgroup of G if (H. c. y ∈ H. For n ∈ Z+ . C. This follows from the three equations g m g n = g m+n . From now on.. c. ∗) be a group. We have seen that when n = 3.e. c d det(AB) = det A det B.. ad − bc −c a Let (G. . R. Let SL2 (R) = a b : a. ∗) be a group and H ⊆ G. • if z ∈ H then z −1 ∈ H. For example. SL2 (R) Solution. if x. An Sn . In detail this means that • for x. while if n = 7 α = (V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 ). By Example 2. if n = 6 we have α = (V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 ). An is a subgroup of Sn . −1 −n (x ) if n < 0. y ∈ G we will write xy for x ∗ y. i. i. • ι ∈ H. b. for each choice of R = Q. SUBGROUPS AND LAGRANGE’S THEOREM 35 In permutation notation this becomes α = (V1 V2 · · · Vn ). n x = ι if n = 0. Also. for n ∈ Z we write x(xn−1 ) if n > 0.. We write H G whenever H is a subgroup of G and H < G if H = G. 6. τ = (V2 V6 )(V3 V5 ). ∗) is a group. If g is ﬁnite and contains exactly n elements then g is said to have ﬁnite order |g| = n. If g is inﬁnite then g is said to have inﬁnite order |g| = ∞. b. Then SL2 (R) is a subgroup of GL2 (R). ad − bc = 0 . d ∈ R.e. −1 a b : a. d ∈ R. ∗) with GL2 (R) = Example 2.18. g = {g n : n ∈ Z} ⊆ G is a subgroup of G called the subgroup generated by g. If g ∈ G. Sym( ) is the permutation group of the vertices and so D6 is essentially the same group as S6 . c d ⊆ GL2 (R).e.6.19. but τ is more complicated to describe. i. Example 2.

We have that for each k ∈ Z. ∗) is called cyclic if there is an element c ∈ G such that G = c .23. Solution. g m = ι}. such a c is called a generator of G. If g ∈ G has ﬁnite order |g| then |g| = min{m ∈ Z+ : m > 0. In the group Sn the cyclic permutation (i1 i2 · · · ir ) of length r has order |(i1 i2 · · · ir )| = r. Setting σ = (i1 i2 · · · ir ). including 1 and n. if p is a prime and r 1 then ϕ(pr ) = (p − 1)pr−1 . hence gcd(t. So for example. For a positive natural number n and a function f deﬁned on the positive natural numbers. |G| = |c|. GROUPS AND GROUP ACTIONS Proposition 2. The group (Z. Hence 1n ∈ tn and so Z/n = tn . Notice that for such a group. we need to introduce some notation. the product (1 2)(2 3 4) satisﬁes ( (1 2)(2 3 4) )2 = (1 2)(2 3 4)(1 2)(2 3 4) = (1 3)(2 4) so |(1 2)(3 4 5)| = |(1 3)(2 4)| = 2. r.20. If 0 < n ∈ N0 .24. On the other hand. then by Theorem 1. A group (G. d|n . But notice that the product (1 2)(3 4 5) satisﬁes ((1 2)(3 4 5))2 = (1 2)(3 4 5)(1 2)(3 4 5) = (3 5 4).22. d|6 Theorem 2. From this we see that ±1n are obvious generators and so Z/n = ±1n . |(1 2)| = 2.21. we have σ k (1) = hence |σ| r. n) | 1. Example 2. if Z/n = tn then for some k ∈ N0 we have 1 ≡ 1+· · ·+1 (with k summands) and so kt ≡ 1. As ik = 1 for 1 < k ik+1 i1 if k < r. If gcd(t. n) = 1. ϕ(d) = n. n) = 1 then ϕ(mn) = ϕ(m)ϕ(n). n n n The Euler ϕ-function ϕ : Z+ −→ N0 is deﬁned by ϕ(n) =number of generators of Z/n =number of elements tn ∈ Z/n with gcd(t. hence kt+ n = 1 for some ∈ Z. Two generators are ±1n ∈ Z/n. r is the smallest such power which is ι.9.36 2. Solution. n) = 1. k = ±(1 + 1 + · · · + 1) (with ±k summands). For example. |(1 2 3)| = 3 and |(1 2 3 4)| = 4. hence |(1 2)(3 4 5)| = 6. hence |σ| = r. for a non-zero natural number n. +) is cyclic of inﬁnite order with generators ±1. tn is a generator if and only if gcd(t. More generally. f (d) = f (1) + f (2) + f (3) + f (6). The Euler function ϕ enjoys the following properties: a) b) c) d) ϕ(1) = 1. Conversely. +) is cyclic of ﬁnite order n. n) = 1. But this implies gcd(t. n) = 1. In order to state some properties of ϕ. the symbol f (d) d|n denotes the sum of all the numbers f (d) where d ranges over all the positive integer divisors of n. if gcd(m. Example 2. Example 2. then the group (Z/n. if k = r. there is an integer u such that ut ≡ 1.

We do this by deﬁning for each x ∈ G the left coset of x with respect to H. Then g has ﬁnite order and |g| divides |G|. If yh ∈ xH for some h ∈ H. Let G be a ﬁnite group and let g ∈ G. suppose that xH ∩ yH = ∅. For k ∈ H. Then G is cyclic and so abelian.6. The idea is to divide up G into disjoint subsets of size H. ϕ(120) = ϕ(8 · 3 · 5) = ϕ(8)ϕ(3)ϕ(5) = ϕ(23 )ϕ(3)ϕ(5) = 22 · 2 · 4 = 25 = 32. This is seen as follows. The number [G : H] of cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G. θ(h) = gh. x−1 yk = (x−1 yh)(h−1 k). Theorem 2. then x−1 yh ∈ H. . The set of all cosets of H in G is denoted G/H. y ∈ G. Proposition 2.25. i) For x. ∗) be a ﬁnite group and H divides |G|. Repeating this argument with x and y interchanged we also see that xH ⊆ yH. G/H = {gH : g ∈ G}. Denoting the number of these cosets by [G : H] we have |G| = |H|[G : H]. We need the following facts. θ(d) = 0 unless d divides |G|. which is in H since x−1 yh. Hence yH ⊆ xH. |gH| = |H|.25. Then |H| Proof.26 (Lagrange’s Theorem). i.27. then |G| = |H| |G/H| = |H|[G : H]. If G is a ﬁnite group and H G. Combining these inclusions we obtain xH = yH. Let G be a group of ﬁnite order n = |G| and suppose that for each divisor d of n there are at most d elements of G satisfying xd = ι. k ∈ H then g −1 (gh) = g −1 (gk) and so h = k. Theorem 2. xH ∩ yH = ∅ ⇐⇒ xH = yH. If xH = yH then xH ∩ yH = ∅. By Proposition 2. d||G| θ(d). h−1 k ∈ H and H is a subgroup of G. Thus there is a bijection θ : H −→ gH. If gh = gk for h. which implies that the sets H and gH have the same number of elements. Since G= we have |G| = d||G| {g ∈ G : |g| = d}. SUBGROUPS AND LAGRANGE’S THEOREM 37 For example.27. Thus every element g ∈ G lies in exactly one such coset gH. This allows us to give a promised proof of a number theoretic result. Proof. Indeed the following generalisation is true.e. Conversely.28. G.25 now follows easily by taking H = g and using the fact that |g| = |H|. the Primitive Element Theorem 1. Proposition 2.. ii) For each g ∈ G. Let (G. xH = {g ∈ G : x−1 g ∈ H} = {g ∈ G : g = xh for some h ∈ H}. Let θ(d) denote the number of elements in G of order d. Corollary 2. Thus G is the union of these disjoint cosets which all have size H. The next result is actually a consequence of Lagrange’s Theorem which follows immediately after it and is of great importance in the study of ﬁnite groups.

This deﬁnes an action of (G. k) = 1 since this requires ak = a and so for some u ∈ Z. If θ(d) = 0 then θ(d) < ϕ(d). So suppose that θ(d) > 0. Notice that if θ(d) < ϕ(d) for some d dividing |G|. so G is cyclic. . the group of invertible elements of Z/p under multiplication. Group actions If X is a set and (G. . we have θ(d) 0. ◦) on X. .38 2. hence there must be an element of order n. 2. ∗) on X is a rule which assigns to each g ∈ G and x ∈ X and element gx ∈ X so that the following conditions are satisﬁed. g2 ∈ G and x ∈ X. since the latter is positive. d . this would give a strict inequality in place of Equation (2. we obtain Theorem 1. By the deﬁnition of ϕ. the stabilizer of x is StabG (x) = {g ∈ G : gx = x} ⊆ G. This deﬁnes an action of (G. a. a) If g1 . We will show that for each divisor d of |G|. 1. Hence we must always have θ(d) = ϕ(d). (g1 ∗ g2 )x = g1 (g2 x). uk ≡ 1 which happens precisely when gcd(d.2) d||G| ϕ(d) = d||G| θ(d). For x ∈ X. c) y ∈ OrbG (x) if and only if OrbG (y) = OrbG (x). For σ ∈ G and k ∈ n let σk = σ(k).31. Notice that x = ιx. ∗) then a (group) action of (G. . Example 2.2). Thus StabG (x) = ∅ and OrbG (x) = ∅. In fact. we also have |G| = d||G| ϕ(d). Taking G = Up . GROUPS AND GROUP ACTIONS By Theorem 2. let ϕx = ϕ(x). . ◦) on n. Thus we have shown that in all cases θ(d) ϕ(d). and the orbit of x is OrbG (x) = {gx : g ∈ G} ⊆ X. hence θ(d) = ϕ(d). GpAc2 For x ∈ X. ∗) on a set X. so x ∈ OrbG (x) and ι ∈ StabG (x). there are ϕ(n) elements of order n.27. ιx = x. Suppose we have an action of a group (G.24(d). But now an element ak ∈ a with k = 0. (g1 ∗ g2 )x = g1 (g2 x) = g1 x = x. k) = 1 as we know from Theorem 1. a2 . . For each x.30. For each such d of |G|. hence there is an element a ∈ G of order d. by assumption on G. 7. b) y ∈ OrbG (x) if and only if x ∈ OrbG (y). For ϕ ∈ G and x ∈ X. they must be the only such solutions since there are d of them. In particular. Let G Sn and let X = n. Let X ⊆ Rn and let G Sym(X) be a subgroup of the symmetry group of X. Example 2. . y ∈ X. there are ϕ(d) of such elements in a . ad−1 are all solutions of the equation xd = ι and indeed.9. Theorem 2. d − 1 has order d precisely if gcd(d. Combining these we obtain (2. g2 ∈ StabG (x) then by GpAct1. . Thus each g ∈ G can be viewed as acting as a permutation of X. Proof.29. GpAc1 For all g1 . θ(d) ϕ(d). the distinct powers ι = a0 . a) StabG (x) G.

D}. which shows that F is surjective. D and let G = Sym( ). c) x is the point P on AB where AP : P B = 1 : 3. GROUP ACTIONS 39 By GpAct2. Hence x = (g −1 ∗ g)x = g −1 (gx) = g −1 y and so x ∈ OrbG (y).32. we can arrange to send A to any other vertex and B to either of the adjacent vertices of the image of A. i. The converse is similar. Hence if g ∈ G. Then for x ∈ X there is a bijection F : G/ StabG (x) −→ OrbG (x) between the set of cosets of StabG (x) in G and the orbit of x. x ∈ OrbG (y) and so x = ky for some k ∈ G. a) We have StabG (A) = {ι. then y = gx for some g ∈ G. Theorem 2. deﬁned by F (g StabG (x)) = gx. hence ι ∈ StabG (x). ϕ(B) = A.. gx = g(ky) = (g ∗ k)y ∈ OrbG (y) and so OrbG (x) ⊆ OrbG (y). g −1 k ∈ StabG (x) which means that g StabG (x) = k StabG (x). if g ∈ StabG (x) then by GpAct1 and GpAct2. (A B)(C D)} . C. We will write permutations of the vertices in cycle notation. c) If y ∈ OrbG (x) then by (b). since we can select a symmetry to send A to any other vertex and B to either of the adjacent vertices to the image. So StabG (P ) = {ι}. . ∗) act on X. and B to a vertex B with A P : P B = 1 : 3 and this is only possible if A = A and B = B. g −1 x = g −1 (gx) = (g −1 ∗ g)x = ιx = x.16. hence OrbG (x) = {A. b) x is the midpoint M of AB. Also. Also. Proof. every vertex can be obtained from A by applying a suitable symmetry. B. So the orbit of P is the set consisting of these 8 points. c) A symmetry ϕ can only ﬁx P if it sends A to a vertex A say. hence ϕ must also ﬁx A. Hence F is well deﬁned. Notice that gx = kx if and only if (g −1 k)x = x. then ∈ StabG (x) and −1 −1 g1 x = g1 ((g1 g2 )x) = (g1 g1 g2 )x = g2 x. By (b). B. b) If y ∈ OrbG (x). C. Let (G. This gives OrbG (y) = OrbG (x).7. ϕ(B) = B or ϕ(A) = B. if OrbG (y) = OrbG (x) then y ∈ OrbG (y) = OrbG (x). Determine StabG (x) and OrbG (x) where a) x is the vertex A. B. hence the orbit of M consists of the set of 4 midpoints of edges. Recall Example 2. Finally. The symmetries doing this have one of the eﬀects ϕ(A) = A. (B D)} .33 (Orbit-Stabilizer Theorem). every y ∈ OrbG (x) has the form tx = F (t StabG (x)) for some t ∈ G. So F is an injection. b) A symmetry ϕ ﬁxes the midpoint of AB if and only if it maps this edge to itself. x ∈ OrbG (y) and so we also have OrbG (y) ⊆ OrbG (x). hence g −1 ∈ StabG (x). If g1 StabG (x) = g2 StabG (x). We begin by checking that F is well deﬁned. P can be sent to any of the points Q which cut an edge in the ratio 1 : 3. Moreover we have F ((t ∗ g) StabG (x)) = tF (g StabG (x)) −1 g1 g2 (t ∈ G). Also. ιx = x. Conversely.e. So StabG (x) G. On the other hand. Let X = be the square with vertices A. Solution. Thus StabG (M ) = {ι. Example 2.

| StabG (xU )| The formula in Corollary 2.27. then number of orbits = 1 |G| | FixG (g)|. and in this case. ∗) acts on X with G and X ﬁnite. for any x ∈ X we have X = OrbG (x) and |X| = |G|/| StabG (x)|. Corollary 2. GROUPS AND GROUP ACTIONS The ﬁnal equation property is a consequence of the deﬁnition of F .35. each orbit U has the form OrbG (xU ) for some element xU ∈ X. X= U an orbit U. ∗) on X. FixG (g) is also often denoted X g . If (G. Moreover. If G is ﬁnite then for each x ∈ X.36 becomes the orbit-stabilizer equation: |G| . then the action is said to be transitive. | StabG (xU )| (2.37 (Burnside Formula). Theorem 2.3) |X| = U an orbit If there is only one orbit. then |U | = [G : StabG (xU )] = |G| . ∗) on X decompose X into a union of disjoint subsets. FixG (g) = {x ∈ X : gx = x}. The sizes of the orbits in Example 2. | StabG (x)| | OrbG (x)| = Proof. If X is ﬁnite then |X| = U an orbit |U |. Theorem 2. Corollary 2. another useful idea is that of the ﬁxed point set or ﬁxed set of an element g ∈ G. g∈G . In these results.34. Given an action of (G. if G is ﬁnite.40 2. |G| . The orbits of an action of (G.36.32 can be found using this result. This follows from Corollary 2.

{4. Example 2. (1 2 3). 2. 4 4 So there are 2 orbits. namely {1. (1 2 3)(4 5). 4}. Example 2. (3 4). Example 2. 3}. 3. FixG ((3 4)) = {1.38. (1 2). 6} and let G = (1 2 3)(4 5) S6 be the cyclic subgroup acting on X in the obvious way. 5. 5} and {6}. The Burnside Formula gives number of orbits = 1 8 (4 + 2 + 2 + 0) = = 2. 6}. The right hand side of the formula is 1 |G| | FixG (g)| = g∈G 1 |G| 1 |G| 1 |G| 1 |G| 1 |G| 1 g∈G x∈FixG (g) = = = 1 x∈X g∈StabG (x) | StabG (x)| x∈X |U | · | StabG (x)| U = OrbG (x) an orbit (by Corollary 2. 6}. GROUP ACTIONS 41 Proof. FixG ((1 2)(3 4)) = ∅. (1 3 2)(4 5). So there are 3 orbits. How many distinguishable ways are there to do this if there is to be no ‘head of table’ ? . 6 6 FixG ((1 2 3)(4 5)) = FixG ((1 3 2)(4 5)) = {6}. 4}. (1 2)(3 4)} acting on X in the obvious way.40. Let X = {1. 4} and let G S4 be the subgroup G = {ι. Let X = {1. 2. Here |G| = 4 = |X|. How many orbits does this action have? Solution. number of orbits = 18 1 (6 + 1 + 3 + 4 + 3 + 1) = = 3. (4 5). (1 3 2). 2} and {3.7. 3.39. Here |G| = 6 and |X| = 6. By the Burnside Formula. 2}. FixG ((4 5)) = {1. Furthermore we have FixG (ι) = X. namely {1. 5. 4.34) = = |G| U an orbit 1 U an orbit = number of orbits. The ﬁxed sets of these are FixG (ι) = X. A dinner party of seven people is to sit around a circular table with seven seats. 3. The elements of G are ι. 2. How many orbits does this action have? Solution. 2. FixG ((1 2)) = {3. FixG ((1 2 3)) = FixG ((1 3 2)) = {4.

. | FixG (ι)| = 64. . no rotation can ﬁx any arrangement. Also |X| = 43 = 64 since each edge can be coloured in 4 ways. where each colour can be used on more than one edge. Find the number of distinguishable ways there are to colour the edges of an equilateral triangle using four diﬀerent colours. hence | FixG (σ)| = 4. Then to get everyone to move k seats we repeatedly apply α k times in all. G acts on X in the obvious way. αk . By the Burnside formula. (A B) ﬁxes C and interchanges the edges AC. 1. This suggests we should consider the group G = {ι. hence |G| = 6. 6 σ∈G The ﬁxed sets of elements of the various cycle types in G are as follows. (A C B)): these give rotations and can only ﬁx a colouring that has all sides the same colour.41. There are 4 × 4 = 16 of these. (A C). This provides an action of G on X. i. α5 . while FixG (ι) = X. Example 2. By the Burnside formula. 6 6 . 1 120 number of distinguishable colourings = (64 + 2 × 4 + 3 × 16) = = 20.e. GROUPS AND GROUP ACTIONS Solution. so |X| = 7!. with composition as the binary operation. Solution. which we view as the permutation group of {A. Clearly there are 7 such rotations. |G| g∈G Notice that apart from the identity element. B. View the seven places as numbered 1 to 7. Similarly for the other 2-cycles. 6. the number of distinguishable colourings is given by 1 number of orbits = | FixG (σ)|. . Let α denote the rotation corresponding to everyone moving one seat to the right. 1 | FixG (g)|. Regard two such arrangements as indistinguishable if one is obtained from the other by a rotation of the diners around the places. There are 7! ways to arrange the diners in these places. α3 . . α. For example.. so | FixG ((A B))| = 16. so when g = ι. FixG (g) = ∅. α4 . A pair of colourings is indistinguishable precisely if they are in the same orbit. . Take X to be the set of all possible such arrangements.. Hence the number of indistinguishable seating plans is 7!/7 = 6! = 720. i. α2 . it will therefore ﬁx any colouring that has these edges the same colour.. σ = (A B C). α6 } consisting of all of these operations.e. 2-cycles (i. C}. BC. each involving everyone moving k seats to the right for some k = 0. σ = (A B). Let X be the set of all possible such colourings of the equilateral triangle ABC whose symmetry group is G = S3 . Identity element ι: FixG (ι) = X.42 2.e.e. The number of indistinguishable seating plans is the number of orbits under this action. (B C)): each of these gives a reﬂection in a line through a vertex and the midpoint of the opposite edge. 3-cycles (i.

c d 0 d . ∗ = multiplication of matrices. ad − bc = 1 . B. H = {x ∈ G : xd = 1}. w ∈ C. b. 3 4 2 5 6 1 β= 1 2 3 4 5 6 . c) G = {x ∈ Q : x = 0}. G = {ϕ ∈ Sn : ϕ(n) = n}. ∗) decide whether the subset H is a subgroup of G and when it is. 3 4 1 6 2 5 2-3. b) a regular hexagon. b ∈ R. a2 + b2 = 1 . ∗ = ×. H = {x ∈ G : x < 0}. G = {x ∈ Q : x = 0}. H = {z ∈ G : |z| < ∞}. e) G = {z ∈ C : z = 0}. |z|2 + |w|2 = 1 . w ∈ C. c. d ∈ Z. ∗ = composition of functions. Which of the following pairs (G. ∗ = multiplication of matrices. b. ∗ = ×. |z|2 + |w|2 = 1 . how many symmetries map the edge P Q into itself? Show that these symmetries form a group. determine its sign and decompose it into disjoint cycles: α= 1 2 3 4 5 6 . 2-2. ∗) forms a group? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) G = {x ∈ Z : x = 0}. ∗ = ×. ∗ = multiplication of matrices. 2-4. d ∈ Z. d) G = {x ∈ C : x = 0}. z w : z. d ∈ R. b) G = {x ∈ Q : x = 0}. ad − bc = 0 . ∗ = ×. −b a z w : z. ∗ = multiplication of matrices. b) For each pair of distinct vertices P. H = {x ∈ G : x2 = 1}. [Challenge question. e) a cube. b. G= G= G= G= a b : a. −w z a b : a. c d ∗ = ×.] Suppose Tet is a regular tetrahedron with vertices A. decide whether it is cyclic. Q. c. 3 6 4 1 5 2 γ= 1 2 3 4 5 6 . c d a b : a. ad − bc = 0 . In each of the following groups (G. Find the orders of the symmetry groups of the following geometric objects. H = A ∈ G : A = . a) Show that the symmetry group Sym(Tet) of Tet can be identiﬁed with the symmetric group S4 which acts by permuting the vertices. f) a cube with the pairs of opposite faces coloured red. 2-5. d) a regular hexagon with edges alternately coloured red and green.PROBLEM SET 2 43 Problem Set 2 2-1. a b a b g) G = : a. green and blue respectively. f) G = −w z ∗ = matrix multiplication. D. H = {A ∈ G : |A| < ∞}. and in each case try to describe the symmetry groups as groups of permutations: a) a regular pentagon. C. H = {x ∈ G : x > 0}. ∗ = ×. c. For each of the following permutations in S6 . ∗ = ×. c) Find a geometric interpretation of the alternating group A4 acting as symmetries of Tet. c) a regular hexagon with vertices alternately coloured red and green. a) G = {x ∈ Q : x = 0}.

GROUPS AND GROUP ACTIONS ∗ = matrix multiplication. . ﬁnd all subgroups of each of the groups Z/6. {1. ﬁnd OrbG (U ) and StabG (U ): ∅. . S3 . 3}. S4 . . and n−1 hn ∈ H}. . . b) For each of the following vectors v ﬁnd the line Lv through the origin containing it and ﬁnd the orbit and stabilizer of Lv : 1 0 1 . 2}. Show that each of the following subsets of G is a subgroup: a) CG (x) = {c ∈ G : cx = xc}. A4 . . D8 . A3 . b) Find the orbit and stabilizer of each the following vectors: 0 1 0 1 . {1. {1. ﬁnd all possible orders of elements of each of the following groups and decide whether there are indeed elements of those orders: Z/6. S3 . A3 . b) Z(G) = {c ∈ G : cg = gc for all g ∈ G}. G is . 2-9. (1 2)(3 4). ﬁnd FixG (A) for this action. b) For each of the following elements U of X. h) G = Sym( ). 2. (1 2 3 4). S4 . 0 1 1 c) For each of the matrices A in (c) of the previous question. c) NG (H) = {n ∈ G : for every h ∈ H. a) Show that AL is always a line and that this deﬁnes an action of G on Y . For A ∈ G and L ∈ Y . 2-8. let AL = {Ax ∈ R2 : x ∈ L}. D10 . H = the subset of rotations in G. [Challenge question] Using the same group G = GL2 (R) and notation as in the previous question. Let G = S4 and let X denote the set consisting of all subsets of 4 = {1. u ∈ R with u = 0. where H any subgroup. Using Lagrange’s Theorem. let Y denote the set of all lines through the origin in R2 . . . Let G = GL2 (R) be the group of 2×2 invertible real matrices under matrix multiplication and let X = R2 be the set of all real column vectors of length 2.44 2. (1 2). 3. where x ∈ G is any element. D8 . [Challenge question] Let G be a group. 2-11. a) Show that this deﬁnes an action of G on X. c) For each of the following elements of G ﬁnd FixG (g): ι. 3. For σ ∈ S4 and U ∈ X. . ∗ = composition of functions. . 2-10. {1}. D10 . 2. 4}. a) Show that this deﬁnes an action of G on X. 2. 0 1 0 5 0 −3 cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ 1 0 0 u where θ. 0 0 1 1 c) For each of the following matrices A ﬁnd FixG (A): 1 1 1 1 2 0 sin θ cos θ cos θ − sin θ 0 1 u 0 . let σU = {σ(u) ∈ X : u ∈ U }. A4 . . 2-6. 4}. For A ∈ G and x ∈ X let Ax be the usual product. Using Lagrange’s Theorem. nhn−1 ∈ H. (1 2 3). 2-7.

C.3. For ϕ ∈ G and E ∈ X let ϕE = {ϕ(P ) ∈ Tet : P ∈ E}. a) Show that ϕE is an edge and that this deﬁnes an action of G on X. How many orbits does this action of G have? 2-14. 8} and G = (1 2 3 4 5 6)(7 8) be the cyclic subgroup of S7 acting on X in the obvious way. 3. 7. Let G = Sym(Tet) be the symmetry group of the regular tetrahedron Tet with vertices A. B. How many distinguishable regular tetrahedral dice can be made where each face has one of the numbers 1. (A B C). D. 6. Let X = {1. b) Find OrbG (E) and StabG (E) for the edge AB. (A B)(C D). 4.4 on it? Here two such dice are deemed to be indistinguishable if one can be obtained from the other by a rotation. Let X denote the set of edges of Tet. How many distinguishable 5-bead circular necklaces can be made where each bead has to be a diﬀerent colour chosen from 5 colours? Here two such necklaces are deemed to be indistinguishable if one can be obtained from the other by a combination of rotations and ﬂips. What if the number of colours used is 6? 7? 8? What if we only allow rotations between indistinguishable necklaces? 2-15.2. 2. (A B C D). 2-13. c) For each of the following elements of G ﬁnd FixG (g): ι.PROBLEM SET 2 45 2-12. What about if we allow arbitrary symmetries between indistinguishable such dice? . 5. (A B).

.

So for example.CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic functions 1. o Proof. if n = p is a prime.24(b). If n ∈ Z+ o then by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic and Corollary 1. Also. σ1 is often denoted σ. d) The function given by δ : Z+ −→ R. η(n) = 1. pj is a prime. The M¨bius function µ is multiplicative. σr : Z+ −→ R.24.1. (−1) j So for example.19. Deﬁnition and examples of arithmetic functions Let Z+ = N0 −{0} be the set of positive integers. where for each j. The following are all real arithmetic functions: a) The ‘identity’ function id : Z+ −→ R. µ(n) = µ(pr1 pr2 · · · prt ) = t 1 2 t if all r = 1. Proposition 3. 47 .2. n) = 1. otherwise. The set of all real (or complex) arithmetic functions will be denoted by AFR (or AFC ). while µ(p2 ) = 0. we have the prime power factorization n = pr1 pr2 · · · prt . By Theorem 2. t 1 2 We set 0 if any rj > 1. µ(60) = µ(22 × 3 × 5) = 0. An important example is the M¨bius function µ : Z+ −→ R deﬁned as follows.1 is strictly multiplicative. σ(n) is equal to the sum of the (positive) divisors of n. Example 3. the Euler function is strictly multiplicative. id(n) = n. µ(105) = µ(3)µ(5)µ(7) = (−1)3 = −1. There are many important and interesting examples. b) The Euler function ϕ : Z+ −→ R of Theorem 2. each of the functions in Example 3. c) For each positive natural number r. e) The function given by η : Z+ −→ R. In fact. An arithmetic function ψ is called (strictly) multiplicative if ψ(mn) = ψ(m)ψ(n) whenever gcd(m. A function ψ : Z+ −→ R (or ψ : Z+ −→ C) is called a real (or complex) arithmetic function if ψ(1) = 1. µ(p) = −1. n have no common prime factors. 1 rj and 2 p1 < p2 < · · · < pt . δ(n) = 1 0 if n = 1. This follows from the deﬁnition and the fact that the prime power factorizations of two coprime natural numbers m. σr (n) = d|n dr .

let n = mprt where pt is a prime factor of n. This gives the Inductive Step. ˜ c) for an arithmetic function θ. ∗ satisﬁes a) for arithmetic functions α. µ(d) = 0 d|n if n 2. γ. The M¨bius function µ satisﬁes o µ(1) = 1. then n = p is prime and µ(p) = −1. β. 2. Moreover.4. Proof. ∗) and (AFC . d) For two arithmetic functions θ. Proposition 3. Then if r = k. ψ : Z+ −→ R (or C) be arithmetic functions. ψ. θ ∗ ψ = ψ ∗ θ. . so r = r1 + · · · + rt . ARITHMETIC FUNCTIONS Proposition 3. there is a unique arithmetic function θ for which ˜ ˜ θ ∗ θ = δ = θ ∗ θ. (α ∗ β) ∗ γ(n) = d|n α ∗ β(d)γ(n/d) α(k)β(d/k)γ(n/d) k|d d|n = = k m=n α(k)β( )γ(m). ∗) are commutative groups. the number of prime factors in the prime power factorization of n = pr1 · · · prt . δ ∗ θ = θ = θ ∗ δ. (a) For n ∈ Z+ . hence µ(d) = 1 − 1 = 0. The convolution of two arithmetic functions is an arithmetic function. Hence (AFR . (α ∗ β) ∗ γ = α ∗ (β ∗ γ). By Induction on r. Then t µ(n) = µ(m)µ(prt ) and so t µ(d) = d|n d|m (µ(d) + µ(dpt )) = d|m (µ(d) + µ(d)µ(pt )) = d|m µ(d)(1 − 1) = 0. Proof.3. The convolution of θ and ψ is the function θ ∗ ψ for which θ ∗ ψ(n) = d|n θ(d)ψ(n/d). t 1 If r = 1. b) for an arithmetic function θ.48 3. d|p Assume that whenever r < k. Convolution and M¨bius Inversion o Let θ.

(d) We have θ ∗ ψ(n) = d|n θ(d)ψ(n/d) = d|n ψ(n/d)θ(d) = k|n ψ(k)θ(n/k) = ψ ∗ θ(n). Hence (α ∗ β) ∗ γ(n) = α ∗ (β ∗ γ)(n) for all n. ∗) and (AFC . ˜ ˜ we see that tk is uniquely determined from this equation. the M¨bius function. ˜ ˜ θ(n/d)θ(d) = δ(n). ˜ Theorem 3. and similarly θ ∗ δ(n) = θ(n). Consider the equation td θ(k/d) = δ(k) = 0. Then g(n) = d|n f (d)µ(n/d) (n ∈ Z+ ). g : Z+ −→ C) be arithmetic o functions satisfying f (n) = d|n g(d) (n ∈ Z+ ). ∗). d|n Suppose that for some k > 1 we have such numbers tn for n < k. Hence µ = η is the inverse of η by the proof of Proposition 3. α ∗ (β ∗ γ)(n) = k m=n α(k)β( )γ(m).3 we have µ(d)η(n/d) = d|n d|n µ(d) = 1 n = 1. Recall that η(n) = 1 for all n. ˜ o Proof.¨ 2.5. Let f. CONVOLUTION AND MOBIUS INVERSION 49 and similarly . g : Z+ −→ R (or f. .4(c). ˜ In each of the groups (AFR .6 (M¨bius Inversion). (b) We have δ ∗ θ(n) = d|n δ(d)θ(n/d) = θ(n). The inverse of η is η = µ. θ ∗ θ(n) = d|n ˜ ˜ By (d) we also have θ ∗ θ = θ ∗ θ. 0 n > 1. d|k Rewriting this as tk = − d|k d=k td θ(k/d). the inverse of an arithmetic function θ is θ. By construction. By Proposition 3. Here is an important example. Now deﬁne θ by θ(n) = tn . We will show by Induction that there are numbers tn for which td θ(n/d) = δ(n). (c) Take t1 = 1. so (α ∗ β) ∗ γ = α ∗ (β ∗ γ). Proposition 3.

i.. ϕ(d) = n. If θ. n ϕ(n) = µ(d) = µ(n/d)d. hence σ = id ∗η. Applying M¨bius Inversion o gives ϕ = id ∗µ. so for n ∈ Z+ . Use M¨bius Inversion to ﬁnd a formula for ϕ(n). Show that the function σ = σ1 satisﬁes µ(d)σ(n/d) = n (n ∈ Z+ ).e. By deﬁnition. By Theorem 2. 0 s r 66 µ(ps )pr−s = µ(1)pr + µ(p)pr−1 = pr − pr−1 = (p − 1)pr−1 .7. Proposition 3. . σ(n) = d|n d. if n = pr ϕ(pr ) = µ(d) = d r d|p pr where p is a prime and r 1. n= d|n µ(d)σ(n/d) = d|n σ(d)µ(n/d). d d|n d|n So for example. d|n This can be rewritten as the equation ϕ ∗ η = id where id(n) = n. then θ ∗ψ is multiplicative. d|n Solution. o id = id ∗δ = id ∗(η ∗ µ) = (id ∗η) ∗ µ = σ ∗ µ = µ ∗ σ. Proof. ARITHMETIC FUNCTIONS Proof. ψ are multiplicative arithmetic functions. Hence for n ∈ Z+ . g(n) = d|n f (d)µ(n/d). o Example 3. By M¨bius Inversion. where ϕ is the Euler function.8. If m.24(d). Example 3.9. Notice that f = g ∗ η from which we have g = g ∗ δ = g ∗ (η ∗ µ) = (g ∗ η) ∗ µ = f ∗ µ. θ ∗ ψ(mn) = d|mn θ(d)ψ(mn/d) θ(rs)ψ(mn/rs) r|m s|n = = r|m s|n θ(r)θ(s)ψ((m/r)(n/s)) = r|m s|n θ(r)θ(s)ψ(m/r)ψ(n/s) = r|m θ(r)ψ(m/r) s|n θ(s)ψ(n/s) = θ ∗ ψ(m)θ ∗ ψ(n). n be coprime positive integers.50 3. Solution.

so by M¨bius Inversion.¨ 2. CONVOLUTION AND MOBIUS INVERSION 51 Hence θ ∗ ψ is multiplicative. d|n Then ψ is multiplicative. Suppose that θ is a multiplicative arithmetic function. and ψ is the arithmetic function satisfying θ(n) = ψ(d) (n ∈ Z+ ). Corollary 3. implying that ψ is multiplicative.10. θ = ψ ∗ η. o . ψ = θ ∗ µ. Proof.

For each r ∈ N0 deﬁne the arithmetic function [r] : Z+ −→ R by [r](n) = nr . a) Show that τ is an arithmetic function. t 1 2 c) Is τ multiplicative? d) Show that η ∗ η = τ . ARITHMETIC FUNCTIONS Problem Set 3 3-1. Deduce that σr is multiplicative. Let τ : Z+ −→ R be the function for which τ (n) is the number of positive divisors of n. a) Show that [r] is multiplicative. show that σr = [r] ∗ η. where 2 p1 < p2 < t 1 2 · · · < pt and rj > 0.52 3. prove the following formulæ. 3-2. d) Find a general formula for [r] ∗ [s](n) when s < r. where the functions are deﬁned in the text or in earlier questions. . Show that τ (pr1 pr2 · · · prt ) = (r1 + 1)(r2 + 1) · · · (rt + 1). 3-3. (a) d|n µ(d)σ(n/d) = n. b) Suppose that n = pr1 pr2 · · · prt is the prime power factorization of n. 3-4. For n ∈ Z+ . c) Show that [r] ∗ [r] satisﬁes [r] ∗ [r](n) = nr τ (n). (b) d|n µ(d)τ (n/d) = 1. (c) d|n σr (d)µ(n/d) = nr . Show that each of the functions σr (r 1) of Example 3. [0] = η and [1] = id.1 are multiplicative. In particular. b) If r > 0.

2. f (j + 1) if r < j Then g is an injection.3 (Pigeonhole Principle: ﬁrst version). So P (0) is true. (ii) k + 1 ∈ im f . a) We will prove this by Induction on n. Finite sets and cardinality For a positive natural number n 1. let 0 = ∅. We have two cases to consider: (i) k + 1 ∈ im f . If n = 0. there is exactly one function ∅ −→ ∅ (the identity function) and this is a bijection. hence m k + 1. Then the set n has n elements and we can think of it as the standard set of that size. Then h is an injection. and by the 53 . f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) =⇒ x1 = x2 . so by the assumption that m − 1 k. • f is an injection or one-one (1-1 ) if for x1 . b) If there is a surjection m −→ n then m n. • f is a surjection or onto if for each y ∈ Y . 3. a) If there is an injection m −→ n then m n. x2 ∈ X. . Proof. Equivalently.CHAPTER 4 Finite and inﬁnite sets. c) If there is a bijection m −→ n then m = n. there is an x ∈ X such that y = f (x). Let f : X −→ Y be a function. Consider the statement P (n) : For m ∈ N0 . cardinality and countability The natural numbers originally arose from counting elements in sets. X is inﬁnite if it is not ﬁnite. / (i) For some r ∈ m we have f (r) = k + 1. Suppose that P (k) is true for some k ∈ N0 and let f : m −→ k + 1 be an injection. f is a bijection if and only if it has an inverse f −1 : Y −→ X. When n = 0. • f is a bijection or 1-1 correspondence if f is both injective and surjective. The next result is a formal version of what is usually called the Pigeonhole Principle. There are two very diﬀerent possible ‘sizes’ for sets. A set X is ﬁnite if for some n ∈ N0 there is a bijection n −→ X. . . m.1. n}. if there is a injection m −→ n then m n. (ii) Consider the function h : m −→ k given by h(j) = f (j). if m > 0 then there are no functions m −→ ∅. set n = {1.2. Consider the function g : m − 1 −→ k given by g(j) = f (j) if 0 j < r. Definition 4. and in this section we discuss these concepts in detail. Theorem 4. 1. . namely ﬁnite and inﬁnite. Definition 4.

e. Corollary 4. there is exactly one function ∅ −→ ∅ (the identity function) and this is a bijection. FINITE AND INFINITE SETS. i. Suppose that Q(k) is true for some k ∈ N0 and let f : k + 1 −→ n be a surjection. (i) By the assumption that Q(k) is true. (ii) f is a not a surjection. By PMI. . When m = 0. m = n. Let X. hence k + 1 In either case. Y be two ﬁnite sets. so by the assumption that Q(k) is true. f (j) − 1 if s < f (j) Then g is a surjection. There are two cases to deal with: (i) f is a surjection. there is an element x ∈ X with x ∈ P . These conditions actually characterise ﬁnite sets. CARDINALITY AND COUNTABILITY assumption that P (k) is true. if n > 0 there are no surjections ∅ −→ n. m n. Then P is a proper subset of X if P = X. m n. If each pigeonhole is to receive at most one letter. b) If there is a surjection X −→ Y then |X| |Y |. m k and so m k + 1. Proof. Let X be a set and P ⊆ X. we have established that Q(k) −→ Q(k + 1). Deﬁne g : k −→ n − 1 by g(j) = f (j) if 0 f (j) < s.5 (Pigeonhole Principle). / Notice that if X is a ﬁnite set and S a subset. If P is a proper subset then we have |P | < |X| and this implies that there can be no injection X −→ P nor a surjection P −→ X. If X is inﬁnite then we sometimes write |X| = ∞.54 4. if each pigeonhole is to receive at least one letter. n. n. In the next section we investigate how to recognise inﬁnite sets. By PMI. In either case we have established that P (k) −→ P (k + 1). k n − 1.. if there is a surjection m −→ n then m n. Then m = n. c) If there is a bijection X −→ Y then |X| = |Y |. while if X is ﬁnite we write |X| < ∞. a) If there is an injection X −→ Y then |X| |Y |. We reformulate Theorem 4. c) This follows from (a) and (b) since a bijection is both injective and surjective.3 without proof to give some important facts about cardinalities of ﬁnite sets. The name Pigeonhole Principle comes from the use of this when distributing m letters into n pigeonholes. denoted |X|.4. By part (c). Using the inverse g −1 : X −→ n which is also a bijection. Suppose that X is a ﬁnite set and suppose that there are bijections m −→ X and n −→ X. then the inclusion function inc : S −→ X given by inc(j) = j is an injection.e. k n which implies that k + 1 n. b) This time we proceed by Induction on m. Theorem 4. f (j) = f (j) for j ∈ k. the unique n ∈ N0 for which there is a bijection n −→ X is called the cardinality of X. (ii) There must be exactly one s ∈ n not in im f . For a ﬁnite set X. Let f : k −→ n be the restriction of f to k. Let f : m −→ X and g : n −→ X be bijections.. we can form a bijection h = g −1 ◦ f : m −→ n. Consider the statement Q(m) : For n ∈ N0 . So Q(0) is true. Q(n) is true for all n ∈ N0 . i. P (n) is true for all n ∈ N0 . So we must have |S| |X|.

2. If k ∈ P then k 1 and so (k − 1) 0. The following sets are countably inﬁnite. Example 4. Let X be a set. 3. n) : m. Then f2 is a bijection: it is injective (2n1 + 1 = 2n2 + 1 implies n1 = n2 ) and surjective since given 2m + 1 ∈ N0 . . 2. A countable inﬁnite set is said to be countably inﬁnite or of cardinality ℵ0 . COUNTABLE SETS 55 2. 1. hence bijective. Notice that each of the sets S1 . S3 = {3n : n ∈ N0 }. X ∪ Y where X.3. The set of all natural numbers N0 = {0. −1 The inverse function is given by f2 (k) = (k − 1)/2.8. implying (k − 1) ∈ N0 whence f (k − 1) = k. Inﬁnite sets Theorem 4. Y are countably inﬁnite. n ∈ N0 }. .} and deﬁne a function f : N0 −→ P by f (n) = n + 1. The inverse −1 function is given by f3 (k) = k/3. . −1 The inverse function is given by f1 (k) = k/2. d) X is inﬁnite if and only if there is a subset T ⊆ X and an injection N0 −→ T . Example 4. For S3 . Let us take the subset P = {1. In each case ﬁnd a bijection and its inverse. The set of all ordered pairs of natural numbers N0 × N0 = {(m.} is inﬁnite. Thus f is also surjective. Solution. Then f1 is a bijection: it is injective since 2n1 = 2n2 implies n1 = n2 . and surjective since given 2m ∈ N0 . hence f is injective. and surjective since given 3m ∈ N0 .10. a) b) c) d) Any inﬁnite subset S ⊆ N0 .9. . S2 = {2n + 1 : n ∈ N0 }. b) X is inﬁnite if and only if there is a surjection Q −→ X where Q ⊆ X is a proper subset. 3. Show that there are bijections between the set of all natural numbers N0 and each of the sets S1 = {2n : n ∈ N0 }. A set X is countable if there is a bijection S −→ X where either S = n for some n ∈ N0 or S = N0 . . For S2 . X ∪ Y where X is countably inﬁnite and Y is ﬁnite. yet each is in 1-1 correspondence with N0 itself. c) X is inﬁnite if and only if there is an injection N0 −→ X.7. For S1 . let f3 : N0 −→ S3 be given by f3 (n) = 3n. a) X is inﬁnite if and only if there is an injection X −→ P where P ⊆ X is a proper subset. let f2 : N0 −→ S2 be given by f2 (n) = 2n + 1. . Countable sets Definition 4. Example 4. An inﬁnite set which is not countable is said to be uncountable. S3 is a proper subset of N0 . 0 O 1 1 O 2 2 O 3 ··· ··· n O n+1 ··· ··· If f (m) = f (n) then m + 1 = n + 1 so m = n. let f1 : N0 −→ S1 be given by f1 (n) = 2n. Solution.6. S2 . f2 (m) = 2m + 1. f3 (m) = 3m. . Then f3 is a bijection: it is injective since 3n1 = 3n2 implies n1 = n2 . f1 (m) = 2m.

56 4. . this is easily seen to be a bijection. if n is odd. let f : N0 −→ X and g : N0 −→ Y − Z be bijections. Then h is a bijection. 0) we can now trace out a path passing through all of these points and we can arrange to do this without ever recrossing such a point. . . b ∈ N0 . Let f : N0 −→ X and g : m −→ Y − X ∩ Y be bijections. S0 has a least element s0 say. such points are all those with natural number coordinates. FINITE AND INFINITE SETS. s1 . s1 . h(n) = f (n − m − 1) if m < n. Let S0 = S. s. If s ∈ S. . b) The simplest case is where X ∩ Y = ∅. Again WOP ensures that there is a least element s1 ∈ S1 . from which it easily follows that sn n. b Solution. Then we deﬁne h : N0 −→ X ∪ Y by n f 2 h(n) = g n − 1 2 if n is even. . Now deﬁne a function f : N0 −→ S by f (n) = n. By WOP. Continuing. . if n is odd. Now consider the set S1 = S − {s0 }. Notice in particular that s0 < s1 < · · · < sn < · · · . . this is not empty since otherwise S would be ﬁnite. Starting at (0. then for some m ∈ N0 must satisfy m by construction of the sn we must have s = sm0 for some m0 . Then given bijections f : N0 −→ X and g : N0 −→ Y we construct a function h : N0 −→ X ∪ Y by n f 2 h(n) = g n − 1 2 if n is even. so Then h is a bijection. The case where one of X − X ∩ Y and Y − X ∩ Y is ﬁnite is easy to deal with by the method used for (c). d) Plot each pair (a. c) Since Y is ﬁnite so is Y − X ∩ Y ⊆ Y . b). This is again a bijection. If Z = X ∩ Y and Y − Z are both countably inﬁnite. CARDINALITY AND COUNTABILITY e) The set of all positive rational numbers Q+ = a : a. . . a. b > 0 . sn−1 } which is never empty. sn . of elements in S with sn the least element of Sn = S − {s0 . . Hence S = {sn : n ∈ N0 }. a) Since S is inﬁnite it cannot be empty. b) as the point in the xy-plane with coordinates (a. Deﬁne h : N0 −→ X ∪ Y by g(n − 1) if 1 n m. . we can construct a sequence s0 . .

2) cGG GG GG GG . is a bijection. 2) (4. 1) / ··· This gives us a sequence {rn }06n of elements of Q+ which contains every element exactly once. 1) (3. The function f : N0 −→ N0 × N0 . 3) o (2. ··· ··· ··· ··· (0. 3) cGG GG GG GG (3.4. 3) O (0. 3) ··· GG GG GG GG # ··· ··· (1. 4) O (2. 2) cGG GG GG GG / (2. 1) This gives a sequence {(rn . / (4. 1) ··· (2. . . have no common factors) and plot it as the point in the xy-plane with coordinates (a. is a bijection. 2) ( ··· ··· (5. 4) ··· ··· ··· ··· (1. . 1) (3. . b are coprime (i. 0) (0. let Y X = {f : f : X −→ Y is a function}. 1) (1. 2) / (1. The function f : N0 −→ Q+ . ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· (1. 2) cGG GG GG GG (2. b).. Power sets and their cardinality For two sets X and Y . 1) we can now trace out a path passing through all of these points with coprime positive natural number coordinates and can even arrange to do this without ever recrossing such a point. f (n) = rn . f (n) = (rn .e. 1) cGG cGG DD GG DD GG GG GG DD GG GG GG DD GG GG GG D! # / (3. sn ). For each a/b ∈ Q+ . 1) (2. POWER SETS AND THEIR CARDINALITY 57 . 0) ··· (2. 0) GG GG GG GG # ··· ··· (0. . 2) o / (1. 0) / (1. e) This is demonstrated in a similar way to (d) but is slightly more involved. 3) ··· ··· ··· (1. we can assume that a. 1) (3. 4. sn )}06n of elements of N0 × N0 which contains every natural number exactly once. . Starting at (1.

2}}. {3}.58 4.. . Theorem 4. For a set X.11.13.11. so Θ is well deﬁned. 3}. 3}. Using the standard ﬁnite sets n = {1. . . 1}X . χU : X −→ {0. . Hence |Y X | = nm . we can consider the set of all its subsets P(X) = {U : U ⊆ X is a subset}. the function Θ : P(X) −→ {0. For a set X. and has 2|X| elements and indeed it is often denoted 2|X| . {2}. is a bijection. χU (x) = 1 if x ∈ U . {1}. 2}. FINITE AND INFINITE SETS. {1. {1. 2}}. xm where m = |X| and those of Y are y1 . CARDINALITY AND COUNTABILITY Example 4. 2. . This shows that Θ is a bijection whose inverse function satisﬁes Θ−1 (f ) = Uf . {2. n} (n ∈ N0 ) we have |P(0)| = 20 = 1. a function f ∈ {0.12. The set {0. . Θ(U ) = χU . . . . . . P(2) = {∅. yn where n = |Y |. {1. 1}X determines a corresponding subset of X Uf = {x ∈ X : f (x) = 1} with χUf = f . We will now see that for any set X the power set P(X) is always ‘bigger’ than X. |P(1)| = 21 = 2. Proof. . . 1}. {1. . Suppose that the distinct elements of X are x1 . If X is ﬁnite then P(X) is ﬁnite with cardinality |P(X)| = 2|X| . Then Y X is ﬁnite and has cardinality |Y X | = |Y ||X| . |P(2)| = 22 = 4. Each f (xk ) can be chosen in n ways so the total number of choices is nm . . .14 (Russell’s Paradox). . / Theorem 4. Solution. This follows from Example 4. . For any set X. {2}. . Let X and Y be ﬁnite sets. Before stating and proving our next result we introduce the characteristic or indicator function of a subset U ⊆ X.g. f (xm ) of Y . . . Also. A function f : X −→ Y is determined by specifying the values of the m elements f (x1 ). . Proof. A particular case of this occurs when Y has two elements. 0 if x ∈ U . The indicator function of a subset U ⊆ X is clearly determined by U . . {1}}. P(1) = {∅. It has another important interpretation. e. where P(0) = {∅}. Example 4. {1}. P(3) = {∅. there is no surjection X −→ P(X). Y = {0. |P(3)| = 23 = 8. 1}. 1}X is called the power set of X.

if w ∈ W . 1] by requiring its decimal expansion p = 0. Then p = q1 since p1 = q0. it leads to the idea that there are diﬀerent ‘sizes’ of inﬁnity. however it can be hard to identify particular elements of the complement R − Q. . contradicting Russell’s Paradox. . . Then there is no surjection X −→ Y . THE REAL NUMBERS ARE UNCOUNTABLE 59 Proof. qn . there is no bijection N0 −→ R. For each n we can uniquely express qn as a non-terminating expansion inﬁnite decimal qn = 0. . Corollary 4. 1] is countable. q1 . The method of proof used here is often referred to as Cantor’s diagonalization argument. .k = 0.1 qn. Then we can list the elements of (0. etc. The set of real numbers R is uncountable.2 · · · qn. For X an inﬁnite set. 1]: q0 .e. 1. . then by deﬁnition of W we must have w ∈ g(w) = W . 5. .k = 1. . 9 and for every k0 there is always a k > k0 for which qn. 1] ⊆ R is countable.. Choosing any element p ∈ P(X) and deﬁning the function H : X −→ P(X). i. h(x) = g(f (x)) if f (x) ∈ Z. If w ∈ W .1 . p if f (x) ∈ Z. Suppose that g : X −→ P(X) is a surjection. Thus no such surjection can exist. But then w cannot be in W or the complement X − W . Proof. Consider the subset W = {x ∈ X : x ∈ g(x)} ⊆ X. this result is not surprising since 2n > n for n ∈ N0 . In fact the subset of all real algebraic numbers is countable. Let X and Y be sets and suppose that Y has a subset Z ⊆ Y which admits a bijection g : Z −→ P(X). Suppose that f : X −→ Y is a surjection. X n + an−1 X n−1 + · · · + a0 ∈ Q[X].16 (Cantor). Now deﬁne a real number p ∈ (0. pk = Notice that this is also non-terminating. if qk−1.qn. / Then by surjectivity of g there is a w ∈ X such that g(w) = W . we give a generalization. . which is impossible. . On the other hand.p1 p2 · · · pk · · · to have the property that for each k 1.2 . qn. where such a real number is a root of a monic polynomial of positive degree. In particular this shows that R is much bigger that the familiar subset Q ⊆ R. . p = q2 since p2 = q1.5. / we easily see that h is a surjection. contradicting the fact that every element of X has to be in one or other of these subsets since X = W ∪ (X − W ). .k = 0. Thus no such surjection can exist. where for each k. then / / w ∈ g(w) = W and again this is impossible.k = 1. When X is ﬁnite. So p cannot be in the list of qn ’s. Proof.k · · · . 1 2 if qk−1. .15. contradicting the assumption that (0. The real numbers are uncountable Theorem 4. Before showing how this result allows us to determine some concrete examples. Suppose that R is countable and therefore the obviously inﬁnite subset (0.

Use Example 4. the set of all integers.60 4. y ∈ Y } is countable. the set of all real numbers which are square roots of rational numbers. FINITE AND INFINITE SETS. . the set of all rational numbers.10(d) or a modiﬁcation of its proof to show that this is still true if Y is countably inﬁnite. {n2 : n ∈ Z}. Let X be a countable set. CARDINALITY AND COUNTABILITY Problem Set 4 4-1. 4-3. If Y is a ﬁnite set. show that the cartesian product X × Y = {(x. Show that a subset of a countable set is countable. {n ∈ Z : n = 0}. y) : x ∈ X. the set of all non-zero integers. Show that each of the following sets is countable: a) b) c) d) e) Z. the set of all integers which are squares of integers. Q. 4-2. {x ∈ R : x2 ∈ Q}.

4 Euler ϕ-function. 9 composite. 30 symmetric. 53 correspondence. 22 disjoint cycle decomposition. 40 Cantor’s diagonalization argument. 29 Burnside Formula. 9 congruent. 58 common divisor. 3 highest common. 32 type. 17 convergent. 5 bijection. 34 permutation. 58 fundamental solution. 32 degree. 47 characteristic. 29 action. 3 factor. 40 alternating. 17 generalized ﬁnite. 3 commutative ring. 34 Diophantine problem. 36 greatest common divisor. 8 Euclid’s Lemma. 18 convolution. 53 ﬁxed point set. 36 even permutation. 12 prime power. 13 dihedral group. 18 inﬁnite. 11 generator. disjoint. 55 countably inﬁnite set. 55 characteristic function. 1 minimal. 3 61 divisor. 53 action. 16 ﬁnite. 32 notation. 30 group. 48 coprime. 12 Fermat’s Little Theorem. 17 set. 47 back-substitution. 38 alternating group. 53 binary operation. 31 arithmetic function. 58 indicator. 3 element. 29. 1 equivalence relation.transitive. 32 divides. 17. 54 ℵ0 . 38 action. 24 Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. 3 element greatest. 3 common. 1 group. 3 greatest common. 37 countable set. 30 . 55 cycle decomposition. 11 congruence class. 31 dihedral. 31 factor common.Index 1-1. 13 Fibonacci sequence. 1 maximal. 3 coset left. 59 cardinality. 16. 18 ﬁnite continued fraction. 3. 1 least. 40 function arithmetic. 40 set. 3 factorization prime. 8 continued fraction expansion. 11 Euclidean Algorithm.

35 proper subset. 47 subgroup. 16. 31 one-one. 35 subset proper. 35 generated by g. 14. 54 surjection. 30 symmetry. 58 prime. 1 numbers natural. 14 index. 15 . 53 injection. 2 minimal element. 40 order. 40 inﬁnite. 53 ﬁxed. 3 inverse. 53 integer. 53 of cardinality ℵ0 . 40 ﬁxed point. 33 uncountable set. 1 odd permutation. 18 represents. 1. 29. 55 ﬁnite. 31 solution fundamental. 9 root. 53 power set. 23 period. 53 onto. 3 M¨bius function. 30 matrix. 3 Idiot’s Binomial Theorem. 18 residue class. 38 standard set. 47 o maximal element. 37 indicator function. 47 strictly. 38 orbit-stabilizer equation. 24 stabilizer. 54 real algebraic numbers. 11 factorization. 59 recurrence relation. 15 Principle of Mathematical Induction (PMI). 1 Wilson’s Theorem. 55 power. 1 left coset. 53 orbit. 58 standard. 37 Long Division Property. 32 odd. 35 proper. 1 group action. 1 multiplicative. 29 Pell’s Equation. 47 natural numbers. 1 Maximal Principle (MP). 53 symmetric group. 58 inﬁnite continued fraction. 30 strictly multiplicative. 9 irrational. 30 uncountable. 1. 31 Pigeonhole Principle. 22 permutation even. 1 proper subgroup. 33 tabular method. 31 group. 13 primitive. 37 least element. 13 Lagrange’s Theorem. 15 set countable. 40 transposition. 55 Well Ordering Principle (WOP). 17 set. 55 sign of a permutation.62 INDEX highest common factor. 31 sign of a. 55 countably inﬁnite. 12 power factorization. 12 primitive root. 6 transitive.

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