Bahasa Muzik - ZAG
Pelajaran 1: Baluk (Staff)
Muzik ditulis pada lima garis selari dan empat ruang:
Garis ini dinamakan Baluk. Kita boleh merujuk pada garis dan ruang menggunakan angka seperti di atas. Baluk sebenarnya tidak mempunyai angka seperti yang gambarkan di atas. Angka ditulis hanyalah untuk menampakkan ianya dikenalpasti bermula dari garis paling bawah. Kita meletakkan not muzik dan tanda senyap (rehat) pada baluk. Pada awal setiap baluk diletakkan suatu tanda muzik yang dinamakan KLEF ( CLEF ).Klef menetapkan nama-nama not pada garis dan ruang.
1. Klef Trebel ( treble clef) : 2. Klef Bes (Bass Clef): 3. Garis dan ruang pada klef treble dan klef bes dihubungkan seperti
Semua skor muzik untuk piano ditulis pada baluk seperti ini.
Bahasa Muzik - ZAG
Buat pengamatan pada klef treble ini. i)
Bagaimana ia ditulis?
Bermula dari satu titik di bahagian bawah buat garisan menghala ke atas.
Teruskan ke atas sehingga melepasi garis paling atas (beri sedikit ruang)
Buat lingkaran kecil ke kanan dan terus ke bawah merentasi garis ke 4 baluk :
Teruskan melukis ke bawah dan buat lingkaran ke kanan dan biarkan garis bawah lingkaran ini mencecah garis paling bawah seperti berikut:
Lengkapkan suapya membentuk seperti rajah di bawah:
Bahasa Muzik - ZAG
Cubalah buat beberapa klef treble sebagai latihan :
Klef Bes lebih mudah dilukiskan:
Mulakan dengan satu titik pada garis ke 4 , naikkan ke atas agar mencecah garis paling atas dan membengkok ke bawah :
Teruskan ke bawah sehingga mencecah garis ke 2 dari bawah.
Buat satu titik di bawah garis ke empat dan satu titik lagi di atas garis ke 4 :
Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
. Penguasaan ini perlu kerana ia menentukan panjang atau pendeknya sesuatu bunyi. Abjad A hingga G adalah asas menpelajari notasi muzik. Tidak ada cara mudah atau jalan pintas untuk menguasai notasi.
Jika sesuatu bunyi itu lebih tinggi dari ‘G’ ia menggunakan ‘A’ semula. Ia mengikut turutan abjad ABC semasa menaik (accending). Berusahalah untuk menguasainya.ZAG
Buat beberapa latihan :
Pelajaran 2: Notasi Muzik
Selepas mempelajari notasi langkah berikutnya ialah untuk menguasainya.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. Semasa bunyi menurun susunan abjad menjadi seperti berikut:
Apabila bunyi menurun bawah dari ‘A’ not ‘G’ digunakan semula. Ia juga menentukan tinggi atau rendahnya sesuatu bunyi.
Kedudukan papan kibod adalah seperti berikut:
Papan kibod terdiri dari gabungan warna putih dan hitam. Not ‘C’ pada baluk di atas ditulis pada garis leger. Bila papan kibod piano ditekan ia menyebabkan pemukul kecil yang dibalut dengan baldu akan menyentuh dan memukul tali piano dan bunyi akan kedengaran.
Untuk memahami teori prinsip muzik kita perlu menguasai papan kibod.ZAG
Berikut adalah turutan bunyi menggunakan klef bes dan klef trebel:
Skel di atas bermula dari not E menaik hingga 3 oktaf (octave) .Ia boleh berada di atas atau di bawah baluk. Bunyi pada papan ki piano adalah seperti berikut:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. Papan ki hitam ini dihimpunkan dalam kumpulan dua dan tiga berselang–selang.Bahasa Muzik . Papan ki hitam akan membantu kita mengenalpasti bunyi piano. Garis leger adalah satu cara untuk menulis not di luar baluk.Melaka
. Not kelapan ( Bermula not E hingga bertemu E dinamakan sebagai oktaf – Setiapkali bila sesuatu not bertemu semula dengan not yang sama ketika menaik atau menurun ia dinamakan senagai oktaf) .
Bahasa Muzik . Terdapat beberapa not C dan yang berada di tengah-tengah piano adalah “C Tengah”.
Jeda (Jarak bunyi )yang paling dekat dinamakan “SEMITON”. Perhatikan manamana not C (Papan Ki Putih) akan diikuti dengan kehadiran “C#” (Papan Ki Hitam).Melaka
. Jeda bunyi dalam muzik adalah seperti berikut:
Pada bahagian tengah piano terdapat papan ki putih yang dinamakan “C TENGAH”.
Lihat persamaan nilai not berikut:
Persamaan nilai not adalah seperti berikut:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM..Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
Pelajaran 4: Nilai Not
Penggubah dan pencipta lagu memerlukan cara untuk memberitahu pemain atau penyanyi mengenai panjang atau pendeknya sesuatu bunyi.
Ini not Minim (Minim): panjang bunyinya 2 harkat.Melaka
. It also equals two halfs. It also . Ini not Semibrif (semibreve).
So eight eighths equals one whole. Ini pula not Kuaver (Quaver): Kita memerlukan 8 kuaver untuk mendapat bunyi semibrif... panjang bunyinya 4 harkat.
Kita memerlukan 4 krocet untuk mendapat bunyi semibrif.
Ini not Krocet (Crochet): panjang bunyinya 1 harkat.
. adding a dot to a quarter note results in a note that is the same length as a quarter note and an eighth note tied together. the quarter note tied to the eighth is the same as if the quarter note had a dot after it. and the eighth note wasn't there at
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. What's half of one? . (1 + ) = 1 The dot makes the note half again as
Here is a dotted half note: It is one half note plus half of a half note (one quarter).you'll learn more about that in Lessons 13 and 14) A dotted quarter note looks like this: long as a quarter note. A tie is a slur (curved line) that joins two notes together so that they are played as one long note. Mungkin penjelasan berikut boleh membantu:
2+ + +1=4
NOT BERTITIK You know that in many time signatures a quarter note equals one beat. you get a note that is 1 beats long (That is assuming that the quarter note equals one beat. you learned that four quarter notes equal one whole note. There are time signatures where this is not the case. You learned that two eighth notes equal one quarter note. So in the following example. A dotted half note.Bahasa Muzik . (2 + 1 = 3)
Lesson 5: Note Durations. When you add a dot to a note. For example. Part 2
In the previous lesson you saw the relationships between different notes. For example. If you add that to the quarter. is three quarter notes long. you add half of its value to the note. therefore.ZAG
Ia kelihatan rumit . You also learned that adding a dot to a note increases its time duration by one half of the original note value.
On a wind instrument like flute. A slur differs from a tie in that the slur is applied to two notes of different pitch. if your browser has MIDI-playback capability) that the two 'F's are played as one long note. By adding another flag. But the stem should point downward if the note is above the middle line of the staff: These two beamed eighths are exactly the same as if
If the note is on the middle line. It also indicates beat duration.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. it becomes half as long as an eighth note – emisemiquaver : It takes two sixteenth notes to equal one eighth note. clarinet. as in the examples above: If the note is below the middle line of the staff. etc. How many sixteenth notes does it take to make one half note? Eight! One whole note? Sixteen! Many times when two or more eighth notes are written side-by-side. the flag is replaced with a beam: the writer had written: Same thing for sixteenths: is the same as: Using the beam in place of the flags simply makes it look a little "tidier". It takes four sixteenth notes to equal one quarter note. Adding a flag to a note makes a note half as long. the stem may point either upward or downward. it would look like a quarter note. the stem should point upward. trumpet. Remember the eighth note? Without the flag.an eighth note. this means to play all slurred notes in one breath. and a little easier for a performer to read. it is important to know that sometimes stems can point upward. A slur means to play all the notes within the slur without rearticulating.Melaka
. Concerning the direction of stems. but we'll leave that for another lesson.. By adding the flag it becomes a note of half that value .ZAG
all: You can see (and hear.Bahasa Muzik .
It shows the relationship between all of the notes and rests that you will use for the next several lessons*. For example.Melaka
. If the whole note gets four beats. it looks like a small black rectangle that hangs from the fourth line.5 (1/2) 0. let us say that in a particular time signature the quarter note is worth two beats. in cases the whole rest also gets four beats: As you can see. Again. is not always the case: NUMBER OF BEATS NOTE 4 2 1 0. if one value changes. as you will see in later lessons. It hangs from that line no matter which clef you use. using our example of the whole note/rest getting four beats: The crochet rest (1 beat): The quaver rest ( beat): The semiquaver rest ( beat): Take a look at the following table. in many time signatures the whole note ( ) is a note that gets four beats. the half note would get two beats. REST
Lesson 6: Measures
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. this table makes the assumption for now that the whole note gets 4 beats. which.ZAG
For every note. there is a corresponding rest of the same length. For example. and so would the half rest: Here are the "rest" of the rests.Bahasa Muzik .25 (1/4) Since the note and rest values are all related to each other. they all change.
and that each beat is a quarter note: Bar1: 3 quarter notes = 3 beats. Don't worry about it for now!) Take a look at the following piece of music:
This is a piece of music that has been written in time. Bar4: 1 dotted half note = 3 beats. In such a piece the time signature would be . How would we be able to know that the piece was in ? Well. because of the time signature at the beginning of the piece! But let's say that the composer "forgot" to put a time signature at the beginning. if you count up the number of beats in each bar. and that the crochet is the unit that "gets the beat". In this lesson. Bar2: 4 eighth notes plus 1 quarter note = 3 beats. We say "four four" when we read this time signature. Bar3: 1 half note plus 2 eighth notes = 3 beats. That's obvious. you will eventually learn that the time signatures listed above are called simple time signatures. But that's not necessary right now. Compound time signatures tell us the number of beats in a bar. (Another word for time signature is meter). the top '4' represents the number of beats per bar: four. -the bottom number tells us what kind of note gets the beat. you would find that each bar has three beats.Bahasa Muzik . For example. we are only going to deal with three different time signatures: and There are things you will eventually need to know about all time signatures. The bottom four means "quarter note".ZAG
Music is often divided up into units called measures or bars. Each measure has a certain number of beats. IMPORTANT: Take a look at bar 2 and observe how the
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. The number of beats is determined by the time signature. and you'll learn about compound time signatures. some music is written so that every measure has four beats. In time. All you need to know is that in each of these particular time signatures: -the top number tells us how many beats. For example. but not in a direct way. (Lesson 13 will delve into time signatures to a greater degree. The bottom '4' tells us what kind of note gets the beat.Melaka
. (Four eighths = one half-note). because that is what once you've drawn the lines in: means! Here's what it should look like
Bar 1: 2 eighths plus 1 quarter = 2 beats. The fourth sixteenth gets a "a". you are probably already familiar with "counting" in this manner. (our way of showing a note that is the fourth sixteenth past the beat. For example. if you saw a
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. It should work out that every bar gets two beats. Notice that each beat gets a number (that's obvious!) In bar 1. It is necessary.. then draw a bar line. The fact that two eighth notes are beamed together shows that the beat unit is the quarter note.Melaka
. then count another two beats and draw another bar line. but "forgot" to draw in the bar lines:
The time signature is . In bar 2. in any given time signature. What if you were to get a piece of music in which the composer put the time signature at the beginning.Bahasa Muzik . The second eighth gets a "+" to indicate that it's in-between beats one and two. The next sixteenth gets an "e" (our way of showing a note that is one sixteenth past the beat). the first eighth gets a "1". The counts have been written in. If we were to take the example above and write the count of each bar. to make sure that each bar has the same number of beats.. You can see that each bar gets 2 beats. The next sixteenth is a "+" because it is one eighth past the beat. it would look like this:
If you play a musical instrument. Bar 2: 4 sixteenths plus 1 quarter = 2 beats. So count two beats. etc. and that the number of beats is the top number of the time signature.ZAG
semiquaver notes have been "beamed". the first sixteenth gets a "1". That would mean that the half note would be the beat unit. In some music you will find four eighths beamed together.) This funny way of showing the counts makes it easy to say the counts..
then each eighth note gets a number. Both sound exactly the same.weak" pulsing of the music.weak . For example.ZAG
bar of music in that had eight sixteenth notes. we would say "A-flat is a CHROMATIC semitone lower than A". In the second example.Bahasa Muzik . Shall I be obvious? A small interval is a situation where there are two notes close together! There are three small intervals to be dealt with in this lesson: semitone. If you come across a piece of music in which the eighth note gets the beat.and .a". Click this play-bar to hear what we mean: Now compare that to what you hear in this excerpt: You can hear that the strong-weak pulses of the bar have been altered.
Lesson 7: Small Intervals
An "interval" is the space between two notes.and .strong . Now you need to know that there are two types of semitones. "G-sharp is a DIATONIC semitone lower than A". Syncopation occurs when the normal rhythmic stresses in a bar are changed.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. normally in a piece of music written in one tends to be quite aware of a "strong . you know that if you were to play both examples on a musical instrument. you would say the count like this: "One -e. giving some rhythmic intensity to the music. the point here is that G# and Ab are exactly the same pitch.Melaka
. you would play the same notes! In other words. But here's the difference: we would say that in the first example. SEMITONES: We have already dealt with the semitone in lesson 3. and toneplus-semitone.a Two -e. From your knowledge of semitones. Take a look at this example:
Both of these semitones sound exactly the same. but they are written differently. whole tone. You'll revisit the topic of syncopation in Lesson 13. Play them on your instrument. and each sixteenth gets a "+":
Sometimes we have to write the counts into a bar that features syncopation.
Here are quick definitions: DIATONIC SEMITONE: The smallest interval in our "western" music culture. you can see two notes indicated by dots:
The 'G' and the 'A' are one whole tone away from each other due to the fact that there is a note in between them: the G-sharp. the other must be on the line above or below it. just because two notes are placed on a staff in this manner. This distance of two semitones is called one whole tone. However. in which the two notes are spelled using different letter names. A-flat) Here are some more semitones. Whole tones are written on the staff so that if one note is on a line. (A. To write whole tones.Bahasa Muzik . or A-flat. Looking at this view of a piano keyboard. the other must be on the space above or below it. for example:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. in which the two notes are spelled using the same letter name.ZAG
So there are two types of semitones: DIATONIC SEMITONES and CHROMATIC SEMITONES.Melaka
. we begin by ensuring that they've been placed on the staff correctly. If one note is written on a space. (A. don't automatically assume they are whole tones. Take this interval. G-sharp) CHROMATIC SEMITONE: The smallest interval in our "western" music culture. correctly labeled:
(You will learn in later lessons that a diatonic semitone is also called a minor 2nd) WHOLE TONES A whole tone equals the distance of two semitones.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. You must then adjust the second note so that the proper interval exists. Here are some written whole tones:
Notice that whole tones are written on adjacent lines or spaces. So a whole tone above 'B' would be 'C#'. if necessary. The rule about placement of the notes on the staff is only part of the procedure.Bahasa Muzik . these two notes are only one semitone apart. You must now adjust the second note.) TONE-PLUS-SEMITONE A tone-plus-semitone is the distance of three semitones. do not assume that because you have placed the notes correctly on the staff that they are automatically a tone-plus-semitone apart. Here's a quick definition: WHOLE TONE An interval which is the distance of 2 semitones. it must be written so that if one note is on a line. On paper. If one note is in a space. the other note must be in the space above or below it. But as you can see from the diagram of the keyboard above. you would add a sharp to the second note in order to make it a whole tone higher:
There is one other place on the keyboard where there is no black note between white notes: between 'B' and 'C'. And just as with the situation regarding whole tones. In this case.Melaka
The 'E' is on the line directly below the 'F'.there is no black note in between them. (You will learn in later lessons that a whole tone is also known as a major 2nd. the other note must be on a line above or below it.
But we'll get to that in a moment.Bahasa Muzik . we mean 'whole tone'. go back to Lesson 7.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. ascending. A major scale proceeds by following a certain pattern of tones and semitones. Make certain that you fully understand the difference between tones and semitones. Understanding scales depends on your knowledge of tones and semitones. If you're still a little rusty. It will help you to clearly visualize the entire process. We are going to write an F-major scale in the treble clef.Melaka
Writing an F-Major Scale in the treble clef:
STEP 1: Draw a treble clef on a staff.)
Lesson 8: Major Scales
A scale is a series of notes that proceed up or down by step. and you'll see that writing scales is actually a fairly simple process! I would recommend getting a piece of staff paper and writing out the steps as you see them demonstrated here for you. using quarter notes. Here are some written tone-plus-semitones:
(You will learn in later lessons that a tone-plus-semitone is also known as an augmented 2nd. Then place an 'F' on the staff.ZAG
An interval which is the distance of 3 semitones. the 'F' above middle 'C'. ('Step' means by tone or by semitone). Please note that when we say 'tone'. We'll go through the process of writing a major scale step by step (no pun intended).
Tone . the 'G' and 'A'. Remember. Here is the complete correct F-major scale:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.Semitone We now have to examine the intervals between each and every note to see that they conform to this pattern. The 'B' itself can go either way. We start by looking at the first two notes.ZAG
STEP 2: Write a note on each line and space. the B-flat is the only accidental that we have to use. so that conforms to the second interval requirement. tone. is correct.Tone . This forms a whole tone. What is the distance between these two notes? It is a whole tone.
STEP 3: You've now written a scale. If they don't. any note below the middle line 'B' should point its stem upward. On we go! Our next notes to examine are the 3rd and 4th notes.Tone . No problem! We'll just lower the B to a Bflat. we can use accidentals (sharps and flats) to make them conform. Just keep going. checking each interval between all notes in the scale. Major scales follow a certain pattern of tones and semitones. 'F' and 'G'. But our major-scale pattern says that there should only be a semitone between these two notes. any note above the middle line 'B' should point its stem downward. The distance between these two notes is a whole tone. but not necessarily a major scale. You will find that in this scale. the 'A' and 'B'.Melaka
.Bahasa Muzik . the first interval in the pattern. and now it's a semitone.Tone . Now let's look at the 2nd and 3rd notes. ascending for one octave. Here is that all-important pattern: Tone . and we can go on. 'Tone'.Semitone . Therefore. Here's what we've got so far:
We show whole tones with a square bracket and semitones with a slur (curve).
. D-flat.. Make sure that you write your scale using the process mentioned above.
Lesson 9: Key Signatures
We've all seen key signatures . THEN make your adjustments if necessary.Melaka
. as you can see. In the next lesson. Now how do we convert those accidentals to a key signature? Take a look at the scale and write down all of the accidentals you used. In the case of the A-flat major scale above. Start with one octave of notes. we have a nifty little rhyme: Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.. In the previous lesson's test. has one flat. All the different major scales use their own set of accidentals. the square brackets represent whole tones.ZAG
An F-major scale. When we see the following key signature. unless canceled out temporarily by an accidental. It is the only major scale that has one flat. you'll learn how to make a proper key signature from the accidentals that are used. For that. We also know what they mean.we know that every B. E and A will be flat. Now we need to know what order to write them down in a key signature. and B-flat. E-flat.. you used: A-flat. it should have looked like this:
Remember..they're the collection of sharps or flats at the beginning of each staff. you were asked to write an A-flat major scale.Bahasa Muzik . the rounded ones represent semitones. If you did your job properly.
then the 'E'." rhyme is that reversing the order of the rhyme gives us the order of sharps in a key signature: Father . Consider this key signature: You might think this is a rather complicated one to start with. and finally the 'D'.Battle A key signature that uses all seven possible sharps will look like this:
KEY SIGNATURE HINTS: There are some little "tricks" that can help you know which major key belongs to
which key signature. the 'A'.Melaka
.And .Ends.Ends . It looks like this. but in fact it's quite easy if you remember this rhyme: When sharps you see.Charles .Goes . in both clefs of the Grand Staff:
A key signature that uses all seven possible flats will look like this:
The neat thing about the "Battle .ZAG
The first letter of each word in this sentence tells us the order that the flats are entered in a key signature: first the 'B'.Bahasa Muzik ...Down . the last is "ti".
Counting down in this key signature four notes. this key signature belongs to C#-major. So here are the rhymes to remember: THE ORDER OF FLATS: THE ORDER OF SHARPS: 'FLAT' Key Sig.
'SHARP' Key Sig. we hit 'C-flat'. Therefore.) The last sharp indicated above is the B#. we know that the next note will be the key-note. 'Fa' is the solfa name for the fourth note of the scale. Hint: Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle When flats there are. If that's the fourth note. (You'll learn more about these technical names in a later lesson. Label each one. b) Write out all the key signatures that use flats. this key signature belongs to C-flat major. is the solfa name for the seventh note of the scale. the last is 'ti'
PRE-QUIZ ASSIGNMENT: Take a piece of 12-stave manuscript paper.ZAG
'Ti'. we know that the key-note will be four notes lower. the last is 'fa'.
Consider this key signature:
Now remember this little rhyme:
When flats there are. If that's the seventh note. the last is 'fa'. Therefore. Label each one. Then: a) Write out all the key signatures that use sharps. making four measures per system. Create 4 Grand Staffs. Hint: When sharps you see. The last flat indicated above is the F-flat. and it will be one diatonic semitone higher.Melaka
.Bahasa Muzik .
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. the 'leading tone'. of course.
and the non-perfect ones. are non-perfect ones. we might say "perfect fifth" in describing a certain kind of fifth. In fact. 4. and the toneplus-semitone. whole tone. 6. Let's look at the perfect intervals first. Depending on the number. There are four intervals that can be described as being perfect: 1. The 'P' stands for 'perfect'. Click on the play-bar beside the interval above and listen to the hollow sound produced by the Perfect 5th. diminished that.Bahasa Muzik . etc. The other intervals. the interval shown above is a 5th.Melaka
. but more on that a little later. Assigning a '1' to the bottom note and counting upward until reaching the top note. and 7. of intervals. There are two components to the name of an interval:
The first component. all intervals will fall into two main categories: the perfect ones. The number is very easy to determine. in this case the letter 'P'. Intervals that are perfect have a certain sound that is variously described by musicians as "pure". the number. these intervals will be described as either "harsh" (2 or 7) or "sweet" (3 or 6). But how do we actually determine the quality of an interval? For our purposes here. you can see that the 'D' is five notes higher than the 'G'. Now we are going to learn how to name intervals that are larger than a second. you learned how to name "small" intervals.the semitone. tells us the distance between the two notes. These were intervals
that occupied the space of a "second" . 3. tells us the quality of the interval. and 8. Therefore.ZAG
The first ones have been done for you: C-major G-major
Lesson 10: Intervals
In Lesson 7. "hollow" or "bare". big or small. They are the ones described as being major or minor. 5.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. For example. 2. or qualities. You have heard these terms before in conversation with musicians: major this. the method we use to name larger intervals actually applies to all intervals. So much for the easy part! There are several different kinds. The second component .
this is why there is a rectangle drawn around the word "perfect". So they're not perfect . That's because D# is one semitone higher than 'D'. then the answer would be "Diminished 5th". With the perfect intervals (1. and then count upward until reaching the top note. then the interval will be perfect . Therefore. If the answer to the question is "yes". and so we know that it is not going to be a perfect interval. and so we go to the next smaller interval. of course. "Is there a D# in a G-major scale?" No.Melaka
. But you
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. "Is there a Db in a G-major scale?" No.ZAG
Back to the perfect ones. If you examine the example above. we need to ask ourselves an important question in order to determine what kind of fifth the interval is: "Is the top note in the major scale of the bottom note?" If the answer is "yes". there are three possibilities:
This diagram shows those three possibilities. But what if the answer was 'No"? What if instead of the above example. because if you consider the bottom note to be '1'. then the answer would be "Augmented 5th". we had one of the following:
Would the number of the interval be the same? Absolutely. It's going to be given a name like "major" or "minor. the question you would ask is "Is the top note ('D') found in a 'G' major scale? You know from the previous scale lesson that the answer to that is "yes".Bahasa Muzik . Easy!
Now consider the following interval: What number would be placed under it? A '3'. and so we go to the next larger interval. because the top note is still five notes above the bottom note. That's because Db is one semitone lower than 'D'.4.5 or 8). the 'A' would be three notes higher.a "perfect fifth". If it is "too large" to be yes (such as is the case with the D#). If an interval is determined to be a fifth. If it is "too small" to be yes (such as is the case with the Db). it is a perfect 5th.they're something different. like the one above. then the interval is perfect. But are they still perfect intervals? Well. or something else. But what kind of '3'? This interval is a third. ask yourself the question.
For now. no matter what accidental is in front of the note. or '-3'). Therefore. the four intervals are: diminished 3rd. for example!) Do not be concerned about those issues at this point.Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
still have to ask the same question: "Is the top note ('A') in the major scale of the bottom note ('F')"? you can see that the answer is "yes". imagine in your mind that you just lowered both pitches by a semitone. That is there to remind us that if the answer to the question "Is the top note ('A') in the major scale of the bottom note ('F')" is yes. minor 3rd.say. Here they are: 1) Starting with the number '1'. And so the answer to the above example is: Diminished 4th.Melaka
. Indeed. then the interval is major. We can show that by writing either '+3' or 'M3'. That would result in an E-flat on top and a B on the bottom. So to sum up. an 'F' on the bottom and an 'Ab' on the top. They are 3rds because the distance from the lowest note to the highest note is 3. What do you do if the bottom note is a note for which we don't have a major scale? For example what about this one: We don't have a B-sharp major scale.6 or 7). there's an E-natural. raise both notes the same amount to get back to the original notes. the interval stays the same size. But looking at those four intervals. "Is the top note in the major scale of the bottom note?".it would be a minor 3rd ('m3'. E-flat makes this a diminished 4th. that's the one we would call the major 3rd. then. the answer to the question is yes. From left to right.3. In this case. Write that number down underneath the interval. the only interval for which the answer is "yes" would be the one with the 'A' on top. there are two steps to naming an interval. it is important that you realize that all four of the intervals shown above are considered '3rds'. What if the interval were different . so the interval is a major 3rd. That would be one semitone smaller than a major 3rd . count upward until you reach the top note. Then. if you ask yourself the question. Later lessons will deal with double flats (and double sharps as well). But what does that mean? With the non-perfect intervals (2. Then the interval becomes easier to figure out: "Is there an E-flat in a B-major scale?" No. are the four possibilities with the interval of a 3rd:
There are several things about this example that would actually require some indepth explanations (the double flat. By raising both notes the same amount. Here. and augmented 3rd. major 3rd. 2) Ask yourself "Is the top note in the major scale of the bottom note?"
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. there are four possibilities:
Notice the rectangle drawn around the word "major".
or 'm'Major: Perfect:Minor: Augmented: Diminished: + or 'M' P Aug or 'X' dim or 'o'
When it comes to writing a note that is a certain interval above a given note. 'Is there a 'G' in a 'C' major scale"? The answer is "Yes". (In this case. start on that 'G' and count down from 5 until you reach 1. and so this is a major sixth. Do not change the given note.4. So what do we do? We lower the 'G' to a 'G-flat'. simply count up six notes (the bottom note is '1').6 or 7) IF NO: It will be one of the other words as described above.ZAG
IF YES: The interval will be PERFECT (if the number is 1. just proceed in the manner described above: If you are given this: and told to write a note a minor 6th above it.5 or 8).Melaka
.6 or 7]. Ask yourself the question. 2) Ask yourself. we raise the 'C'. so we raise the 'C' to a 'C-sharp'.' and told to write a note that is a diminished fifth below it. go one word to the right of the word in the rectangle. and now the interval is a minor 6th:
If you are asked to write a note that is a certain interval below a given note. Simply count down from the given note. go one word to the left of the word in the rectangle. or MAJOR (if the number is 2. taking into consideration whether it is a [1. You'll get this: Then ask yourself the question.3. If you are given a 'G. or [2. "Is the top note in the major scale of the bottom note?"
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. We want a minor sixth. You'll now be on the note 'C'. For each semitone smaller. Use the following guide for abbreviations: . the process is similar. Remember to follow the two steps: 1) Start on 1. so this is a perfect fifth.4.Bahasa Muzik .5 or 8].) Here are several intervals all correctly labeled*. starting on the number of the interval. "Is there a 'G' in a B-flat major scale?" The answer is "Yes". because the 'G' was the note you were given. and count upward until you reach the top note. for each semitone larger.3. We want to make the interval smaller(to make it diminished). Study each one and be sure you fully understand the process involved in naming intervals before doing the test.
You can go through the exact same procedure that you used to name intervals in the previous lesson: count upward from bottom to top: that gives us a '4'. this is not going to be a difficult lesson! Consider this interval:
It's the one we started with in the previous lesson. if you know the name of the original interval. you will learn how to invert them. and so there are two correct. are also known by the term "tritone". Aug. Now to invert it. To invert an interval simply means to "flip it". and how to identify given intervals. meaning perfect. And the answer to "Is the upper note in the major scale of the bottom note?" is "Yes". "Is the upper note in the major scale for the bottom note?" Yes. the note that used to be on the bottom is now on the top. But there's an easier way to name inverted intervals. So depending on if you moved the lower note up an octave. the name of the interval must change. As you can see.Melaka
. As you know. The process is simple: whatever used to be on the bottom becomes the top. you should review Lesson 10.
Lesson 11: Inverting Intervals
In the previous lesson you learned how to write intervals. Check out the following table:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. acceptable answers. When you invert an interval. or the upper note down an octave. If this is all still foggy to you. so the answer is "Perfect 4th". In this lesson. once an interval has been inverted. Historically.ZAG
*Two of the intervals shown above.4 and dim. The note that used to be on the top is now on the bottom. In other words. the tritone was known as the "interval of the devil". its position between the perfect 4th and perfect 5th made it quite difficult to sing in tune.5.Bahasa Muzik . it's called a perfect 5th because counting up from the lower note until we reach the upper note results in the number '5'. there is a 'G' in a Dmajor scale. you get one of these:
Both of the examples above have a 'D' on the bottom and a 'G' on the top.
Each note of the scale has been numbered. simply take the original interval.ZAG
2it becomes:7When you invert: When you invert:When you invert: When you invert: When you invert: When you invert: When you invert: When you invert:
1 3 4 5 6 7 8 Perfect Major Minor Diminished Augmented
it becomes: it becomes: it becomes: it becomes: it becomes: it becomes: it becomes: it stays: it becomes: it becomes: it becomes: it becomes:
8 6 5 4 3 2 1 Perfect Minor Major Augmented Diminished
When you invert: When you invert: When you invert: When you invert: When you invert:
Notice that when you invert an interval. subtract it from 9 and the answer is a 3rd. As you can see. Write this scale on a piece of manuscript paper. "Diminished 6th".Bahasa Muzik . It's tables like this that can make you sound like a genius! It's so easy to learn and commit to memory that you can say to your friends. If you want to invert a 6th.Melaka
. and I'll name its inversion it in two seconds or less". we call the final note '1' because it is simply a repeat of the first note of the scale ('F'). and you immediately reply "Augmented 3rd!" No problem!
Lesson 12: Minor Scales
Please do not do this lesson unless you fully understand the construction of a major scale. Take a look at this scale:
This is an F-major scale in which the accidental (B-flat) has been used in place of a key signature. For example. and you'll get it's inversion. subtract it from 9. "Name an interval. They say. (9-6=3)*.
It is called the relative minor because it is related to F-major.Bahasa Muzik . Remember to use a flat in front of the 'B'. and proceed upwards for one octave.Melaka
. and we can identify major scales by referring to that key signature. How is it related? It uses the same key signature. For every possible key signature. Both F-major and D-minor use one flat as their key signature. and we often speak of the "function" of the note by using a technical name. Here's what a D-minor scale looks like with a key signature:
So to find the relative minor of a major scale. Now. For instance. if I say. and write that note 'D':
Now draw a scale. Let's discover which minor scale is related to F-major. find the sixth note of the major. "I'm thinking of a major scale that has one flat. That note is 'D'. Here they are: Note Number (degree of scale): 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Technical name: TONIC SUPERTONIC MEDIANT SUBDOMINANT DOMINANT SUBMEDIANT LEADING TONE
In lesson 9. here's a new bit of information: There is also a MINOR SCALE that has that same key signature. A technical name is a word that identifies the note. you learned how to write key signatures. Find the sixth note. starting on the 'D'. On the next line below your major scale.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. (The submediant). draw a treble clef. because they use the same key signature. because we're going to use the same key signature as F-major:
You've just created a D-minor scale! The D-minor scale is called the relative minor of F-major.ZAG
Each note of a scale has a so-called "Technical Name" associated with it. That note is the note upon which the relative minor would be built. Every major scale has its own particular key signature." you know that I am thinking of an F-major scale. there is one major scale and one minor scale that use that signature. We say that the two scales are related. Look at the F-major scale that you've written down. That's because F-major is the only major scale that has one flat.
and you must take the time to play each example and become familiar with them.Melaka
. you will already know that D-major has a key signature of two sharps. and all.
Determining Key Signatures of Minor Keys Now you should know how to take a major scale. and raise the seventh note. find the note upon which the relative minor scale will be constructed. Same thing for B-minor!
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. the 'C' to become a 'C#'. In the case of B-minor. plus a diatonic semitone. and put them back to their "natural" state going down. take the natural minor. Because the melodic minor looks different going up than it does going down. Sometimes you see them referred to as "Pure minor". Music lives in the ears. But what if you're simply told "Write a B-minor scale"? How do you determine the key signature? If you don't know the key signature. As you know. Here it is:
MELODIC MINOR: To form a melodic minor scale. It is not enough to have an intellectual understanding of musical concepts. examples in this course. take the natural minor. Simply go up a whole tone. If you've done your Scale Reference Sheet.ZAG
The type of minor scale you just learned to write is called a natural minor scale. a minor scale and its relative major will share the same key signature. D-major will use the same key signature as B-minor. it will help to find the relative major. There are two other types of minor scales you need to learn: the harmonic minor and melodic minor. you must write a melodic minor ascending and descending. and write the three forms of that minor scale. Here is a D-Melodic minor scale:
IMPORTANT: You should play these. you know that 'B' is the sixth note of some major scale. That will get you the relative major. So a whole tone plus a diatonic semitone above 'B' is 'D'. raise the sixth AND seventh note on the way up.
HARMONIC MINOR: To form a harmonic minor scale.Bahasa Muzik . we would raise the seventh note. To change the D-minor scale above into a harmonic minor scale.
and 2) What kind of note gets the beat. Take a look at most printed music.. Measures are separated from each other by "bar lines". Study the following:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. with simple time signatures ( for one). The compartments have been discussed before. to indicate how many beats are in each bar. SIMPLE TIME SIGNATURES Simple time signatures tell us two things immediately: 1)HOW MANY beats are in each bar. one being written above the other. Simply stated. and you'll see this very clearly. a time signature consists of two numbers.Bahasa Muzik . Our first task is to discover the differences between simple and compound time. we call them "measures" or "bars". You'll also notice at the beginning of each piece of music a time signature. with compound time signatures ( for example). or indirectly. This is stated directly.Melaka
Lesson 13: Time Signatures (Meters) Writers of music have a convenient way of putting music into "sections" or "compartments" that make it visually easy to follow.
You can see that the time signature is . each beat can be "subdivided" into two parts." Here's the same excerpt with the beats shown above the music:
If we were to count along with the excerpt as it is played. 2. 2. we would say "1. or breakdown.Bahasa Muzik . and b) the '4' tells us that each beat is one quarter note long. notice in bar 2 that the eighth notes have been beamed together in groups of two.Melaka
." etc. Simple! (Guess that's why they call it a simple time signature. 1. In simple time signatures. That's because two eighth notes together are one quarter note in length. The writer is showing us that the quarter note "gets the beat. shown underneath:
This excerpt shows four things that describe all
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. The subdivision or breakdown of a beat is its number of components. 1.) Also. Here is the same excerpt with the subdivision. The time signature tells us two things: a) The '2' tells us that there are 2 beats in every bar. 2.
Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
. 2 ) E a c h b e a t i s s u b
simple time signatures: 1 ) T h e b e a t i s a n u n d o t t e d n o t e .
Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
d i v i d e d i n t o t w o c o m p o n e n t s . 3 ) T h e t o p n u m b e r i s n o t d
( E x c e p t f o r ti m e s i g n a t u r e s w it h a ' 3 ' o n
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
i v i s i b l e b y ' 3 '.Melaka
Bahasa Muzik . w h i c h a r e o ft e n s i m p l e ti m e s i g n a t u r e s ! * ) 4 ) S i m p l
t o p .
e ti m e s i g n a t u r e s s h o w t h e n u m b e r o f b e a t s i n e v e r y b a r .Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
compound time signatures do not directly show us the
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. m e a n s t w o q u a rt e r n o t e b e a t s i n e v e r y b a r.Bahasa Muzik . ) COMPOUND TIME SIGNATURES: Unlike simple time signatures.ZAG
(i . e ..Melaka
Instead. However. The writer is showing that the first three eighths form one beat.Bahasa Muzik . though simple time beats break down into two parts. Condensing the three eighths down to one note gives us a dotted quarter. we can break down each beat into beat subdivisions. You can see that by going through the two bars of the excerpt.) In other words.ZAG
number of beats per bar. compound time beats break down into three parts:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. they show us the number of breakdown notes per bar. that's why they were beamed together. (1 8th plus 1 8th plus 1 8th equals 1 dotted quarter note. Study the following:
In this excerpt. Here's what it looks like:
Just like with simple time signatures. We therefore need to take the eighth notes and "condense" them to discover what the beat is. the beat in a bar of music is the dotted quarter. we can see that the writer has beamed the first three eighth notes together. it is possible to apply dotted quarter note beats.Melaka
Can we apply a quarter note beat
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. 3) The top number is evenly divisible by '3'.. Therefore. Each one of those eighth note pairs can "condense down" to form one quarter note. So. here are the four things that describe compound time signatures: 1) The beat is a dotted note. Notice that the eighth notes are beamed together in groups of two. Looks like the quarter note may be the beat unit in this excerpt. The breakdown notes are EIGHTH notes. the time signature is .Bahasa Muzik . (Except for time signatures with a '3' on top!*) 4) Compound time signatures show the number of breakdown notes in every bar.) There! Armed with that knowledge. (i. Look at bar 1.e. you should be able to say what time signature the following excerpt is in:
So let's study it. 2) Each beat is subdivided into three components.ZAG
You can see that each bar has SIX breakdown notes. means six eighthnote subdivisions in every bar.Melaka
And since we know that it is simple time. ( . The dotted eighth.Melaka
pattern to the whole excerpt? Absolutely! This is what it would look like:
So since applying quarter notes as a beat unit seems to work. in particular. the actual signature should be the number of beats per bar. or C):
Lets try another one:
Look at how the eighth notes have been beamed. (One quarter note subdivides into two eighth notes.). the last group of notes at the end of the first bar. Notice. we get one note which is a dotted quarter in length. If we condense those three notes down. sixteenth. we can tell that this is a simple time signature: The beat is an un-dotted note. and eighth note have all been beamed together. It appears that perhaps the dotted
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.Bahasa Muzik . Each beat will subdivide into two components.
can fit into the dotted quarter beat pattern.Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
quarter will be the beat unit in this excerpt. Therefore. and that. obviously the dotted quarter in the middle is easy. and the six sixteenths at the end condense down to form a dotted quarter. too. As this is compound. The eighth rest and two eighth notes at the beginning would certainly be explained in terms of a dotted quarter beat.Melaka
. When you look at the rest of the excerpt. the numbers of the time signature will reflect the number of breakdown notes in each bar. the beat breaks down into three parts:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. So how do we assign this excerpt a time signature? The beat is a dotted note. with lines drawn around each beat: The lines are there to help you see the beat groups clearly. you can see that the second bar also fits the dotted quarter beat pattern: the two sixteenths plus two eight rests add up to equal one dotted quarter. so this is compound time. Here's the first bar. That leaves the quarter note and eighth note in the middle. Let's see if we can apply a dotted quarter beat to the entire excerpt.
How many breakdown notes in each bar? Nine. or the notes between beats. Here is an example of a syncopated passage:
I would recommend going over this lesson slowly several times. 1Technical name: TONIC
Lesson 14: Time SignaturesMeasure
. What kind of notes are the breakdown notes? Eighth notes. are given special emphasis.Bahasa Muzik . It is a very common technique for composers to use.
From time to time in music you will notice occasions where the weak part of a beat. the time signature is . This accenting of weak beats is called syncopation. to heighten rhythmic energy and drive. to make sure you understand it completely before doing the quiz. Therefore.
Bahasa Muzik - ZAG
At this point, you should be familiar enough with time signatures as to be able to identify them easily; you should be able to place the beats above an excerpt, and to properly indicate the subdivision underneath. If you feel you need a refresher on this, please re-read Lesson 13. Take a look at the following example:
The task here is to fill in the blank space in the middle of the bar with the appropriate rests. How do we do that? STEP 1: Determine if the time signature is SIMPLE or COMPOUND. Is the top number evenly divisible by three? No. So this is a simple time signature. Therefore this time signature is telling us that there are two beats per bar, and the quarter note is the beat unit. So we can go ahead and put the beats in: Notice that the first beat lines up with the first note in the bar. The last given note is an eighth note, which is only half of one beat long. Therefore we place the second quarter
Bahasa Muzik - ZAG
beat before that note. STEP 2: Write the beat subdivision (breakdown). Now that we know where the beats are, we can go ahead and write in the subdivision. As this is simple time, each beat will break down into
two components (eighth
notes): As you can see, it is easy to line up the eighth notes with the quarter-note beats. STEP 3: Fill in the rests. IMPORTANT: COMPLETE THE BEATS THAT HAVE BEEN STARTED FIRST. In this case, the excerpt is only two beats long, and each beat has been started. The first note is a sixteenth note. The basic rule is to complete the subdivision component first. So what would it take to complete the first eighth note subdivision? Answer: one sixteenth rest: Now, what will complete the rest of the beat? Answer: One eighth rest:
The first beat has now been completed. Now look at the last beat. The one eighth note that you see is the last thing in the bar. What will it take to
Bahasa Muzik - ZAG
complete that bar? Just put an eighth rest in front of the note. Here is the correct answer:
Can you combine the two eighth rests in the middle of the bar and put a quarter rest instead? No. You have to leave the two eighth rests, because they each belong to different beats. Can you combine the sixteenth rest and the eighth rest in the first beat? Technically, no, although more and more we see publishers doing this sort of thing. The rule is this: If the rests are at the END of a beat, they should not be combined (like the above example). If the rests are at the START of a beat, they can be combined, like this example:
Now consider this example:
Is it simple or compound time? The answer is compound, because the top number is divisible by three. Therefore, the time
signature is telling us the number of breakdown notes in each bar. the third beat actually begins somewhere before the sixteenths happen. So we complete the first breakdown note by adding a sixteenth rest:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. I know that the eighth note breakdown will be beamed in groups of three. That's because the four sixteenths do not make up an entire beat. Therefore. you begin by completing the beats that are partially given.) Now that the breakdown is written. as you can see. I can go ahead and place the beats. The first beat so far has one sixteenth note in it. What one note is three eighth notes long? Answer: A dotted quarter-note:
Notice that the last dottedquarter beat of the bar is placed just before the group of four sixteenths in the excerpt. Just like with the previous example. and in this time signature the beat is a dotted quarter-note long. The four sixteenths make up one quarter note.Bahasa Muzik . Each beat is three eighth-notes long.Melaka
. Write them in:
(Because it's compound.
The beat is a dotted quarter note. Now we
move to the final beat in the bar. but here they are
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. The sixteenth notes take up two of the three eighth notes in the beat.Bahasa Muzik . The only thing left is to place a rest for the second beat . They have been listed before. We don't combine these rests. so we will place a dotted quarter rest:
Lesson 15: Tonic and Dominant Triads
As you know. every scale degree has a technical name. because they
finish the beat.Melaka
. and we will have completed that beat:
So we have now completed the first and the third beat in the bar. So all we need to do is place an eighth rest in front of them.ZAG
We then continue by placing a rest for each breakdown note in the first beat:
Now the first beat is complete.
First we need to learn a couple of important definitions: Chord: Triad: The simultaneous sounding of three or more notes. Further.'G' is note number 1 of a G-major scale. Since we have just built a triad on the first note of the scale.ZAG
again: Note Number: 2 3 4 5 6 7
SUPERTONIC MEDIANT SUBDOMINANT DOMINANT SUBMEDIANT LEADING TONE
When we speak of a note in a scale. another as the 3rd and the other as the 5th. a tonic chord) In this lesson. A three-note chord in which one note is identified as the root.
A chord can be any three or more notes played together. Those notes can appear in any order in the triad. We say that the triad shown above. It is traditional to indicate the triad by using a Roman numeral. we can build chords on all of the various notes in a scale.. and the top note is the 5th.A-major.'G' is the tonic note in a G-major scale. but a triad has a particular structure.or by its technical name.Melaka
. we place the Roman numeral for '1' underneath it:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. the middle one is the 3rd. according to the definition of a triad given above. (i. we can refer to it by its number.e. This is because tonic and dominant chords form the basic backbone of much of what we call 'tonal music'. and identify those chords by the technical name. we are only going to deal with tonic and dominant chords. Any chord with this structure (root-3rd-5th) is called a triad. but can also give us information as to the function of a note within a scale. is a tonic triad because it has been built on the tonic note of the key we're in. If we are in the key of A-major. it would look like this: This is a three-note chord in which the bottom note is acting as the root. this would be the tonic note: If we build a triad on top of this note. A technical name not only identifies a note. but this lesson will deal with triads where the root is on the bottom. built on the note 'A'.Bahasa Muzik . The numbers 3rd and 5th refer to the intervals above the root.
In a dominant triad. You will see that the bottom note is the dominant note of the key. but you can see that the leading tone in this triad (the middle note) is a whole tone away from 'A'." The G# is called an accidental. Let's take a good look at the structure of a dominant triad. (Root-3rd-5th)
Dominant triads are built in similar fashion as tonic triads. the middle note. it is called a dominant triad.) These are tonic triads because they are chords built on the tonic note. in various keys:
The V-chords in the minor keys above had their middle notes (the 3rd) raised by using an accidental in order to create a leading tone to the tonic. you must raise the third (middle) of the chord to make it major. Further. They are triads because the structure of the chord is 1-3-5. Here are several keys.e. Take a look again at the V-chord above. and build a 1-3-5 triad.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. The middle note is the leading tone of the key. That's what gives dominant chords their important place in traditional harmony: they help define the tonic chord in that manner..Bahasa Muzik . But look at this V-chord in A-minor: A leading tone is always a semitone.ZAG
The procedure we just followed to create a tonic triad is the same for any key. in D-major:: We put the number ' V ' underneath it because it is a triad that has been built on the fifth note of the scale. In other words. An accidental is a sharp or flat symbol placed in the music that does not normally belong to the given key. because the fifth note is the dominant note. (i. Dominant chords must always have the leading tone present.Melaka
. For example. Here are some more dominant triads. no matter what key you write them in. that "wants" to move up to the tonic. If you are in a minor key. IMPORTANT: Dominant triads must always be major. So we have to raise the 'G' to become 'G#': The simple way to remember this is to remember this rule: "All dominant chords must be major.) This is important. C# is the leading tone in D-major. with tonic triads:
(It is traditional in most schools of theory to indicate major triads with an uppercase 'I'. and minor triads with a lower-case 'i'. there is always that leading tone. Note this one. the 2nd chord has an E# because E# is a leading tone for the tonic (F#). simply go to the dominant note of the scale.
we determine key by what accidentals are used. The focus of this lesson is to be able to examine a musical excerpt and be able to tell what key it is in.
. For example. particularly followed closely by an 'F'. Just as with our major scales that we did in Lesson 8. you probably feel quite comfortable with key signatures.. You know from Lesson 12 that each key signature has two possibilities: a major key and a minor key*.. Let's look at the excerpt and see if we have 'E' and 'F' in reasonably close proximity:
Yes. the b-flat:
Note that in written music. So in order for an excerpt to be in a certain key. The leading tone points to the tonic note. We do this by looking at the key signature. and we can determine the key right away.. you will remember from that lesson that a key signature of one flat gives us F-major or D-minor. because that would indicate a leading tone followed by the tonic. Have you ever wondered what puts a certain piece of music in a certain key? We can take a look at this excerpt. An easy way to remember this is to remember that the letter 'k' ("key") comes before the letter 't' ("time signature"). and/or accidentals throughout the excerpt. In this excerpt. we can place a key signature at the beginning of this excerpt of one flat. the only accidental used is b-flat. we have to check out the possibility of this
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. if present. they must always be major (in order to have a leading tone present).. we would want to see the note 'E'.
Lesson 16: Key Identification
At this point. So how do we know which key this excerpt is in? The note that most strongly defines the key we are in is the leading tone. there must exist a leading tone to the key. not necessarily by the first or final note of the excerpt. You learned this in the previous lesson when you learned why dominant chords must be major: so that there is a leading tone to the tonic. there are two instances in this excerpt where 'E' is followed by 'F'. But before we assume we are in F-major. The most important thing to remember is that if you are building dominant triads.Melaka
. and major and minor scales.ZAG
The quiz for this lesson mainly requires you to be able to build triads on either the tonic note or the dominant. If this excerpt were in F-major. the key signature appears before the time signature.Bahasa Muzik . First.
The notes 'E' and 'F' also exist in D-minor. the excerpts you see in this lesson will require the raised leading tone in order to be said to be in a minor key. It is indeed possible for an excerpt to be in the Aeolian Mode. and the G# is some other accidental.Melaka
.Bahasa Muzik . and I'd recommend that you reread it carefully before going on. but the melody would have to center on 'D'. a key signature with two sharps would be F# and C#. The reason is that the natural minor scale is actually a mode. We have one more option to consider. We don't have it . If F# and G# have been raised from their normally natural state. Now that was a rather wordy paragraph. So this excerpt is most certainly in F-major. (the Aeolian Mode). it would make this process shorter to check the minor key possibility first. and definitely end on 'D'. I've written more on this point at the bottom of this page which I'd recommend you read. that would mean that this excerpt is in a key that has no sharps or flats. We need to now check for the existence of a leading tone in D-minor. it could be a melodic minor situation. A quick check of the excerpt tells us that there are no C#'s. so just because we see them does not mean that we are certainly in F-major.) If the F# and G# were the raised 6th and 7th tones. In melodic minor. Can we put those in an order to make a key signature? Well. because we would have been able to determine right away that there was no leading tone to D-minor present. In order for this excerpt to be in D-minor. What is the leading tone in a D-minor scale? Answer: 'C#'.we have C-natural.ZAG
excerpt being in D-minor. [NOTE: Why don't we say that the excerpt is possibly in D-minor. You know that A-minor has no sharps or flats. So these two accidentals don't make a key signature right away. that would mean that the key we would be considering would be A-minor. (The 6th and 7th tones are one tone away from each other. A key signature with one sharp would be either G-major (and the G# doesn't make any immediate sense) or E-minor (again the G# doesn't make any sense). In fact.]
Let's see what key this excerpt is in:
First step: make a list of the accidentals used: G# and F#. For now it is best to accept that even though we teach natural minor. Any time you see two accidentals one tone away from each other (F# and G#). the 6th and 7th tones are raised. So that doesn't seem to be a possibility. using the natural minor scale? The natural minor would not require the raised leading tone. We now know that
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. we need a C# leading tone somewhere. What if we consider that the F# is the key signature.
Look each one over. The key for each one has been given. And the proof is that in the next bar we see an A-natural. the key is probably D-major! Here is the reason why: The A# in this case is acting as a passing tone between A and B.Melaka
.Bahasa Muzik . Yes we have one. Here are some musical excerpts. So we know that it is either in D-major or B-minor.an A#. and be certain that you understand the reasons for each key designation: 1) A-major:
5) B-flat major:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. It doesn't have a leading note function.it's simply ornamenting the line. If the writer of this excerpt were to give us something other than an A-natural in the last bar. Let's check first for the presence of a leading tone in the minor. But the A-natural cancels out the leading tone to B-minor. But you may be surprised when I tell you that even though we have an A#. it would sound to our ears like B-minor.ZAG
this excerpt is in A-minor. because of the presence of the leading tone to A-minor (G#).
Here's another example:
In this excerpt we have been given a key signature of two sharps. The last bar emphasizes D-major through the use of the C# leading tone.
Without any leading tones we could say that the third melody is in E-flat major. and you will learn that we have another way of classifying melodies that seem to center around a certain note ('C'.ZAG
Modes: * If your browser has a MIDI plugin.) but are not based on traditional tonic-dominant harmony. But that's a topic for another lesson! 1) Key: C-major: 2) Key: C-minor (with raised leading tones): 3) No raised leading tones: We have more to learn first before delving into the world of modal melodies.
Lesson 17: Chords and Roman Numerals
NEED CHORD PROGRESSIONS? Just released: "Essential Chord Progressions". The third excerpt will actually be seen to be in either C-Aeolian or C-Dorian. let us assume that on the quiz for this lesson. melodies will either be major or minor. but without the raised leading tones. You can hear how the raised leading tone in the second one (the b-naturals) cause the tonic chords to be strongly expected. You can hear that the dominant chords lack the strong drive to move toward the tonic. as it is lacking the dominant chord. You learned that a triad is a three-note chord in which there exists a root. and the second melody is simply a transposition of the melody into the minor. The first one is in C-major. 3rd and 5th. The third excerpt is that same minor key melody. Places where tonic chords would work are labeled with a "T". It's a must for any aspiring songwriter. a 'C'. made up of three notes.Melaka
. Here's how to get it for FREE And pick up a copy of Gary's dynamic new book .
We studied all about tonic and dominant triads in Lesson 15. They are almost identical. later lessons will deal with modes. For now.The Essential Secrets of Songwriting. However. this melody cannot be said to truly be in C-minor. In fact. 'E' and 'G':
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. and places where dominant chords would work are labeled with a "D". for example.Bahasa Muzik . click on the play arrow to listen to a harmonization of these next three melodies. Here is a 'C' triad.
Here is a C-major scale:
We can build triads on every one of these notes. If we look at the structure of this triad. built on 'C'. minor. is major. "Is the upper note in the major scale of the bottom note? (Is there a 'G' in a 'Cmajor' scale?) The answer is yes.The outer interval 2. We know this to be true because if we start on the bottom note and start counting upward from 1. What kind of 3rd is it? ("Is there an 'E' in a 'Cmajor' scale? The answer is yes) This is a major 3rd. there is no 'F' in a D-major scale. There is an 'F#'. and so this interval is actually a minor 3rd. and it is a Perfect 5th (Yes. using the notes of the scale as the root of each triad. What kind of 5th is it? Ask yourself that question. there is an 'A' in a D-major scale).The bottom interval The outer interval is a 5th: if you start on 'C' and count upward until you hit the 'G'.) This triad is a
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. If you start on 'C' and count upward until you hit the 'E'. the one built on 'D': Again. or something else. and the 'G' on the top would be '5'.ZAG
In this triad. Here's what it looks like:
Now we need to examine each triad to determine whether they are major. This makes it a major triad:
Hear the perfect 5th:
Hear the major 3rd:
Hear them together:
Although we dealt only with tonic and dominant triads in Lesson 15. Let's take a look at the second triad. the bottom note is the root (1). so this is a perfect 5th. the outer interval is a 5th. but it is a minor 3rd (No. you will have counted to 3.Bahasa Muzik . you will have counted to 5. That's why there is a '+' underneath it. Now for the bottom interval. the middle note is the 3rd.Melaka
. the 'E' in the middle would be '3'. The bottom interval is a 3rd. we can actually build triads on any note of a scale. We already know that the first triad. and the top note is the 5th. we would see that it is a major triad. Here is why: In each triad there are two intervals to consider: 1. This interval is a 3rd. with the outer interval being a perfect fifth. So now we have determined that this triad is comprised of a major third on the bottom.
It has an outer interval of a 5th. in the triads shown above. so this 5th is diminished).. with an outer interval of a Perfect 5th:
If you keep going through the major scale and examining the triads that are built on each scale tone.Melaka
. Here's what we come up with (Major chords are indicated with a '+' sign. The bottom interval is a 3rd. you will see that except for the triad built on the 7th note (the 'B' in a C-major scale). Any triad which consists of an outer interval of a diminished 5th and a bottom interval of a minor 3rd is called a diminished triad:
A diminished triad is different from a minor triad by the fact that a diminished chord has an outer interval of a diminished 5th: the minor triad has a perfect 5th. minor chords with a '-' sign):
Now for that triad built on the 7th note. We did this in Lesson 15 when dealing with tonic and dominant chords.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. and a quick examination will tell you that it is a minor 3rd. they are all either major or minor triads. Minor triads have a minor 3rd on the bottom. but you can see that it is actually a diminished 5th (No there is no 'F' in a B-major scale.Bahasa Muzik . Study it carefully:
When building triads on a
• • • • • • •
I-chords are ALWAYS MAJOR ii-chords are ALWAYS MINOR iii-chords are ALWAYS MINOR IV-chords are ALWAYS MAJOR V-chords are ALWAYS MAJOR vi-chords are ALWAYS MINOR vii-chords are ALWAYS DIMINISHED
IDENTIFYING CHORDS BY USING ROMAN NUMERALS
We can use Roman Numerals to describe all of these triads.. Here is an important table of information. For example. the note 'C' is the first note of the C-major scale. Therefore.ZAG
minor triad. there's an 'F#'.
This process works. in any key. Here is one:
So here are the four types of triads. The triad built on the supertonic note can be called the supertonic triad. properly numbered:
Now you can see that we can identify triads by their Roman Numeral. Here are the triads of a C-major scale. which will show up in the building of triads on the notes of harmonic minor scales. each scale degree. etc. It is the augmented triad. isn't it?!
There is one other type of triad. Which chord is the vi-chord? Answer: the A-minor chord. the first note of a scale is the tonic note. The iii-chord in D-flat major is an F-minor chord. We can apply these technical names to the triads that are built on them. and so on. bottom interval is a Minor 3rd
WHAT IT SOUNDS LIKE:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. and lower-case letters for minor and diminished chords. The vi-chord in F-major is a d-minor chord. The supertonic note is the second degree of the scale. If we build a triad on the tonic note.Melaka
.Bahasa Muzik . the C-major chord is a I-chord. of course.
IDENTIFYING CHORDS BY USING TECHNICAL NAMES
As you know. In C-major. it is called a tonic triad.ZAG
we assign the number '1' to that chord. When describing chords using numbers. bottom interval is a Major 3rd Outside interval is a Perfect 5th. The E-minor chord is a iii-chord. An augmented triad consists of an augmented 5th as an outer interval. bottom interval is
DESCRIPTION: Outside interval is a Perfect 5th. etc. The D-minor chord is a ii-chord. and a major 3rd as a bottom interval. in a nutshell: TYPE OF TRIAD: MAJOR:
Outside interval is a Diminished 5th. For example. It is also traditional to use upper-case letters for major and augmented chords. it is traditional to use Roman Numerals. Here is the subdominant triad of G-flat major: The submediant triad of C-major: The supertonic triad of F-major: Simple. has a technical name associated with it. whether we are dealing with major or minor. You already know that from Lesson 15.
a Minor 3rdMINOR: PROGRESSIONPerfect Authentic Cadence (PAC)V-I. Now look at the excerpt below. where both chords are in root position.
SHED: If you apply the rule above (triplets occupy the same space that two notes of that value would normally occupy). and the soprano ends on the tonic.Look at the last example. not eighth notes:You know that simple time signatures tell us the number of beats in each bar. You also know that each beat can subdivide into two smaller units. the triplets occupy the same space that two eighth notes would normally occupy. It shows a triplet.Bahasa Muzik . but it's made up of quarter notes. bottom interval is a Major 3rd. In the second bar.Melaka
. in the '2' tells us that there are two beats in each bar. What about other
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. Here's a sample of music in : AUGMENTED:DIMINI
Outside interval is an Augmented 5th. That's because two quarter notes equal two beats. you would conclude correctly that the quarter note triplet is two beats long. For example. and the '4' tells us that the beat unit is the quarter note.
1 Ex. What makes it "odd" (a tuplet) is that there are five sixteenths where you'd expect to find four.Bahasa Muzik . (It doesn't matter if you use a bracket or a slur both are acceptable.2
Filling In the Missing Tuplet Completing a bar with a tuplet figure simply requires following a short series of steps. in .) Ex. Consider the following example:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. Now look at the next example. What makes the pair of eighths a tuplet is that there are two notes where you'd expect to find three.ZAG
"odd" groupings"? Odd groupings (not triplets) are called "tuplets". Look at the first example below.Melaka
. as shown. Easy! Just remember to write the number above the grouping.
by eliminating the final step. That's the value of your tuplet! Here it is: We can use those same steps to figuring out tuplets in compound time.The required tuplet is a group of six (look at the example). Eight? Yes! What group of eight fits? Thirty-second notes. What standard grouping of notes is larger than six in common time ( )? Seven? No.ZAG
Here are the steps we go through to figure out the basic time value of the six notes we need: 1.Bahasa Muzik . 3. of course.Melaka
.Cut the answer (thirty-second notes) in half: sixteenths.What is the duration of the missing beat? (Answer in this case: one quarter note) 2. Look at this example:
Let's go through the steps: What is the duration of the
a '9'-figure. (We don't do step 3: that's just for simple time) The truth of the matter is that publishers of music will ultimately put any time value they wish.it doesn't really matter what kind they are. Study them
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. using sixteenths. for example.Bahasa Muzik . So the tuplet will be made up of 2 eighths.ZAG
missing tuplet? It is one dotted quarternote long. Here are some bars of music that use tuplets. Sometimes you'll see. and the discrepancies abound for compound time! Their reasoning would be: Anyone can tell that the empty spot is one dotted quarter (in the case of the sample above). What standard grouping of notes is larger? 3 eighths. so just play the two notes evenly across the beat . and then you'll see the same figure in another score using thirtyseconds.Melaka
sometimes into another clef. Take a look at the following short excerpt:
It is in G-major.Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
carefully before trying the quiz for this lesson. In this lesson. re-read Lesson 16 (Key
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. and there are no Dsharps to indicate a leading tone to Eminor. (If this is not clear.Melaka
. we learned how to transpose music up or down one octave. we will learn how to transpose music up or down into another key. We know this because there is one sharp in the key signature.
Lesson 20: Key Transp osition
In Lesson 18.
Fmajor. and use one method to check against the other. The first step to using any of the following three
Identification) Play the melody above several times.Bahasa Muzik . The following three methods will assume that you have been given the original key. Let's use these methods to transpose our melody from Gmajor to F-major. and the key that you will be transposing the melody to. Now. This melody has been transposed into a new key. Here is what it looks like:
There are several ways to transpose melodies. it somehow sounds "the same" as the previous melody.Melaka
. try listening to this version: You will notice that although it starts on a different pitch. and it is recommended that you become familiar with all of them.
the scale degrees. In other words. like this:
METHOD 1. or technical names. if the melody begins on the tonic in the original key. If it ends on the submediant in the original key. and so on. the melody begins on the mediant (3rd degree) of the original key. Therefore.Bahasa Muzik . Transposing by Scale Degree (Technical Name) When transposing a melody into a new key.Melaka
. time signature. will remain the same. it will begin on the tonic of the new key. the new melody will begin on the mediant (3rd degree) of the new key. Gmajor. and the new key signature on a staff.ZAG
methods is to place the clef. In the first example above. it will end on the submediant of the new key. F-major:
Transposing by Melodic Interval
You can then go through the entire G-major version of the excerpt. you know that the 'F' is a major 2nd lower than the 'G'. and write the same degree in the new F-major version. Now determine the interval between those two notes: From your knowledge of intervals.Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
. Transposing by Harmonic Interval You know that the original key is Gmajor and the new key is F-major. determine the technical name (scale degree) of each note. Here is another way to do it: METHOD 2. Therefore all the notes in the new melody will be a major second lower than the original Gmajor melody:
transposed melody. like this:
Transposing melodies where the key is vague or the melody is atonal. checking one against the other. or in situations where the
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. This is especially true when dealing with accidentals.Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
Take the original melody and determine the intervals between each successive note of the melody:
Then determine the first note of your new. Do this by using Method 1 (Technical name). apply the intervals of the original melody to the new melody. As stated before. Once you have determined that 'A' is your starting note. it is advisable to use all three methods throughout the transposing process.
Bahasa Muzik . Therefore we would be correct to say that the melody is probably atonal. Our first
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. Study this rather complicated excerpt:
You might think that since the key signature has no sharps or flats. Let's transpose it up a major 3rd. we would not likely be asked to transpose it to a particular key: we would likely be asked to transpose it by a certain interval. If you listen to the excerpt. An atonal melody is a melody in which there is no tonal centre. if the key of the melody is irrelevant.Melaka
melody is atonal. you will see that it does not seem to centre on any key. So how do we transpose it? Obviously. it is therefore in C-major or A-minor. and the music is not in any particular key. But this melody has many accidentals that cannot be explained by either of those keys.
Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
note will be a major third above 'A'. Therefore. transposing every note up a major third. correctly transposed
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. Here is the melody. For example.writing the note that is a major 3rd higher ('G'). in our new transposed melody. and the second note will be 'E'. or Method 3 (melodic interval). using Method 3 (melodic intervals) we know that the second note in this excerpt is a minor 3rd higher than the first note. Don't forget to check your progress using the other methods discussed in this lesson. The third note in the excerpt is E-flat. which is 'C-sharp':
We can proceed in this manner.Melaka
. and so on.writing the note that is a major 6th lower than the previous note. the first note will be C#. We can transpose it correctly by either: Method 2 (harmonic interval).
In this lesson. Take a look at the following short excerpt:
It is in G-major. re-read Lesson 16 (Key Identification) Play the melody
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. (If this is not clear. and there are no Dsharps to indicate a leading tone to Eminor.ZAG
a major 3rd higher:
Lesson 20: Key Transp osition
In Lesson 18. we will learn how to transpose music up or down into another key. we learned how to transpose music up or down one octave.Bahasa Muzik . We know this because there is one sharp in the key signature.Melaka
. sometimes into another clef.
The first step to using any of the following three methods is to place the clef. and the key that you will be transposing the melody to. and the
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. time signature. The following three methods will assume that you have been given the original key. This melody has been transposed into a new key. it somehow sounds "the same" as the previous melody. Let's use these methods to transpose our melody from Gmajor to F-major. and use one method to check against the other. and it is recommended that you become familiar with all of them. Fmajor. try listening to this version: You will notice that although it starts on a different pitch.Melaka
. Now.Bahasa Muzik . Here is what it looks like:
There are several ways to transpose melodies.ZAG
above several times.
it will begin on the tonic of the new key. Transposing by Scale Degree (Technical Name) When transposing a melody into a new key.Melaka
. If it ends on the submediant in the original key. will remain the same. the melody begins on the mediant (3rd degree) of the original key. or technical names. and so on.ZAG
new key signature on a staff. F-major:
You can then go
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. Therefore. Gmajor.Bahasa Muzik . the scale degrees. In the first example above. if the melody begins on the tonic in the original key. like this:
METHOD 1. In other words. the new melody will begin on the mediant (3rd degree) of the new key. it will end on the submediant of the new key.
Transposing by Harmonic Interval You know that the original key is Gmajor and the new key is F-major. Here is another way to do it: METHOD 2. and write the same degree in the new F-major version. determine the technical name (scale degree) of each note. Now determine the interval between those two notes: From your knowledge of intervals. Transposing by Melodic Interval Take the original melody and
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.Bahasa Muzik . Therefore all the notes in the new melody will be a major second lower than the original Gmajor melody:
through the entire G-major version of the excerpt. you know that the 'F' is a major 2nd lower than the 'G'.
apply the intervals of the original melody to the new melody. transposed melody. it is advisable to use all three methods throughout the transposing process. This is especially true when dealing with accidentals.Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
determine the intervals between each successive note of the melody:
Then determine the first note of your new. Once you have determined that 'A' is your starting note.Melaka
. or in situations where the melody is atonal. As stated before. checking one against the other. Do this by using Method 1 (Technical name). An atonal melody is
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. like this:
Transposing melodies where the key is vague or the melody is atonal.
So how do we transpose it? Obviously. Study this rather complicated excerpt:
You might think that since the key signature has no sharps or flats. If you listen to the excerpt. Let's transpose it up a major 3rd. we would not likely be asked to transpose it to a particular key: we would likely be asked to transpose it by a certain interval. and the music is not in any particular key.Melaka
. Therefore we would be correct to say that the melody is probably atonal.ZAG
a melody in which there is no tonal centre.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. if the key of the melody is irrelevant. you will see that it does not seem to centre on any key. it is therefore in C-major or A-minor. Our first note will be a major third above 'A'.Bahasa Muzik . But this melody has many accidentals that cannot be explained by either of those keys.
or Method 3 (melodic interval).Bahasa Muzik . Here is the melody. The third note in the excerpt is E-flat.ZAG
which is 'C-sharp': We can proceed in this manner. the first note will be C#. and so on. transposing every note up a major third. and the second note will be 'E'. Don't forget to check your progress using the other methods discussed in this lesson. We can transpose it correctly by either: Method 2 (harmonic interval). Therefore. using Method 3 (melodic intervals) we know that the second note in this excerpt is a minor 3rd higher than the first note.writing the note that is a major 6th lower than the previous note.Melaka
. in our new transposed melody.writing the note that is a major 3rd higher ('G'). For example. correctly transposed a major 3rd higher:
a third and a fifth. You should at this point have a clear understanding of the structure of triads. In Lesson 17 you learned about four different kinds of triads: major.ZAG
Lesson 21: Triad Inversi ons
Let's review a little of what we learned about triads in some previous lessons. like this one:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. If you don't. minor. In all of the triads you have seen so far.Bahasa Muzik . the root has been on the bottom. augmented and diminished.Melaka
. go back and reread those lessons before continuing with this lesson. and the fifth on top. the third in the middle. In Lesson 15 you learned that a triad is a three-note chord in which there is a root.
This triad happens to be a C-major triad. A I-chord in C-major has a 'C'. That's because 'C' is the first note in a Cmajor scale. 'E' and 'G. and a note five notes above the bass. we could call this triad:
The '5' indicates the
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.Bahasa Muzik . We say that the triad is in ROOT POSITION. and indeed with all triads in root position. we would give this triad a Roman numeral 'I'. there is a note three notes above the bass. Therefore. in the triad above. to be technically precise. If we are in C-major. because the root is on the bottom.Melaka
. Building a triad on the first note of a scale gives us a Ichord. We can show exactly how the notes are ordered in a triad by indicating the intervals above the bass (bottom) note.
it is a root position chord. all in root position.ZAG
'G' which is the interval of a 5th above the bottom note.the common practice is to just use the Roman numeral.Bahasa Muzik . for root position chords. We know they are root position because: 1) there are no small Arabic numbers after the Roman numeral. However. If you see a chord with a Roman numeral and no small "Arabic" numbers after it. 3rd and 5th with the root on the bottom:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. The '3' indicates the 'E' which is the interval of a 3rd above the bottom note.Melaka
. So the chord above could be represented by just using the Roman numeral:
Here are triads built on the notes of a Cmajor scale. and 2) the chord is made up of a root.
we use upper-case Roman numerals to indicate major and augmented triads.ZAG
Remember. but that the 3rd is on the bottom? If you count upward from the
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
. you could write each one of the chords above in such a way that the 3rd of each chord is on the bottom:
The Roman numeral will stay the same for each chord.3. For example. It is possible to "reposition" the chords above so that the root is no longer on the bottom. So how do we indicate this kind of triad. where the same notes exist as for root position chords (1-3-5). It's just that now they are in a different order.5) are still present. because the components of each chord (1. and lower-case letters to indicate minor and diminished.
and just use the '6'. So the triads shown above would be labeled like this:
It is also possible to rearrange root position triads so that the 5th is on the bottom:
We use the same Roman numerals as before.Bahasa Muzik . If you count upward from the bottom note. and so on.Melaka
. you will discover that the other notes are a 3rd and a 6th above it:
Such chords are called 1st inversion chords. you will find that the other notes are a 4th and
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. The first triad is made up of a C. It is traditional with 1st inversion chords to drop the little '3' after the Roman numeral.ZAG
bottom note. E and G. and so it gets a Roman numeral 'I'. to label these triads.
Bahasa Muzik - ZAG
a 6th above it:
Such chords are called 2nd inversion chords. All of the triads of a C-major scale would be labeled like this:
Let's sum up what we've learned in this lesson so far:
A Root position triad is a triad in which the root is on the bottom. It is labeled with a Roman numeral, with no Arabic numbers after it. Ex: A 1st inversion triad is a triad in which the 3rd is on the bottom. It is labeled with a Roman numeral, and a small '6' after it. Ex: A 2nd inversion triad is a
Bahasa Muzik - ZAG
triad in which the 5th is on the bottom. It is labeled with a Roman numeral, and a small '6' and '4' after it. Ex:
Here are some triads properly analyzed. Study each one, and be certain that you understand how each one has been analyzed before trying the quiz:
Notice that in the final example the V-chord has been made major by raising the 3rd. All dominant chords must be major. Two more points about inversions: All of the examples above have used close
Bahasa Muzik - ZAG
spacing. That means that all of the tones are within an octave of each other. But it is possible to spread out the notes into different octaves (open spacing). Also, you will be required to analyze triads in which some of the tones appear more than once in the triad.Look at these triadsthey are all 2nd inversion triads:
They are all Ichords because they all have a C, E and G. They are all 6-4 chords (2nd inversion) because they all have the 5th (g) as their lowest note. Easy!
Bahasa Muzik - ZAG
Lesso n 22: Caden ces
A cadence is a resting of a musical phrase. Phrases may rest briefly, such as in the middle of a melody, or more permanently, such as at the end of a melody. Our task in this lesson will be to study these cadences, and to be able to identify and write them. Take a look at this melody, which has been harmonized with some basic chords:
If you play the melody, you can hear that there is a brief pause in bar 4 (the first arrow), and a more permanentsounding conclusion in bar 8 (the 2nd arrow). The pause in bar 4 is not the sort of pause that we would want to end the melody on; we
Bahasa Muzik - ZAG
can hear that it wants to continue. The end of the melody has a more "final" sound. Those two spots in the music are called cadences. The two types of cadences demonstrated by the example above are the half cadence (the one in bar 4), and the authentic cadence (the one at the end). Let's look at authentic cadences first.
An authentic cadence requires two things: 1) The resting of a musical phrase, and 2) a chord progression of V-I. The melody above ends on a V-I chord progression, and it also rests (after all, it IS the end of the melody!) So it is an authentic cadence. It is similar to a period in written languages. There
or permits the soprano voice to finish on a
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. with the topmost voice (soprano) ending on the tonic note.Melaka
. or down a 5th. but allows for inversions.Bahasa Muzik .NO INVERSIONS ALLOWED! IMPERFECT Authentic Cadence: An Imperfect Authentic Cadence (IAC) is a V-I progression.ZAG
are two types of authentic cadences: PERFECT Authentic Cadence: A Perfect Authentic Cadence (PAC) requires that the Vchord and the Ichord are both rootposition chords. Notice also that the soprano voice moves to finish on the tonic. Here are some PAC's:
Notice that the Vchords in the minor keys have been altered to be major. and the bass voice moves either up a 4th. That's because PACs must feature root position chords.
Try to figure out what makes them IAC. In the melody at the
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.Bahasa Muzik . In the Bbmajor cadence. the soprano voice ends on the 5th of the chord.
A half cadence (HC) requires two things: 1) The resting of a musical phrase. and 2) A chord progression that ends on a V-chord. the soprano ends on the mediant.ZAG
note other than the tonic. A half cadence is similar to a comma or semicolon in written languages.Melaka
. Here are some IACs. and not PAC:
In the F-major cadence. not the tonic. In the last example. not the tonic. In the A-major cadence. the V-chord is an inversion. the fact that the first chord is an inversion (V6) makes it IAC.
but it can be "anything" V. Here's a little ditty that features a half cadence in the middle and a perfect authentic cadence at the end:
Much of the time.Melaka
. a half cadence features the progression I-V.Bahasa Muzik . Here are some half cadences:
A plagal cadence (PC) is a progression that ends IV-I. Play it again and notice that. It is often referred to as the "Amen" cadence. it fneeds to go on. although it rests. because it sounds like the "amen" that is sung at the end of many hymns. it needs something more.ZAG
beginning of this lesson the half cadence occurs in bar 4. Here is a progression that features a plagal
What do you think? Here are some plagal cadences:
Here is a table with the various cadences: TYPE OF CADENCE Notice that we've placed the quarter notes across the top. intended only to stretch out the ending a little longer. the progression V-I that you can see at the end of bar 1 into bar 2 can be thought of as the actual cadence. or phrase extension. and eighth
cadence at the end:
NOTE: Here is an interesting point you may want to ponder.Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
. In the example above. and the IV-I at the end as merely a "tag".
So what do we do if we want to divide the beat into three even parts? Do we have a note value that accomplishes this? Yes we do.Bahasa Muzik . as shown here:
We can divide that beat into four even parts easily by using four sixteenth notes (The pitches used in these examples are unimportant. so that the first beat of the bar is divided into two even eighth notes. the focus of this lesson is on the rhythms. and it looks like this:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. the first note of the bar is a quarter note.ZAG
notes along the bottom. In the example above. Let's change the melody. to show where the beats and subdivided beats are. It's called a triplet.
) triplets that take up one beat are called eighth note triplets.ZAG
The first three notes of the bar are grouped together. That's the important rule to remember about triplets: Triplets occupy the same space that two notes of that value would normally occupy. using a slur or bracket. They are written to occupy the space that two eighth notes would occupy.Bahasa Muzik . The '3' indicates that the three notes are to be spread evenly across the beat so that the three notes are equal in length.Melaka
. with their technical names above.. and the
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. or common time. with a number '3'. Here is another example of music that uses a triplet:
In music where the quarter note gets the beat (as in . Here are the triads built on a major scale.
This is what it would look like. you can build triads on every note of the minor scale. building triads on an A-minor scale (harmonic form):
Armed with your knowledge of triads.Melaka
.Bahasa Muzik . to indicate the quality of a triad with such symbols as an exercise. Similarly. however. You will be required. This course will not require any such indication.)
Just like with the major scale. and how to determine quality
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. some musicians place a "+" after an augmented triad.ZAG
Roman Numerals below: (In one school of thought it is customary to place a small 'o' after the 'vii' to indicate that the triad is 'diminished'. as a way of indicating that you understand the structure and quality of a triad.
diminished triad. augmented triad. augmented diminished). or "X" for augmented underneath each Roman Numeral.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. minor triad.ZAG
(major minor. Assign a Roman Numeral to a triad. "o" for diminished.
The quiz for this lesson requires you to be able to do the following:
Define the following: major triad.Melaka
. "-" for minor.Bahasa Muzik . place the Roman Numeral underneath each triad shown above. Then indicate the quality of each triad by placing a "+" for major. Determine the quality of an interval by examining the outer interval and the lower interval.
we will study transposition by one octave. (Key transposition will be studied in a later lesson.Melaka
. Transposing a melody up or down by one octave will not change the key.Bahasa Muzik . This usually means changing the key. However.ZAG
Lesso n 18:Oc tave Trans positi on
To transpose music means to change the pitch of each note without changing the relationships between the notes. in this lesson. If we count upward eight notes (one octave). we reach 'F' again.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.) Look at the following melody:
The first note of this melody is 'F'.
the lowest note is 'C' (the dominant note).
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. you know that this excerpt is in Fmajor. etc. The performer would be required to read several leger lines. Fmajor). Therefore. but they are now an octave higher.Melaka
. all of the pitch relationships stay the same: the highest note in this melody is 'G' (the supertonic note).ZAG
Because you studied Lesson 16 (Key Identification). When transposing a melody up one octave. it doesn't fit on the treble clef too well: it is now too low.Bahasa Muzik . the key stays the same (in this example.
All of the note names stay the same. Here is the same melody transposed down one octave:
As you can see.
Although this is allowable. unbeamed notes below the middle line have stems up. For beamed notes. It's at the same starting pitch as the previous example:
When asked to transpose music up or down by one octave.Bahasa Muzik . there are some things you will want to keep in mind:
Make sure to check the stem direction: unbeamed notes above the middle line have stems down.Melaka
. find the note in the beamed group that is the furthest away from the middle
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. it is better to change to the bass clef:
Now it fits on the staff better.
If you know the instrument that the transposed melody will be played on.ZAG
line. (This is beyond the scope of music theory. treble clef. make certain to use the proper clef.) Here are some melodies and their octave transpositions . the stems should go in the direction appropriate for that note. Study them carefully: i) G-minor. and ensure that the notes are within the range of that instrument.Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
. Transpos ed up one octave:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. but it is an issue for music composers and arrangers.
bass clef: Transposed up one octave into the treble clef: iv) B-flat major.Bahasa Muzik . and Other "Tuple ts"
You will need a solid grounding in time signatures to do this
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. Tran sposed down one octave: iii) D-major. treble clef: Transposed down into the bass clef:
• • •
• • •
• • •
Lesso n 19: Triplet s. treble clef.Melaka
and it is hardly possible to list them or to lay down rules.322: "Various other combinations are possible. there does not seem to be a hard and fast agreement from editor to editor on how tuplets should look in any given situation: From The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. 3rd ed.ZAG
lesson.Bahasa Muzik . (Michael Kennedy). When an irregular combination occurs the performer should observe the other notes of the measure. and he will quickly realize into what fraction of the measure the
. p. You may want to re-read Lesson 13.
SPECIAL NOTE: Figuring out how to write triplets and other "tuplets" (odd groupings of notes) can be an exercise in futility! Beyond triplets.
and after you do this lesson. where one of the chords is in inversion. a Vchor d will cad enc
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM." That being the case. go have a nice long.
Occas iona lly.Melaka
. Take it all with a grain of salt.Bahasa Muzik . or the soprano does not end on the tonic. this lesson is designed to give the music student a set of guidelines for writing tuplets that will work in most situations. hot bath! Any chord to V (but commonly IV)Plagal Cadence (PC)IV-I Imperfect Authentic Cadence (IAC) V-I.ZAG
irregular grouping is to be fitted.
e on som ethi ng othe r than a Ichor d.Melaka
.Bahasa Muzik . In suc h case s. the resu lting cad enc e is kno wn
Bahasa Muzik . or inter rupt ed cad enc e.ZAG
as a dece ptive .Melaka
. Mos t dec epti ve cad enc es follo w the prog
Music based on major and
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. sinc e vi wor ks as a relat ively gLe sso n 23Mod es
A mode is a type of scale.Melaka
ress ion V-vi. You've already learned to write major and minor scales in previous lessons.Bahasa Muzik .
and is a fascinating field. Modal melodies can be very beautiful.Melaka
. composers wrote in what were called modes. However.Bahasa Muzik . There was a resurgence of interest in modes toward the end of the 19th century.ZAG
minor scales came into common usage in the early 1600s. and of course we have been using them ever since. Before the 1600s. for our purposes here as a rudimentary music theory course. and their study is certainly worthwhile! Such study of modes can get quite indepth. with composers like Debussy. we shall only delve into
The first and perhaps most important thing to remember about modes is: A mode is distinguished by the pattern of tones and semitones. Take a look at this C-major scale. and you can tell by that tonesemitone pattern that this is indeed a C-major
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
. not by the actual pitches used. starting on a middle C and proceeding upward for one octave:
The tones and semitones have been indicated.ZAG
their basic construction so that we can identify and write them.
What if you were to take this same Cmajor scale. It would look like this:
It still has the pattern of tones and semitones that belong to C-major. We call this scale the dorian mode. but instead of starting on a 'C'. A scale that runs from what appears to be the second degree (supertonic) up to the
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. of the mode. it's just that the scale now starts and ends on a 'D' instead of a 'C'.ZAG
. We say that the note 'D' is the key note. or final.Bahasa Muzik . started on a 'D' and proceeded upward for one octave.
we get the phrygian mode:
(The tonesemitone pattern is still that of the Cmajor scale.ZAG
second degree an octave higher is said to be in the dorian mode. We can start a scale on all the different notes of our C-major scale above. if we write a scale from the mediant to the mediant. For example.Melaka
.Bahasa Muzik .) Subdominan t to subdominant gives us the lydian mode:
Dominant to dominant produces the mixolydian mode:
. when you write a major scale from the tonic note up to the tonic note.
The examples above are all modes based on a key
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.Bahasa Muzik . you are also forming a mode. though we more often than not simply call it 'C-major'. called the ionian mode! So something in C-major could technically be said to be in C-ionian.ZAG
Submediant to submediant produces the aeolian mode:
And leading tone to leading tone makes the locrian mode:
Simple! You remember in Lesson 16 that we determined keys by identifying the key signature. Though key signature helps to determine key. These are all transposable into any key signature: What mode is this? We see a key signature of A-major (three sharps) where the scale runs from the mediant note to the mediant note one octave higher. no flats. That means it is the phrygian mode. Now we need to expand that idea a little. we need to examine the melody
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
signature of no sharps.Melaka
in fact. and there are no leading tones (D#) to make E-minor (the relative minor) a possibility:
But. looks like it could be Gmajor. Here is the procedure to arrive at that determination : 1.Melaka
. because there is a key signature of one sharp.Bahasa Muzik . this is in the aeolian mode.ZAG
closely and see its construction and direction. on first glance.One sharp in the key signature makes it either:
• • •
Gmajor Eminor One of
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. The following excerpt.
.Bahasa Muzik . but look at the melodi c shape: there is much that points to 'E' as a signific ant note.It could be Gmajor. 3.ZAG
the seven modes 2.It can't be Eminor. rather
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. becaus e that would require the presen ce of D# to create the leading tone that's necess ary to empha size E as a tonic.
Bahasa Muzik . The first three notes of bar 3 are memb ers of a triad built on E.ZAG
. and indeed 'E' is the final note. So even though we
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. The shape of the melody at the end "pulls the ear" toward 'E'. The openin g interval of 'E' to 'B' (perfec t 5th) solidifi es 'E' as an import ant note.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. and the mode based on the sixth note is the aeolian mode. Theref ore. there is much eviden ce that 'E' is some sort of "tonic".Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
know it cannot be Eminor.Melaka
. It is in such cases that we need to examin e the possibi lity of the use of a mode. 'E' is the sixth note of the Gmajor scale.
Be certain that you unders tand the reason s for each mode choice before trying the quiz for this lesson:
• • • • •
Explan ations: The first excerpt is in E-
is in Eaeolian .
Exami ne the followi ng excerpt s.Bahasa Muzik . They have been analyz ed accordi ng to mode.Melaka
. Each beat (except for the first beat of the last bar) starts with a note from an Eflat triad.Bahasa Muzik . E-flat is the 4th note of the Bflat
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. but the note 'E-flat' seems to be very import ant:
It starts and ends on Eflat. This is becaus e the key signatu re is that of B-flat major.ZAG
As stated before. this lesson is simply a rudime ntary introdu ction to modes.Bahasa Muzik . this is in the Lydian mode.ZAG
scale. therefo re.Melaka
. Each of the other exampl es are in their respect ive modes for similar reason s. which is the mode based on the 4th note of a major scale. The questio n of
Bahasa Muzik . but in this lesson we are focusin g on modes in their "purest " state.Melaka
. minor or modal can be very interest ing and compli cated.
Le ss on 24Ot her Cle fs
A clef is a symbol placed at the beginning of a musical staff
whethe r an excerpt is major.
The letter 'G' evolved into the scroll-like sign that we know as the treble clef.
There is another clef. because it originated hundreds of years ago as a stylized letter 'G'. The two most common clefs are the treble clef: and bass clef: . It looks like this:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. The bass clef's other name is the F-clef. because it started out as a letter 'F' sitting on a staff.ZAG
that indicates the pitch of the notes on that staff.Melaka
.Bahasa Muzik . called a Cclef. eventually modifying into today's bass clef. The treble clef is also called the Gclef.
this clef gets a different name:
In this case.Bahasa Muzik . Wherever the C-clef is centered. written in this clef: The alto clef is used by violas in an orchestra. Here is a Cmajor scale. in the treble clef:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. So here is Middle C.Melaka
. the clef has been centered on the middle line. Depending on the line upon which it is placed. that line is considered to be the note 'Middle C'.ZAG
The C-clef is written so that it is centered on a line.
Here is the Cmajor scale above. commonly called the
. you can use leger lines to extend the staff upward and/or downward. That means the 4th line is middle C. written in the alto clef:
As with the treble and bass clefs. written in the tenor clef:
There is another tenor clef.
As you can see.Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
Here is that same scale. the clef has been placed so that it is centered on the 4th line.
Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
. It's called a neutral clef.ZAG
"vocal tenor clef": You only usually see this clef in vocal music. Music written in the vocal tenor clef should be read as if it is in treble clef. (Read more about octave transposition in Lesson 18. and looks like
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. then sung one octave lower. Even unpitched percussion music uses a clef. written in the vocal tenor clef:
NEUTRA L CLEF:
All musical staves require a clef of some sort.) Used by tenor voice (hence the name!) Here is the same C-major scale.
The staff also looks a little unusual: it is obviously a staff for two different percussion instruments. no pitches are indicated. etc. so you would never be asked to transpose something
this: With the neutral clef. with the neutral clef at the beginning would be ideal for two different sizes of tom toms.Bahasa Muzik . This 2-line staff. the other with a low sound. bass drum. because this clef is used by instruments that produce no specific pitch: snare drum. one with a high sound. No specific pitches are indicated when the neutral clef is used. tom toms.Melaka
Lesso n 25Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.ZAG
from a neutral clef into another clef! KEY SIGNATURE S IN THE ALTO.Melaka
. TENOR AND VOCAL TENOR CLEFS Key signatures will be placed differently on each of these clefs.Bahasa Muzik . Here is each clef with a key signature of
seven sharps and seven flats correctly placed.
because they are able to see everyone's part at the same time.Melaka
. giving a view of the entire piece.Bahasa Muzik . is a
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. There are different kinds of score that are quite common. Conductors often work from scores. a close score.ZAG
Scor e For mat s
A musical score is a copy of a piece of music that shows all of the instrumental parts together. For example. also called short score or condensed score.
Bahasa Muzik . the top staff uses the treble clef and the bottom staff uses the bass clef.ZAG
score that has two or more instrumental or vocal parts on each staff. (The three names close.Melaka
. short.) The twostave format is a commonly used short score type. unless the instruments being written for are all of one or the other clef: Notice that each staff of
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. and condensed are synonymous. and can be used interchangea bly. and looks very much like a piano score. ('Stave' is the plural form of the word 'staff') When using two staves.
Bahasa Muzik . notes with stems upward are to be sung or played by the soprano voice(s) (or instruments) and notes with the stems downward are
the short score has notes that have their stems pointing upward. and notes below the middle line must point their stem upward. In two-stave short score. and notes with stems pointing downward. the understandin g is that in the top staff. The stem direction seems to break the rule that notes above the middle line must point their stem downward.
Instrumentalis ts prefer to see simply their own part on the page. In the bottom staff.Melaka
.Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
to be sung or played by the alto voice(s) (or instruments). It is much more common for voices to perform from a score like this rather than instruments. notes with the stems pointing upward are to be sung or played by the tenor voice(s) (or instruments) and notes with the stems downward are to be sung or played by the bass voice(s) (or instruments). Vocalists rely more on seeing their notes in relation to the
it makes it a little easier to sing in tune. but wish to conserve space. just as an example.Melaka
. you may choose to use a short score format of. If you are writing. four staves: first staff for
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. let's say.Bahasa Muzik .ZAG
other existing parts. It is possible to have more than two staves in a short or close score. for a full orchestra.
Often. publishers will choose to provide both a full score (see below) and a short score with each orchestral or concert band publication. The main disadvantage in using close score for orchestra is that it becomes rather difficult to narrow down which instrument is playing which notes. it can be a frustrating trying to determine which instrument is at fault. because it
the general tonality of the piece quickly using this type of score.Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
. This is very useful. So if you detect problems in a rehearsal situation.
allows the conductor to work from a full score in rehearsals. it is not possible to show the proper transposition of a transposing instrument such as Clarinet or
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. because more music can be fit onto one page. then provide the option of switching to a short score for performance.Bahasa Muzik . The short score usually will require less frequent page turns. you also have to be a bit "creative" with your use of stem directions if you have three or more parts on a staff! And because several instruments are on one staff. As you can see.Melaka
But it is sometimes desirable to show each part on its own staff.
For fairly straightforwar d music.Bahasa Muzik . Since it was intended for four players.Melaka
.it shows everyone's part in a concise format. a short score is ideal.ZAG
Bb-trumpet. Let's go back to the excerpt at the beginning of this lesson. a score showing each part on its
and can be used interchangea bly. according to
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.) There are many different types of open score.Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
. A score that shows each part on its own staff is called open score or full score. rewritten in open score for string quartet: You can see that all of the notes of the short score excerpt have been given their own staff.ZAG
own staff would require four staves. For example. (The two terms open and full are synonymous. depending on the number and type of instruments for which you are writing. here is the excerpt given above.
In the top staff of the short score. the stems up have been given to Violin I. The viola (an instrument shaped like a violin. With the open score format.Bahasa Muzik . also called
stem direction. a modern vocal score. and stems down to Violin II. The cello is given the stems down notes. If the excerpt was intended for voices.Melaka
. but slightly bigger and tuned a perfect 5th lower) gets the notes that were the stems up notes of the bass staff of the short score. the conductor can see each player's part clearly. because each part is on its own staff.
. and so it is not feasible to list them all. Here it is: It looks like the string quartet score. in Lesson 24. This lesson is simply intended to give you an
modern choral score is frequently used.
There are many. a clef that looks like a treble clef with an '8' beneath it. You will have seen this before. except that the tenor line has been given a "vocal tenor clef". and it means to sing the notes an octave lower than treble clef. many types of both close and open scores.Bahasa Muzik .
idea of how the various score formats work. Here are the formats you will be required to know:
SHORT (CLOSE) SCORE:
FULL (OPEN) SCORE for String Quartet:
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. The quiz for this lesson will require you to transcribe music from one score format to another.Bahasa Muzik .
Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
SCORE for Choir:
Lesso n 26Sec ond ary
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM.Bahasa Muzik .Melaka
Here are two progressions. and you will have created a secondary dominant. the other using a V/vi in its place: Do you hear that changing the ii-chord to a V/vi. to which note is it leading? 'F#' is a leading tone to 'G'. Here is an example:
In the first example. make it major.Melaka
. by changing it to be a major chord (raising the third). Here is a iii-chord in Bb-major: As you can see.Bahasa Muzik . by making it major. and vi-chord. a chord that even moreso wants to resolve to the iv-chord. We would label that chord: V/vi and call it "five of six". We can do the same changes in chords
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. modified so that it is now major: The note 'F' has been raised to 'F#'.the ii-chord. you create a secondary dominant. the i-chord leads quite nicely to the iv-chord. it is a minor triad.
We have seen that we can take the three naturally-occuring minor chords from a major key .and create secondary dominant chords by simply making them major. The second example takes the ii-chord and makes it major creating a secondary dominant V/V. If we make it major.ZAG
Half Cadence (HC)
You have now seen how a ii-chord can be modified to resemble a V-chord. Our ears hear that the purpose of this raising is to create a leading tone. our ears tell us that a leading tone has been created. and we are therefore creating a secondary dominant. we create a secondary dominant to the ii-chord: It is of course quite possible to create secondary dominants in minor keys. In our key (Bb-major). major or minor. We know that in a major key a iii-chord is minor. So the D-major chord is acting as a dominant of the vi-chord. iii-chord. a G-chord would be a vi-chord. one using a iii-chord. This same process of making minor chords major can be done to any of the naturallyoccuring minor chords in any key. Here is that same triad. increases the chords "desire" to move to the vi-chord? There is one other naturally-occuring minor chord that we can change to a secondary dominant: the vi-chord. If 'F#' is acting as a leading tone. Simply take any chord that naturally occurs as something other than major. By making a vi-chord major. However.
Bahasa Muzik . they use upper-case for the number) but this is not correct. the name of the chord must change. By making it major. changing the chords shown with an arrow into a secondary dominant triad. Before taking the quiz for this lesson. it cannot be a ii-chord anymore. Our ear hears them as behaving like dominant chords because we hear the raised third degree that wants to move to the root of the chord a 4th higher or fifth lower. To call something a ii-chord means that the root of the chord is based on the second degree of the scale and that it is minor. Give the Roman Numeral Analysis for each chord. try the following quick exercise. It must be renamed in the manner shown in this lesson.
Zainal Ariffin-IPPM. Rewrite each bar in the blank bar beside it.. just like dominant chords do. When we change the structure of a chord in this manner.ZAG
from a minor key. Some people are tempted to simply call it a II-chord (i.e.Melaka