Occlusion is the normal relation of the occlusal inclined planes of the teeth when the jaws are closed -Angle. Occlusion: Is the changing interrelationship of the opposing surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth, which occurs during movements of the mandible and the terminal full contact of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches – Gregory. Occlusion of the teeth is not a static condition, as the mandible can assume various positions. Occlusion may be centric, habitual, mesial, distal, eccentric, labial, lingual, supra, inferior and may other forms. Ideal Occlusion: Ideal occlusion is a hypothetical formula, which does not and cannot exist in man. Ideal tooth form and ideal occlusion necessitates an unblemished heredity, an optimum favourable environment and a developmental history devoid of any accident, diseases or occurrence, which would modify the inherent growth pattern. According to Maxwell an ideal occlusion presupposes and requires. 1) Normally developed coronal contour of properly coordinated mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions. 2) Normally developed tooth and osseous, muscular other anatomic and emerging structures. 3) A definite geometric and anatomic, individual and collective relationship of denture units. 4) A definite geometric and anatomic relationship of the two dentures, cranium and mandible.

I. FACTORS FOR ACHIEVING NORMAL OCCLUSION: The achievement of a normal occlusion is dependent upon a number of factors and may easily be thwarted by failure of any one of them. To understand these factors and to set them in order logically, the experience of a developing tooth is traced from its position in the crypt to its final position in the mouth. These factors are grouped under the following headings: a) The position, size and relationship of the bone in which the tooth develops. b) The position and relationships of the tooth with in the bone. c) The path which the tooth follows to reach the mucous membrane before eruption.


d) The forces which guide its course after eruption. e) The forces which start to operate when the tooth contacts with its apparent. 1) BONE RELATION : The relationship of the maxilla or mandible to other bones and to each other is probably determined by a number of factors like hereditary, congenital, hormonal imbalance, traumatic and pathological condition which interfere with growth. All these conditions will effect upon the nature of the ultimate occlusion. a) Hereditary or Racial Influences : Most dental and facial characteristics are inherited from the parents, though these may be modified by environmental factors like prenatal and postnatal influences, pressure habits, nutritional disturbances etc. Horawitz S.L. 1958, Heredity is significant in determining the following characteristics and thus influence the development of normal occlusion. 1) Width and length of the palate 2) Height of the palate 3) Crowding and spacing of the teeth 4) Position and conformation of perioral musculature to tongue size and shape 5) Soft tissue peculiarities – character and texture of the mucosa, frenum size, shape and position etc. Certain characteristic traits are seen in a particular race like broad jaw in Negroes, the ‘Rocker jaw’ (smoothly cured gonial angle) of the polynesians. b) Congenital Influences : The development and growth of the craniofacial skeleton with associated soft tissues and the primary teeth, and a few permanent teeth begin prenatally and an interference with this development, either due to nutritional, metabolic, or other systemic influences, drugs or trauma, may all result in malocclusion. Example : Congenital syphilis : Abnormally shaped teeth and malposed teeth. Birth injury to TMJ : Ankylosis affects mandible growth. Cerebral palsy (From birth injury) maintenance of normal occlusion. : Paralysis or lack of muscular co-ordination affects mastication, deglutition, respiration, and speech and upsets muscle balance which is necessary for establishment and


c) Tooth Relationship : According to Nanda, there is some evidence that the developmental position of a tooth is also under strong hereditary control, similar atypical malpositions of individual teeth are seen in twins and sibling. The lower permanent molars develop at the root of the coronoid process, oriented with a mesial inclination. This is corrected subsequently as the tooth erupts forward and upward along a curved path. Upper permanent molar develops facing backwards in the tuberosity of the maxilla. The upper permanent molars swing downwards and forwards as they erupt through an arch of a circle whose center would be somewhere in the region of the apex of the next tooth mesially. During intra alveolar eruption, the tooth position is affected by- the presence or absence of adjacent teeth, resorption of the primary teeth, early loss of primary teeth, localized pathologic conditions and any factors that alter the growth or conformation of the alveolar process. 3) Tooth Eruption : Several theories have been propounded to explain the mechanism of eruption. Each of them fails to explain all the phenomena that have been observed and eruption is defined as a developmental process that moves a tooth from its crypt position through the alveolar process into the oral cavity and to occlusion with its antagonist. Permanent teeth do not begin eruptive movements until after the crown is completed. They pass through the crest of alveolar process at varying stages of root development. It takes 2 to 5 years for the posterior teeth to reach the alveolar crest following completion of the crowns and from 12 to 20 months to reach occlusion after reaching the alveolar margin. The roots usually are completed a few months after occlusion is attained. The moment of emergence into the oral cavity often is spoken of as the ‘time of eruption’. Various Theories of Eruption : I. Root Elongation Theory (Hunter, Weber 1778) : According to this theory the simplest and most obvious mechanism of eruption would be that the crowns of the teeth are pushed into the oral cavity by virtue of the growth and elongation of the roots. Evidence for theory : Root of tooth elongates as crown erupts into the oral cavity. This evidence however, is only circumstantial.


the eruptive pathway still forms in bone thus proving the dental follicle and not bone as the major determinant in tooth eruption. II. 1) The erupted crowns of incisors or premolar teeth after the premature extraction of their deciduous predecessors. which can provide the necessary rebound mechanism where by the apical root growth forces can be translated into the occlusal eruptive forces. long after root formation is completed. while deposition occurs only after eruption has commenced therefore it looks more like an effect not a cause. Studies showed that bone resorption takes place at the base of the bony socket. Evidence for this theory : 4 . 2) Submerged teeth often continue the formation of their roots but do not erupt. Pulpal constriction Theory : (Zucker Kandal et al) : According to this theory the growth of the root dentin and subsequent constriction of the pulp may cause sufficient pressure to move the tooth occlusally. Alveolar Bone Remodelling Theory (Brash 1928) : Selective resorption and deposition of bone is active around the crypt of a tooth. It was suggested that continuous bone deposition at the base of the socket causes tooth eruption. Evidence for This Theory : Bone remodeling of the crypt wall clearly is important to achieve tooth eruption and in experiments where tooth germ is removed but the follicle is left in position. III. 3) Supra eruption of a tooth will occur. b) Rootless teeth often erupt with out the concomitant elongation of the root. Evidence against this theory : a) The bone of the socket floor cannot act as a fixed base as it has been understood that as a root grows towards the socket floor the bone gets resorbed. Evidence against this theory : Root formation starts after the crown formation is completed.For this theory to become practical there should be a strong base. This condition can be seen in . when its antagonist is removed by extraction or bite opening. The root grows downward causing resorption of bone rather than deposition.

This evidence is only circumstantial. 3) Removal of pulp in the continuously erupting incisors of the rat does not alter the rate of its eruption. V. which would push the tooth along its long axis. Resorption of Alveolar Crest : Aichel and Weidenraich suggest that the resorption of the alveolar crest would serve to expose the crown of the tooth into the oral cavity. 5 . 2) Submerged molars and upper cuspids often erupt late i. although dentin formation and pulpal constriction is ceased.The pulp is progressively constricted by growth of root dentin as the eruption of the tooth occurs. Evidence against theory : The teeth erupt which lie lingual to the arch and there are therefore under no muscular action of the cheeks and lips. VI. after dentin formation is completed and pulp is fully enclosed with obliterated apical foramen. This process continues until tooth is in occlusion. It is known that teeth moved in synchrony with the arterial pulse indicating momentary response to hydrostatic pressure. Pressure from muscular action upon the alveolar process : Berten suggest that the action of the musculature of the cheeks and lips upon the alveolar process might serve to squeeze the crown of the tooth into the oral cavity like a pumpkin seed from between the fingers. This theory is not tenable since histological examination shows that the alveolar crest is the site of the most rapid and continuous growth of bone.e. while people with strong musculature and powerful bites show much less erupted clinical crowns of the teeth. Mouth breathers with notoriously week action of cheek and lip musculature show a relative increase or surpa eruption of the clinical crowns of the teeth. Vascular Pressure Theory (Massler and Schour 1941) : Vascularity and exudation of local fluids around the root apex were believed to raise local pressure. IV. Clinical evidence of the relation of vascularity to eruption : 1) Submerged teeth often erupt under the influence of hyperemia induced by mechanical irritants. Thus a submerged tooth will erupt after an artificial denture is placed. Evidence against the theory : 1) Pulpless teeth often erupt at the same rate as the normal neighborus. examination shows that the tissue is markedly hypremic.

This contraction of fibers occurs only during maturation. Experimental Evidence : Leist and King 1936 sectioned the sympathetic innervation on one side of the jaw in guinea pigs that produced permanent vasodilatation and marked increase in vascularity on the operated side. This plexus consist of precollagenus fibers which allows continuous rebuilding and rearrangement of the periodontal ligament with out change in bone or cementum. Fibroblast Contractile Theory : Fibroblasts play an important role in eruption because of their contractile properties. Therefore to maintain the eruption process there should be continuous turnover of collagen in the periodontal ligament. In the periodontal ligament 1) Adherence type of contact is present between fibroblasts which permits the 6 . Periodontal Ligament Traction Theory : According to this theory the periodontal membrane plays an important role in the tooth eruption. This plexus anchors the tooth firmly and at the same time allows movement. Fibroblast traction The periodontal ligament is a fabric of fibers. The site of fracture becomes markedly hyperemic. while the ground substance is a macro molecular mass of proteins and polysaccharides. This hyperemia may be the prime factor in causing the migration of incisal segment. They found two causative agents with in the periodontal ligament which can generate eruptive force. predominantly fibroblasts. Collagen Contraction Theory : The tractional forces are generated with in the oblique fiber system of the periodontal ligament due to cross linking and aggregation that occurs during collagen maturation. 3) Following an intraalveolar fracture the incisal segments continues to erupt while the apical segment becomes ankylosed. ground substance and cells.2) The hyperemia in periodontitis causes a supra eruption of teeth. They also observed an increase rate of eruption of teeth on that side. The fibers are composed of collagen. 1. Thus they are able to transmit their own contractile forces to the extracellular environment. Presence of Intermediate Plexus : These comprise of fibers coming from the bone and those coming form the cementum and unite at the center. Collagen contraction 2. This substance is packed with cells. a glue like protein. The fibroblasts are able to contract a collagen gel and bring about movement of root tissue attached to the gel.

summation of contractile forces. making eruption more difficult and slower. Investigators who have studied eruption sequence at short intervals tend to report the mandibular molars as erupting first. There seems to be clinical significance attached to either 6-1 or 1-6 sequence. pulpits and pulpatomy of a primary molar will hasten the eruption of the successor premolar. The fibers are inclined at the correct angle to bring about eruptive movement. This force is transmitted to the extra cellular compartment via fibronexus to the collagen fiber bundles. If the primary tooth is extracted prior to the onset of permanent tooth eruptive movement (prior to root formation) the permanent tooth is very likely to be delayed in its eruption. Periapical lesions. causes tooth movement. This orientation is established by the developing root. resulting in disturbance in mineralization of the permanent successors in the same instance and even occasionally intrusion of permanent incisor. The rate at which the incisors erupt is much faster than that of the molars at the time of immediate emergence into the mouth. Factors affecting eruption : Mechanical disturbance can alter the plan of eruption. it may look as if the incisor has came first where as in truth the molar has preceded it but is moving so slowly that the incisor passes it by. Sex Differences : Except for third molar. since the alveolar process may reform atop the successor tooth. Sequence of Eruption : There is wide variability in the sequence of arrival of teeth in the mouth. the sequence 6-1-2-4-3-5-7 and 6-1-2-3-4-5-7 account for almost half of the cases. cause localized pathosis. whereas in the mandible the sequence 6-1-2-3-4-5-7 and 6-1-2-4-3-5-7 include more than 40% of the cases. 2) Fibronexus is present by which the contractile forces are transmitted to the collagen fibers bundles. which are aligned in an appropriate inclination brought about by root formation. in girls the permanent teeth erupt an average of approximately 5 months earlier than boys. same of the variations are important clinically. In summary eruptive movement is brought by a combination of events involving a force initiated by the fibroblast. Intrusion or extrusion of the primary incisors may occur accidentally during early childhood. In the maxilla. Mandibular 6-1-2-3-4-5-7 is favourable for maintaining the length of the arch during the transitional dentition. if one is seeing a child at 6 months intervals. 7 .

At the same time there is a tension from articularis oris muscle on the upper incisors. the “anterior component of force”. The upward forces of eruption and alveolar growth are countered by apposition of the apically directed force of occlusion. The periodontal ligament disseminates these strong forces of chewing into the alveolar bone. whereas the mesial drifting tendency is an internal disposition of most teeth to drift mesially even before they are in occlusion. Passive Muscle Forces : Certain muscles exert a constant tension (muscle tonus) upon the jaws. the former is the result of muscle forces acting through the intercuspation of the occlusal surfaces. Successive groups taking over the function of maintaining tension. 8 . The muscles of mastication exert an influence through the interdigitation of the cusps. a small proportion of fibers contract. The anterior component of forces often is confused with the mesial drifting tendency. In this state. expression and mastication. The muscles which have a direct effect on the jaws are those of deglutition. The tongue with in the lingual vestibule is applied to the lingual surfaces of the teeth and the hard and soft palate. These forces which are generated by muscles may be either passive or active. At rest a muscle is in a state of tonus. its roots are separated by a considerable margin from the wall of its sockets. The lips and cheeks apply forces to labial and buccal surfaces. The axial inclination of the permanent teeth is such that some of the forces of chewing produce a mesial resultant force through the contact points of the teeth.Factors Determining the tooth position during eruption : When the teeth occlude with those of the opposite dental arch (occlusal stage of eruption) a most complicated system of force determines the position of the tooth. the proportion of fibers is constant but they are not always the same fibers. This permits plenty of latitude for its guidance by other forces to its final position. The forces which are encountered by the tooth may be divided into buccolingual forces. The anterior component of forces is countered by the approximal contacts of the teeth and by the musculature of the lips and cheeks. cheeks and tongue and the mesio-distal forces which are exerted through adjacent teeth. which are derived from muscles of the lips. 4) Intra Oral Forces : All the time that a tooth erupts into the mouth. It is at this stage that physical forces are most likely to influence the position of the tooth.

This distance is called “Free way space” or interocclusal clearance.25 g/cm per each swallow and pressure from the sides of palate and molar teeth is 100 +/. the degree of force however is great than that of muscle tonus. These findings suggested an imbalance in muscle force in the normal condition (this impression was confirmed by Kydd 1957). Tongue pressure in the maxillary incisor region has been determined to be 75 +/. but it lacks steady state condition. These effects of musculature in relation to occlusion will here be considered under a series of functional headings. The stability of dental relationship is determined by the buccinator mechanism from outside and by the tongue from inside. The effect of muscle function 9 . In case of perioral musculature a significant consideration is the Equilibrium in these forces assumes great importance in the retention and stability of orthodontically treated dentitions. TONGUE AND ORAL HABITS : The functions of the oro-facial musculature include mastication. but has only a few swallows per hour while asleep. Active Muscle Forces : Active muscle forces exert pressure only intermittently. Winders (1956) measured the force of perioral and lingual musculature on the dentition and found that the tongue was capable of exerting more lingual pressure (about 2-3 times much force) than the labial and buccal musculature. II. The total swallows per day therefore is usually under 1000 times. Briggs 1965 and Lear et al 1965 found that a normal adult in an average swallows 585 times a day with a range of 233 to 1008 times per day. One of the most frequently performed activities is deglutition which therefore has considerable significance to the orthodontist. should be considered both in vertical and horizontal plane. deglutition. LIPS. Muscle physiology: Studies in muscle physiology indicate that orofacial muscles are a potent force whether in active function or at rest. According to Profitt a typical individual swallows about 800 times per day.30 gm/cm (Proffit and Norlon 1970). This position of the mandible is maintained by balance of muscle tonus. while awake.When an individual is at rest the mandible is held in such a position that the upper and lower teeth are normally separated a little. not nearly enough to effect the equilibrium. respiration. EFFECTS OF MUSCULATURE. Lingual pressure against the mandibular incisors and molars has been recorded as 90 gm/cm. 1000 second of pressure of course total only a few minutes. speech and maintenance of head posture. It must be noted that contractile forces exerted by the tongue are dynamic and greater than the perioral muscle forces.

Lip function in cases with malocclusion therefore accentuates the existing dental malrelationships through functional adaptation. The mechanism is an intermingling of fibers of all preoral muscles to constitute a functioning unit. The restrictive influence and the forces exerted by the perioral musculature can be explained by a study of the buccinator mechanism. In cases with small interlabial gap. position and function may be direct cause of or an important contributory factor in the development of malocclusions. If the tongue is too small the dental arches are narrow and the teeth in the buccal segments are lingually inclined. The buccinator posteriorly inserts into the pterygomandibular raphae. A large tongue is usually responsible of wide well developed dental arches. The fibers of the superior constrictor muscle decussate at this point and continue posteriorly and medially and attach to the pharyngeal tubercle of the occipital bone. The buccinator complex of muscle acts like a rubber bondage around the dentoalveolar region and is important in the maintenance of equilibrium and stability of the dentition. A small gonial angle and a flat mandibular plane will provide more space for the tongue. platysma and laterally with the buccinator. there may be significant muscular activity and a contraction of the mentalis muscle may be evident. These forces are produced from a constant slight tension. as a result the tongue is depressed 10 .passive tonic forces. just behind the dental arches. Some times there is crowding of the teeth. protrusion of the incisors and the vertical height of the lower face. In cases with Class II division I where protrusion of incisors is marked the patients have a habitual relaxed lip position where as in Class II division II there is lip redundance and the orbicularis oris and related muscles provide a restraining effect on the dentition as if teeth were warped in elastic rubber sheath. Anteriorly the superior and inferior fibers of the articularis oris decussate with the zygomaticus. In cases of Class III malocclusion the lower lip tends to be stretched against the forward positioned incisors producing a lingual inclination of these teeth. The position of the tongue will also be affected by the craniofacial morphology. the lip contraction required for a lip seal is minimal. and retro inclination of the incision teeth as seen in Class II Division 2 malocclusion. Due to contraction of mentalis muscle the chin will be flattened and moves the inferior facial sulcus upward and forward and an attempt to close the lips increases the posterior component of forces on the incisors. where as in cases of large interlabial gap with small lip length. buccal or labial inclination of teeth with spacing and occasionally leads to posterior open bite and anterior open bite. levator anguli oris. Posture of The Lips : The lip seal is determined by lip length. The usual lip posture is a closed lip position. Tongue Position : Tongue size.

the tongue moves forward and upward touching the lingual surface of the maxillary incisors of the lingual papillae. Over a period of 12 to 18 months as proprioception causes tongue postural and functional changes. Between 2 to 4 years of age the functionally balanced or mature swallow is termed as somatic swallow. At the initiation of deglutition. 2) Deviant Swallowing Pattern or Tongue Thrust Swallowing : In many individuals the infantile swallowing pattern persist and may contribute to the development of malocclusions. Infantile Swallow : In neonates the tongue seems relatively large and in the forward suckling postural position for nursing. Swallowing pattern : 1) Mature swallowing pattern 2) Deviant swallowing pattern 1) Mature swallowing pattern Swallowing begins with the mandible in a rest position. there is a transitional period. During swallowing the mandible moves upward and forward in its path towards closure. The mandibular arch found associated with congenital aglossia provides proof of the vital importance of normal tongue form and function to normal occlusion. In this type of swallowing a great variation has been observed in the pattern of swallowing. The visceral type of swallow can persist well after 4 th 11 . According to Robert Swinheart normal arch form requires sufficient dimension to accommodate the teeth. dental occlusion and the resultant speech defects.and has a low posture. The normal expansive forces of the tongue are exerted to their maximum only when it can be accommodated with in the mandibular arch. The most important natural forces which can increase mandibular arch dimension are those of the tongue. This swallow is seen in normal developmental patterns. This tongue position and the coincident swallowing are termed as infantile or visceral swallow. The tip actually inserts through the anterior gumpads and takes part in the anterior lip seal. With the eruption of incisors at about 6 months of age the tongue positions starts to retract. In the rest position the tongue is at the level of the mandibular incisors or slightly lower in cases with normal occlusion. In other cases when high mandibular plane and a large gonial angle provides less space for the tongue. tongue tip contact.

But during the normal mature swallow neither the lips nor the muscles of facial expression show any active contraction. Occlusal Contact : The movement of the mandible from its rest position to the position of maximum contact is under voluntary control. Muscular imbalance is frequently observed in individuals characterized by malrelationship of the jaws and an unpleasant facial appearance. So therefore normal performance of functions as respiration i. tendons. Tongue Thrust : It is classified in terms of two categories . muscles and periodontal membranes of the teeth. This is modified by a discharge of impulses arising from the proprioceptive nerve endings situated in the TMJ. and strong contractions of circumoral muscle take place.year of life. The mechanism is protective in that 12 . The mandible is dropped immediately before the swallow. and is then considered a dysfunction or abnormal because of its association with certain malocclusion characteristics. the mentalis and circumoral muscles to obtain a lip seal. deglutition. because inadequacy of neuromuscular co-ordination is often an attendant condition. The condition is accompanied by poor muscle tone and generalized open bite. The mandible is guided by the effect of these impulses to a position of full occlusal contact which may not necessarily be the position of centric occlusion. which is defined as that relationship where the teeth are in contact maximally and the condyle on each side is resting in the depth of the glenoid fossa. there by displacing the teeth from their proper position in the dental arch. The soft tissue overlying the facial skeleton is stretched and strained.e. This type of tongue thrust is difficult to correct. Swallowing provide a characteristic facial grimace. During swallowing there is an absence of temporal muscle contraction. tongue and lip action are essential in maintaining equilibrium between the positions of the teeth and surrounding musculature. however. 1) Simple 2) Complex In simple tongue thrust the teeth come together during swallowing and there a contraction of the lips. Some times even orthodontically corrected case will be unstable. Whereas in case of complex tongue thrust teeth will be apart during swallowing. The symptoms of a retained visceral swallowing pattern usually include a forward tongue posture and tongue thrusting during swallowing. Excessive activity of the circumoral musculature is abnormal.

but would be engaged out side it and became guided to a more abnormal relationship. Certainly at the time of eruption of these teeth. The lower incisors are also limited from moving labially by the overbite of the upper incisors. The upper incisors are limited from moving labially by lip pressure and mesially by the teeth of the opposite side. but he has not indicated why this particular direction should be selected. provided contact is made frequently. Subsequently the inclined plane of this relationship will guide those teeth into a normal relationship. The path taken by the mandibular teeth from the rest position. The large mesiopalatal cusp of the upper molar will probably lie somewhere with in the central part of the confluence of fissures on the lower molar. This creates pressure which is transmitted mesially from tooth to tooth. This is likely to occur in the case of molars because of their cuspal morphology. Proximal Contact : It is a well known clinical phenomenon that contact between neighbouring teeth in a complete adult dentition is maintained by a tendency for the posterior teeth to move forward. If however tooth is lost. It is against this background that the tooth erupts into its first contact with an apponent. Thus the mesial inclination of the axis of the teeth increases towards the back of the mouth. The maintenance of approximal contact is important in a complete dentition. If the contact is made before maximal contact is reached then it may either cause the mandible to deviate to a new position on closure or it may be guided by the inclined plane of cuspal contact to a new guides the mandible away from a position in which there may be premature contact of an individual tooth before maximal dental contact is established. the posterior teeth erupting not only occlusally but also forwards. An examination of the roots of a complete dentition shows that degree of curvature of the roots increases towards the end of series. Similarly cuspal guidance may be responsible for the elimination of small malrelationship of the teeth. If however the discrepancy of relationship is very great then the mesiopalatal cusp of the upper molar would not be opposite the central part of the lower molar. He also maintained that curvature of the roots of the teeth is evidence of this forward movement. Bash has shown that both upper and lower alveolar borders grow outwards and forward towards each other. When these teeth erupt they erupt along the axis of each tooth. this forward movement 13 . there seems to be a tendency for slight crowding of the teeth to be emphasized. The distal curvature of the root may also be the cause of the migration of the teeth. the developing apices are left behind as tooth moves forward with the alevolus. to that of maximum occlusal contact is known as “Path of contact”.

to joint the gingival groove in the canine regions. because the posterior teeth may tilt into the space to such an extent that the occlusion with their opponent is disturbed. DEVELOPMENT OF DENTITION : To understand the development of occlusion one should know the various stages of development of dentition birth to adult life. The dental groove of the upper gumpad passes form the incisive papilla laterally and lingually.may prove deterimental. and is related to the inner alveolar palate. The gingival groove defines the limits of the palate. remains almost entirely smooth. The lingual portion. The gumpad is divided into ten segments by transverse grooves. The lingual portion is limited lingually by the gingival groove. 2) The changes occurring form the completion of the deciduous dentition to the eruption of the first permanent molars (i. 4) The period from the eruption of the second permanent molars at about 12 years onwards. both anteriorly and laterally by three straight borders forming part of an oblong. But the division is not as clear as that in the upper. which is differentiated later. 3) The mixed dentition period. It is divided by transverse grooves into ten segments. The grooves between the canines and first deciduous molar segment are called the lateral sulci and are the only ones to extend on to the buccal side. They develop in two district parts – a labio-buccal and a lingual portion. They are firm and pink in colour. 2 ½ to 6 years). The groove distal to canine is continued on to the buccal surface and is called labial sulcus. These portions are separated by the dental groove. The labio-buccal part is differentiated first and grows more rapidly. 1) The change occurring from birth to the complete eruption of the deciduous teeth (i. In the upper jaw the gingival groove separates the gum pad from the palate. MOUTH OF NEONATES : The Gum Pads : The alveolar arches at the time of birth are termed as gumpads. form the eruption of the first permanent molars to the final shedding of deciduous teeth ( 6 to 12 years). and the alveolar pad is limited on the lingual aspect by a continuous groove. birth to 2 ½ years). each corresponding to a deciduous tooth sac.e. Anteriorly the gumpad is slightly everted labially. which is the site of origin of the dental lamina. 14 . These can be divided into four phases.e. The lower gum pad is U-shaped. and is papillomatous at first. where it continues distally and buccally across that segment of the gum pad which corresponds to the first deciduous molar crypt.

Changes should be carefully observed at this stage which is indicative of what may be the prototype of future dentition. Therefore the establishment of the primary dentition is usually considered to take place at about 3 years of age when the root completion takes place and lasts until 6 years of age when first permanent tooth begins to erupt. with a considerable overjet anteriorly. From 3-4 years of age the dental arch is relatively stable and changes very slightly. Characteristics of Primary Dentitions : 15 . The lateral sulcus of the lower gum pad is usually posterior to that of the upper. A vertical space generally exists between the upper and lower incisor segments of the gumpads even when they are pressed into occlusion. During the first year of life the pads grow rapidly. and the growth is most marked in the lateral direction. From 5-6 years of age the size of dental arch begins to change due to eruptive force of first permanent molars. At rest the gumpads are separated by the tongue. the gum pads are not sufficiently wide to accommodate the developing incisors. This increase of width permits the incisors to erupt in good alignment and to be spaced. At this stage the roots of the second molars are usually not yet complete. when the second premolars came to occlusion. there is a complete overjet all round of the upper over the lower gum pad. which protrudes over the lower gumpad to lie immediately behind the lower lip. This space is occupied by the tongue and is not necessarily a precursor to an anterior openbite. and may even protrude a little between the lips.e. At birth. The anteroposterior movements of the gumpads are usually small and there is no lateral movement. In the anterior region there is nearly no contact between the gum pads when they are approximated and the contact is seen only in first molar region.The upper gumpad is wider than the lower and when the two are approximated. The primary Dentition : The eruption of primary teeth begins at about 6 months after birth and all the primary teeth are usually erupted by 2 ½ years of age i. which are crowded and rotated at their crypts.

1) Spaced anterior 2) Primate spaces 3) Shallow overbite and overjet 4) Straight terminal plain 5) Almost vertical inclination of the anterior teeth 6) Ovoid arch form Spacing of Primary Teeth : Spacing in the deciduous teeth was first described by Dellabarre in the year 1819. Significance of Primate Spaces : 1) Spaced primary arches generally produce more favorable alignment of the permanent incisors whereas 40% of the arches with out anterior spacing produce crowded anterior segment. Failure of incisor spacing to appear before five years of age occurs in about 20% of the cases and indicates crowding in the permanent dentition. 2) The presence of mandibular primate space is conductive of proper molar occlusion by means of an early shift of mandibular molars (primary) into this primate space on eruption. developmental spacing by Fraber in 1962. But the spaces between deciduous incisors persist until these teeth are replaced. When the deciduous incisors erupt the overbite of the upper incisors are equivalent to the height of the crowns of a lower incisor. Spacing in deciduous teeth has been called as physiological spaces by Korkhous and Neumann. In most normal cases spacing occurs between all the teeth as they erupt. Occasionally spaces develop between the deciduous incisors subsequently to their eruption. Spacing of the deciduous teeth is variable. Any spaces which exist between the deciduous molars usually close by the time of the eruption of the first permanent molars. primate spacing by Boyko 1968 and anthropoid spaces by Foster and Hamillon in 1969. 16 . Later on forward movement of the mandibular arch is associated with a reduction of overbite and a flattening of all the molar cusps and another factor is the greater increase of width of the upper arch compared to that of lower arch. that is the lower incisors are covered by the upper when the teeth are in occlusion. This deep overbite is reduced progressively by the eruption of deciduous molars and by the more rapid attrition of the incisors. Spaces around canines are called as Simian gap by Baume in 1940.

At around 6 months of age the deciduous mandibular central incisors appear in the mouth. so that there is no excessive space for the erupting permanent incisors. R. 1933. Ass. 4) The width of the permanent incisors is greater than their deciduous counterparts.2) : 20-30 (24) Ist Molar : 12-16 (12 months) II molar : 20 – 30 (20 months) follows . L. Crowding 2 in 10 dev. Slightly modified by McCAll and 17 . Normally no teeth are visible in the mouth at birth. Crowding Over 6 mm of spaces No crowding Eruption of Deciduous Teeth: Calcification of the deciduous teeth begins about the fourth month of fetal life.C.I. Crowding 10 in 10 No spaces Spaces below 3 mm 3 to 6 mm of spaces Per 10 in 10 dev.M.2) Ist Molar II Molar Schour. According to Lighton B. It is possible to predict the degree of crowding in the permanent teeth based on the amount of spacing present in lower deciduous arch. I. primate spaces help to accommodate these wider teeth. 20 : 379. The usual order of appearance of the deciduous teeth in the mouth is as follows : ABDCE ABDCE The mandibular teeth usually precede the maxillary teeth in the order of appearance : 12-16 (14 +/. L. Mandibular C. near the end of the month all of the deciduous teeth have begun to develop. Dec. Crowding 7 in 10 dev. :6½ :7 Canine : 16-20 months Canine : 16-20 (16 months) From Logan W.3) The mean increase in intercanine widths brought about by lateral and frontal alveolar growth is lesser in spaced arches than non-spaced arches.I. and Kronfeld. Dent.J. : 7 ½ months : 8 months (18 mos +/.I. The age at which the deciduous teeth erupt are as Maxillary C. Crowding 5 in 10 dev.

at the age of 9 to 10 years the combined mesio distal width of the deciduous cuspid. Variations in the Terminal Plane Relationship or Occlusal Changes in the Mixed Dentition : As stated earlier the usual flush terminal plane of the primary dentition typically provides an end-toend relationship of the first permanent molars. which are followed by the eruption of smaller second premolar. This plane is seen most commonly at the completion of primary dentition. Greater Leeway space in mandibular arch allows more mesial movements of the mandibular first permanent molars.5 in either arches is referred to as Leeway space of Nance. The primary posterior teeth occlude so that the mandibular cusp articulates just a head of its corresponding maxillary cusp. Later on when the maxillary and mandibular first permanent molars erupt. Terminal Plane : In most of the deciduous dentition the distal surface of the maxillary and mandibular second primary molars are in the same vertical plane called the flush terminal plane.Occlusal Relations : Development of Molar Relation : At birth the mandibular arch is posterior to the maxillary arch. With the eruption of the primary first molars the (first three dimensional) occlusal relationship is established.4. The mandibular second deciduous molar is wider mesiodistally than the maxillary giving rise typically to a “flush terminal plane’ at the end of the primary dentition. The mesiolingual cusp of the maxillary molar occludes in the central fossae of the mandibular molars and the incisors are vertical with minimal overbite and overjet. first molar and second molar is approximately 1.9 mm.7 mm greater than average combined width of permanent canine. In the maxilla the combined width difference averages only 0. This relationship of the molars is normal at this age (early mixed dentition). This difference between the mesio-distal width of CDE and 3. that is the mesial contours of the maxillary and mandibular first permanent molars are in same vertical plane. they are guided into the dental arch by distal surfaces of the second primary molars and acquire a cusp to cusp relationship. According to Graber. Thus the change from the initial cusp to cusp molar relationship to the normal adult occlusal relationship is accounted. first premolar and second premolar teeth. The initial cusp to cusp relationship in the early mixed dentition is maintained until the exfoliation of the second primary molars. The first permanent molar normally then achieves a Class I relationship by: 18 .

a mild Class II facial skeleton and insufficient arch perimeter space to permit a late mesial shift of the first permanent molars. The permanent dentition : 19 .1) Early mesial shift in spaced deciduous dentition by moving the primary molars into the primate space. Under this condition the maxillary and mandibular permanent first molars on eruption will assume similar relationship to that of the primary morals. the occlusion is likely to become Class II by the end of the mixed dentition period or an end-to-end molar relationship by the time of the eruption of the premolars depending on the severity of Class II skeletal growth pattern. Under these conditions the first permanent molars. In some cases a flush terminal plain relationship in the primary dentition may change into relationships other than the expected end to end and later Class I molar intercuspation. This development into a Class III malocclusion well depend upon the magnitude of the mesial step. late mesial shift and greater forward growth of mandible. Such a situation may arise in case with flush terminal plain in the primary dentition. Mesial Step : When the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary primary molar occludes with the buccal grooves of the mandibular second primary molars. 3) Greater forward growth of the mandible than the maxilla. This molar configuration in the mixed dentition stage is not normal and will not be self correcting into a normal adult molar relationship. the distal projection of the maxillary molar produces a mesial step. Children with mesial step relationship characterized by prognathic lower jaws or retrognathic upper jaw will develop Class III malocclusion. The anterioposterior relationship of the first permanent molars’ influenced by the plane formed by the distal surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular second primary molars. The mesial step or Class I occlusal configuration during the mixed dentition stage may be maintained in the adult hood as a Class I molar relationship or may develop into a Class III malocclusion. 4) A combination of both. upon eruption will approximate the Class I adult molar relationship during the mixed dentition stage. 2) A late mesial shift after the loss of the second primary molars. Distal Step : The distal surface of the lower second deciduous molar is more distal to that of the upper. and finally land up in Class II pattern. the magnitude of the Leeway space and the differential growth of maxilla and mandible.

many activities occur simultaneously.I. : 10-12 years Ist M IInd M. The first appearance of the permanent dentition is at the age of about 6 years when the first molar erupt. : 6-7 years : 7-8 years Canine : 11-12 years Ist P. Canine : 9-10 years 1st P.M. : 10-12 years IInd P.I. IIIrd M.I.I. Maxillary C. : 11-12 years : 6-7 years IInd M.Except for the cusps of the first permanent molars the permanent dentition is formed after birth. : 6-7 years : 12-13 years : 17-21 years Ist M.M. The roots usually are completed a few months after occlusion is attained.M. IIIrd M :11-13 years : 17-21 years Dentition of Various Ages : 6 Years : E D C B A 6 E D C B A 7 Years E D C B 1 6 E D C B 1 6 6 A B C D E A B C D E 6 6 1 B C D E 1 B C D E 6 6 20 . During eruption of succedaneous teeth. : 10-11 years IInd P. L. They passes throughout the crest of the alveolar process at varying stage of root development. L. : 7-8 years : 8-9 years Mandibular C. Eruption is the developmental process that moves a tooth from its crypt position through the alveolar process into the oral cavity and to occlusion with its antagonist. 1) Primary teeth resorb 2) Root of permanent tooth lengthens 3) The alveolar process increases in height 4) The permanent tooth moves through the bone. Teeth do not move occlusally until their crown is completed. It takes 2-5 years for posterior teeth to reach alveolar crest following completion of their crowns and 12-20 months to reach occlusion after reaching alveolar margin. The age of eruption of permanent teeth are as follows.M.

even in children who have normal dental arches and normal spacing with in the aches because permanent incisor tooth buds lie lingual and apical to the primary incisors. The maxillary arch has first enough space for the accommodation of permanent lateral incisors when they erupt. There is a tendency for the mandibular permanent incisors to erupt somewhat lingually and to a slightly irregular position.8 Years 6 E D C2 1 12 C D E 6 6 E D C2 1 1 2 C D E 6 9 Years : 6 edc21 12cde6 6 E D3 2 1 1 23 D E 6 10 Years : 6 E 4 C 2 1 1 2 C4 E 6 6 E4 3 2 1 1 2 34 E 6 11 Years : 7 6 5 43 2 1 1 23 4 5 67 65 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 45 6 7 7 12 Years : 7 654321 1234567 654321 1234567 7 The changes form Deciduous Dentition to Permanent Dentition : The changes from deciduous dentition to permanent dentition can be described under 2 headings. 1) The Replacement of Primary Incisors (First Transition Period) : As the permanent incisors erupt. The permanent incisor teeth are considerably larger than the primary teeth. 21 . Maxillary central incisor seem to erupt from labial. there is exchange of primary incisors. 1) The replacement of primary incisors 2) The replacement of primary canines and primary molars. after central incisors.

22 . 3) Increase of Anterior Length in the Dental Arch : Increase in the length of the dental arch in A-P dimension will also provide space for the larger permanent incisor to be accommodated. 1) Interdental spacing in the primary incisor region The physiologic spaces that exist in the primary dentition are important factors in allowing relatively large permanent incisors. in the maxilla the intercanine width increases by another 1. The incisal liability can be compensated by. Clinical Implications : Clasps on the cuspids attached to the space maintainers must be cut off at this time or should be designed so as to allow natural increase of intercanine width to access unimpeded. So during the age of 8 to 9 years there is a period of slight crowding of mandibular permanent incisors which is normal at the stage of development which is transitory. there is an average 1. 2) Increase in intercanine width : During the exchange of incisors the obvious change in the dental arch can be observed. This difference between the amount of space needed for the incisors and the amount of space available for them is called the “Incisor liability”. More width is gained in the boys then the girls. when the lateral erupt.In the mandibular arch however. Furthermore. That is intercanine width increases markedly at the time of eruption of mandibular and maxillary lateral incisors.6 mm less spaces available for the 4 mandibular incisors than would required for perfectly aligning them. It is necessary for permanent incisors to erupt more labially to obtain necessary added space.5 mm when the canines erupt. Therefore girls have greater liability to have incisor crowding. especially mandibular incisor crowding. This is about 4 mm in maxilla and 3 mm in mandible. Actually the permanent incisors move at about 2-3 mm labially from the location of the primary incisors. According to Moorrees and Chandha (1959) by the time the lateral incisors have completed their eruption the intercanine width increases by about 3 mm in each arch.

one needs to pay careful attention to any abnormal root resorption of the primary incisors and/or the use of incorrectly designed space maintainers at regular recall appointments which should occur as early as possible. The interincisal angle between the maxillary and mandibular C. 4) Change of Tooth Axis of Incisors : One of the characteristic difference between permanent and primary teeth is the tooth axis. in a proximal contact at the distal of centrals. This contributes to 1-2 mm of additional space. 23 . In order not to interfere with the natural pathway of labially oriented eruption of the permanent incisors. However in the maxillary arch. The Ugly Duckling Stage : This term was first introduced by Broadbent to describe the midline diastema in the maxillary arch along with overlapping of the permanent lateral incisors about the age of 8-9 years. By 7th year the crowns of permanent cuspids have been completed. It is found in most of the Bolton research that a space between these teeth in many cases may persist for a period of 3 to 4 years and may not close until eruption of permanent cuspids. but they have not yet moved from their sight of origin. Primary teeth are generally very upright but permanent teeth tend to incline to the labial or buccal surface.The permanent incisors in the mandible are located occasionally on the lingual side of the preceding primary incisors immediately after their eruption. when the centrals erupt. The mandibular permanent central incisors are almost always in proximal contact from the time they erupt. In a relatively short time the incisors cut their way into the mouth with the lateral incisors crowns flaring out as they came downward and forward to take their positions. This is another advantageous condition for the arrangement of the large permanent incisors. This makes the permanent dental arch circumference wider. is about 115o in the primary dentition and the angle in permanent dentition is about 130o-131o which indicates that both upper and lower central incisors are labial. a midline diastema is present which shows the beginning of their ugly duckling stage.I. As the permanent teeth erupt they also tend to move labially.

The roots of the centrals are also forced towards each other. Changes During Ugly – Duckling Stage 6-8 Years : As the upper lateral incisors develop in a more palatal position than the CI they are overlapped by the latter.The crowns of the cuspids in the young jaw impinge on the developing roots of the lateral incisors. With normal dentoalveolar growth the upper alveolar process grows down and the labial frenum attachment becomes progressively higher in the jaw. exerting a mesial pressure resulting in closure of central diastema.I. 2) If the amount of spacing is great. 24 . b) In primary dentition the labial frenum can frequently be seen to be attached to the alveolar process between the upper C. in infancy normally has a low attachment near to the crest of the alveolar process in the midline. If the diastema is less than 2 mm spontaneous closure occurs and therefore treatment is not indicated. Occasionally the low attachment persists and the frenum apparently causes midline spaces between upper C. therefore treatment is indicated. have a slight distal inclination and there is a partial closure of midline spaces as they erupt.I. As they erupt the canines move labially and L. are complete and maxillary canines erupt at about 11 ½ years. driving the roots medially and causing the crown to flare laterally.I. The distal inclination of the lateral incisors is due to the developing canines which are high and closely associated with the roots of the erupting lateral incisors and exert pressure on the apices resulting in distal tilt of the crowns of the laterals.F.I. Changes during 8-10 years : The crowns of the L.I. When central incisors erupt the lateral incisors becomes free to move labially but their apices always remain slightly more palatal than those of the central incisors. 3) Thus mid line diastema should be differentiated form other causes like: a) Involvement of labial frenum – the L. became more upright. there is less likelihood that the central diastema will close on its own. Changes During age of 10-12 years : About 11years the roots of the L. Significance : 1) Ugly duckling stage is a normal developmental stage and should not be mistaken for malocclusion. If the diastema is greater than 2 mm spontaneous closure is unlikely.

25 . a) Hypodontia. The role of the third molar in the crowding of mandibular incisors during the late teenage period is a matter of controversy. Third molar agenesis occurs in a good number of cases and is seen in about 16% of cases in West American whites. the arch circumference may became shorter than that of the primary dental arch by the utilization of the Lee Way space with the exchange of the second primary molar to second molar. A number of simultaneous phenomena’s such as the arch perimeter shortening. Second Molar Eruption : After the exchange of the lateral teeth has been completed and the dental arch upto first molar is established the second permanent molars will begin to erupt. like . the dental arch length will be reduced by the eruptive forces immediately mesial and with the second permanent molar. the increase in incisor crowding the development of third molars and the more forward growth of mandible than the maxilla during this period all confuses the issue. The eruption of maxillary second molar ahead of the mandibular second molar is said to be symptomatic of a developing Class II malocclusion. DENTITONAL AND OCCLUSAL DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG ADULT : 1) Third Molar Development : The third molar is unique among human teeth. just prior to eruption of the second molar. In most cases. Incisor crowding has been found to correlate better with mandibular increments than with the eruption of third molars. as it apparently displays no sexual differences in formation nor is its formation related as closely to somatic growth and sexual maturation as are the other teeth. Proximal caries lesions or the early extraction of second primary morals will cause further loss of dental arch space. With the eruption of second molar in the permanent dentition. especially missing upper lateral incisor b) Proclination of incisors c) General spacing of dentition d) The presence of an unerupted conical supernumerary teeth. This space decreases substantially during the eruption period of the second molar and will significantly affect occlusal relationships in the molar region.It is important to remember that there are other causes for midline diastema. The mandibular second molar should follow all teeth anterior to it into the arch.

The lower incisor. most persons display idiopathic resorption of one or more teeth. In most of the instances the resorption is mild and confined to apical blunting but 10% show 2 mm to 4 mm of root resorption. The bicuspid roots are nearly perpendicular to the plane of occlusion. 1) Vertical 2) Antero-posterior 26 . the third molars cold not play a primary role in the position of first molar and incisors. Nearly 90% of all teeth show same evidence of resorption by the time a person is 19 years of age. 4) Resorption of Permanent Teeth : By the end of the second decade. But recent studies suggest that the correlation between late incisor crowding and third molars cannot be accounted. 2) Dimensional Changes : The dental arch perimeter decreases a surprising amount during the late adolescent and young adult periods. The roots of maxillary teeth. anterior to the second bicuspid are directed posteriorly and inward whereas roots of maxillary molars are more vertical than the opposing lower molars. As the difference in first molar position and incisal procumbency appear before significant development of third molars.The first molars have been found to be farther forward and incisors more procumbent in individuals with third molars than those with third molar agenesis. 5) Arrangement of the Teeth in the jaws: Dempter et al have reported an exhaustive study of the relationship of the roots to the craniofacial skeleton. but for the purpose of description they can be divided into those applied in the following directions. cuspid and molar roots are directed obliquely backward. 3) Occlusal changes : Both overbite and overjet decrease throughout the second decade of life probably due to the relatively greater forward growth of the mandible. Mandibular Movements for mastication : The forces of mastication exerted upon the teeth are various.

the mandible is protruded sufficiently to bring the incisal edges of the incisors into occlusion. The axes of incisors are not directly apposed labiolingually. 1) Canine guided lateral functional occlusion 2) Group lateral functional occlusion Canine guided lateral functional occlusion usually occurs in the young and unworn dentition. labial excretions of mandible at first cause the large mesiopalatal cusps of the upper molars to glide up the buccal cusp of the lower molars.3) Transversal 1) Vertical Movements of the Mandible : The mandible moves from its position of rest vertically into occlusion and then applies direct vertical pressure to the upper teeth. 2) Antero Posterior Movements of Mandible : Movements of mandible in this direction are not used frequently in mastication because the overbite of the incisors causes the molars and premolars to be disengaged to any but the smallest excretions are made. The opposing maxillary and mandibular canines provide contact during labial functional excursive movement 27 . The roots of the lower incisors resist lingual pressure. and if movement is continued. the upper incisors. the cusp to cusp contact of the buccal cusps of the opposite side disengages the molars. In the bucco-lingual direction although the molar axes are not vertical the upper and lower molars are directly apposed. being inclined labially. 3) Transverse Movements : In the molar region. The movement is at first an incising action and later a shearing action. Shearing action may be performed by the premolars and canines and by the action of buccal cusps of the lower premolars engaging those of the upper premolars. Two fundamental patterns of contact may occur or be established in lateral functional (working) occlusion. But for some actions. Lateral functional occlusion involves the canines and posterior teeth on the side towards which the mandible moves. because they are flattened mesio distally and are mutually supported as are “bricks of a Roman arch built without mortar”. the forward resultant of occlusal pressure is observed partly by the lips and partly by the palatal curvature of the upper incisor roots. Lateral and protrusive Functional Occlusion : Functional occlusion occurs in the segment of the arch towards which the mandible moves.

Thus lingual range lateral functional contacts in the natural dentition are like non-functional contacts in that they are undesirable. Contact between teeth other than those in the functioning segment is undesirable. Group Lateral Functional Occlusion : Group lateral functional occlusion provides dominant guidance by the canines but involves sharing of the contact by other posterior teeth in the functional (working) segment.with sufficient incline steepness to cause an immediate. central incisor may participate in the guiding contact either actively or passively. These lingual range contacts usually donot occur and are not desired in the well arranged natural dentition. As in canine guided lateral functional the adjacent lateral and central incisors may share in the contact. The facial range contacts may include all the cusps in the segment. 1) A facial range 2) A lingual range The facial range involves the mandibular cusps moving from their areas of centric contact facially and slightly lingually across the lingual inclines of the maxillary facial cusps. and the actual functional contact will occur on the distal arms or ridges of these cusps. the disto lingual cusps of the maxillary molars pass through the lingual occlusal embrasures. There are two potential ranges of lateral functional contact on the multicuspid posterior teeth. Thus in a canine guided lateral functional occlusion there is no excentric contact or posterior teeth on either the functioning or non-functioning side. Instead of occlusal contact in the lingual range of lateral function. Ideally the lower cusps tips with pass through the embrasure spaces or grooves. The adjacent lateral and rarely. In an ideal occlusion the functional contact path of the mandibular canine cusp tracks from the centric contact in the area of the mesial marginal ridge of the maxillary canine obliquely laterally and posteriorly lowered the cusp tip. only the canines actually contact. the lingual cusps of the maxillary premolars would pass ideally through the occlusal embrasures of the mandibular PMs without contact. 28 . complete disclusion of all posterior teeth in functioning (working) segment. The mesiolingual cusps of the maxillary molars pass through the lingual grooves of the mandibular molars. The lingual range of lateral functional contacts involves the tracking of the maxillary lingual cusp lips from their areas of centric contact up the facial inclines of the mandibular lingual cusps lingually.

The different types of over bite generally seen are . 53-62. Vol. 2) With the eruption of second permanent molar at the age of 12 3) With the eruption of third permanent molar at the age of 18. Ideally such a contact is necessary to prevent supraeruption of lower incisors. Observation of Overbite : 29 . 1961. (deep bite or closed bite) d) The upper and lower incisors may not contact. the pad of tissue overlying them creates premature contacts. proprioceptive response conditions the patients against biting on it and acts as natural bite openers and thus the deciduous teeth anterior to the first permanent molar creep reducing the overbite. As the upper and lower first molar erupt. Flamming H. The magnitude of overbite varies form individual to individual. reverse overbite). Angle Ortho. It is at this time that the first of three assaults on excessive overbite occur.31. a) The lower incisors contact the lingual fossa of the upper incisors (normal overbite relationship) b) Maxillary and mandibular incisors may meet at this incisal edges (edge-to-edge bite) c) The lower incisors may contact the cingulum of the upper incisors or may even contact the palatal gingiva. Normal overbite is 2-4 mm and approximately equal to 1/3 rd of the height of the crowns of the mandibular incisors.Importance of Overbite and Overjet : Overbite : The vertical labial overlap of the maxillary incisors over the mandibular incisors with the teeth in centric occlusion is termed as overbite. 1961. Physiological Bite Opening : Between 6-7 yrs the first permanent molars erupt in to the mouth. with a gap between this incisal edge (open bite) e) The lower incisors may be labial to the maxillary incisors (cross bite). 1) With the eruption of first permanent molar at the age of 6. Even in a normal overbite relationship there may not be a true contact of the incisal edges of the lower incisors with the lingual surface of the upper incisors.B. According to Schwartz there are 3 periods of physiological raising of the bite.

influences overbite relation like. Overjet. Decrease in overjet can be seen in cases where there is retroclination of maxillary incisors and/or proclination of lower incisors. however is not confined to the anterior segment. 30 . racial. posterior crossbite and these may be unilateral or bilateral. Vertical overlapping is not confined to the anterior teeth. b) Lateral cephalometric radiograph c) Examination of dental casts from the position aspect.a) Visual Examination : May be misleading. The normal value is 2-3 mm (Profitt). However gross discrepancies may be noticed. it is also in the posterior teeth where the guiding cusps overlap supporting cusps of the opposing teeth. It is also seen in the posterior segment where the guiding cusps overlap the supporting cusps. b) Balance of forces from lips and the tongue. The degree of overjet is related to the axial orientation of the anterior maxillary and mandibular teeth. a) Equilibrium between forces from cheek and the forces from tongue. congenital and systemic factors. The important factors that influence over bite are . when the teeth do not have an actual contact. In an edge to edge bite the overjet is zero. Overjet : Overjet is the horizontal overlap between the most labial surface of the mandibular incisor and the labial surface of the maxillary central incisor edge when the jaws are in centric occlusion. c) Occlusal equilibrium d) Proper eruption sequence of canine and premolars e) Proper jaw relations. A lot of changes occur in the overjet during the primary and transitional dentition period. Factors that Contribute to Overbite : All factors that contribute to occlusion. hereditary. Thus the variations in normal overbite relations in the posterior teeth may result in posterior open bite.evolutionary. Excessive increase in overjet is seen in cases where there is proclination of maxillary incisors or retroclination of lower incisors or both. which in turn is dependent on their growth.

31 . during orthodontic therapy. Occlusal plane is not straight but curved in all directions.Curvatures of the Occlusal Plane : Definition : Occlusal plane is an imaginary surface that is related anatomically to the cranium and that theoretically touches the incisal edges of the anteriors and the tips of the occluding surfaces of the posterior teeth. a flat curve of spee is preferred. It refers to the antroposterior curvature of the occlusal surfaces beginning at the tip of the lower cuspid and following the cusp lips of the bicuspids and molars continuing as an arc through the condyle. 2) Mandibular cure of spee. causing non functional contact of teeth (occlusal interference’s). including the canines. IF this curve is extended. it would form a circle of about 4” diameter. 2) If the curve of spee is too great in the mandible more the posterior aspects of the occlusal plane is in the line with the condylar path. This requires a gradual progressive increased mesial tilting of teeth towards molars which creates the curve of spee. This results in a less discluding influence on the posterior teeth. Therefore too much curve is not advisable while setting artificial teeth for dentures. These are 2 curves of Spee : 1) Maxillary curve of spee : Curve formed by the tip of the canine and the buccal curve of the premolars and molars of the maxilla in the downward convex fashion. Curve formed by the tip of the canine and the buccal cusps of the premolars and molars of the mandible in an upward concave fashion. a) Curve of spee b) Curve of Wilson c) Curve of Monson Curve of Spee : It was described by Graf Von Spee in 1980. The long axis of each lower tooth is aligned nearly parallel to its individual arc of closure around the condylar axis. Significance of Curve of Spee : 1) Curve of spee helps the achievement of occlusal balance during mastication by encouraging simultaneous contact in more than one of the dental arch. Different types of curvatures of the occlusion plane are . The curve results from variations in the axial alignment of the lower teeth.

1) Maxillary curve of Wilson – formed by the cusps of molars. in unworn dentition is in downward convex plane. but are also of much greater duration. Another example for effect of forces on dentition is. b) The elevated buccal cusps prevent food from going past the occlusal table.Curve of Wilson : The occlusal curves of Wilson are aligned in the transverse plane. Curve of Wilson are such that mandibular molars are oriented lingually while the maxillary molars are oriented buccally. stabilizing the tooth for a instant while alveolar bone bends and the tooth is displaced for a short distance along with the bone. If the heavy force is maintained for more than a few seconds increasingly severe pain is felt. the fluid filled periodontal ligament acts as a shock absorber. The duration of force is more important than its magnitude because of the biologic response. 2) Mandibular curve of Wilson – formed by cusps of molars. Curve of Wilson helps in two ways: a) Teeth are aligned parallel to the direction of medial pterygoid for optimum resistance to masticatory forces. pressure from cheeks and tongue. and so the biting force is released quickly. The pressures are much lighter than those form masticatory function. if the force is of long duration. Curve of Monson : The curve of Monson is obtained by extending the curve of spee and curve of Wilson to all cusps and incisal edges. in a transverse plane. is in upward concave plane. in a transverse plane. in unworn dentition. This type of heavy intermittent force has no impact on the long term position of a tooth. right and left of the mandible. The 32 . right and left of mandible. Curves are formed by the cusps of molars of the right and left sides of the upper and lower jaw. This important point is made clear by examining the response to the forces applied during chewing. There are 2 curves. Equilibrium Effects on the Dentition : Equilibrium effects on the dentition can be understood best by observing the effects of various types of pressures. Experiments suggest that even very light forces are successful in moving teeth. For example when heavy masticatory forces are applied to teeth.

particularly in the males. This seminar was an attempt to give a broad outline of the development of occlusion. directly contributing to the equilibrium. the mandibular intercanine arch width dimensions is essentially completed. The basal change eliminates any flush terminal plane tendencies that have persisted beyond the mixed dentition. Hence the maxillary intercanine dimension serves as a safely valve for this basal discrepancy. On the other hand if its restraining pressure by the lip or cheek is removed. SAFETY VALVE MECHANISM : By the end of the 9th year in girls and 10th year in boys. The difference in increase of maxillary dimension is due to the fact that the pubertal growth spurt in girl is from 10 to 12 years of age. the incisors in this vicinity will be moved lingually as the lip lightens against them. cheeks and tongue at rest are important determinants of tooth position. In the maxilla there is little anterior maxillary arch width increase in girls after 12 years of age. light sustained pressure from lips. This clinical implications are quite obvious. These observations make it plain that in contrast to forces from mastication. The periodontal ligament itself can contribute to the forces that make up the dental equilibrium. the teeth move outward in response to unopposed pressure from the tongue. But the bodily mandibular thrust forward is unmatched by comparable maxillary horizontal growth changes.duration threshold seems to be approximately 6 hours in humans. It seems clear now that the eruptive force is generated with in the periodontal ligament though it seems likely that some metabolic activity can and does produce forces that serve as part of “active stabilization for teeth”. While in boys it is from 12 to 18 years of age. The final horizontal growth increments in the mandible. for example if an injury of the soft tissue of the lip results in scarring and contract. 33 . CONCLUSION: Problems related to development and eruption leads to a good percentage of malocclusions and hence it is mandatory for the orthodontist to know the normal developmental process. causes a forward movement of the mandibular base with its teeth.

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