Excerpts from reviews: " This volume is the first full-length study of the Krama system. . . . .

it is welcome as a pioneer work on this important line of philosophical thought and spiritual discipline." The Advent Vol. 38-2 April 1981 Arabinda Basu

" His doctorate research in an unexplored area of Kashmir Shaivism i.e. the Krama system will be a significant contribution to the history of Indian thought." Director, Radha Kamal Mukerjee J.K. Institute of Sociology & Human Relations ". . . .Rastogi has managed to reach satisfactory conclusions, displaying an uncommon knowledge of the extant literature, both published and in manuscript. The questions affronted by Rastogi are innumerable and complex, and the material he presents is extremely vast " East and West Vol. 1983 (Nos. 1-4) Dec'83 Raffaele Torella

" The chief merit of the book lies in its profuse and precise documentation in support of conclusions The exposition too is as scholarly and meticulous as demanded by modern research. . . ." Humanities Vol. XXIV & XXV, 1980-81 Prof. K. Krishnamoorthy

". . . .Your book will remain a solid contribution to Kashmir Saivism... ." Professor of Sanskrit & Dea Faculty of Arts, University " . . . . . . We welcome this is fresh light on an unexplored The Adyar Library Bulletin,


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir is intended as a ground work of the Krama system, an almost neglected area of Kashmir Saivism. The author has very ably reconstructed the history and metaphysics of the system after rummaging through relevant literature, both in print and manuscript form. The Krama philosophy is a synthetic and complex whole where the different strands of Saiva Philosophy, Sakta esotericism and the Tantric synoptic view are seen. In this first of the two volumes, the author has given a general and historical survey in seven chapters - Krama as a distinct system, the nomenclature, as a Tantric system, mutual exchange from allied systems, . different traditions and sub-schools, sources and literature and Krama's place in Kashmir Saivism. Contains chronological table of Krama authors, classified Bibliography and indexes.


ISBN: 81-208-1302-2

Navjivan Rastogi obtained his Ph.D. in Sanskrit from the University of Lucknow. Since 1968 he has been on the teaching staff of Abhinavagupta Institute of Aesthetics and Saiva Philosophy in the same University. In 1987 he migrated to the parent Department of Sanskrit as Reader. Rastogi's specialized field of study is Kashmir Saivism. He is the co-editor of the Volume of Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, devoted to that philosophical school. An author of several scholarly papers, his published works include the Tantraloka of Abhinavagupta (8 Volumes, co-edited with late Prof. R.C. Dwivedi) and Introduction to the Tantraloka: A Study in Structure.

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir
Historical and General Sources

Abhinavagupta Institute of Aesthetics & Saiva Philosophy, Lucknow University



First Edition: Delhi, 1979 Reprint: Delhi, 1996


ISBN: 81-208-1302-2

Also available at: MOTILAL BANARSIDASS 41 U.A. Bungalow Road, Jawahar Nagar, Delhi 110 007 8, Mahalaxmi Chamber, Warden Road, Mumbai 400 026 120 Royapettah High Road, Mylapore, Madras 600 004 Sanas Plaza, Subhash Nagar, Pune 411 002 16 St. Mark's Road, Bangalore 560 001 8 Camac Street, Calcutta 700 017 Ashok Rajpath, Patna 800 004 Chowk, Varanasi 221 001


To My Teacher

BLESSING Each doctrine has its own philosophy and technique to attain the highest truth. All philosophies aim at the same goal - realisation of the Absolute. A seeker is concerned with the attainment of the truth. He may follow any technique but the important thing is that he reaches the state of equality where he sees and experiences the Oneness of everything in the world. I hope the way shown in Krama Tantricism of Kashmir will help seekers to realise that goal.

PREFACE Perhaps the author owes an apology for publishing a work on the K r a m a system which has not been, unfortunately, noticed by any traditional author of the available compendia like the Sarva-darsana-samgraha etc. It is rather equally curious to see the modern studies on the I n d i a n philosophy in general and Tantricisrn in particular t u r n totally apathetic to such a system of philosophy barring a few honourable exceptions. T h e latter include the second edition of Dr. K . C . Pandey's study on Abhinavagupta incorporating a chapter on the K r a m a system a n d discussing the same in b r o a d outlines. In addition, one has one or two paragraphs from M . M . Dr. Gopinath Kaviraj on the same briefly dwelling upon some or its major aspects. (Vide his Preface to the Second edition, Tripura Rahasya, Jnana Khanda, p. iii., Tantrika Vanmaya me Sakta Drsti, Prastavana, p. 4.) It augurs well that the studies on the Kashmir Saivism as well as on Tantricisrn have come to gain - slightly greater m o m entum since Woodroffe first undertook to enter the forbidden land. Yet it is unfortunate that dearth of analytical thinking coupled with detailed exploratory investigations into specific fields remains a constant handicap of a modern student. T h e net result is that a great deal of the Saiva, Sakta a n d T a n t r i c wisdom is now lost to us a n d m a n y of their important theses now look completely strange. M . M . D r . G.N. Kaviraj in his recently published work Tantrika Vanmaya me Sakta Drsti, (Prastavana, p. 4) gives an eloquent expression to it :

In this context due stress may be laid on the fact that the concepts of K r a m a , Paduka, Bhasa and K a l a n a exclusively belong to the K r a m a system.




While writing a dissertation on the Stotras of Abhinavagupta for his M . A . examination the author was particularly attracted by the Kramastotra of Abhinava. This marks the first point of his interest in the system. T h e paucity of material for the study of the Stotra and the difficulty in interpreting the same inspired the author to undertake a comprehensive study of the same for his doctoral dissertation. T h e interest and fear both grew with each passing day when the author was able to grasp the enormity of the task taken up by him. Now this study is submitted for what it is worth to the discerning judgement of the reader. T h e K r a m a system has triple significance. First, it is a Tantric system. Second, it is a monistic Saiva system. Third, it marks the emergence of the Sakta tendency in the Saiva philosophy. It has, therefore, developed into a synthetic and complex whole in which the Saiva philosophy, the Sakta esotericism and the T a n t r i c synoptic view of life are inter-knitted together. It has been a difficult test for the author to appreciate their distinct implications and yet retain their synthesis. T h e K r a m a system is therefore not only a system of pure philosophy revelling in epistemic and ontological issues but also an esoteric discipline of spirituality constituting an important ingredient of wider T a n t r i c culture. The reader is earnestly urged to bear this aspect in mind while going through the pages of this work. T h e complex character of the K r a m a system has considerably influenced and defined the basic plan of this work. It has been divided into two parts, the first giving out a general and historical survey and the second the analytical exposition of the K r a m a philosophy. T h e second part does not deal with the ontology, epistemology, mysticism a n d esotericism of the K r a m a system under separate sections, because such a watertight division was neither possible nor worth-while in the very nature of the K r a m a system. T h e chapters, therefore, follow the traditional scheme of the Nine Prameyas (i.e., objects of discussion) a n d Cakras (forms of cyclic consciousness). Because by adopting this method alone justice could be done to the complex character of the K r a m a system. Special care has




been taken to highlight the real philosophical and epistemic nature of apparently esoteric issues in the relevant contexts. Owing to an earnest desire to make the work as thorough and authentic as possible the author has added five indices (together with a Corrigendum incorporating major corrections) to the Volume O n e including a classified Bibliography which because of its comprehensive and up-to-date coverage may be found of special interest. T h e other index titled "Chronological tree of the K r a m a a u t h o r s " offers a brief tabular account of the historical evolution of the system through the ages. T h e Volume Two carries with it an appendix incorporating a few of the unpublished small but important texts having direct bearing on the system. In this volume the author has further appended tables or tabular charts wherever necessary in order to afford a synoptic peep into the complex and varied contents covered in a particular chapter. It is, however, imperative to keep in mind that the two volumes together form an integral whole and need be perused as such. T h e capacity of the author has several limitations. First of all, the lack of tradition is to be extremely regretted because the precise tantric spirit has lain under the cloud of mystic jargon. Second, the system has failed to catch the notice of the modern student of Kashmir Saivism a n d Tantricism. Third, all the printed texts are either incomplete or require critical editing. Fourth, the bulk of the extant K r a m a literature is still in manuscript form. Most of it is inaccessible today. Luckily, despite great hardships, the author could lay his hand on certain unnoticed manuscripts but for which many aspects of the system would have remained a question mark. And even these manuscripts are mostly in Sarada characters. Of the lost texts, the loss of the Krama-keli of Abhinavagupta is a very serious loss to the system. In the above circumstances and in the absence of any previous groundwork as well as for the reasons of space, it was not possible for the author to take up a thoroughly critical study of the K r a m a system. T h e author has confined himself to making an analytical investigation into and exposition of t h e system. He has adopted a critico-comparative method, wherever

( xii )
it was feasible, in the specific frame-work of the Tantric discipline. This work is intended basically to serve as a groundwork for the future studies of the K r a m a system a n d allied Saiva Tantricism of Kashmir. In works of such a type as this it is practically impossible to do away with obscurity of expression, m o r e so on account of the occult language and esoteric phraseology in which the system is couched, apart from the author's own limitations. T h e indulgence of the reader is craved for any incovenience he is put to in this behalf. It is difficult to lay claim to absolute originality in regard to an indological study like this, but it will be worth-while to draw attention of the reader to the new ground covered by the author. In the first place, the author has ventured to touch upon an almost neglected area of Kashmir Saivism in general and Tantricism in particular. In the second place, the author has utilized the opportunity to go through all published texts on the K a s h m i r Saivism as well as the K r a m a system. He has also tried to utilize a large number of important manuscripts on the system which would be testified to by the bibliography appended to this work as well as the profuse excerpts from them given throughout the work. T h e author has also sought to lay his hands upon all relevant historical as well as literary texts. Moreover, the author has also taken due cognizance of relevant literature in original, belonging to other Tantric cults, specially Tripura, having anything in common with the Kashmir Saivism and the K r a m a system. It may, however, also be pointed out that the author has done his best to go through all the available secondary literature, whether published or unpublished, known and accessible to him on the Kashmir Saivism and other cognate Tantric schools. In the third place, the author has essayed the task of reconstructing the history of the K r a m a system - not considering the chronology of the authors or works only, but tracing out the historical a n d logical growth of the K r a m a notions as well - in the larger context of the history of t h e Kashmir Saivism. Besides, virtually discovering quite a few of the K r a m a authors




such as G a n d h a m a d a n a , Siddhanatha, Cakrapani, Devabhatta, R a m y a d e v a , Losthadeva, Srivatsa, Somaputra, Ananta Saktipada a n d Bhattaraka, the K r a m a associations of the k n o w n Spanda a n d T r i k a authors have also been brought out. These include the famous Vasugupta, Kallata, Pradyumna Bhatta, Ksemaraja, Varadaraja, J a y a r a t h a , Sivopadhyaya and a host of others. Some already established dates and genealogical relationships have been re-examined in the light of fresh material a n d additional collateral evidence. In this connection the dates of Sivananda - the first preceptor, Varadaraja, H r a s vanatha, Bhojaraja, Cakrabhanu, M a h e s v a r a n a n d a deserve particular mention. Similarly on t h e basis of a new interpretation of the terms Atmaja and Santati parental ties between Somananda a n d Utpala a n d those between Utpala and Laksm a n a g u p t a have been rejected and preceptorial relationships re-affirmed instead. These modifications will go a longway in determining the final course of the history of Kashmir Saivism yet to be reconstructed fully by future scholars. In the fourth place, the a u t h o r has tried to reconstruct the precise K r a m a metaphysics, its answer to various philosophical problems a n d the basic values that have permeated the length a n d width of its spiritual approach. T h e author has also attempted to determine the place of K r a m a in the compact whole of K a s h m i r Saivism and evaluate its positive contribution. It has also been pointed out how the K r a m a developed along two basically different lines under the impact of Northern and Southern schools, if such a loose expression be permitted to be used, a n d how they conditioned the entire growth of the K r a m a philosophy. In the fifth place, the work refers to many texts including manuscripts for the first time a n d makes extensive use of a number of them. T h e two Mahanaya Prakasas, one of unknown authorship (attributed to Sivananda II by us) and the other of Sitikantha, the Bhavopahara of C a k r a p a n i and its gloss by Ramyadeva, a n d the Krama-stotra of Abninava are among the primed texts that have been studied for the first time. In addition to numerous manuscripts, the MSS of the Chummasampradaya, Kaulasutra, Jnana-kriya-dvaya-sataka, Saivastakakosa have been




author is beholden to Dr. R . C . Dwivedi (now Professor and H e a d of the Sanskrit Department, J a i p u r University), who initiated the author into Saivite studies, for his constructive interest in the academic advancement of the author. The author is earnestly thankful to Drs. J . P . Sinha and A.K. Kalia, both of the Sanskrit Department, Lucknow University, in whom he found his benefactors. T h e author acknowledges with gratitude the interest taken by T h a k u r J a i d e v Singh, a well known name in the field of K a s h m i r Saivism, in the publication of this work. He is also deeply appreciative of Prof. Vidya Niwas Misra, Director K . M . Munshi Institute of Hindi & Linguistics, Agra for his continued encouragement to the author. T h e author would record his profound appreciation of his esteemed friend Dr. Harsh Narain, Department of Indian Philosophy and Religion, B.H.U. for his valued assistance in many forms. T h e author's gratitude to him is a matter of feeling and not of expression. T h e delay in publication enabled the author to revise the typescript once again and to incorporate additional material wherever necessary. T h e author wishes to voice his earnest appreciation of the interest evinced by the publishers M/S Motilal Banarsidass. But for constant demands of their energetic directors, M r . N. Prakash J a i n and M r . J . P . Jain, the publication of the work, that too in such a nice get up, might have been delayed further. In this connection he has all admiration for M/S R a m Lal and D.P. Gupta, who prepared the typescript for the press in a relatively short period. T h e author cannot help r e member the debt he owes to his wife D r . Sudha Rastogi, Ph.D., who not only proved to be a constant source of inspiration in the hours of distress but also prepared all the indices in the book. T h e author likes to express his admiration for the help rendered by his two research students i.e., K m . Meera Rastogi in correcting the proofs and rearrangement and finalization of indices and Sri M . R . Yadava in rearrangement of some of the indices. This book is appearing in the Abhinavagupta Institute Research Publication Series. This Institute has been founded and named after Abhinavagupta, the great savant of Kashmir Saivism a n d Indian Aesthetics, by the author's teacher, the late Dr. K C. Pandey - Founder and the then Honorary Director




of the Institute. The author expresses his deep sense of gratitude to him who not only made the manuscripts in his possession available to the author but continued to maintain a sustained interest in the progress of the work. This book is humbly dedicated to him as a token of gratitude and respect. Lucknow, 15th August, 1978

CONTENTS Blessing Swami Muktananda Preface Abbreviations

vii ix xxvi 1 - 9


A brief analysis of the features that lend an independent status to Krama as a system of thought

1. Krama : A system of Saiva philosophy in its own right 2. Traditional recognition of its independence 3. External evidence establishing its individuality 4. Main features : (a) Krama as a Sakti-oriented and Tantric system (b) Leaning towards monistic-dualistic character of Reality: Its implications and consequences (c) Spiritual progression, and Moksa as synthesis of Bhoga and Moksa : Key features (d) Absolutic functionalism : A significant aspect (e) Positive emphasis on the epistemic side of our experience (f) Preference for Prakrta and certain minor features

1 „ 3 „ 3

5 6 7 ,, 8

A study into the philosophical basis of the various names of the system and their significance

10-30 10 16 17 ,,

1. Krama Naya (a) Anuttara-krama (b) Anupaya-krama (c) Devata-krarna




2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

(d) Mahakrama (e) Mahartha-krama (f) Auttara-krama Mahartha or Mahartha-naya Mahanaya Mahasara Atinaya Devatanaya or Devinaya Kalinaya Conclusion KRAMA AS A TANTRIC SYSTEM 31 - 50

17 18 „ 21 25 26 27 29 30 ,,

CHAPTER THREE An analysis and exploratory study of the fundamentals of the Krama Tantricism in the wider perspective of the esoteric tantricism of the monistic Saivism of Kashmir

1. Rise of Tantricism in Krama : a later development 2. Tantra-Prakriya versus Kula-prakriya: Krama as a part of the Tantra-prakriya in the Tantraloka 3. Tantra-prakriya analyzed (a) Characteristic features of Tantra as outlined in the Tantrasara (b) Mahesvarananda and Ramyadeva on Tantra as well as the Tantric character of Krama (c) Characteristic features of Krama as a Tantric system 4. Two phases of the Krama Tantricism 5. Experience, pure and simple : pivot of the Krama Tantric thinking

31 32 34 38 39 41 42 47

An enquiry into the sources of influences responsible for the rise and development of particular doctrines or esoteric tendencies in the Krama system

1. Nature and scope of the proposed enquiry


( xxi ) 2. Krama versus Spanda with regard to the concepts of reality and fourfold Absolutic functionalism 3. Krama and Kula : Bilateral process of influence 4. Krama and Tripura : Reciprocal impact 5. Impact of Buddhist Tantricism on K r a m a : Sadangayoga, Anakhya and some other minor doctrines 6. Bhartrhari's impact on Krama 7. Kashmir Saivism and Pancaratra: certain unsettled issues 8. Impact of Krama on Tantricism in general

51 54 56 58 63 64 66


67 - 8 1

A critical evaluation of the potential richness of the Krama system evinced through the divergent trends of internal thinking in respect of the basic issues and resulting consequences

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Potential richness of the Krama system The Sahasa sub-school The Chumma sub-school Sahasa and Chumma are identical Another sub-school of Krama Divergent traditions and tendencies with regard to the specific problems (a) Two traditions regarding the nature and status of the Absolute and its consequences (b) These two traditions vis-a-vis pentadic and quartic tendencies with special reference to the Absolutic functioning (c) Quartic tendency (d) Pentadic tendency (e) Dispute about the extact number of parts of the Krama Yoga (f) Several minor controversies referred to 7. Source of the quartic and pentadic tendencies

67 " 70 72 73 75 ,,

76 77 78 79 80 ,,

( xxii


SOURCES AND LITERATURE 82-248 A reconstructive study of Krama history and an analysis of the entire known as well as extant Krama literature with special reference to its authorship, historicity, availability, classification, subject-matter and chronology 1. K a s h m i r : the land of origin of the K r a m a system 2. Origin and early history : (a) Esoteric symbolism as part of the K r a m a history : Theory of three Oghas (b) Various traditional accounts of the initial phase of t h e K r a m a system (c) Consistent account of the early history of the system 3. Creative period of the K r a m a system - rise and decay (9th-18th century) 4. Historical backdrop of these phases 6. Chronological position and contribution of the individual authors : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) . (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) (xiv) (xv) (xvi) (xvii) Vatulanatha Gandhamadana Niskriyanandanatha Vidyanandanatha Saktyanandanatha Sivananda Vasugupta Three female disciples of Sivananda Keyuravati, Madanika a n d Kalyanika Kallata Govindaraja, Bhanuka and Eraka P r a d y u m n a Bhatta Somananda Ujjata Utpala Udbhatta Stotrakara, i.e., Siddha N a t h a Bhaskara 82 84 84 85 90 94 96 100 ,, 101 ,, 103 ,, 104 108 110 111 120 122 128 133 „ 137 138 144

(xviii) (xix) (xx) (xxi) (xxii) (xxiii) (xxiv) (xxv) (xxvi) (xxvii) (xxviii) (xxix) (xxx) (xxxi) (xxxii) (xxxiii) (xxxiv) (xxxv) (xxxvi) (xxxvii) (xxxviii) (xxxix) (xl) (xli) (xlii) (xliii) (xliv) (xlv) 6. Laksmanagupta Bhatta Utpala Bhutiraja I Kuladhara Bhatta Damodara


146 150 152 156 „ 157 166 172 175 176 183 185 187 188 189 190 191 193 195 200 ,, 208 209 215 220 224 225 ,, 228 229 230 232 ,, 233 235

Abhinavagupta Ksemaraja Varadaraja D e v a b h a t t a (Devapani ?) Hrasvanatha Cakrabhanu Cakrapani Bhojaraja Somaraja T h e great-grand (Pararnesthi) teacher of J a y a r a t h a (Visvadatta ?) Somaputra Ramyadeva Lostadeva Srivatsa-author of the Cidgaganacandrika Ojaraja Sivananda I I : Grand-teacher of Mahesvarananda Mahaprakasa Jayaratha Mahesvarananda Sitikantha A n a n t a Saktipada Bhattaraka Sivopadhyaya

Certain K r a m a works by anonymous authors including exclusive K r a m a Agamas (a) The Krama Agamas (i) Pancasatika or Devlpancasatika (ii) Sardhasatika (iii) Krama-rahasya (iv) K r a m a Sadbhava (v) Kalikakrama




(vi) Kramasiddhi (b) Non- Agamic Krama works (i) Krama-sutra (ii) Siddhasutra (iii) Mahanayapaddhati (iv) Kramodaya (v) Amavasyatrimsika (vi) Rajika

239 241 242 243 244 ,, 246 248

A synthetic approach to correlation between basic structure of Tantra and Kashmir Saivism vis-a-vis sixfold Artha and fourfold Upayas and its bearing on the Krama system

1. Overall perspective of synthesis between the Saiva metaphysics a n d the Tantricisrn


2. Jayaratha's consistent approach to the problem 3. Sixfold Artha defining the six approaches to Tantric understanding 4. Synthesis between six Arthas and four Upayas arrived at 5. Conclusion : Nigarbhartha and Kaulikartha versus Saktopaya i.e. Krama APPENDICES 255-297 (a) Chronological tree of the Krama authors (b) Classified Bibliography
Original Sources

,, 250 252 253

bet. : 254-255

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

Manuscripts Exclusive Published Krama Literature Texts pertaining to the Kashmir Saivism Texts pertaining to other Tantric systems Other relevant texts

255 257 258 264 265

Secondary Sources

(A) Works and theses pertaining to Kashmir, Kashmir Saivism and Krama system





(c) (d) (e) (f)

(B) General sources containing references to the Kashmir Saivism (C) Research Papers, Articles and Journals pertaining to Kashmir Saivism (D) Works pertaining to Tantra and Tantricism in general (E) Works relating to the systems of philosophy in general (F) Research Papers and articles relating to the Tantric as well as other systems of philosophy (G) Lexicons, Bibliographies and Catalogues, etc. Name Index Work Index Subject Index Corrections

271 272 276 280 281 282 284 288 292 297

ABBREVIATIONS Abhi. ABORI AIOC A.L. A.S.V. B.A.L. Bhas. Bhas. (V). Bh.GS. B.S. B.S.S. B.U. B.U.V. C.A. Cat.Cat. C.G.C. C.G.C. ( C o m m ) . Ch. Ch.U. C.O.L. Contribution. C.S. (MS) DCSMCOL Dh.L. D.S. Fn.(s). Abhinavagupta : An Historical and Philosophical Study. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. All-India Oriental Conference. Ananda-lahari Alamkara-sarvasva-vimarsini. Bulletin of the Adyar Library. Bhaskari. Isvara-pratyabhijna-vimarsini (published with Bhaskari). Bhagvad-gitartha-samgraha. Brahma-sutra. Bharatiya Samskrti Aur Sadhana. Bhavopahara. Bhavopahara-vivarana. Comparative Aesthetics. Catalogus Catalogorum. Cid-gagana-candrika. Cid-gagana-candrika with t h e commentary called Divyacakorika. Chapter. Chandogya Upanisad. Curator's Office Library, Trivandrum. Contribution of Kashmir to Sanskrit Literature. Chumma-sampradaya (Manuscript). Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in Curator's Office Library, Trivandrum. Dhvanyaloka-locana. Darshanika Traimasika. Footnote(s).

( G.K. G.L. G.N-P. G.O.S. H. V. I.P.K. I.P.V.V. JOR JBBRAS K.K.V. K.M. K.N.P. K.S. K.S. (A). K.S.S. M. M.M. M.M P. M.P.(S). M.P. ( T ) MS(S) M.V.T. M.V.V.



Gaudapada-karika. Garland of Letters. Guru-natha-paramarsa. Gaekwad Oriental Series. Haravijaya-mahakavya. Isvara pratyabhijna-karika. Isvara-pratyabhijna-vivrti-vimarsini. Journal of the Oriental Research, Madras. Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Kama-kala-vilasa. Kavya-mala. Krama-naya-pradipika. Krama-stotra (by S i d d h a n a t h a ) . Krama-stotra (by A b h i n a v a ) . Kashmir Sanskrit Series of Texts a n d Studies. Mahesvarananda Mahartha-manjari. Mahartha-manjari parimala. Mahanaya-prakasa (by Sitikantha). Mahanaya-prakasa (TSS, attributed to Sivananda I I ) . Manuscript (s). Malini-vijayottara-tantra. Malini-vijaya-varttika.

N.S. Nirnaya Sagar Press N. T. Netra-tantra. N.T.V. Netra-tantra vivrti (Uddyota). P.H. Pratyabhijna-hrdaya. P.K.S. Paraiurdma-kalpa-sutra. P.L.L. Philosophy, Logic and Language. P.P. Paryanta-pancasika. P.S. Paramartha-sara. P.S.S.V.(MS) Paramartha-sara-samgraha (Manuscript) P.S. V. Paramartha- sara-vivarana. P.T.L.V.(M.S) Para-trisika-laghu-vivrti (lasaki-vivarana) (Manuscript).

( P.T.V. R.T.(Raj.T.) S.Dr. S.E. S.K.(MS) S.L. S.K.C. S.S. S.Su. S.S.V. S.S.V.(V) S.S.Vi. S.T.(T). S.T.V. S.V. S.St. S.St.V. Sec.(s): Short Review. Sp.K. Sp.K.V. Sp.N. Sp.P. Sp.S. St.C. St.C.V. Sv.T. Sv.T.V. T.A. T.A.V. T.R.(J.Kh.) T.S. T.S.S. T.V.D. V. Vak. V.Bh.



Para-trimsika-vivarana. Raja-tarangini. Siva-drsti. Saptarsi Era. Saivastaka-kosa (Manuscript). Saundarya-lahari. Srikantha-carita. Siva-sutra. Sarasvati-susama. Siva-sutra-varttika (by Bhaskara). Siva-sutra-varttika (by V a r a d a r a j a ) . Siva-sutra-vimarsini. Sarada-tilaka (-tantra). Sarada-tilaka-vivrti (Padarthadarsa). Saubhagya-vardhini. Siva-stotravali. Siva-stotravali-vrtti. Section(s). A short review of the Research Publications (Kashmir State). Spanda-karika. Spanda-karika-vrtti. Spanda-nirnaya. Spanda-pradipika. Spanda-Sandoha. Stava-cintamani. Stava-cintamani-vivrti. Svacchanda-tantra. Svacchanda-tantra-vivrti ( U d d y o t a ) . Tantraloka Tantraloka-viveka. Tripura-rahasya (Jnana-khanda). Tantra-sara. T r i v a n d r u m Sanskrit Series. Tantra-vrta-dhanika. Verse Number. Vakyapadiya. Vijnana-bhairava.




V.Bh.V. V.M. V.M.V. V.S. V.S.V.(V.N.S.Y.) Y.H. Y.H D. Y.S. Y.S.B.

Vijnana-bhairava-vivrti (Uddyota) Vamakesvarimata. Vamakesvarimata-vivarana. Vatula-natha-sutra. Vatula-natha-sutra-vrtti, Yoginihrdaya. Yogini-hrdaya-dipika. Yoga-sutra. Yoga-sutra- (Vyasa) -bhasya.

CHAPTER I K R A M A AS A D I S T I N C T S Y S T E M A brief analysis of the features that lend an independent status to Krama as a system of thought. 1. Krama: A system of Saiva philosophy in its own right While sharing much in common with the Pratyabhijna and Kula systems of Kashmir Saiva monism, the K r a m a system has much of its own to justify its recognition as an independent system of philosophy. T h e phrase Kashmir Saivism generally stands for the Pratyabhijna system, whereas in fact it has a much wider application comprising as it does all the monistic trends of Saivite speculation having their home in Kashmir. In spite of the fact that all these systems have common fundamental data since they spring from the same source of Saiva philosophy, they retain their intrinsic individual genius a n d appeal. In consequence, when a system is presented in its own merit, the idea is not to decry its integral character under a wider perspective, but to emphasize a n d analyse its real worth and significance. It is in this sense that the K r a m a system, despite its close affinities with the sister trends of thought, claims recognition as a system of philosophy. 2. Traditional recognition of its independence

Historically as well, K r a m a has been regarded as an independent system. Mankha in his Srikanthacarita mentions Mahanaya, another name of K r a m a , as a distinct philosophical school where the act of creation 5 follows that of withdrawal,


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

implying that the K r a m a system ardently adheres to the cyclic notion of Reality. This allusion to K r a m a in a literary work of the eleventh century is a sufficient proof of the popularity of the K r a m a school, even beyond the philosophical circles, in Kashmir. Abhinavagupta recalls the same fact in unmistakable terms in the Malinivijayavartika.l In the Tantraloka also this very fact has been reiterated. 2 In his Viveka on the Tantraloka J a y a r a t h a talks of the K r a m a system to be an independent one. 3 T h e treatment of the K r a m a system in the fourth Ahnika has been prefaced by him with a similar remark. 4 It is significant to note that in the last autobiographical verse, marking the conclusion of his Viveka, he declares 'Trika' and ' K r a m a ' as two different systems. 5 The author of the Mahanaya-Prakasa clearly stresses its individuality 8 and independent status among the varied schools of philosophy. 7 Mahesvarananda, too, does

Krama as a Distinct System


not forget to record his appreciation of the Pratyabhijna and the K r a m a as two separate systems 1 even when he means to pinpoint their common characters. 2 3. External evidence establishing its individuality Apart from the unanimous verdict of the K r a m a authors, there is external evidence also which establishes its independent status. It differs from other systems in point of its origin, its history, and its literature. Just as the Pratyabhijna has its first preceptor in Somananda, the Trika in Vasugupta, and the Kula in Macchanda, the K r a m a [has the same in Sivananda. The K r a m a system is further distinguished by the place of its origin. Its very conception took place in Kashmir, while all others somehow or the other, with the exception of the Spanda system, were imported into Kashmir by their preceptors or descendants and followers thereof. 4. Main Features We, however, have to distinguish between what others say of it and what the system says of itself. A brief account and comparative analysis of its salient features are attempted here to substantiate its unique character. (a) Krama as a Sakti-oriented and Tantric system

The K r a m a system at the outset appears to reflect a systematic emergence of the Sakta tendencies in the monistic Saivism of Kashmir. 3 As such it gives rise to many interesting developments and leads to many adjustments in the history of the K r a m a thought. T h e most important of such developments is the split of the system into two schools, one having its accent on the supremacy of the Siva aspect and the other on the Sakti


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

aspect of the Supreme Consciousness. 1 T h u s , while all other systems including the Kula, Pratyabhijna and Trika of Kashmir Saivism are Siva-oriented, the K r a m a is Sakti-oriented. 2 T h e Spanda system is an exception in the sense that it marks the transition between the two ideologies. But, at the same time, it has a natural leaning towards Sakti, the dynamic aspect of Reality. T h e important distinction beween the Spanda and the K r a m a lies in the fact that while the latter is a Tantric system, the former is not. It is perhaps the reason why Abhinavagupta, in his Tantraloka, deals with the K r a m a system under the Saktopaya as a distinct system of thought and does not accord a separate treatment to the Spanda school, though it (the Tantraloka) is full of references to and extracts from the Spanda authors and works. 3 The fact that the Pratyabhijna has secured a separate treatment under the Anupaya in the Tantraloka unlike the Spanda, the latter approximates to the former in respect of metaphysics rather than mysticism and
1. Likewise, the Kula and Tripura too are known to be different systems, but in fact they complement each other with the difference that while the Tripura lays stress on Sakti, the Feminine aspect, the Kula on Siva, the Masculine. 2. It may not entirely be out of point to connect this tremendous emphasis of the Sakti aspect with the spiritual activity undertaken by the female preceptors. The importance of the role played by the female teachers may be assessed from the fact that the system is said to have originated from the mouth of the Yoginis (lady ascetics) It is difficult to establish a "cause and effect" relationship between the Sakti-orientations and early preachings by female ascetics, yet it is a factor to be reckoned with. We have tried to deal with this phenomenon while disscussing the tantric character as well as the historical development of the system. This may, however, be taken as a practical translation of the theoretical orientation. Howsoever strange it may appear, it is important to note that Abhinavagupta who wrote so profusely and copiously on almost all the matters relating to Kashmir Saivism did not write a single independent work bearing on the Spanda branch. This fact has been noticed by Ksemaraja. Vide,


Krama as a Distinct System


esotericism.1 On the contrary, the Kula and the Krama, both being Tantric in origin and form, are more mystic than metaphysical. Yet, with all their differences they constitute together what is precisely meant by monistic Saivism of Kashmir. (b) Leaning towards monistic-dualistic character of Reality: its implication and consequences Another aspect which distinguishes the Krama system from other associate schools is its proneness towards the monistic-dualistic character of Reality at the pre-realization stage. As a spiritual discipline it has been specially designated as Bhedabhedopaya in order to bring out the importance it attaches to the idea of dualism or diversity within the general framework of monism or unity. The Krama system in the above role does not seek to confuse or mix up the two polarities (dualitycum-unity) but instead, unearths unity in the phenomenal duality as its intrinsic character (unity in duality - Bhede abhedah). 2 In other words the Krama is more closely connected with the immanent reality and interprets immanence as an essential expression of transcendence. Against this, the Pratyabhijna and Kula systems are immediately concerned with reality as unity (abheda) or the transcendental aspect of Reality. Whenever there appears a difference in the systems it is only the difference of approach or the general outlook. Even when the Bhedabhedavadin (in practice) is a real monist (in theory), he justifies the individuality of his approach by his utmost tolerance towards the other cognate systems.3 It eschews its dogmatism in this respect. In fact, the Krama system regards both duality and non-duality as irrelevant, since such a concept of Reality cannot be anything but relative. As a consequence, the system is very very critical of the concepts of Bandha
1. In incorporating the Pratyabhijna as an inalienable part of the basic plan of the Tantraloka Abhinava was possibly motivated by its enormous metaphysical value. Because it is the notion of Pratyabhijnana (recognition) that is the most significant single constituent of all the monistic Saiva systems of Kashmir.

2. Cf. Pt I I , Ch. I under "The Defining Features of Saktopaya" etc. and "Multiplicity of Approaches: A Special Feature". 3. Cf. Ibid., under " T h e Krama versus Other Systems" etc.


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(fetters) versus Moksa (freedom). 1 T h u s the Kula system prohibits the rituals and the Siddhanta Saivism advocates them. But the K r a m a and the Trika systems look upon the concepts of prohibition and injunction or negation and predication as external to the nature of Reality. 2 (c) Spiritual progression and moksa as synthesis of bhoga and moksa : Key features Moreover the definition of the Kula a n d K r a m a systems in terms of Sambhavopaya and Saktopaya is enough to focus their mutual points of difference and agreement. This point will be discussed on the occasion of the study of the K r a m a system as Saktopaya. 3 It is however, necessary to remember that the Pratyabhijna and the Kula do not subscribe to the idea of spiritual progression. But, the concept of spiritual progression is the very life-blood of the K r a m a system and its theory of the refinement of the thought-constructs (Vikalpa-samskara). T h e very term K r a m a denotes what is called spiritual progression. Similarly the term Kula (i.e., an organic whole) justifies its nomenclature by its non-adherence to the theory of Vikalpa and succession in self-realization. Thus the tantric ideal of selfrealization as synthesis of Bhoga and Moksa, better termed as Bhoga-moksa-samarasya, is realizable in the K r a m a system alone. 4 It is solely the K r a m a system which by virtue of its
1. Cf. Pt. II, Ch. I, under " T h e Krama Concept of Liberation — A Synthesis of Bhoga and Moksa".


See for details, Pt. II, Ch. I, under "Problem of Purity and Impurity in Relation to Consciousness". Cf. Pt II, Ch. I, under " T h e Defining Features of Saktopaya".

Krama as a Distinct System


theory of progressive refinement of Vikalpas lays equal emphasis on each and every step of self-realization as an embodiment of spirituality. T h e Kula and Pratyabhijna are not opposed or averse to such an ideal, but they do not have proper scope for it, since they adhere to the concept of instantaneous and immediate self-revelation. T h e image of the K r a m a system becomes clear only when we see through its concept of the Samarasya of D h a m a - V a r n a (Name a n d Form) and Cit (consciousness). 1 (d) Absolutic functionalism : A signficant aspect In this context a minor but significant point, though not entirely relevant, may also be adverted to. T h e functionalistic doctrine of the Trika i.e., five functions of the Absolute, has been adjusted suitably to the requirements of the K r a m a system. T h u s the last two of the five Absolutic acts namely, Tirodhana and Anugraha, have been replaced by Anakhya and Bhasa. 2 (e) Positive emphasis on the epistemic side of our experience K r a m a is a system with a positive epistemic bias. T h e epistemic undertones of the system form its special character and contrast it from the other systems. 3 It has just been noted that the Pratyabhijna and Spanda Schools are more metaphysical in intent. And though the Kula and the K r a m a , in common, have esoteric a n d mystical appearance, it is the K r a m a that lays more positive emphasis on the cognitive and the epistemic

2. Cf. Pt. I I . Ch. I, under "The Discovery of One's Potencies as a means to Self-discovery; Ch. III, under " T h e Relevance of the Present Treatment to Saktopaya and its Metaphysics". 3. Cf. Pt. II, Ch. I, under "The Defining Features of Saktopaya" and " J n a n a Sakti's Bearing on Saktopaya"; Ch. III, under "Core of the Problem with reference to Cognitive Processes Examined".


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

aspect. This is perhaps the basic philosophical value of the Krama as a system of philosophy. (f) Preference for Prakrta and certain minor features A reference to another unique Krama phenomenon would not be out of place here. It is really a characteristic feature of the Krama school that it favours Prakrta 1 in place of Samskrta for the presentation of its tenets. There is positive evidence to show that works like the Krama-sutra, both of the Mahanaya-Prakasas, Mahartha-Manjari, Chumma-sampradaya, Prakrta-trimsikavivarana and works of a few other authors were written in some form of the Prakrta or local vernaculars. Mahesvarananda is the first authority who takes note of it. There is only one other Tantric system which also evinces a preference for the use of Prakrta. But that is a Sakta system, not Saiva, famed as Tripura. 2 It, however, does not mean that the use of Samskrta was rare and unusual. On the contrary, the bulk of the literature, presently available, is in Samskrta. Likewise, a sweeping conclusion that the Krama had more popular appeal than other systems will probably be somewhat remote from truth. What is the possible source of such a phenomenon is a question that is proposed to be taken up in our study of the historical forces that gave the Krama a shape and a figure. Similarly the division of entire monistic Saiva thought into two classes namely, Traiyambaka and Ardhatraiyambaka, will also be considered under our study of Krama's tantric character. In this connection it may be noticed that while Kula is considered to be the Ardhatraiyambaka, the Krama, Kula and Pratyabhijna belong to the Traiyambaka category. The only justification for alluding to it here

But this has again to be noted that no work on the Tripura, which is in Prakrta, has come to our notice, whereas at least three of the above mentioned Krama works e.g., M. P, (S), C.S. (MS) and M. M. have come down to us.

Krama as a Distinct System


lies in the nature of the present enquiry which particularly aims at projecting the individual character of the Krama system. It should now be clear that internal as well as historical evidence is weighty enough to substantiate that the Krama is a system of tantric philosophy which merits a sincere consideration in its own right.

CHAPTER II ON THE NOMENCLATURE OF THE SYSTEM A study into the philosophical basis of the various names of the system and their significance T h e K r a m a system is variously styled as Kramanaya, Mahartha-naya etc., etc. Let us take each seriatim. 1. Krama-Naya

T h e first ever definite reference to the K r a m a as a system of philosophy, as we have already seen, is found in Abhinava. But it is rather amusing that he did not try to define the word symbolizing a particular system. It is J a y a r a t h a who identifies it with the theory that confides in the fourfold functionalism of the Absolute. 1 This interpretation is not J a y a r a t h a ' s own, but traditional one. For even before Abhinava, Utpala, popularly called Utpala Vaisnava and a contemporary of his teachers, interpreted the term in traditional phraseology of Kramacatuska (fourfold succession). 2 This is borne out by a statement of Ksemaraja who takes the word K r a m a to stand for the succession of the cyclic consciousness of emanation (Srsti),

Similarly Sivananda. the grand teacher of Mahesvarananda, has nearly the same definition:

On the Nomenclature of the System


sustenance (Sthiti) and withdrawal (Samhrti). While explaining the words " K r a m a - m u d r a " a n d " M u d r a - k r a m a " from the Krama-Sutras he also defines the word K r a m a in the context of the system. According to him, it is called K r a m a because it (i) causes emanation etc. to appear in succession (Krama) and (ii) itself constitutes the very nature of that (as well as their) successive appearance. 2 Hence K r a m a is the system that deals with such a phenomenon exclusively, all other aspects remaining subordinate to it. Let us consider in brief its precise bearing on the problem. O n e of the most basic tenets of the entire monistic Saiva thought of Kashmir is its theory of the five acts of the Absolute, namely, Srsti (emanation or emergence), Sthiti (sustenance), S a m h a r a (withdrawal or submergence), Tirodhana (concealment), and Anugraha (dispensing grace). T h e functionalistic doctrine, in question, maintains that the Absolute is unceasingly busy in bringing about these five acts, be it phenomenal order of existence or the trans-phenomenal one. It is the unfoldment of his being. Therefore, those who always reflect upon this pentadic activity of the Godhead, knowing the universe as an unfoldment and expression of the essential nature of Awareness, never fail to attain perfection and realize their true self in this very life. Those, for w h o m the objective content of their experience does not partake of the godly essence, continue to remain under the binding influence of ignorance. 3 T h e greatest advantage of this theory consists in its distinguishing the Kashmir Saiva monism from the Vedantic one. 4 Now the K r a m a is the system that


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

specially builds on this theme.1 So active has been its interest in the problem that the system saw the emergence of two divergent opinions with respect to the exact meaning of the word Krama. These theories later crystallized into what are known as Fourfunction (Catustayartha) and Five-function (Pancartha) theories. We however refrain from entering into controversy except making some necessary references since the same has been enlarged upon in the sequel.2 Samvit or Awareness-reality itself is succession or Krama. Whether it is a process of empirical cognition or that of reflective meditation or cosmic emanation, it is Samvit that defines and undergoes the process of succession (Krama). This process of succession is also termed Mahakrama. 3 Owing to varying traditions the entire process might be said to entertain four4 or five5 phases. In the four fold scheme the fifth function namely, Bhasa, is excluded while the fivefold scheme comprises all the acts. Whatever the case, these phases presuppose the cyclic notion of reality whose flow remains uninterrupted and uniform throughout. The genesis of numerical difference and successive phases lies in the intrinsic dynamism of the reality itself. The unitary flow appears to be divided due to the four acts that come in a succession. This divisive flow of the inherent

1. Cf. Pt. If, Ch. I, under 'Rise of the Cycle of Awareness"; Ch. III, under "Anakhya Cakra as Samviccakra and Saktopaya". 2. Cf. Pt. II, Ch. III, under "Krama as Pancartha and Catustayartha" etc.

On the Nomenclature of the



dynamism itself constitutes the K r a m a or succession. 1 Sometimes the place of the godly function is annexed by the godly potencies with little material effect on our stand. 2 T h e conception a n d structural niceties of the Samviccakra can only be explained with reference to this definition of the K r a m a and its implications, too, regarding the cyclic idea of reality resulting from its dynamic character. Because the twelve Kalis are the epistemic-metaphysical-mystic transformation of the fourfold (or fivefold) functionalism with regard to the object, subject and means of knowing or the first three acts, 3 in epistemic and cosmogonical settings respectively. This provides the proper context where the K r a m a system brings the real synthesis between the successive process of cosmic emergence and the trans-successive monistic principle - the primal origin of the ensuing succession. Unity and continuity of the absolutic (and hence subjective) dynamism can be realized only when the seeming gaps between the discrete modes viz., creation etc., of the absolutic manifestation are conserved and transformed into the real links that not only join but build the synthetic whole. This is done by tracing out the inner unity that pervades all these functional cycles. It is why the one, who has developed an intuitive insight into the essential character of the succession characterising the cyclic movement of the absolutic agency, earns a claim to emancipation during one's lifetime. 4


The first three acts, like Pancartha and Catustayartha, may be designated as Tryartha . This is possibly suggested by the following extract:-

See for detailed discussion, Pt. I I , Ch. I, under "Mutua relationship of the five cycles and conclusion"; Ch. III, under "Two Relevant Sub-features of Liberation."






The K r a m a has been further defined, under the spell of the Kashmir Saivism in general, in terms of time (Kala) and has been doubly designated as K a l a k r a m a 1 as well as Kala. 2 Kalakrama is a tautological expression because in its verbal analysis it is rendered as the succession called time (Kalakhyah Kramah) and not as succession of time (Kalasya K r a m a h ) . T h e K r a m a as time is responsible for the manifestation of total objectivity and absence thereof. 3 It rather partakes of such a manifestation or non-manifestation as the case may be. In all fairness, it must be admitted that the present definition is not meant to explain the K r a m a ' s special status as a system of Saiva monism. 4 T h e sole underlying idea is to expatiate upon and account for the phenomenon of succession in our routine experiences ranging from the microcosmic level to the macrocosmic one, and also how the discrete units coming in a series flow from the non-dual supra-sequential source. Because it is the objective world that is characterised a n d determined by succession and not the Absolute. In the context of the absolute reality the word K a l a would not mean simple sequential time, but creative time, the potential for the emergent reality of emanation. 5 Hence the interpretation of the


We know of at least one tantric effort that tries to give an esoteric explanation. It, however, has no intrinsic worth, for the entire jargon transpires to interpret it in terms of Kala-krama. Cf.

On the Nomenclature of the System


term K r a m a signifying temporal (as well as spatial) succession has received our attention in the context of Kali, the supreme metaphysical, ontological and mystic principle. 1 We now come to the third definition of the K r a m a offered by certain quarters of the system itself. Accordingly, the word K r a m a may be employed in two different ways e.g., the relative as well as the absolute. As a relative expression it calls for its counter-entity (Pratiyogin) in Akrama (transsequential) and signifies a particular phenomenon of our experience. In the phenomenal realm when the different operations of our cognitive apparatus and psychoses are directed to the grasp of external multiplicity, the whole situation is reckoned as K r a m a . Likewise, when the phenomenal level is transcended by diverting the same mechanism towards the trans-phenomenal, non-dual, undifferentiated reality, everything is automatically realized in its essentially trans-sequential character. This phenomenon is designated as Akrama. 2 On the other hand, as an absolute expression the word K r a m a stands for the same ' A k r a m a ' reality which remains always continuous, contd.]

1. See Pt. II, Ch. II.

Quoted from an Agama, T. A. V, III, p. 132. Be it noted that the expression Devatah stands for the Karanesvaris. It is peculiar Krama notion which visualizes ,the sense-organs, both external and internal (Karanas), as forms of the respective divinities in the Krama parlance.


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

eternally potential, self-subsistent immediate and indeterminate.1 It is this reality that constitutes the supreme ideal of the Krama doctrine and marks the terminus of the entire spiritual adventure advocated by the system.2 In the Krama works yet another use of the word Krama is encountered as denoting some form or act of worship or ritual.3 But such a contention is presently irrelevant and wide off the mark. Thus the main accent of all those attempts, that dwelt on the Krama as a specific system, appears to have been on the modus operandi of the principle of awareness (CitKrama). By fully appreciating the course and process adopted for the manifestation and realization of self we are made to fathom the inner depths of consciousness i.e., Reality per se. Thus the Krama, in simple language, may be identified with Cit-krama or Bodha-krama.4 (a) Anuttara-Krama Sometimes the word Krama is with some other appellation or epithet emphasis on a particular aspect of the ing with its actual signification. Thus, qualified by or prefixed in order to lay special system without interferfor instance, it has been

On the Nomenclature of the System


described as Anuttara K r a m a (metempirical order) bringing into focus the transcendental character of the supreme experience as twin-accomplishment in which lay the two poles of objective enjoyment and subjective freedom in perfect harmony. 1 (b) Anupaya-Krama Exactly on similar lines the K r a m a has been designated as Anupaya K r a m a 2 marking the highest spiritual and yogic attainment. The Anupaya-krama precisely has the same meaning as one conveyed by the word Krama when employed in its absolute sense of the ultimate ideal, as seen above. (c) Devata-Krama Similarly it has been styled as Devata-krama (order of the divinities) emphasizing that the inner significance of all the stages of cosmic emanation and spiritual advancement and, for that matter, of the Samviccakra lies in their divine character. Each step in the process, therefore, represents a divinity. 3 (d) Mahakrama In the opening pages, M a h a k r a m a as a synonym of Krama 4 has been looked into. This title has been probably coined in the wake of another name of the K r a m a system i.e., Mahartha, which is proposed to be discussed below and which literally means 'the great reality' or 'the great meaning'. This becomes quite clear when we find Mahesvarananda presenting


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

his famous work Maharthamanjari as the Mahakramamanjari in the concluding verses of commentary called Parimala.1 (e) Mahartha-Krama In spite of its renown as the M a h a r t h a exclusively, there is no dearth of the phrase i.e., Maharthakrama. 2 In such an expression, both the constituents of the compound enjoy the same import. The phrase stands for the K r a m a pertaining to the great reality (i. e., as conceived by the M a h a r t h a system). This phrase a n d the like actually have become the typical idiom of the system. (f) Auttara-Krama

The same K r a m a which has been presented as the Anuttara-krama from the metaphysical point of view is designated as the Auttara K r a m a 3 from the point of view of its place of origin. T h e K r a m a system arose in and spread from Kashmir 4

It says that the total play of succession or Krama as advocated by the system rests in Vrnda-cakra. By implication it also means that the entire eightfold order namely, Samvitkrama, Dhamkrama etc. form part of the Vrnda-cakra.

On The Nomenclature of the System


which is in the north and has been described as the Northern Seat (Uttara-Pitha) as well. 1 In a similar strain it has been described as Auttara Artha-tattva 2 (principle of ultimate reality pertaining to the north). Since a reference has also been made to Sivananda, 3 the earliest preceptor, whose name is associated with Kashmir, it appears a feasible reason to call the K r a m a system by the name of the Auttara K r a m a or the Auttara Tattva. Another factor that might have contributed to such a nomenclature is K r a m a ' s inclusion under Uttaramnaya. According to the traditional lore U t t a r a m n a y a stands for the teachings proceeding from the Northern mouth of Siva, that is, the ' V a m a m a r g a ' , because the Northern face is to the left. According to Dr. Pandey, 4 this interpretation agrees with the fact that the K r a m a enjoins the Dutiyaga 5 and the use of liquor, woman and meat as essentials 6 of worship which are necessary ingredients of the Vamamarga. It is, however, difficult to say that this is the precise suggestion of dubbing the K r a m a as practising the V a m a m a r g a . Although in the later form of the K r a m a system, which is chiefly presented by Mahesvarananda, such apparently immoral tendencies did crop up and earned a respectable place for themselves, yet the main stress laid by the K r a m a has always been on the spiritual side. Moreover the K r a m a is not called Uttaramnaya, but the cream and essence of the U t t a r a m n a y a . 7 In fact, the entire monistic current of

3. 4.

M. M. P , 197. Cf. Abhinava., pp. 280-281.


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Kashmir Saivism is identified with Uttaramnaya 1 i. e., teachings that proceeded from the Northern mouth of Siva. On the contrary, the Kashmir Saiva agamas are classified under the Daksina group of the three categories of Saiva tantras namely, Varna, Daksina and Siddhanta.2 Sitikantha sets at rest all doubts in this respect. The Uttaramnaya occupies the highest place of all the amnayas and the Mahartha i. e., Krama, ranks supreme among the Uttaramnayas. 3 All these observations are, however, at their tentative stage, since it is difficult to close the chapter with a final judgement. The difficulty is aggravated by Raghava Bhatta, who in his commentary on a verse of the Saradatilaka,4 remarks that the first half of the verse incorporates the Pratyabhijna doctrine as propounded by the Siva-sutra and Trikabheda etc., whereas the second half represents the Uttaramnaya view.5 He quotes from a certain source to substantiate his contention but does not name the work. If one abides by the thesis of Raghava Bhatta, he will have to admit that the Trika and the Uttaramnaya are two different things and reject the previously held view that the Uttaramnaya is another name for the monistic trend of the Saivite speculation of Kashmir. As a compromise formula it may be suggested that while distingu-

On the Nomenclature of the System


ishing between the two (Pratyabhijna and Uttaramnaya) the commentator (as well as the author) wants to pinpoint their classical and agamic nature respectively. But as the things are, the Uttaramnaya view, in question, is nearer to the Krama than to the Pratyabhijna. Still, as has been said, it is difficult to state anything categorically in such a confused state of affairs.1 Nevertheless, though we may not be certain about the exact significance of the term Uttaramnaya, the appellation Auttara Krama, from its geographical perspective, does not pose a problem. 2. Mahartha or Mahartha-Naya The other equally meaningful and popular denomination of the system is Mahartha. In its most current form the word Mahartha is used to denote the system,2 but occasionally the word Drsti (i.e., point of view or philosophy)3 or Naya4 (i. e.
1. It might be useful to Gopinath Kaviraj: quote the following observation of M. M.


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

system) has also been added to give it a more compact look. Historically the term M a h a r t h a as a substitute for the word K r a m a meaning a system is a later development and perhaps the earliest allusion to the system in this form may be traced to Ksemaraja. 1 A n d as the system grew, the word Mahartha rather overshadowed the usage of the word K r a m a in later literature 2 and gained the status of a full-fledged system, as the use of the word siddhanta 3 for it would indicate. In this context it is necessary to note that this word is employed to convey two different, though complementary, senses. In the first place it is a name of a philosophical system 4 and in the second, it stands for the ideal or value the system deems to be ultimate and, consequently, harnesses its entire machinery to attain the same. 5 Really speaking the first sense is derived from the second one and, hence, stands for that system which deals with the principle of M a h a r t h a .
1. Cf. fns. 3 and 4 supra p. 21. 2. Cf. fn. 2 supra p. 21. Also see M. M.P., pp. 179, 194, 197, 201.

On the Nomenclature of the System


It may, however, be noted in passing that the word Mahartha seems to have been formulated under the tantric impact, particularly that of the Tripura system. It is conceived to serve as the basic substrate for the totality of the sixfold reality or meaning as envisaged in the Sakta tantras. A peep into a statement 1 of Mahesvarananda would perhaps explain the basis of the present contention. Let us, now, enquire into the precise meaning and nature of the M a h a r t h a . Why is it that it is preferred to name the principle of fundamental reality as M a h a r t h a ? T h e obvious reason seems to be that the tantric philosophy usually holds that the ultimate reality has two aspects - word and meaning (vacaka and vacya). T h e entire stretch of our field of experience, whether m u n d a n e or meta-mundane, is subsumed under these two aspects which are knit together by the relation of significand-significans (vacaka-vacya-bhava). Thus the ultimate reality, in its aspect as the Logos i.e., word, is the Vacaka and so is it with regard to its ontological being and formal becoming, the Import i.e., Vacya. Vacya and Artha being synonymous, it is the absolute or the basic reality that is termed as Mahartha. 2 T h u s the term M a h a r t h a , as denotative of the "great principle of meaning or reality" brings into relief the emergent nature of reality as containing the total possibilities of self-becoming. This has an explicit reference to the dynamic aspect of reality which comprehends and accounts for the cosmic expansion of the Absolutic personality. The K r a m a is necessarily related with this emergence and expression of Reality. 3 Sitikantha, the celebrated author of the Mahanaya-


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Prakasa has devoted the first and third chapters (Udayas) of his treatise exclusively to discuss and determine the precise meaning of the term Mahartha. A few aspects of the problem have again been looked into in the fourth and eleventh chapters. For want . of space it is not possible to go into each detail, but an attempt will be made to study his important observations in this regard. He himself poses the problem - what can be said to be the great meaning denoted by the word Mahartha 1 and proceeds to answer. His primary contention is that in view of the monistic ideology, none else than the reality itself which is one with consciousness, can be the true import of the term. But when it comes to adopting an analytical attitude towards reality, there are five things that may afford to be called Mahartha. These five are - (i) the indivisible and partless reality, (ii) aspects of that reality, (iii) approaches leading to the attainment of the reality or (iv) to that of the aspect thereof, and (v) ancillary approaches that are instrumental to the fruition or fructification of the primary approaches indicated above.2 Of course, it is the reality proper which may be called Mahartha in its own right, while the rest are so called only indirectly or secondarily.3 After interpreting" the term Mahartha from the point of view of reality, he now goes ahead to define the same from the point of view of our experience, spiritual or otherwise. He again puts the question - what is this Mahartha, is it meditating upon the cycles and their presiding deities? No, it denotes the

On the Nomenclature of the system


condition when one is completely possessed of the feeling of self-sameness1 with the Absolute. He takes up eight instances2 for the sake of illustration and each instance in their ultimate analysis is found to culminate in or turn out as the experience of unity and non-duality with the self. Thus by Mahartha we are to understand that state of mind or spiritual awakening which never loses the sight of ultimate non-duality in all sorts of experiences, whatever the realm of existence they might belong to3 because everything that can be thought of is but an instance of the basically monistic principle. In other words, therefore, the perfect state of mind or the state of self-fulfilment may be equally designated as Mahartha - that dispels even the slightest tinge of distinction between ' I ' and 'you' i.e., the self and the not-self.4 The same state of self-perfection is identified with the Anakhya stage in the doctrinal parlance which, too, is said to be characterised by harmony and utter want of duality.5 It, thus, may be logically concluded that these items i.e., the unitary character of reality and the basically non-dual harmonious experience etc., form the main subject-matter of the system. Hence the name Mahartha. 3. Mahanaya The term Mahanaya as an appellation of the Krama system appears to have been a favourite of the later Krama authors because the earliest references available do not go


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

back beyond Sivananda I I , the author of the Mahanaya-Prakasa1 (T) But that the phrase was extremely popular is evinced by the very fact that at least the two important K r a m a texts have been named after it. T h e one is just referred to above and the other is by Sitikantha. T h e other references to it, indicative of its denoting a system, are found in Jayaratha, 2 Sitikantha 3 and Ananta Saktipada. 4 It has got exactly the same meaning as its counterpart, Mahartha. At least once it has been stated that the word ' M a h a ' (Mahan) in the compound stands for " A r t h a " i.e., reality. 5 It may also be surmised following the present line of thinking that the word M a h a n a y a was probably a condensed or abridged form of the phrase Maharthanaya wherein ' M a h a n ' stood for reality (as conceived by the K r a m a system) and 'Naya' for the system. 4. Mahasara

We are not absolutely certain that the word M a h a s a r a stood for the K r a m a system. But the context, in which this phrase 6 is found, is weighty enough to support the hypothesis that Ksemaraja wants us to believe that it was another way of presenting the M a h a r t h a ideal. Because the phrase immediately

On the Nomenclature of the System


follows his remark that the Stotra in question (i.e., Divya-kridabahumanastotra) is replete with the statements bearing upon the Maharthatattva. 1 Moreover, his qualifying the word Mahasara with the epithet Stiman, 2 as he usually does with Mahartha when he wishes to refer to the system,3 strengthens our conjecture. 5. Atinaya On the authority of an extract cited by Jayaratha in order to demonstrate the lack of complete unanimity with regard to the precise line of the Krama teachers, it may be concluded that the Krama system was also known as Atinaya.4 In Sitikantha one finds this position categorically endorsed.5 Here a problem poses itself which escapes a definite solution for the present. Abhinavagupta, while enumerating different systems of the Kashmir Saiva group, also mentions a system named Atimarga. 6 Since the Atimarga is mentioned side by side the Krama and Kula, it is natural to treat them as the separate lines of thought. But, curiously enough, Jayaratha cites a passage7 which presents Atimarga as Kula, because the reference is being made to Sumatinatha, the great-grand-teacher of Abhinava in the Kula system. Now the problem can briefly be put as under -


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

(a) Do the two terms namely, Atinaya and Atimarga, stand for one and the same system? If so which is that system, since (i) Atimarga is different from the Krama and Kula systems according to Abhinava, (ii) Atinaya is identified with the Krama, as has been noted above, (iii) Atimarga is identified with the Kula system by an authority approvingly quoted by Jayaratha. There are two probable alternatives. First, the Atimarga may be taken as constituting a common trait of all the monistic systems of Kashmir which, according to the unanimous verdict of the tradition, are inherently superior (atinaya - nayam atikramya) to other systems. Hence its equation with either of the Kula and Krama does not cause much difficulty. The separate identity of the Kula and Krama withers away when the Krama ultimately culminates in the Kula. This contention has a purely hypothetical value in the absence of any positive evidence to bear it out. The second alternative is suggested by a cue from Sitikantha. The Atinaya, accordingly, may be identified with the Samaya-Vidya i.e., Tripura system, in the sense that the highest ideal of the Krama system is also the supreme goal of the Samaya-vidya marking the culmination of the entire panorama of the Krama. 1 This alternative seems more plausible, because Kashmir's contribution to the Tripura system is immense and in no measure less than that to the Kula etc. The Krama system may also be viewed as a transitionary link between the Kula, a Saiva system, and the Tripura, a Sakta system, with no fundamental difference except one in their varying emphasis on one of the two aspects. When Abhinavagupta refers to the Atimarga as independent of the Kula, he might have intended to highlight the individual status of the two systems (Tripura and Kula). And where Atinaya is identi-

On the Nomenclature of the System


fied with Krama or Atimarga with Kula, the emphasis seems to be on their agreements. We however leave the question open for future research with the comment that there was a time in the history of the Krama thought when the word Atinaya signified the Krama system. Thus the controversy view comes to address itself to the feasibility and tenability of the equation between the Atimarga and the Atinaya. 6. Devatanaya or Devinaya From the context it is obvious that Jayaratha interprets the word Devinaya in terms of the Krama system.1 The doctrine that holds the female divinity (the female aspect of reality i e., Sakti or Kali) as the ultimate principle is designated as Devatanaya.2 The main thesis of the system consists in the capacity of reality (in its female aspect) to come out and chisel the entire multiplicity even without the support of a canvas. The term Devatanaya is more palatable to those who subscribe to the theory of the absolute ultimacy of the female aspect and relegate the male aspect of reality (i.e., Siva) to a slightly inferior position. They believe in the basic identity of the two aspects, yet feel that whatever their difference, howsoever minute, is worthy of careful attention for the infallible and correct appreciation of reality. To them, therefore, the Paramesvara (or the Lord-Absolute) marks the end of the traffic of time (Kala), whereas the Devi (the Lady-Absolute) is the repository or the culminating point of that end itself.3 Sitikantha cites certain

**Avagraha (s) after Apte has been added by us to make the line intelligible.


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

agamic source to suggest that the Devatanaya (i.e., system of the goddess) is the system that revolves round the divine functionalism and where the functions e.g., Srsti, etc. are the other names of the powers of the Absolute such as volition etc. 1 7. Kalinaya There are no particular reasons for naming it as Kalinaya other than those adduced above. The Devi, which is the absolute ontological principle, is designated as Kali or Kala-Samkarsini. 3 Another possible reason might lie in its adherence to the Anakhya- krama or Samviccakra which accounts for cosmic emanation in terms of the twelve (or thirteen) Kalis. 4 8. Conclusion There are a few other designations of the Krama system which are not considered for fear of unnecessary details. Moreover, those appellations do not have the common approval of the Krama authors. If they are coined and also referred to, the intention always has been to reflect on the nexus between the Krama system and the particular context in which they figure. Nevertheless a few denominations, that have bearing on its tantric character, have been taken into account in our enquiry on the tantric character of the Krama system.

3. See, Pt. II, Ch. II. 4. See, Pt. II, Ch. II.

C H A P T E R III K R A M A AS A T A N T R I C S Y S T E M An analysis and exptoratory study of the fundamentals of the Krama Tantricism in the wider perspective of the esoteric tantricism of monistic Saivism of Kashmir 1. Rise of tantricism in Krama : A later development Profuse references to the tantric leanings of the K r a m a system in the past impel us to advert to the study of the tantric character of the system. The entire growth of the K r a m a thought has undergone a radical process of transformation from philosophy to tantricism or a journey from the metaphysical speculation to the tantric practice and symbolism or, to be more exact, from the philosophic tantricism to the esoteric tantricism. From the earliest phase devoted to the analysis and examination of the functional and activistic character of the Absolutic dynamism, one comes to an era of pure tantricism in Mahesvarananda who describes his work as a Tantra 1 with a sense of pride. It is no doubt a fact that the K r a m a system, having been nurtured under agamic influence, h a d tantric associations from the very beginning, yet the philosophical and mystical side enjoyed the upperhand. Later on, the same was m a d e subservient to the tantric demands on it.


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir 2 . Tantra-Prakriya Versus Kula-Prakriya:Krama as a part of the Tantra-Prakriya in the Tantraloka

T h e very fact that Abhinavagupta deals with the K r a m a system in the Tantraloka (lit., the light of the Tantras) makes out a strong case in support of its tantric build u p . This conclusion does not take into account the circumstantial evidence alone. It is, in fact, implied, according to J a y a r a t h a , in the very scheme of the Tantraloka. He says, the whole subject-matter of the Tantraloka falls under two heads viz., Tantra-Prakriya and Kula-Prakriya. 1 O n e is not immediately concerned with Abhinava's comparatively more favourable disposition towards the Kula. What is significant is the fact that the mainstream of the monistic thought has been split into two currents. T h e first current namely, the Tantra-Prakriya, is traced to Traiyambaka and the other one namely, the Kula-Prakriya, to Ardhatraiyambaka. 2 As the tradition has it, there were four preceptorial schools (or lines of teachers) technically known as Mathikas. T h e schools founded by Amardaka and Srinatha and continued by their spiritual descendants related to the dualistic and dualistic-cum-monistic trends of thought respectively. Traiyambaka was responsible for propagation of the monistic thought. In his case the most peculiar thing is that he is credited with having inspired two monistic schools - one, which he propagated directly, was called the Traiyambaka Mathika a n d the other, which was founded by a descendant on his daughter's side, won the title of the Ardha-traiyambaka Mathika. 3 It is these two


Cf. T. A. V.. I, pp. 26-28 and Abhi., pp. 132-136.

Krama as a Tantric System


schools that are sought to be identified with the T a n t r a and the Kula Prakriya respectively. But it is quite likely that one may miss the precise implications of the above contention with regard to the K r a m a system. It may be noted that while the Kula system is accorded a separate identity as constituting Ardha-traiyambaka line of thinking, all other monistic systems, namely, Trika, K r a m a and Pratyabhijna (Spanda excluded) are subsumed under the Tantra-Prakriya or the Traiyambaka school. 1 It is further to be noted that the fact of such inclusion has not been admitted openly, but the conclusion becomes irresistible when one finds the entire Sadardha-krama-vijnana (one of the typical ways of presenting the monistic-Saiva thinking of Kashmir in general) 2 being identified with the Traiyambaka school. It may also be noted that although the K r a m a a n d Trika etc. have different secular history, they seem to be one in the matter of their origin. O n e factor consists in the generally acclaimed close affinity between the Trika and the Krama. 3 T h e assertion that the K r a m a system finally culminates in the Kula refers more to the ultimate spiritual possibilities of the K r a m a system than to their apparent structure, while the identity between the Trika and K r a m a system ensues from their present character. T h e other factor happens to be that Abhinava learnt K r a m a from that very set of teachers led by

Be it noted that while dwelling upon the Krama concept of parity between predication and negation Jayaratha generally refers to Krama as Trika, as if the two were one. See, T.A.V., III, pp. 279-290. Also of. Pt. I I , Ch. I, under " T h e Krama versus other sister systems etc."


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Somananda from whom he learnt Trika and Pratyabhijna. 1 As opposed to this, he had a different line of teachers for the Kula culminating in S a m b h u n a t h a . And yet both the T a n t r a and Kula Prakriyas join each other as a part and parcel of a monolithic monistic complex evolved by Abhinavagupta. This may be perhaps due to: (i) the descent of divine revelation of the monistic brand through the same source, namely, Traiyambaka (either directly or indirectly), and

(ii) the Kula's unflinching adherence to the agamic wisdom in common with the fellow doctrines, as contained in the Malini-Vijayottara Tantra and thus inclusion of the Kula under the broader Trika scheme. 2 3. Tantra-Prakriya Analyzed It is disquieting to see that Abhinava, even though subjecting his observations to the minutest analysis, nowhere men-

Jayaratha lends additional support to the above contention in following lines:-

a. TA. 1.8. referring to the earlier teachers of the Traiyambaka school i.e., Tantra Prakriya. b. M.V.T. 17.18 suggesting the Krama doctrine of Sattarka i.e.. Right Logic. c. Laksmanagupta, Utpala and Somananda respectively, vide T.A. 1.10.11.

Krama as a Tannic System


In this connection it might be interesting to take into account the following observation made by Ksemaraja in his Pratyabhijnahrdaya while explaining the 8th Sutra

According to this statement all the three schools viz., the Tantra, Kula and Trika, stand on different footings and propagate divergent views with regard to the nature of the ultimate reality. Thus, the ultimate reality is transcendental to the Tantrikas, immanent to the Kaulas and transcendent-immanent to the Trikas. This view of Ksemaraja, apparently, comes in direct conflict with the stand adopted by Abhinavagupta that the word Tantra Prakriya is comprehensive enough so as to include all the varying shades of Trika, Krama and Pratyabhijna within its ambit. It is very strange that all the editions of the Pratyabhijnahrdaya and their respective editors are silent on this point - in fact it does not seem to bother any one of them. It, however, appears to the present author that Ksemaraja does not use the word Tantra and Kula in the same technical sense as is used by Abhinava. For, the views ascribed to the Tantra and Kula systems by him are not exactly those as they are known to have held on the basis of the available literature. So far as the concept of the ultimate reality is concerned, all the systems - those which are assigned under Tantra-prakriya and those which are not (i e., those which subscribe to Kula-prakriya) - unreservedly take it to be both, transcendent as well as immanent. This view is essentially one which has been ascribed by Ksemaraja to the adherents of the Trika and its like systems (note the word 'adi' in Trikadi). It is, therefore, plausible to conclude that the words Tantra and Kula as used by Ksemaraja do not stand for their counterparts within the fold of Kashmir Saiva Monism, instead they represent alien forces. The word Trikadi, in fact, stands for the monistic Saivism of Kashmir in general which is further subdivided into Tantra and Kula Prakriyas. It would, therefore, appear that the view expressed by Ksemaraja does not contradict what has teen shown to have been maintained by his master, Abhinavagupta.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

tions 'his' conception of the Tantra-Prakriya 1 in contrast with the Kula Prakriya. It remains for his students to draw their own conclusion.
1. No attempt is made here to define the word Tantra. In tantric par lance, however, it is called Tantra because it promulgates great know ledge concerning reality (tattva) and Mantra, and, because it save from the worldly trammels—

Owing to his uncompromising monistic attitude the Trika author views the phenomenon of knowledge as a continuity and totality of the final Awareness. Hence, to a Trika author Tantra stands for such a text where the teacher, the taught and the teaching - everything happens to be identical with the supreme consciousness and it is consciousness that enacts the role of the teacher and the taught in the form of the enquirer and the replier:

But such descriptions fail to enlighten us about the precise nature and subject matter of the Tantras. For details of the etymology, genesis and definition of the word Tantra see Sakti and Sakta, Sir John Woodroffe, pp. 52-53 and History of Dharma Sastra, Kane, V-II, pp. 1031-33. Unswerving mind and controlled senses - these two things are said to constitute the essential features of the tantras. Vide -

This is all that we find expressly mentioned in the essentials of tantric culture. But this, too, does not give us insight into the bases of the tantric way of thinking as well as living

Krama as a Tantric System


One is, therefore, supposed to directly appeal to the contents of the Tantraloka, Tantrasara and Mahartha-manjari (which is professedly presented as a tantric treatise) to find out what are the tantric features the K r a m a system claims to partake of.1
1. For fuller grasp of the subject and comparative analysis of the common features of the tantras Woodroffe's following observation will be helpful:"As instances of general ideas I may cite the following: the conception of Deity as a Supreme Personality (Parahamta) and of the double aspect of God in one of which He really is or becomes the Universe; a true emanation from Him in His creative aspect; successive emanations (Abhasa, Vyuha) as of "fire from fire" from subtle to gross; doctrine of Sakti: pure and impure creation; the denial of unconscious Maya, such as Samkara teachers; doctrine of Maya Kosa and the Kancukas (the six Saiva Kancukas being, as Dr. Schrader says, represented by the possibly earlier classification in the Pancaratra of the three Samkocas); the carrying of the origin of things up and beyond Purusa-Prakrti, the Samkhyan Gunas, and evolution of Tattvas as applied to the doctrine of Sakti; affirmation of the reality of the Universe; emphasis on devotion (Bhakti); provision for all castes and both sexes. "Instances of common practice are for example Mantra, Bija, Yantra, Mudra, Nyasa, Bhutasuddhi, Kundaliniyoga, construction and consecration of temples and images (Kriya), religious and social observances (Carya) such as Ahnika, Varnasrama Dharma, Utsava; and practical magic (Mayayoga). Where there is Mantra, Yantra, Nyasa. Diksa, Guru, and the like, there is Tantra Sastra. In fact one of the names of the latter is Mantra Sastra. With these similarities there are certain variations of doctrines and practice between the schools. Necessarily also, even on points of common similarity, there is some variance in terminology and exposition which is unessential.'' Vide Sakti and Sakta, pp. 58-59. Vide also Introduction to Principles of Tantra, pt. I I , pp. XII-XIV; The Saktas by E. A. Payne, p. 137, for a similar view. Also of. History of Dharma Sastra, Vol. V, Pt. 2, p. 1092, fn. 1768. Similarly T. A. Gopinatha Rao makes an important observation while distinguishing between the words agama and tantra which appears profitable to quote, " T h e words agama and tantra are used throughout this work as synonymous; strictly speaking an agama differs but slightly from a tantra. The former is said to deal with twentyfive subjects such as the nature of the Brahman, Brahmavidya, the names of the different tantras, creation and destruction of the world, etc. The latter treats of only seven out of the twentyfive subjects dealt within


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

a. Chararteristic Features of Tantra as Outlined in the Tantrasara Abhinava in his Tantrasara, an epitome of knowledge, seems to suggest the following points as common grounds among the monistic tantras:the tantric

(i) ignorance as imperfect knowledge identified with impurity (mala); twofold division of ignorance in the form of the spiritual (Paurusa) and the conceptual (Bauddha), the latter being more important as constituting primary step towards self-realisation; (ii) Reality as self-luminosity and consciousness; (iii) objective multiplicity as a manifestation of Awareness; (iv) the Supreme Consciousness as Free Will; (v) Reality as simultaneously transcendent and immanent due to its integral dynamism and freedom; (vi) individual self or empirical being as a phenomenon of self-limitation of reality; (vii) re-emergence of the limited self as Universal Self spontaneously, owing to unrestricted agency of the self or gradually, with the help of earlier means necessitating the refinement of Vikalpas; 1 (viii) necessity of Sattarka (right logic), Sadagama (right scripture) and Sadguru (right teacher) as aides to reemergence of eclipsed personality in original splendour on a graduated scale through purification of thoughtconstructs; (ix) Sattarka (right logic), the most efficacious part of the Yoga, as an immediate means for self-attainment;
the agamas. Sometimes the word yamala is used as synonymous with agama and tantra; and a yamala deals with only five out of the twentyfive subjects in the agamas." (Elements of Hindu Iconography, Vol. I, Pt. I, p . 21 (fn.) Rao, however, does not enlighten us on the source of his information. It is, therefore, difficult to assess its textual authenticity. 1. For points from (i) to (vii) see T.S.. pp. 2.7.

Krama as a Tantric System


(x) recourse to practices such as Vaga, Homa, Vrata, Yoga etc. for subliming the right logic which is pureknowledge (Suddha-Vidya); (xi) realization of perfection-consciousness through manifestation of totality of powers; (xii) supremacy of the Trika scriptures. 1 b. Mahesvarananda and Ramyadeva on Tantra as well as the Tantric Character of Krama Mahesvarananda in his Gathas 2 2 , 69 3 which he devotes exclusively to examining the essentials of a tantra and by implication of his M a h a r t h a tantra i.e., Mahartha-manjari, too, is more specific and precise than the generalization of those that have not been covered above. Thus these aspects are: (i) T h e worldly multiplicity, represented by sensuous objects such as touch, sound etc., ordinarily supposed to be binding turns out to be the unfailing means of self-realisation. 4 (ii) T h e means and goal of the spiritual attainment are identical. 5 (iii) H a r m o n y of the two aspects of reality i.e., Being (Prakasa) and Dynamism (Vimarsa), constitutes the nucleus of our physical being which too is identical with the totality of six channels (Adhvans). 6
1. For points from (viii) to (xii) of. T.S., pp. 21-32.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir (iv) Abhyudaya and Nihsreyas of the Vedic terminology are transformed into Bhoga and Moksa in the tantric phraseology. While ordinarily enjoyment (bhoga) and freedom (moksa) cannot be combined as being opposite forces, they are synthesized into one unit marking the state of liberation where an object of enjoyment is visualized as an expression of selfreality. 1 (v) Wine, w o m a n and meat which stand badly condemned in other systems occupy a place of basic importance in the ritualistic scheme because they offer a crucial a n d hard test of one's spiritual advancement. 2 (vi) M a n t r a is the fundamental component of any spiritual or textual adventure as it stands for the indeterminate matrix of the world known as P a r a Vak. T h e same is also identified with the principle of supreme agency consisting in I-consciousness or self-experience that enlivens the mantra. 3 (vii) Worship (Pujana), deity (Devata) and physical postures ( M u d r a ) , - everything transpiring to be essentially a reflection on the individual self's identity with the Universal Self - are the factors that impart a definite tantric look to any doctrine. 4

Krama as a Tantric System


T h e fourth aspect is logically deduced from the first one as presented above. In this connection an allusion to a few observations made by Ramyadeva in his commentary on the Bhavopahara would make this study more meaningful. He portrays the K r a m a system as one that believes in the identity of the Full (Purna) a n d the Lean (Krsa) deity. Implying that even when Reality (i.e., divinity par transcendence) is not involved in cosmic manifestation owing to withdrawal of the latter, it retains its perfection. 1 T h e other remark relates to the seventh aspect, mentioned above. In his view recourse to the practices like worship etc. being essentially another way of meditative realization of one's divine essence, turns out to be instinctive and integral part of our spiritual personality. As an essential dimension of spiritual being the act of worship never comes to a close. 2 c. Characteristic Features of Krama as a Tantric System Thus it is evident that the K r a m a as a tantric system, rests upon intuition and discourages dialectic. In doing so it approximates to some modern tendencies of the Western philosophy. T h e tantric character seeks its fulfilment in the harmonious reconcilement of intuition with practical realization. It is why, by the fourfold divisions of tantric subject matter (Jnana, Yoga, Kriya, Carya) J n a n a is linked up with Kriya and Carya through Yoga. It also explains the reason behind acclaiming the Malini Tantra as the chief source of inspiration, because it struck a balance between speculation and p r a c t i c e 3 Likewise,


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

synthesis of Bhoga and Moksa - the sine qua non of the tantric philosophy is the tantric rendering of harmony between knowledge and action. T h e key objective of the Tantraloka is to expound this theme through an exposition of the four upayas that are the tantric adaptations of the various systems under the Trika. 1 This synthesis is achieved by leading intuition, according to the tantra, into higher and higher possibilities by means of Sadhana i.e., practice, whose result is the gradual unfolding of the spirit's latent potencies. T h u s philosophy of the tantra is a practical philosophy which, according to an eminent Indian author, "not merely 'argues' but 'experiments'." 2 4. Two Phases of the Krama-Tantricism In the earlier phase which comes to a close with Ksemaraja or Varadaraja, the K r a m a system was marked by a definiteproclivity towards philosophical and intuitional issues. In tantric phraseology the aspects J n a n a and Yoga remained superior to those of C a r y a and Kriya. It is in fact its main plank against the Kula and Siddhanta doctrines as subsequent study would reveal. But later on the emphasis was reversed a n d the ritualistic aspect came on the threshold. Mysticism and metaphysics were made to serve the interests of esotericism and ritualism. T h e tendency makes deeprooted strides as we drift close to Mahesvarananda and Sitikantha. Sometimes the author is so lost in esoteric jargon that it becomes a test for a modern student 3 to carry on his perusal. However, the later phase


Sakti and Sakta, p. 03. The view referred to has been ascribed to Prof. Pramatha Natha Mukhopadhyaya, now of Swami Pratyagatmananda fame. For instance the following phrases from the Bhavopahara-vivarana have surpassed the comprehension of the present author:


Krama as a Tantric System


attaches importance to the Mudra, M a n t r a 1 a n d Pujana 2 etc. to the extent that these emerge as the central features of the system. Similarly the Pitha, the spiritual seat, which attracted only passing references before, now comes to be eulogised as constituting the most vital element in the system. 3

It is just an instance, Sitikantha's work, in particular abounds in such expressions.

The above lines do not try to ascertain the exact number of spiritual seats (Pithas) according to the Krama system. But according to the material available, the indications are that they did not deviate much from these in the other traditions. In support we reproduce an extract from the History of Dharmasastra, by P. V. Kane (Vol 5, Pt. 2, p. 1038, fn. No. 1673) which brings into open a comparative estimate of tantric thinking in regard to the Pithas. It reads: "It appears that in some Tantra works five Pithas are named (according to H. P. Sastri's Cat. of Nepal Palm-leaf and selected paper MSS in the Nepal Durbar Library. Calcutta, 1905, p. LXXX) viz., Odiyana (in Orissa, says H.P. Sastri), Jala (in Jalandhar), Purna Matanga in Srisaila and Kamakhya in Assam...The Sadhanamala (Vol. II, pp. 453 and 455) mentions Uddipana, Purnagiri, Kamakhya and Sripitha. The Kulacudamanitantra (Tantrik Texts, Vol. IV, in 6th Patala, verses 3-7) refers to five Pithas viz., Uddiyana, Kamarupa, Kamakhya, Jalandhara and and Purnagiri (Vide also 3rd Patala, 59-


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

61)." Also vide "The first two are respectively identified with Kamakhya or Kamarupa (three miles from Gauhati) and modern Sylhet. The exact situation of the other two (Kamakhya and Kamarupa are identical according to others) is a controversial matter. M M.H.P. Sastri identified Uddiyana with Orissa. His son Dr. B. Bhattacharya furnishes good ground for holding that Uddiyana was near Swat valley in N . W . India and Grousset In the footsteps of Buddha pp 109-110 holds the same view" (ibid., pp. 1038-39). For the sake of relevancy it may be pointed out that Mahesvarananda does not treat Sripitha and Uddiyana as two separate pithas. Though Oddiyana is a subordinate pitha 'yet it ranks supreme in its effectiveness as spiritual seat.

Sitikantha echoes the same view (vide, M.P.(S) pp. 2 and 50). It may be mentioned that the former belonged to Chola in Kerala, whereas the latter to Kashmir. The Cidgagana-Candrika, extols Purnapitha as the highest C.GC.4. 128). There is mention of another Pitha e.g., Uttarapitha which is identical with present Kashmir Really speaking Krama is called Uttaramnaya because it arose in and spread out from Uttarapitha. This Pitha has escaped the notice of other Tantric works. There is still another view which tends to identify Kashmir, indeed by implication, with Oddiyana. On this view, which banks on Sivananda's statement in the Rjuvimarsini and has been quoted by Mahesvarananda (MM.P., p. 193), Tripura and Krama both the systems would originate from one place. However, the spokesman of this view would seem to take Uttarapitha and Uddiyana as one.

Krama as a Tantric System


The K r a m a subscribes to the general tantric belief that their philosophy was revealed through the Yoginis. This belief is a legacy of the earlier stages 1 and has been retained even afterwards. 2 Such a convention suits K r a m a more than any other system. Because, as we are likely to see, the first recipients of the K r a m a wisdom were the female ascetics. Similarly, in one of mythical accounts of the system's origin, it is traced to Makaradevi. Even the famous twelve Kalikas are sometimes described as Yoginis. 3 In this connection liberty may be taken for hazarding a suggestion that Mahesvarananda's story of divine inspiration from a female ascetic in a dream might be a left-over of this tradition. In the beginning the K r a m a system was intended to cater to the spiritual urges of all strata of h u m a n society and hence it envisaged a scheme of graded emancipation. But gradually, as the time passed, greater a n d greater secrecy came to shroud it and it did not, perhaps, allow common man the same easy access to it as he was accustomed to enjoy. It might be one of the factors, other t h a n historical ones, that led the system to oblivion. Some statements amply testify to it. 4 O n e of possible causes of such a tendency might be ascribed to the general tantric practice of total reliance on one's preceptorial lineage. And, no doubt, only a few could have


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

been the worthy custodians of the schools' secrets. 1 Likewise, the theory of Cakras was a logical deduction from reality being conceived as kinetic a n d continuous. The esteem, in which the Anakhya or Samvit Cakras etc are held, is too well known to require elucidation. But still in Abhinava the ritualistic significance is not so predominant. So much so that even the most characteristic theories of V r n d a Cakra etc are not traceable to Abhinava or to the Tantraloka. But gradually the importance of the Cakras like many other aspects grew and the system came to be designated as the Cakra2 krama-sampradaya (school of the cyclic order), or the Navacakra-Sampradaya (school of the nine cycles). 3 The Nava-cakras include the five functional cycles (i.e., Srsti, Sthiti etc.) three cycles of the optical trinity (Trinetra) i.e., Prakasa, A n a n d a and Murti and the Vrnda Cakra. Similarly another esoteric appellation of the system is found in the phrase " A d y -

Krama as a Tantric System


aksara Sampradaya" (the school of the first letter). 1 In fact the Akara (A) is deemed to be the most important part of the entire alphabet according to the esoteric symbolism. Akara, accordingly, is said to have four crests and represents the first stage of manifestation and assumes the cosmic dimensions. 2 It is, however, gratifying to note that the K r a m a system, though in later stages advocating 3 the use of wine and woman etc., which constitute the Pancatattva of the tantras, does not preach licentiousness. And a comparatively rarer reference has been made to this aspect. T h e K r a m a authors had to subscribe to it, because they aimed at complete self-control demonstrated not only through abstinence from but also through participation in the objects of enjoyments. But the fact remains that Abhinava does not take cognizance of these things in his presentation of the Samviccakra and dwells on the spiritual bearing of the same through an analysis of epistemic experience. In contrast, Sivananda II is prone to incorporate the wine etc. in the context of Samvic-cakra (anakhya cakra) marking out a diversion of emphasis from spiritual inquiry to mystic experimentalism. But even here this form of worship was prescribed only at a very advanced stage of spiritual development when the things that usually lure one away could create no mental digression. 5. Experience, Pure and Simple: Pivot of the Tantric thinking of Krama T h e whole of the above discussion may perhaps be subsumed under one single doctrine that posits the realization of identity of the Individual Soul with the Universal Soul as a fundamental premise. Reality is conceived in terms of univer-


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

sal idea or Experience pure and simple (Samvit). Experience (Samvit) and Reality (Sat, being) are essentially one. Hence the method preferred is not to bifurcate reality owing to the limitations of the dialectic and logic in comprehending the whole of reality, but to experience i.e., intuitively realize, the self (sat, being). T h u s 'being' spells the content of 'experience' a n d 'experience' defines the nature and method of 'being'. In the typical Trika phraseology it is described as realization of Prakasa through Vimarsa. In still other words self-realization is nothing but the realization of Prakasa as being involved in the very nature of Vimarsa. Precisely the unity of the self and the Supreme Self is arrived at through unity of the being (Prakasa, Sat) and its inherent possibilities of becoming (Vimarsa, Sakti) This is the logic behind the most cherished method enjoined in terms of discovering the essential identity between the agenthood of the empirical subject and that of the Absolute (Pancaknya-parisilana). Hence the experience of self is not a simple act of knowing but a complex one of re-knowing (Pratyabhijna). Since logic fails us in our hopes of attaining our alogical character, the intuitive realization turns out to be a process of mystic experiencing. It is why the mystic side of our self-experience has been so ardently embarked upon. 1 Moreover, in the nature of things, a priori awareness leading us to the intrinsic self-experience is bound to be mystical both in and out. Hence the process of synthesis occasioning complete dilution of the subjective and objective polarities in one is equally bound to be mystic in character. Esoterics is therefore the only methodology suited to realization of the mystic goal of self-experience, 2 former-







remaining always subservient to the latter. It is only when the true significance of intuitive realization is lost sight of due to deficient and hastily inculcated spiritual vision of the aspirant, the esotericism becomes the rule of the day, the method and means replacing and discarding their very ideal.1 A close study of the Tantras will demonstrate, why the Tantras give preference to what is called the inner worship (Antaryaga) 2 and to pure reflection (Bhavana), which in the Krama system synchronizes with the highest level of Sattarka, the principle of Right Logic. And the various rites in Krama worship will be found, as will be seen later, conducive to such a realization on the graduated scale.3 This may be the only rationally possible implication of the process of the refinement of determinate ideality (Vikalpa-Samskara), in the context of the tantric substructure of the system. Even the tantric worship aims at harmonizing the deity whom one worships and the macrocosm over which she presides. In this the Krama system joins Samaya school in discarding the external worship for the attainment of the self.4 Apart from the naturally dominant tendency towards mystic possibilities of self-experience, the other factor that


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

contributed to the regularly swelling esoteric aspect of the system consists in its inter-action with the other tantric and agamic forces of the day. In this connection one should also briefly consider its relation and attitude to some other systems of philosophy of non-agamic origin. The next section is addressed to the study of this question as well.

CHAPTER IV MUTUAL E X C H A N G E W I T H AND I M P A C T ON THE O T H E R PHILOSOPHICAL AND T A N T R I C SYSTEMS An enquiry into the sources of influences responsible for the rise and development of particular doctrines or esoteric tendencies in the Krama systems 1. Nature and Scope of the Proposed Enquiry Here we intend to concentrate upon an examination of t h e nature and extent of the influence exercised by the other systems of thought on the K r a m a system and vice versa with special reference to the specific trends evinced by Krama, naturally excluding those ideas that subscribe to the general build-up of all the tantric systems. Thus, the admission of the Samkhya scheme of tattvas to the thirty-six-category scheme of all the Saiva and Sakta tantric systems and the tantric transformation of the Sadrsa-parinamavada doctrine into the theory of Abhasa-vada etc are ruled out from the present treatment; Similarly an analysis of the doctrinal K r a m a attitude towards the Veda and Vedic systems and their comparative validity is also excluded since it has been dealt with on a subsequent occasion. 1 The sole and ultimate purpose of the present treatment is to pick up and point out the source of influences that directly or indirectly inspired particular doctrines or esoteric tendencies in the system without attempting a comparative estimate of the various systems as such. 2. Krama versus Spanda with Regard to the Concepts of Reality and Fourfold Absolutic Functionalism Let us begin with a glance at the immediate surroundings of the K r a m a system. T h e attention has already been invited to the fact that K r a m a was a Saiva system with basically Sakta
1. Cf. Pt. II, Ch. 1.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

leanings. It becomes evident from the K r a m a accent on Sakti, the dynamic aspect of the Male Polarity i.e., the Lord. T h e word Spanda (from Spadi - to throb, the palpitate, to move slightly) is an exact counterpart in Samskrta of the word 'dynamism' in English. T h e two commentators on the Spanda- Karikas, namely, Utpala-Vaisnava and Ksemaraja, are the first authors to discover the close correlation between the two systems with regard to their two particular theses. While explaining the first K a r i k a 1 in his Nimaya Ksemaraja takes the phrase "Svasakti-cakravibhava-prabhavam" as representing the K r a m a or M a h a r t h a ideal of the fivefold Absol u t i c functioning occasioned through the agency of the deities headed by Srsti Kali etc. 2 He further endorses his thesis by observing that the highest M a h a r t h a ideal is contained in the first and the last K a r i k a of the Spanda-Karikta.3 T h e essence of the Spanda doctrine is best represented in the M a h a r t h a concept of the supreme reality that consists in realising the self as "power-ful" (Saktiman) through unearthing real nature of his "powers" (Sakti) by way of five acts. This view is reiterated in his Vimarsini4 on the Siva-Sutra l . 6 . 5 O u r other author Utpala Vaisnava, who is more thorough-going a Spanda-vadin, suggests in his commentary on the forty-fourth

Mutual Exchange with Philosophical and Tantric Systems


K a r i k a 1 that this K a r i k a embodies the essence of K r a m a teaching that one develops a state of continuous realization of the principle of Spanda through one's recourse to various methods of self-reflection. 2 And on the forty-second Karika 3 he makes it absolutely certain that the Spanda concepts of Bindu, Nada, R u p a and Rasa are the exact Spanda correspondents of the four functions of the Absolute in the K r a m a system. 4 Now it is difficult to ascertain as to which of the either school is indebted to which, yet a few conclusions may tentatively be drawn. Despite the fact that both the schools are wedded to the doctrine of dynamic Absolutism, the K r a m a appears to pursue it with more vigour. Hence, the Spanda system might be indebted to the K r a m a system for these ideas. Reasons for hazarding such a guess are as under :(i) K r a m a , being the earliest monistic Saiva System of Kashmir, is earlier than Spanda also. (ii) T h e supremacy of the Absolute vis-a-vis the same of the Absolutic Dynamism i.e., Sakti or K a l i , is a matter of controversy in view of the fundamental role assumed by the latter in the K r a m a system, whereas the ultimacy of the Absolute has never been questioned in the Spanda with all its accent on the dynamic aspect i.e., Spanda, that is Sakti. (iii) The first two verses, unlike Ksemaraja, are not interpreted in the light of the K r a m a system by the


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir other Spanda authors notably R a m a k a n t h a indicating lack of unanimity with regard to the K r a m a impact on the Spanda. (iv) The fortysecond a n d fortyfourth Karikas have not been accorded with the K r a m a interpretation by Ksemaraja unlike Utpala Vaisnava indicating the same as in (iii) above. (v) Yet, both the sub-schools of the Spanda system - t h e one headed by Ksemaraja and the other by Utpala recognize the element of the K r a m a theses as latent in the Spanda dicta.

3. Krama and Kula: Bilateral Process of Influence Coming to the Kula system one finds that the process of influence has gone on a bilateral scale. It has been noted earlier that the K r a m a system, under the spell of its maintaining a parity between affirmation and negation both, adopts a completely indifferent attitude towards rituals like phallusworship, the putting on of the matted hair and sacred ashes on the body, observance of religious vows, worship of deities, a n d the spiritual efficacy of Ksetra (station) as well as Pithas 1 (seat). Such an attitude comes in sharp contrast to that of the Siddhanta a n d Kula systems with their enjoining and prohibiting these respectively. However, with regard to the phenomenon of Pitha etc. K u l a does not prohibit but advocates them, while they stand negated by the M a t a system. Likewise, while K u l a prescribes Samayacara 2 and worship of Ovallis, Mudra, C h u m m a etc., the M a t a Sastra prohibits the same. And K r a m a , as usual, does not bother itself.3 But this equilibrium of mind and posture


The discrimination between what one ought to do and what one ought not is the essence of the Samayacara—


T. A . 4 . 258-269.

Mutual Exchange with Philosophical and Tantric Systems


of neutrality is not maintained for long. T h e Pitha, rituals, Ovallis, Ghara, Pallis etc. are injected into the system under the Kula influence and we come to know of a few Ovallis at least, namely, M a h a n a n d a 1 and Kularani 2 in the K r a m a . Similarly the line of teachers under Kula system including Yuganathas and Rajaputras, which initially did not find favour with Krama, later became acceptable inasmuch as their worship was advocated in Sthiti-cakra. This question has been discussed at its proper place subsequently. 3 Even in later history we do hear a few discordant notes, 4 but once an influence has interpolated itself it is difficult to pull it out. These later developments took place in the wake of the Kula system, because there came a stage when the Kula was thought to be superior to the K r a m a system O n e has already seen that Abhinava himself elevates the Kula-prakriya as compared with the Tantra-Prakriya. 5 T h e process was logically extended to the point when K u l a came to be acknowledged as constituting the crowning point of the K r a m a ideology 6 and even the K r a m a works were referred to as the Kula texts. 7 A natural outcome of such a tendency was that the K r a m a authors were gradually led to imbibe and import all those Kula theses that could be fitted in the K r a m a plan.

3. 4.

Cf. Pt. II, Ch. III, under "Sthiti-cakra". M.P.(S)., pp. 107-108.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

But at the same time, the Kula system also could not remain immune from the impact coming from the opposite direction i.e., K r a m a . T h e most important exchange took place with regard to the theory of the twelve Kalis or Samviddevis constituting the power-cycle (Sakti-cakra). 1 This process did not remain confined to the Kula system alone but infected other systems as well, the Sara system in particular. 2 As a natural corollary, the Anakhya-krama forced its way into the Kula fold.3 4. Krama and Tripura: Reciprocal Impact T h e other cognate creed that seems to have shaped and inspired quite a few theses of K r a m a is the Tripura system in spite of its not being a Saiva ideology. K r a m a owing to its temperamental attachment to the Sakti is rather soft to T r i p u r a , a Sakta system. Sitikantha is most alive to this influence when he defines the scope of M a h a r t h a as ranging from the Pitha (Spiritual seat) to the Samayavidya i.e., Tripura philosophy. 4 But for its Saiva associations, K r a m a is certainly a Sakta system. He says that the Samaya-vidya is one because it marks the summit of all K r a m a achievement and the total variety of the K r a m a s is finally reposed here. 5 Hence he describes Anakhya and Bhasa as Anakhya-Samayesvari and Bhasa-Samayesvari. 6 Similarly, Vrnda-cakra, which according to M a h e svarananda is the most important single aspect of the K r a m a

5. 6.

Ibid., p. 126. Ibid., p. 128.

Mutual Exchange with Philosophical and Tantric Systems


system 1 is introduced by him as Sri-cakra, 2 an equally valued part of Tripura. T h e r e is some evidence to show that the concept of Vrnda-cakra was not completely u n k n o w n to the T r i p u r a authors. T h e anonymous commentary on the Kamakalavilasa (Kashmir edition) of Punyananda refers to two types of Vrnda-cakra viz., Pada-viksepa and Kramodaya. 3 T h e former represents the Absolutic capacity for infinite possibilities of self-becoming and the latter with the traditional history. It is our impression that while Sri-cakra may be held responsible for the very inspiration of Vrnda-cakra, the notion of Vrndacakra is an export from the K r a m a into Tripura. Because in early stages we do not have any record of V r n d a in K r a m a , Vrnda being a later development. But on the other hand, Sricakra starts from the initial stages of the T r i p u r a history. Tripura, the highest ideal of the Tripura system, is sought to be identified with Kala-Samkarsini 4 - the Ultimate in K r a m a . As has been said earlier, J a y a r a t h a leaves no doubt about the Tripura's identity with the Kula system. 5 If such contention be accepted without reservation, the Kula and, for that matter, the Tripura might be said to have exercised tremendous influence on the K r a m a . But Tripura has received also in return.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Anakhya, the fourth act of the Absolute - and also Reality as such according to the four-function theory 1 (Krama-catuska) of the K r a m a system -, is probably borrowed from the latter. 2 J a y a r a t h a also suggests that K r a m a advocated Srsti-cakra and Samhara-cakra as independent from each other. T r i p u r a borrowed and employed this doctrine with regard to the other theories of the system. For instance, the eighth and ninth cakras in Tripura are also independent cakras. 3 This phenomenon is equally discernible in certain other spheres as well. T h e concept of Sattarka (Right Logic) for instance, seems to have been borrowed by the T r i p u r a system from the K r a m a despite the fact that at both the places it is brought forth as an agamic notion. 4 Likewise, the unusual fondness of K r a m a for Prakrta languages is a legacy from T r i p u r a . Mahesvarananda's citing a statement from Rjuvimarsini, a T r i p u r a text, in support of K r a m a ' s explicit preference for Prakrta would probably evince the veracity of this statement. Impact of Buddhist Tantricism on Krama: Sadanga-yoga, Anakhya and some other Minor Doctrines T h e introduction of the Sadanga-yoga (six-limbed yoga) in place of Patanjali's Astanga (eightfold) Yoga marks a 5.

4. Cf. Pt. II, Ch. 1.

Mutual Exchange with Philosophical and Tantric Systems


curious departure from the general trend in the history of the K r a m a thought and has evaded a satisfactory answer so far. Because each of the monistic Saiva doctrines of Kashmir abides by the Patanjala discipline of the eightfold path. Even Abhinavagupta, who is interpreted by J a y a r a t h a as subscribing to the theory of Sadanga-yoga, does not, in fact, expressly commit himself to the said thesis From a close study of him it will be found that he actually dwells on the eightfold yogic discipline. This incongruity is deliberate and is explained by J a y a r a t h a in terms of Abhinava's underlying motive. According to Jayaratha, Abhinava wants to suggest that the number of parts as eight of the Yoga is, in any case, final and cannot be enhanced further. 1 Abhinava actually supplants Sattarka for the highest stage of the K r a m a process of Yoga and castigates the first five items as futile by virtue of their being external and adventitious in character. It is J a y a r a t h a who cites a verse in order to describe the six-limbed doctrine from an unnamed source. 2 T h e extract in question eliminates the first three parts namely, Yama, Niyama and Asana, from the original eightfold scheme 3 and adds T a r k a or Sattarka, thus bringing the total to six. It is queer that he nowhere attempts to define the six members of the scheme individually, instead all the definitions are drawn verbatim from the Toga Sutras of Patanjali. In such circumstances one is prone to believe that the doctrine of six-limbed Yoga was an interpolation which may possibly be traced to the T a n t ric Buddhism. 4 In the Sri-guhya-samajatantra (Ch. xvIII) the

4. J. Ensink however differs from the present author. He does not think the doctrine of Sadanga Yoga to be an off-shoot of Tantric Buddhism, instead it may be traced to some older tradition to which the JavanoBalinese literature is also indebted. (contd.)


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

S a d a n g a Yoga has been painted as the most conducive means to the highest accomplishment. 1 T h e detailed description of these six parts of Yoga has again been fully enlarged upon in the commentary called Sekoddesa-tika by Nadopada.2 It is worth mentioning that the first three Angas of Yoga mentioned in the Yoga-Sutra viz., Yama, Nivama and Asana, are omitted and a new one, Anusmrti, is added. 3 One may notice the marked similarity between the K r a m a and Buddhist treatment of the problem. Except the additional aspect i.e., Tarka or Anusmrti, in their respective presentations there is virtually no difference. And one may even be tempted to go so far as to say that J a y a r a t h a has borrowed verbatim from the Guhya-samaja only substituting the phrase "Tarkascaiva" for Anusmrtih". 4 The possibility of the Guhya-samaja being indebted to K r a m a is very slender, because (i) the Guhya-samaja, according to its editor, B. Bhattacharya 5 dates back to the fourth century A.D.; (ii) the first a n d only reference to the doctrine in the Krama' works is as late as the beginning of the thirteenth century to which J a y a r a t h a is
The author is thankful to Ensink for sending the relevant portion of his paper. "Sutasoma's teaching to Gajavaktra, snake and the tigress" in which he has utilized some materia! from this dissertation. The book being in the press, while this paper was received, the author could not have the privilege of examining Ensink's observations in detail. He, however, does not see much reason to change his opinion for the time-being.

2. See for detailed treatment, pp. 164-171.

An Introduction to Tantric


5. Cf. Introduction to Sadhana-mala, II, p. xcv.

Mutual Exchange with Philosophical and Tantric Systems


assigned; (iii) even if the doctrine had the approval of Abhinava, it does not go beyond the tenth century which is the time of Abhinava; (iv) the thesis has not been developed in its full dimensions in the K r a m a works whereas the Buddhist works, referred to above, have built up a complete system of esoteric yoga containing six-limbed discipline. T h e only doubtful line that demarcates the two schools is the place of Sattarka and Anusmrti in their respective schemes. In the verse cited above Jayaratha follows the original order of the Guhya-samaja which places Anusmrti just before Samadhi. In this way T a r k a should also precede Samadhi. But from a critical perusal of Jayaratha, it will be discovered that J a y a r a t h a and Abhinava both regard Tarka 1 as the best a n d highest part of Yoga and treat all other parts as subordinate to Sattarka, which alone is the direct means of self-realization. T h e other difference of detail consists in the concepts of Anusmrti 2 and Sattarka. 3 Anusmrti is the remembrance of the realisation of previous stages, while T a r k a is the pure knowledge that can discern the spiritually meaningful from what is spiritually spurious. Moreover, the other five concepts of the Sadanga Yoga in Buddhism have an independent character whereas in K r a m a they seek an anchorage in Patanjali. Buddhist tantricism apart, the philosophical Buddhism too seems to have exercised notable influence on the vital K r a m a


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

dicta. Refinement of determinacy (Vikalpa-Samskara), for example, evinces considerable impact of the Buddhist law of contradiction (Apohana) and theory of instantaneous being (Ksanikavada). This question has been considered in the sequel separately. 1 The enormous influence exercised by Buddhism is also evinced by the K r a m a doctrine of Anakhya. T h e term Anakhya standing for a coveted stage of self-accomplishment, is possibly a positive K r a m a interpretation of the wholesale nihilism (Sunyata-vada) of the Madhyamikas. 2 In fact, the twin notions of Sunyata are mutually different owing to their positive and negative character respectively. But what is important here, is to note the inspirational value of the Sunyata-doctrine in so far as the concept of A n a k h y a is concerned. T h e ultimate reality being free from temporal and spatial affiliations is beyond the reach of words and, hence, is inscrutable. This is the precise implication of word Anakhya. 3 T h e Sunyatadoctrine, which is based on the original Buddhist m a x i m i.e., "all is void" (Sarvam Sunyam), was not adopted from the M a h a y a n i c philosophers direct but through the esoteric Buddhists who tried to give it a positive accent instead of its all-devouring nihilistic thesis pleading the essencelessness a n d sheer absurdity of the universe of our discourse. T h u s , of the four gradations in the Sunyata doctrine suggested by Nagarjuna in his Panca-krama the final one viz., Sarva-sunya, is identified with supreme omniscience. This is the ultimate truth, the unity that transcends the scope of verbal expression.

1. Cf. Pt. II, Ch. I.

Mutual Exchange with Philosophical and Tantric Systems


From its absolute self-luminous purity proceeds the Enlightened O n e (Buddha). 1 T h u s the Anakhya doctrine is m u c h nearer to the Sunyata-doctrine of the esoteric Buddhism. 2 But the same is poles apart from that of the philosophical Sunyavada of the Madhyamika. Sivopadhyaya, in fact, has noted this difference. 3 6. Bhartrhari's Impact on Krama

Yet another single source that must be credited with supplying the bulk of the sub-structural material of the K r a m a system is met in Bhartrhari. His is the unique contribution. Because, the basic pattern of the process of the Vikalpa-samsk a r a has been largely determined by that of his Sabda-samskara a n d Sabda-purva-yoga. Moreover Kali, the absolute and ultimate principle as conceived by Krama, is by and large the K r a m a transformation of Bhartrhari's idea of the Kala-Sakti or Krama-Sakti. 4 Similarly, the fourfold or fivefold theory of

Panca-krama, M.S., pp. 22 (B), 23(A), quoted by Dasgupta, An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism p. 46.

For fear of irrelevance further reference to their differences has not been embarked upon. However, for further details about the basic differences between esoteric Buddhism and Kashmir Saivism see Sp.N. pp. 26-28. 4 . Cf. Pt. II, Ch. 2.

64 speech in the K r a m a system having been developed under Sabda-brahman or Y a k character. 1 All these have contexts. 7.

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir shows the unmistakable signs of the spell of Bhartrhari's theory of with its inherently emergent been discussed in their proper

Kashmir Saivism and Pancaratra : Certain Unsettled Issues

Let us advert to a slightly different issue. We know of one m o r e agamic system, that is, the Pancaratra system. It is yet one of the big question marks of the history of Indian thought as to what was the exact nexus between the Kashmir Saivism and the Pancaratra. We find Pancaratra bracketed with Buddhists etc. for the purpose of criticism in the Saiva works. 2 T h e y are assigned to the realm of Avyakta, i.e., Prakrti, in the Saiva scheme. 3 Similarly the P a n c a r a t r a have been grouped into two classes e.g., Samkarsana P a n c a r a t r a and Samhita-Pancaratra. 4 These references go to indicate that the Kashmir Saivism was fully familiar with the P a n c a r a t r a doctrine, - whatever be the cause of such familiarity. W h a t is more remarkable is to find signs which suggest, though do not define, that some sort of relation and exchange did subsist between the two. In support, an appeal may be made to the extracts cited from the Pancar a t r a works. Thus Utpalavaisnava quotes from the Jayakhya Samhita with approval 5 and Mahesvarananda from the Laksmitantra.6 Yogaraja, too, quotes from the Laksmi-Samhita. 7 On

1. Cf. Pt. I I , Ch. 7. 2. T.A., 4. 22, 26, 29; M.V.T. 3.5.; V.Bh.V., p. 117; Sp.N., p. 14.

6. M.M.P., pp. 67, 182. 7. P.S.V., p. 164.

Mutual Exchange with Philosophical and Tantric Systems


the other end, Yamunacarya, in his famous work Agama-pramanya speaks of his another work known as Kasmiragama-pramanya which probably dealt with the validity of the K a s h m i r agamas. 1 In this connection it is interesting to note that M a h e w a r a n a n d a quotes from one Rahasyamnaya.2 This work has also been alluded to by N a t a n a n a n d a n a t h a in his commentary Cidvalli3 on the Kama-kala-vilasa. In the P a n c a r a t r a tradition the Rahasyamnaya is identified with the Ekayana-veda. 4 According to Vedanta Desika the central theme of the Kasmiragama-pramanya has been to expound and establish the impersonal origin of the Ekayana-veda.5 Pt. V. Krishnamacarya, the editor of the Adyar edition of the Laksmitantra, is of the view that the alleged extracts from the Pancaratra-Sruti a n d Pancaratra-upanisad etc. in the Spanda-Pradipika by Utpala Vaisnava are most probably taken from the Ekayana-veda, that is, Rahasyamnaya.6 It is unfortunate that the text of the Rahasyamnaya is now lost to us. It is very difficult to assert that the two Rahasyamnayas (one in the system and other in the Pancaratra) are one. Because the extracts ascribed to the Rahasyamnaya in the Saiva works are more of esoteric nature and the pattern suggested is that of an agamic treatise. It is, therefore, fraught with serious obstacles to the precise relationship between the Kashmir Saivism and the Pancaratra. Yet the fact remains that the two were closely related and even influenced each other. It is a pity that we can neither determine the nature nor gauge the intensity of mutual influence, if any.
1. Cf. M.M.P., pp. 67, 182. Also see, Laksmi Tantra, Int., ed. V. Krishnamacharya, p. 5. 2. M.M.P., p. 182. 3. pp. 19-20, 21, 42, 55, 68 (Madras edn.)

Pancaratra-raksa, Vedintadesikagranthamala, ed. Annangaracarya, p. 95. This statement is repeated by Vedanta Desika in the NyayaParisuddhi, p. 168 (2nd Ahnika, Sabdadhyaya). 6. Laksmi Tantra, Introduction, p. 5.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir 8. Impact of Krama on Tantricism in General

T h e biggest contribution made by K r a m a to the history of tantric thought lies in the emergence of various Krama-creeds within the fold of cognate tantric doctrines. Thus the Tripura a n d many other Sakta systems have evolved their own code of K r a m a . Even the Buddhist a n d Vaisnava tantricism has gone ahead with evolving its own Krama-doctrine. In fact all branches a n d schools of Indian tantricism whether they be Sakta, Saiva or Vaisnava have embraced the Krama-idea by heart a n d given vent to it both ritually and spiritually. T h e large number of K r a m a texts such as the Krama-stuti of Samkara, 1 Krama-Dipika of Kesava Bhatta, 2 Kramottoma,3 Krama-ratna,4 Krama-ratnamala,5 Krama-samgraha,6 Krama-sandhana,7 Kramamalika, 8 Sri-krama-samhita,9 and Krama-vasana10 etc. add weight to t h e above contention.

1. Vide, Saubhagyavardhini by Kaivalyasrama on the Ananda-Lahari, pp. 12. 45. The same on Saundarya-lahari, p 36. 2. Vide, Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Punjab University Library, Vol. I, 1932, Sec. viii, no 47. 3. Vide Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Punjab University Library, Vol. 1, 1932, no. 48; also Cat. Cat., p. 132. 4. Vide, Cat.Cat , p. 132. 5. Vide Cat.Cat., p. 132. 6. Ibid. 7. Ibid. 8. Vide Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in Government Oriental Library, Mysore, p. 3. 9. Vide Cat.Cat., p. 668. 10. Vide, M.M.P., pp. 115,117.

CHAPTER V D I F F E R E N T T R A D I T I O N S AND S U B - S C H O O L S A critical evaluation of the potential richness of the Krama system evinced through the divergent trends of internal thinking in respect of the basic issues and resulting consequences. 1. Potential Richness of the Krama System

T h e value of a philosophical system is determined by its capacity to divergent and manifold ways of reacting to the presented data or stimuli. If a system, within its confines, can inspire many a mode of looking at the problems posed to or by it, without affecting its consistency adversely, its vitality and richness would require no further testimony. Judging on this criterion the K r a m a would emerge as a potentially creative and substantially rich system. T h e contention turns into a conviction when a keen eye discovers not only the presence of different traditions but also the rise of a few sub-schools inside the Krama-fold. This enquiry, therefore, is directed to examining the identity of such schools and nature of the differing traditions. In the Kashmir Saivism one encounters two texts namely, the Vatula-natha-sutrani a n d the Chumma-Sampradaya ascribed to two sub-schools, namely, the Sahasa-school and the C h u m m a school. It may, however, be held that these two schools positively belong to the K r a m a system. Let us see how and why. 2. The Sahasa Sub-School With regard to the Vatula-natha-sutrani it is explicitly averred that its main theme is to propound that one's real nature is acquired by the firm stay in the pre-eminent Sahasa. 1


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Hence, the commentator A n a n t a Saktipada styles the system as Maha-sahasa-carca-sampradaya (School dealing with the great Sahasa). 1 In his enthusiasm to focus the attention on the individuality of the system he offers his benedictory salutation to the principle of Sahasa. 2 Sahasa literally means an unexpected or forceful happening. Therefore, from the Saivistic point of view, it stands for the highest state of inspiration or self-revelation which needs no preliminary preparation and which is said to take place often under the shadow of extremely intense bestowal of the divine grace. It transcends deterministic order and is a purely indeterminate state of self-intuiting awareness. 3 T h e notion of Sahasa as underlining the sudden and forceful self-realization has never been unknown to the K a s h m i r Saivism. The concepts of H a t h a p a k a and Alamgrasa owe their being to the principle of S a h a s a 4 Likewise, it may also be noted that one of the eight approaches to the Vrnda-cakra is spelt by Mudra-krama which carries five Mudras under it to be discussed subsequently. 5 Of these five M u d r a s , Khecari is deemed to be the highest and belongs to the realm of Sambhavasiddhas. All other M u d r a s are derived from K h e c a r i , the

For these concepts of. Pt. II, Ch. 5, "The Place of Vrnda Cakra and Significance of the Hathapaka Process." 6. Cf. Pt. II, Ch. 6.

Different Traditions and Sub-Schools


primal Mudra. 1 Ananta Saktipada presents the Khecari-drsti as the most cardinal tenet of the Sahasa-school. 2 This view, on a close scrutiny, will be found to have been anticipated by Abhinava who in the 32nd Ahnika of the Tantraloka, which is devoted to the exclusive treatment of Mudras, cites from the Bhargasikha, though not a text of his own school, 3 in support of his contention. In this school the Khecari M u d r a has eight varieties, the highest going by the title of Vira-bhairava. 4 This is on a par with the Khecari proper. T h e Virabhairava M u d r a , which is nothing short of Khecari, consists in one's entry or entrenchment in the state, technically known as Sahasa. Hence it is also portrayed as Sahasa M u d r a . 5 T h e striking analogue between the Sahasa-mudra as an embodiment of Khecari of the Bhargasikha on the one hand, and the Sahasa-principle as incumbent upon the Khecara-doctrine of the Vatula-natha-sutra on the other, gives one further insight into the more antique beginnings of the concept that later bloomed in the form of a sub-system. T h e principle of Great Sahasa has always remained charged with the responsibility of sub-merging

The phrase Maha-vismaya-Mudra in the 13th sutra of the Vatalanathasutra has been explained in the following manner -


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

our total associations with the world of objectivity. 1 This marks the climax of the Kramic ascent and, for that matter, the highest stage of the Kula achievement as well. It appears that the Sahasa school owed its origin to the internal motive of those who intended to emphasize the unique and irresistible vigour of the Sahasa method. N o w Sahasa as Sunyata-samavesa, that is, immersion of the self in great vacuity, is no doubt a K r a m a phenomenon. Anantasaktipada is quite assertive on this point when he depicts the above viewpoint as the gist of the Mahanaya school. 2 T h e other factor strengthening one's belief in the equation of Sahasa with K r a m a stems from the fact that the entire spiritual wealth of the book is attributed to Niskriyananda-natha who is avowedly a K r a m a author, 3 as will be pointed out later. Moreover, the text employs the typical K r a m a idiom while describing the fivefold Absolutic functioning etc. 4 In addition to its oral tradition being traced back to the female monastic deities (Pithadevis) who took some accomplished aspirant in their favour. 6 This, too, is also a K r a m a characteristic. 3. The Chumma Sub-school From the Sahasa sub-school we proceed to examine the C h u m m a sub-school to which the hitherto unpublished text i.e., Chumma Sampradaya, is ascribed. 6 T h e exact meaning of the word

Different Traditions and Sub-Schools


Chumma is somewhat obscure. Nowhere in the text itself has an attempt been made to interpret the word. In the Tantraloka the word Chumma comes twice. At one place,1 it is used as a technical concept and is intended to suggest that Chummas and Mudras, like Palli and Ghara etc, change with the change of preceptorial line. In the other place he enumerates six Chummas 2 without caring, in the least, for the nature and meaning of the word Chumma. From the nature of these, the Chummas probably mean the physiological centres of spirituality. A slightly clearer idea is furnished by Ksemaraja in his commentary on the Svacchanda Tantra 3 He says, Chummaka is a technical name (Paribhasiki Samjna) and represents the system one belongs to. 4 The main purport of the Chumma theory is to preserve the secretive and esoteric nature of the system and to present the same as w e l l . 5 T h e word Sarma might be its synonym.6 The Chumma

Quoted from the Kula-Kridavatara, T.A.V., XI, pp. 228-29.

6. See preceding note.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

or Chummaka, perhaps, stood for the most relevant and useful aspect of a certain mystic or occult rite. 1 It is difficult to be absolutely sure whether or not one should identify these Chummakas with the C h u m m a of the Chumma Sampradaya. Needless to say that the work abounds in esoteric symbolism and hence the mysterious and secretive aspect of the system is well preserved. In this respect both the texts stand on the same footing. Yet, one can smell that the Chummas were reduced to two categories - secondary and ultimate. Although the attitude of the Chumma Sampradaya towards the secondary C h u m m a s , which include the above C h u m m a s of Abhinava and Ksemaraja, is not known, no doubt is left with regard to the primary C h u m m a which has been designated as the Paryanta C h u m m a . Now this is interesting to see that the notion of the ultimate C h u m m a has been explained in terms of Sahasa 2 which is the continuous transcendental principle. 4. Sahasa and Chumma are Identical T h e equation of Sahasa and Paryanta-Chumma offers a strong ground for arriving at the identity of the Chumma with the K r a m a . Another phase of interest in respect of this equation is their unflinching adherence to oral nature of their respective traditions. In pursuance to this tendency the Sahasa school is termed " V a k t r a m n a y a " (oral revelation or tradition) 3 and the Chumma-school is depicted as having been handed down exclusively through the medium of oral transmission. 4 T h e hypothesis is further vindicated by the fact that the authorship of the Chumma Sampradaya, too, is attributed to Niskriya-

3. Cf. V.N.S.V., pp. 18-19. 4. Cf. fn. 1, p. 55 supra.

Different Traditions and Sub-Schools


n a n d a n a t h a . 1 T h e only difference between the two works being that the Vatulanatha-sutrani contains the cardinal features of the spiritual wisdom received by Niskriyananda and thereby remains his indirect work, whereas the Chumma Sampradaya is his direct work. This adds a touch of conclusiveness to the conclusions: that there is no basic difference between the concepts of C h u m m a and Sahasa, in their final analysis and s h a p e ; that both of the Sahasa and C h u m m a belong to the realm of K r a m a t a n t r i c i s m ; and that Niskriyananda may be credited with elevating the ordinary notions of the system to the rank and status of a sub-system. But one must not forget that this process must have taken time and hence such a development seems to be a later phenomenon. Moreso, when we already know that the Chummas etc. were not so favourably viewed in the earlier phase of the K r a m a system. 5. Another Sub-School of Krama T h e r e is an oblique reference to another sub-school of the K r a m a in the 29th Ahnika of the Tantraloka. This school has not been named as such but is said to be a progeny of a mixture of the two theses, one propounded in the Derya-yamala and other in the Madhavakula, which by itself is a part of the Tantraraja-bhattaraka.2 In this school, spearheaded by a section of teachers, worship and adoration of one's preceptorial line along with Pitha, Ksetra etc. are not altogether vanished. 3 In accordance with the thesis, the Pithas have been assigned to the different parts of the body, 4 details of which bear no relevance to the problem in question. This mode of veneration provides the aspirant to contemplate and, therefore, visualize the
1. Cf. Ch. 6.

4. Ibid., 29. 52-63.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Pithas and their guardian deities as essentially identical with the self.1 Now the tenability of the present hypothesis that thrives on the possibility of a fresh school under the Krama system is a very delicate affair. Because it simply depends upon how we interpret the word "Matantara" (Mata=view, ideology) employed by Jayaratha in this connection.2 Since the entire 29th Ahnika deals with the Kula system,3 "Matantara" must mean something different from the main thesis under discussion. If 'Mata' stands for a view, it will mean "a different view from the general choir of the Kula system"; and if we take 'Mata' to convey the sense of an ideology, it will mean "the different ideology". In the first case, it is a simple deviation within the Kula system itself. In the second case, it is another system. If we are in for the second meaning, the only system that occupies the focus happens to be the Krama. For the reference to the concepts of Krama-catustaya 4 and Kalasamkarsini5 does not require further explanation for our holding so. Of these the former concept belongs to the Madhavakula, while the latter to the Deviyamala.
I. Ibid., 29. 64.

This is to be noted that the distinction between Kula-prakriya and Tantra-prakriya is retained even here. Vide

Different Traditions and Sub-Schools 6. Divergent Traditions and Tendencies with Regard to the Specific Problems


Coming back to the K r a m a system proper, we find the volume of controversies a n d differences of opinion on many a question does not appear to shrink instead swells up. 1 T h e following lines will bear this out. (a) Two Traditions Regarding the Nature and Status of the Absolute and its Consequences There are two definite schools or traditions with reference to the nature and status of the Absolute. These tendencies seem to have their root in the K r a m a agamas from the beginning, as will be pointed out at the appropriate occasion, which resulted in two categories of agamas - Devi oriented and Siva-oriented. T h e scholars affiliated with Somananda and his spiritual descendants regarded Siva to be the ultimate reality. 2 T h e rest differed and reckoned K a l i or Devi to be the ultimate truth. T h e very term " K a l i - n a y a " as an equivalent for the K r a m a naya smacks of reaction on the part of those who revolted against Siva's supremacy. Somananda's obsession with the grammarian's convention reducing the feminine gender to be a particular form of the masculine was, to some extent, responsible for his opposition to the female personality of the Supreme Being. Reference to the female form anywhere, were the outcome of the intensive devotion of the devotee to the deity. 3 On the basis of the material provided by Somananda and Utpala, it appears that a real confrontation took place between the two


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

opposing protagonists. 1 But such a difference of emphasis has more far-reaching implications t h a n is generally recognised, because this is a K r a m a transformation of the general Saiva problem that calls for the evaluation of the precise relation between P r a k a s a and Vimarsa aspects of Reality. In this context Prakasa is called as Paramesvara, M a n t h a n a or M a n t h a n a b h a i r a v a ; and Sakti or Vimarsa as Kali, Devi or Kala-Samkarsini. Consequently, those who declare Siva to be the ultimate, treat K a l i or Sakti as His manifestation and hence relegate it (Sakti) as slightly subsidiary. In this case Bhasa and Anakhya in their respective domains come to be regarded as His functions. Vyomesvari or Vyoma-vamesvari, under Pancavaha (five flow doctrine) are also deduced from Him. In this connection it is amusing to watch the exponents of the ultimacy of the male aspect subscribing to the twelve-aspect theory (Dvadasa Kalis) under Samviccakra. Likewise, these schoolmen are also constrained to prescribe only sixty-four aspects, excepting five vahas, under V r n d a Cakra. On the other hand, the other section of the scholars wedded to supremacy of the female aspect naturally deviates from the above premises. For them Sakti i.e., Absolutic dynamism, itself turns out to be the Dynamic Reality. It is the Absolute per se. In their case Siva is rendered somewhat secondary to Devi or Kali. Bhasa or Anakhya, as the case m a y be, is identified with reality as such. Similarly, the supreme V a h a called Vyoma-vamesvari is not distinguished from Kali as such. Interestingly enough, again the members of this school subscribe to the thirteen-aspect theory (Trayodasa Kalis) under Anakhya cakra i.e., Samviccakra. T h e consequences may be multiplied. Instead of sixty-four they propound sixty-five mystic categories as constituting Vrnda-cakra. In fact, in such cases the ultimate reality is treated as forming part of the whole episode, whereas in the Siva-oriented doctrine the ultimate is treated separately. (b) These two traditions vis-a-vis Pentadic and Quartic tendencies with special reference to the absolutic functioning Sometimes, though not necessarily, a handsome distance

Different Traditions and Sub-Schools


is tried to be maintained between the two schools even with reference to the Absolutic functioning. Accordingly, the believers in the ultimacy of Kali are thought to subscribe to the fivefunction theory, whereas the others, who believe in the absoluteness of Siva, to the four-function one. 1 But these are overlappings and no uniform rule can be laid down in this regard. Although divergence of views on the nature and number of the Absolute's functions itself constitutes a very vital schism in the ranks of the system and accounts for several developments. This difference is vital in the sense that it has direct bearings on the meaning of the word K r a m a , as has been hinted earlier. 2 This is in fact the original source of pentadic and quartic tendencies in general that have gone a long way in determining the general outlines of the system. It m a y be recalled that the entire Kashmir Saivism (monistic branch) subscribes to the theory of the five functions of the Absolute, but barring a tacit acceptance a serious attempt has never been made to explore and study the philosophic and esoteric bearings of the theory. T h e two tendencies referred to above are the logical outcome of such an analysis, both conscious and sub-conscious, on the part of the K r a m a thinker. (c) Quartic Tendency

T h u s under the quartic tendency an attempt is made to present the system's basic concepts in terms of four or groups of four. In this case the fifth function (Anugraha or Bhasa) is subsumed under the fourth act (Tirodhana or A n a k h y a ) . In consequence, the fifth power (Cit) of the Absolute is again subsumed under the fourth one (Ananda). Factually, the fourth state marks the synthesis. As a natural upshot, the ultimate reality in this case comes to be designated as Anakhya and not Bhasa. Nevertheless, from the arrangement of the twelve Kalikas in the three groups of four each as presented by Jayar a t h a it appears that Abhinava too was inclined to favour the four-function theory. 3 According to him, the four godly acts
1. Cf. Pt I I , Ch. 3. 2. Cf. Ch. 2, supra. 3. Cf. Pt. II, C h . 3 .


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Srsti, Sthiti, Samhara and Anakhya in relation to each of the subject, object and the means of knowledge respectively give us the twelve deities. Again under this scheme the functional cycles such as Srsti-cakra etc. number four and end with the Anakhya cakra. Likewise, a deeper significance is attached to the four cycles e.g., Pancavaha, Prakasa, Ananda and Murti. 1 The biggest impact of the quartic tendency is seen in the theory of speech. Despite the efforts to introduce Suksma, as we shall subsequently see, to augment the number of the aspects of speech to five, the sizeable majority of the Krama thinkers has always sided with the theory of fourfold speech.2 (d) Pentadic Tendency Yet the pentadic tendency appears to have been a greater favourite of the Krama system in general The tendency is manifest in attempts to present the concepts of the systems in terms of five or groups of five notions. Thus the primary pentad goes by the name of Pancavaha representing the five flows of the self-emanative spiritual energy ranging from Vyoma-vamesvari to Bhucari. The functions of the Absolute which this section fervently expounds are five - Srsti, Sthiti, Pralaya, Anakhya and Bhasa. The Absolutic powers are also five - Cit, Ananda, Iccha, Jnana and Kriya. Mahesvarananda under the influence of this tendency adds Suksma to the fourfold division of speech maintained hitherto by the system. Now these run as - Para, Suksma, Pasyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari. The esoterically and metaphysically symbolic groups, which are enjoined for contemplation, also number five - Sripitha, Pancavaha, Netratraya, Vrnda Cakra and Gurupankti. 3 Of these the Vrnda-cakra, which according to Mahesvarananda represents quintessence of the Krama thinking, contains

2. Vide Pt. II, Ch. 7, "The Stages of Vak etc."

Different Traditions and Sub-Schools


m a n y a pentad. 1 T h e entire V r n d a Cakra centres round the five Siddhas and their numerous significations. These Siddhas are - J n a n a , Mantra, Melapa, Sakta and Sambhava. U n d e r the Vrnda-cakra the D h a m a - k r a m a lays down five dhamas as respective abodes of these Siddhas. They are - K a n d a , N a b h i , H r t , Kantha, and Bhrumadhya. In the same strain M u d r a K r a m a speaks of five M u d r a s i.e., Physical postures, - K a r a nkini, Krodhani, Bhairavi, Lelihana and Khecari. T h e concept of 'five letters' technically spoken of as Panca-pindas under Varna-krama too reflects the same tendency. Exactly on these lines the five cycles namely, Prakasa, Ananda, Murti, Pancavaha and Vrnda go to erect the superstructure of Divyaugha. 2 This pentadic tendency characterizes the efforts to identify even those groups, which admittedly consist of more than five ingredients, with the basic pentad termed Pancavaha. T h u s Sripitha has nine constituents (Kala) - (1) primal subjective stir (Adya Spanda) (2) extrovert subjective tendency, (3) the stir of the means of perception, (4) the rise of tendency in the means of knowledge to apprehend determinately, and (5-9) awareness of the objective which is fivefold in accordance with the five elements (Bhutas). By ignoring the division of the objective into five elements this group of nine is rendered identical with the five Vahas. 3 (e) Dispute about the Exact Number of Parts of the Krama Toga

T h e ideological antagonism has often touched other frontiers of the system as well. If one recapitulates what has been said about the Sadanga Yoga, it will be found that unanimity was wanting with regard to the precise number of the parts of


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

the Yoga. Although J a y a r a t h a mentions the theory of sixfold Yoga, he does not appear to take it very seriously. Abhinava himself feels more at home with the eightfold doctrine. A minor unpublished K r a m a text entitled Jnana-kriya-dvaya-sataka makes no pretentions about its abiding by the eightfold path. 1 (f) Several minor controversies referred to These pages do not consider it advisable to dilate upon the minor controversies. In spite of their enormous magnitude and wide range, their treatment may be conveniently postponed for future consideration in their respective contexts. Such controversies in the main include e.g., exact number of divinities to be reflected upon in the Anakhya-cakra; serial order of the five functional cycles for the purpose of adoration; inclusion of Yuganathas and Rajaputras in the K r a m a system; precise serial order of the five flows (Pancavaha); equation of Prakasa, Ananda a n d Murti cakras with five flows; the serial order of Prakasa, Ananda and Murti cakras; concept of Puryastaka; precise n u m b e r of aspects of the V r n d a cakra; Mudras and M u d r a krama of Vrnda-cakra; stages of speech, their nature and number. These problems are culled here with the sole desire to give the reader an idea of the extent these divergences reach out to. 7. Sources of the Quartic and Pentadic Tendencies T h e only question in this connection, that now remains to be considered, is to locate the probable cause of such a pentadic or quartic tendency. According to Pandey, this pentadic tendency is not the exclusive property of the K r a m a system alone. It has been anticipated by an earlier system of dualistic-cummonistic Saivism which is known as Lakulisa Pasupata. 2 In this case the pentadic tendency was aroused by the five Mantras of the Taittiriya Aranyaka, which provided the back-drop for the conception of the five aspects of Siva to be contemplated at the five stages on the path to final salvation. This trend was

2. Cf. Bhaskari, III, pp. CXII and CXXXIV.

Different Traditions and Sub-Schools


maintained in the Gana-karika which summarises the whole system through the medium of eight pentads. 1 However, the pentadic (or quartic) tendency of the K r a m a system seems to have been inspired by the quinary functionalism of Absolute. Even these five functions of the absolute owe their genesis to the five modes of Absolutic dynamism known as K a l a n a . T h e very basis of designating the ultimate reality as K a l i is, in fact, supplied by its capacity to effect five types of kalana, namely, Ksepa (projection), J n a n a (knowledge), Prasankhyana (determination), Gati (self-identification) and N a d a (pure awareness). 2

1. Cf. Abhinava, p. 495.

CHAPTER VI SOURCES AND L I T E R A T U R E A reconstructive study of Krama history and an analysis of the entire known as well as extant Krama literature with special reference to its authorship, historicity, availability, classification, subject-matter and chronology. 1. Kashmir : The Land of Origin of the Krama System While switching over to an enquiry into the history and literary wealth of the K r a m a system we are reminded of a feeling reference made by Bilhana to Kashmir, the land of Sarada (Sarada-desa). He says it is only Kashmir which has the unique privilege of producing saffron filaments together with the poetic ingenuity. 1 And, were one to add that Kashmir is equally the land of philosophical originality as it is a country of saffron flowers, he need not be afraid of being accused of exaggeration. T h e K r a m a system, with its long history and voluminous literature, only goes to exemplify the above statement. J a y a r a t h a has not failed to take note of these twin peculiarities 2 of Kashmir, the seat of the goddess of learning, 3 with special

Sources and Literature


reference to Kashmir Saiva monism. Even the plan and design of the city of Srinagar has been patterned on that of the Sri Cakra, according to a tradition current even today. 1 In this connection it is of special interest to remember, as has also been pointed out whenever the occasion so warranted, that of all the systems of monistic Saivism associated with Kashmir the K r a m a is the lone system that arose from the soil of Kashmir. We have repeated this again in view of its extreme significance. T h e name "Auttara K r a m a " is only an acknowledgment of the fact because Sivananda, who is the first preceptor of the system and hence is called 'the originator' 2 (Avatarakanatha), is said to have received his spiritual lessons in Kashmir, the Uttarapitha. 3 J a y a r a t h a appears to have hinted at Sivananda's possible association with Kamarupa, 4 renowned for its great tantric affiliations, w h e n he is presented to have been blessed by J a y a etc. the deities. But this observation, as per its context, is not intended to explain his relation with the K r a m a system. Jayaratha, who is in fact reproducing the account as given in the Kramakeli of Abhinavagupta, is very categorical about the fact that the K r a m a secrets were revealed to him in Kashmir. 5 T h e enormous
1. In the Asiatic Society of Bengal, there is a manuscript of the text named Vidyarnava by a student of some Pragalbhacarya, which also records this tradition. By implication, 'Srinagar' is an abbreviation of the original 'Sri-vidyanagara'.

Caruka is not a name of a teacher etc., instead, it means an important item in the Kula-yaga. Vide,

Quoted, T.A.V., X I , p. 19 (Ah. 19). Caruka's being a part of a Kula process may well also endorse Kamarupa's relation with Kula and not with Krama.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

praise heaped on the U t t a r a Pitha further bears it out. 1 M a h e svarananda's citing an extract from the Rtuvimarsini puts t h e last word on it. 2 However, the K r a m a system did not remain restricted to Kashmir alone. It spread even as far as Cola-desa (modern K a r n a t a k ) . K r a m a ' s association with various Pithas like O d d i y a n a , 3 P u m a Pitha 4 etc., is a sign of its prevalence even beyond the boundaries of K a s h m i r . The correct geographical identification of these pithas will no doubt add to certitude of our knowledge about K r a m a . 2. Origin and Early History

T h e exact record of origin a n d initial phases of the system is clouded in the labyrinth of the mythical, mystical and symbolical accounts. The K r a m a practice of worshipping the preceptorial line at the end of Vrnda-cakra 5 has proved to be an asset in view of its supplying the traditional records of the historical data, if any. More so, the general tantric convention which makes it imperative for an author to begin his venture with homage to his teachers 6 also helps one inculcate a rather coherent historical view. At the same time, this practice has also contributed to confusion and complicated the issues since such an account, for want of historical perspective and purport, leaves m a n y gaps unfilled a n d m a n y more questions u n answered. (a) Esoteric symbolism as part of the Krama History: Theory of Three Oghas But the tantric, and for the matter of that, the Kramic notion of history is drastically different from one we generally hold, because it makes esoteric symbolism as a part and parcel

3. Cf. M.P.(S), pp. 50, 60; M.M.P., pp. 86, 96, 102. 4. C.G.C., 4. 128.

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of its historical thesis. K r a m a , treading the current tantric line, arranges the entire course of history in three succeeding phases under the names of Divyaugha, Siddhaugha and M a n a v a u g h a standing for the traditions of the divine, the semi-divine or sacred, a n d the humans respectively. 1 Among these the second occasionally and the third usually are historically relevant. These three may roughly be compared with the three phases namely, Sruti, Smrti and P u r a n a of the orthodox account of history. T h e word Ogha, which forms the substantive part of the words denoting the three phases, means a community of those possessing similar character. 2 By implication, the members displaying a common personality make-up have been classed accordingly under three groups. This is corroborated by another interpretation of the word ' O g h a ' in terms of creation. 3 Accordingly, the three, terms e.g., Divyaugha, Siddhaugha and M a n a v a u g h a , may be said to represent the orders of creation pertaining to the divine, to the accomplished and to the h u m a n s respectively with special respect to the preceptorial line. (b) Various traditional accounts of the initial phase of the Krama System

Besides occasionally conflicting versions among the various traditions, our only regret is that nowhere has a consistent account of three stages been maintained. All the things have got mixed up and whatever comes before us is just a medley. According to a tradition, ascribed to the Kramakeli by Mahesvarananda 4 who has preserved it for us, the entire Gita


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

is an attempt on the part of Krsna to expound to Arjuna the philosophy of Krama. 1 Besides, the famous opening of the fourth chapter of the Gits, according to him, records the original history of the Krama system.2 While initiating Arjuna into the Krama secrets, Krsna had to enter the supreme spiritual state of Kala-samkarsini. 3 Arjuna, after knowing the fundamental spiritual truth, renounced the world having enthroned Yudhisthira as the head of the state.4 Mahesvarananda takes a lot of pain to present the arrangement of the subject-matter and plan of the Gita in terms of Krama, all of which is of no particular relevance from our point of view. Mahesvarananda records yet another tradition of the Krama and suggests the coverage of all three stages by it. The first ever revelation is said to have proceeded from Bhairava, Parma Siva, who delivered it to Bhairavi, the Iccha Sakti. 5 With the passage of time it was imparted to Sivananda and further through a series of teachers it was finally handed down to Mahesvarananda. 6 It is strange that an author of his eminence

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and acumen does not attempt to indicate the precise composition of the three phases e.g., Divyaugha etc. Even on other occasions, particularly while discussing the lineage of his preceptors (gurupankti), he merely reiterates, but does not add to, what he has already said except introducing Mangala Devi in place of Bhairavi or Iccha Sakti.1 Only at one place does he tell of his immediate preceptorial succession in the order e.g., Sivananda, Mahaprakasa and Mahesvarananda. 2 This Sivananda is indeed different from one mentioned above as the first human recipient of the Krama dicta. His immediate ancestry appears to have been suggested in the benedictory verses of the Parimala commentary.3 Coming back to the original problem, we may systematize the above account by placing Bhairava, Bhairavi etc. under Divyaugha, and Sivananda etc. under Manavaugha. His taciternity leaves us in dark about his view of the Siddhaugha, although he talks of those elements in different contexts that go to constitute the Siddhaugha according to other authors. Thus for instance, Abhinava in his Tantraloka refers to a tradition of the Siddhas (Siddha-santati) beginning with Khagendra and ending with Mina, 4 which has been adored by Mahesvarananda in the Sthiti-Krama.5 This view of reckoning the four Yuganathas comprising the Siddha tradition (Siddhaugha) also seems to have been endorsed by the Mahanaya-Prakasa6 which, we shall see, is a work of Sivananda I I ,

6. Cf. M.P.(T). 8. 14-17.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

the grand teacher of Mahesvarananda. But the Siddhaugha of this type is not approved by the other stalwarts of the system notably Abhinava and Sitikantha. Abhinava does not regard the Siddha-santati as essentially a K r a m a phenomenon, because prescribing or denying such a tradition is not in conformity with the K r a m a tendency of absolute monism. 1 He, however, makes it absolutely clear elsewhere that the Siddha-tradition at issue is exclusively a Kula phenomenon. 2 Sitikantha, too, is vocal about it and vehemently opposes it. He positively holds that such a tradition (ayatikrama) is an imposition of an exotic doctrine on the Krama. 3 He rejects even the slightest occasion for such a thesis in the system a n d holds that the four Siddhagroups represented by J n a n a , M a n t r a , Melapa and Sakta under the Vrnda-cakra would, of necessity, supply the basic content a n d material of the Sthitikrama. 4 Since these are esoteric notions and symbolize the mystic concepts, the Siddhaugha loses most of its historical value. But Sitikantha agrees with Mahesvarananda who also traces the system to Mangala Devi as its first teacher. 5 But M a k a r a Devi is no less than the self-adumbration of the Primordial Divinity 6 which, in its own right, presides over and

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constitutes the Divyaugha. 1 Divyaugha, which also goes by the name of Mahaugha 2 is a sheer mythical concept. T h e professed identity between the triad of cycles comprising Ananda, M u r t i a n d Prakasa and Divyaugha is a pointer in this direction. 3 In fact, Sitikantha talks of five Oghas (traditions) 4 namely, Paraugha, Divyaugha, Mahaugha, Siddhaugha and Manavaugha, but the first three can be conveniently subsumed under Divyaugha. Hence the primary classification of the three Oghas is not disturbed. Adverting to Siddhaugha we find that it begins with Makaradevi. 5 T h e rest has already been seen in the preceding paragraph. The only thing of dubious historical significance is a reference to some J n a n a n e t r a n a t h a who is said to have directly inherited the spiritual fortune from Mangala or Makara-devi. 6 A reference has also been made to some Srinatha. 7 T h e similarity of context tends heavily in favour of identifying the two, though it is also a case of doubtful equation. However, this equation cannot be dismissed as wholly unfounded because Sivananda, the author of the other MahanayaPrakasa, too, makes an explicit reference to one Antarnetranatha who seems to have unravelled the mystery of the highest Pitha. 8


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

For, there is no basic difference in the meaning of the J n a n a netra or Antarnetra and twisting of names without interfering with their meaning is not uncommon among Sanskrit authors, their identity cannot be brushed aside without proper scrutiny. It appears that, in spite of their probable historicity, these Nathas (or Natha, to be more exact) were assigned to Siddhaugha which is succeeded by M a n a v a u g h a in chronological order. T h e Manavaugha or h u m a n phase is traced to some H r a s v a n a t h a and is terminated with Cakrabhanu. 1 T h e M a n a vaugha has a further sub-division i.e., Sisyaugha 2 (lineage of the disciples), which starts with Cakrabhanu and closes with Sitikantha. 3 Now this Manavaugha or h u m a n phase has immediate bearings on the historical character of the K r a m a system. T h e exact significance will be examined at the proper occasion in the sequal but it may not escape our notice that Sitikantha's presentation, though by far the most comprehensive, is by all means incomplete and sketchy. (c) Consistent account of the early history of the system

O n e must feel grateful to J a y a r a t h a who, though citing from the Kramakeli, has preserved to us the account of early history of the system. 4 It goes to his credit that his is the first rational and consistent effort to supply the links left missing in the cryptic statements of the authors including Mahesvarananda. T h e Kramakeli acknowledges the earliest preceptorial status of Sivananda having received his lessons in the Uttarapitha. T h e close affinity between the Kramakeli's and the Mahanaya-Prakasa's accounts forces us not to unduly distinguish Sivananda from Srinatha, although it has nowhere been so explicitly asserted. Sivananda handed over the spiritual wealth to three of his female disciples namely, Keyuravati, Madanika

3. Ibid., p. 107. i. Vide. T.A.V., III, pp. 192-93.

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a n d Kalyanika. Next in the line are Govindaraja, Bhanuka a n d Eraka to whom were revealed the K r a m a secrets by these female ascetics simultaneously. T h e first two e.g., Govindaraja and Bhanuka, marked the beginning of the two different traditions of the K r a m a scholars. Somananda was connected with Govindaraja who trasmitted the creed of K r a m a to the former, and Bhanuka headed the other tradition to which later belonged Ujjata a n d Udbhata. T h e latter tradition came down intact to J a y a r a t h a . T h e third, Eraka, did not bother about forming a school of his own, instead he thought it better to propound the system all alone. Thus, it may be noted that Sivananda's position as the first preceptor of the system is in no way compromised. But a quotation from the Devi-pancasatika, again our thanks go to J a y a r a t h a , alludes to three precursors of Sivananda along with their spouses as u n d e r : 1 Niskriyananda Vidyananda Saktyananda Sivananda — — — — Jnanadipti, Rakta, M a h a n a n d a , and Samaya. 2

2. Jayaratha suggests that this Krama tradition has a stamp of conclusiveness about it. He, in his prefatory remark on T.A. 29.43, raises a question as to why other teachers such as those mentioned in the Devipancasatika are not referred to here in the 'present' context (because these teachers are different from those that are being alluded to presently). Here the present context means the Kula system Jayaratha's explanation bints at the impossibility of explicitly mentioning the teachers that have nothing to do with Kula. These teachers enjoy a detailed treatment in the Kali-kula, but they need not be worshipped instead, remembered only in the Kula context for the simple reason that these do not come under the purview of the Kula system. The word (see the preceding note) is very pregnant and


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

In the interest of logicality, if one could establish the identity of the present Sivananda with one recognised as the inventor of the system, one will have adequate ground to believe that K r a m a had earlier beginnings. T w o strong considerations lend their weight to the surmise that these two are one. First, the Devipancasatika is a recognised textual authority on K r a m a as the following pages would reveal. And secondly, Ananta-saktipada, a commentator on a later K r a m a text 'Vatulanatha Sutra", 1 and Sivopadhyaya, the learned author of the Uddyota commentary on the Vijnanabhairava,2 record the opinion of some Niskriyan a n d a n a t h a who is nowhere taken note of in the Kashmir Saiva texts even once except in the Devipancasatika. If this contention be true, Niskriyanandanatha should be recognized as the first thinker of the K r a m a system. If he is not so recognized in place of Sivananda, it is perhaps because he did not build up a system. The process of even greater antiquity of the system does not end here. Niskriyanandanatha is preceded by some G a n d h a m a d a n a Siddha who took the former in his personal favour. 3 G a n d h a m a d a n a probably had a book 4 which he showed to Niskriyananda a n d divulged its contents to him. T h u s , historically K r a m a seeds were sown much earlier than one is apt to believe. One may also ascertain the approximate historical status of these early thinkers. From the account furnished by J a y a r a t h a , Sivananda was removed by two intervening generations (i.e., Keyuravati and Govindaraja) from Somananda, whose chronological position is almost certain. He is assigned towards the close of the ninth century. By assigning

purposive. It meant that the Devipancasatika speaks of teachers other than those described above in the Kula context. Now Devipancasatika is a Krama text, hence the 'other' system than 'the present one' is bound to be the Krama. Hence Niskriyananda etc., are automatically related to the Krama system. Vide, T.A.V. XI, pp. 31-33 (Ah. 29). 1. Vide V.N.S.V., p. 4. 2. V.Bh.V., pp., 67-68. 3. V.N.S.V, p. 4. 4. Ibid.

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twenty-five years to each generation according to the usual practice of the historians, Sivananda may be placed in the first quarter of the ninth century. G a n d h a m a d a n a , who is by four generations older to Sivananda, has to be assigned towards the beginning of the eighth or the last quarter of the seventh century. Ostensibly enough, the K r a m a system dates back fairly early. In a sense it is the earliest system amongst the monistic Saiva systems of Kashmir, because all other systems arose or emerged somewhere around the beginning of the ninth century. Such a hoary antiquity of the system is further established by collateral evidence. T h e Haravijaya of R a t n a k a r a who is attributed to middle of ninth century by the scholars because he flourished during the reign of Avantivarman, 1 eulogizes the ultimate deity as Samkarsini 2 in course of offering prayers to Sakti. A student of the K r a m a philosophy is fully well aware of the implications of this term. It is a typical K r a m a method of naming the Absolute. T h e word Samkarsini a n d Kalasamkarsini have no semantic difference. They stand for the one a n d the same principle. 3 This reference helps one recognize the basic issue that the K r a m a dicta began to gain currency fairly early. It is these scattered ideas whose crystallization into a systematic form begins by the close of the seventh or beginning of the eighth century.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir 3. Creative period of the Krama system - Rise and Decay (9-18th century)

It may now be in the fitness of things to advert to the study of the creative phase of the Krama history which one encounters in the immediate succession. It is here that one finds himself face to face with remarkable scholars and outstanding personalities like Utpala, Laksmanagupta, Hrasvanatha, Siddhanatha, Pradyumna Bhatta, Utpala Vaisnava and Bhaskara etc. This community of scholars is further joined by even the persons of the eminence of Abhinavagupta, Ksemaraja and Ramyadeva etc. Really speaking, once the creative stream starts flowing, its current does not lose its rigour till it comes to Devabhatta. But the force of the central current is again restored after a brief pause in the personalities of Sivananda II, Jayaratha and Mahesvarananda. With Mahesvarananda one enters into the thirteenth century. These names form the galaxy of important Krama authors in addition to numberless those who have made humbler contributions. To this period belongs the illustrious tradition of Cakrabhanu, Hrasvanatha, Bhojaraja, Somaraja and Srivatsa who have made a hall-mark in the history of the Krama system by departing from the old rut and by making fresh contributions. It is the tradition which has escaped the certitude of historical accuracy for want of requisite material. From the historical point of view, the Krama history unrolls a vast panorama that stretches from the 9th to the 18th century. There comes a lull after the 13th century and a vacuum obscures the creative arena, if any, from our sight. To be frank, a period of decadence looms large with the exit of Jayaratha and Mahesvarananda. And the vacuum is only partly and sporadically filled. Only two names, e.g., Sitikantha (15751625 A.D.) and Sivopadhyaya (1725-1775 A.D.) arrest our attention for their brilliant attempt to revive and preserve the system. To this period may be assigned Anantasaktipada, the commentator upon the Vatula-natha-sutrani, and the author of the Chumma-Sampradaya whose exact chronological status is not yet beyond doubt.

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T h e period ranging from the 9th to 12th century is most creative. T h e creative vitality is reflected not only by the n u m b e r of authors and texts, but also the impact it m a d e on the other systems. This period witnesses a big community of authors who not only share their greatness, but also enjoy blood-affiliations; a n d consequently, we are in the midst of not only the rich preceptorial traditions but also family traditions. In the subsequent study we shall have sufficient opportunity to expatiate upon this contention. This period evinces a positive philosophical aptitude to be replaced by deep esoteric tendencies towards decaying finale of the system. A transitional compromise is easily perceptible among the authors flourishing towards the conclusion of the primary creative phases e.g., Mahesvaran a n d a etc. T h e system did not degenerate overnight. T h e long process h a d started fairly early. By the close of the 12-13th century, the cracks start showing in the erstwhile cemented wall of the system. O n e can easily feel the pressure of surging winds in J a y a r a t h a . His diatribe at his opponents is indicative of the fact that they had lost touch with the traditional secret of the system. 1 But Jayaratha's criticism is so lively and retains its contemporary flavour to such an extent that by his time K r a m a continued to be a living force. Even a superficial perusal would convince one of this. Similarly Sivananda I I , the author of the Mahanaya-prakasa, has castigated such people hinting at the growing ignorance of the system among the votaries of the system themselves. 2 T h e tendency gradually turned into a fact. Coming to Sitikantha, one finds K r a m a fast disappearing from the popular scene. He, at one place, bemoans the forgetful


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

public memory. 1 T h e Jnanakriyadvaya-sataka, a stotra of K r a m a leanings and much later origin, gives a very vivid and graphic description of degeneration of the noble tenets of the system at the hands of its followers. It is a lengthy caricature (verses 37-63) and indicates how they lost any sense of the ethical proportions, social decorum and spiritual values in pursuing their carnal, sensual and mercenary motives. 2 4. Historical backdrop of these Phases

If one reviews the K r a m a history against the general backdrop of the history of Kashmir, it would be clear to him that the period covering the creative phase of the K r a m a system is in fact reflective of the renaissance that overtook and enervated every field of intellectual activity. This period has given us many classics in different branches of learning e.g., philosophy, poetics, religion and literature. T h e process of patronizing the intellectuals and creative geniuses that started with King Lalitaditya (7th century) went unabated till the time of Jayasimha (1127-1149 A . D . ) with a few exceptions. There was a great impotus for the composition of new and original works in Kashmir. Works on poetics practically commenced from the 8th century A.D. with U d b h a t a and V a m a n a . Works on the Trika system of philosophy began to be written about the same time and historical works also fall in the same period. T h e reasons for this are not far to seek. Firstly the literary glory and creative upsurge of Kashmir was at its peak during this period and was largely responsible for creating an intellectually fertile atmosphere in which nothing m e a n could ever aspire for recognition. Sociologically knowledge-seeking and intellectual activity were the values supremely cherished by the society a n d individuals alike. According to the social psychology deep-rooted

2. The stotra is still unpublished. particulars.

See "classified bibliography" for

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values in the subconscious-mind of society act as a formative principle and impart a direction, depth and meaning to the cultural and creative adventures of the age. Knowledge-seeking became the cult of the then India, not to talk of Kashmir alone. Secondly, foreign emissaries like Hiuen-tsang and I-tsing visited India so that there was ample opportunity for exchange of ideas between the great nations like China, Persia, Greece and India. Thirdly, Kashmir Saivism emerged as a critique of the Vaibhasika and Yogacara schools of Buddhism and a constructive continuator of Bhartrhari's philosophy of language which had attained a high degree of intellectual advancement. Fourthly, the kings like Jayapida (779-813 A.D.) and Avantivarman (855-883 A.D.) were enlightened and generous and they kept the flame of learning ever kindled during their reign. A king's popularity and success were measured in terms of his respect for learning. Kalhana has stated that during his time king J a y a p i d a , like his remote precursor Lalitaditya, invited scholars from all parts of India in large numbers. Of Avantivarman Kalhana says that during his reign Siddhas such as Bhatt Kallata were born for the benefit of the world. 1 King Yasaskare who has won the laurels from K a l h a n a for his flawless administration in maintaining the integrity of the housewives, 2 was also a patron of many a scholar. He was a Seme contemporary of Abhinava (950-1020 A . D . ) . Vallabha, t h e grandfather of K a m a who was Abhinava's favourite studen and P u m a Manoratha, the first known ancestor of J a y a r a t h a , were ministers of Yasaskara. Similarly in Sussala (1101-1197 A.D:) we meet a great patron of learning. M a n k h a has paid high tributes to him. 3 Practically all the brothers of M a n k h a including himself


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

were under the employment of Sussala. Mankha's elder brother Alamkara, 1 who himself was a great patron of learning, was a high state official under Sussala. Ramyadeva and Losthala both K r a m a authors, Ruyyaka - the famous poetician, and a host of others were regular members of Alamkara's literary club. J a y a Simha (1127-1155 A . D . ) , whose court poet was Kalhana, stepped into the shoes of his father and closely followed his foot-prints. M a n k h a has very high opinion about him. 2 Jayaratha, ostensibly one of the most remarkable figures of the system, was a son of Srngararatha, the court-minister of Jayasimha who has been probably referred to as Rajaraja. 3 Encouragement from the rulers and a creatively lively academic environment made Kashmir a virtual seat of learning which bewitched scholars from every corner of the country. 4 And consequently and rightly, too, an adage earned currency among the scholars that the real test of the scholarship lay in Kashmir. Particular mention may be made, in this connection, of the encouragement that was given to Sanskrit learning during the later part of this period (which has been called as the period of decadence) even by Muslim rulers such as King Zain-ulAbidin (1420-1459 A . D . ) , Sultan Hasan Shah (1472-1484 A.D.) and Emperor Akbar. Zain-ul-Abidin made a history by proclaiming a total ban on cow-slaughter by reducing ziziah to a

1. Kalhana refers to Alamkara in glowing terms :

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nought. H a s a n Shah was the patron of Sitikantha - author of the Mahanaya-prakasa, and Srivara P a n d i t a - author of the later edition of the Raja-tarangini. All the three rulers ordered the translations of Sanskrit works into Persian and Arabic and vice versa, so that the exchange of ideas was mutual and not unilateral. But there was a great difference between the initial and final periods of the creative phase. These Muslim rulers of the final period, however, were not the rule but exceptions who gave a fillip and stimulus to Sanskrit learning in brilliant contrast to the wicked performance of the Muslim rulers in general who took it as a religious duty to destroy the culture of Kashmir; whereas in the initial period such rulers were exception as were not generous, nor enlightened. This difference among the rulers speaks by itself of the difference between the two periods. T h e dazzling flame of classical Sanskrit tradition ultimately began to flicker and extinguish after the death of king Zain-ulAbidin. T h e Hindu society in K a s h m i r began to disintegrate marking the decline of Sanskrit study. Persian language began to spread its influence. T h e place of Sanskrit was usurped by Kashmiri which was born afresh by a mixture of Persian and Sanskrit. Its magnificent examples are found in the pithy sayings of Lalla, Mahanaya-prakasa of Sitikantha and ChummaSampradaya. It is a pity that the land which was a living shrine of the goddess of learning succumbed to foreign influences and was forced to pass through a process of complete degeneration and total eclipse of its cultural identity. T h e process has been so thorough and its after-effects so severe that the Kashmiris today have yet to realize their real cultural identity. However the rich heritage that has flowed through blood among the Kashmirians down to the present day is visible in the commentaries of Sivopadhyaya on the Vijnanabhairava, of Ratnakantha on the Stuti-Kusumanjali, and of Bhaskarakantha on the Isvarapratyabhijna-vimarsini and in the Devinamavilasa of Sahib K a u l . T h e first and third works speak of the original calibre of their authors. Sivopadhyaya, who is credited with the authorship of certain other works as well, flourished under the patronage of Sukhajivana (1754-1762 A . D . ) , a H i n d u king. The fourth work


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

also belongs to the close of eighteenth century. With his exit t h e curtain is finally dropped and all intellectual activity comes to a close only to be revived in the present century.


Chronological Position and Contribution of the Individual Authors

As is logical, one may now proceed to determine t h e chronological status as well as examine the contribution of the K r a m a authors individually. Such an attempt will possibly facilitate better understanding of the system. The place of an author in the proposed treatment corresponds to his exact or approximate position in chronology. Cases of doubtful or unknown authorship have been treated along the same lines except agamic works to which a separate section has been devoted. (i) Vatulanatha (675-725 A.D.) Little is known about him. It is also difficult to say whether he belonged to the Siddha tradition (Siddhaugha) or the H u m a n one (Manavaugha) although he is referred to as a 'Siddha'. If he is a historical personality he should be placed before Niskriyanandanatha whose period falls about 700-750 A . D . , because the tradition (not the authorship) as presented in the Vatulanatha-Sutrani is traced to some Vatulanatha. 1 T h e m a i n thesis, according to him, is to negate duality and uphold unity of the various categories of spiritual experience i.e., the adorer, the adored and the adoration. He is the first exponent of the Sahasa school.

Sources and Literature (ii) Gandhamadana (700-750 A.D.)


He is known from a brief reference 1 where he is represented to have shown an unauthored (probably of divine origin or received traditionally) book to Niskriyananda while taking the latter into his personal favour. He is also said to be a Siddha i.e., the accomplished one. T h e text Vatula-natha-sutra is supposed to be a detailed exposition of these teachings. Coming before Niskriyananda he may be placed in the vicinity of the first two quarters of the eighth century. He also subscribed to the Sahasa branch of the K r a m a system. (iii) Niskriyandanatha (725-775 A.D.) During the hoary antiquity of the system Niskriyananda appears to be the most important author. He is the first among the four preceptorial dignities mentioned by the Pancasatika.2 He is mentioned alongwith his consort i.e., Jnanadipti. His importance becomes self-manifest the moment one finds at least two works ascribed to him. As has already been noted in our study of the Sahasa school, these works are the Chumma-Sampradaya3 and the Vatulanatha-Sutrani. It is to be noted that one does not meet such explicit declaration of his authorship of these two works. To be more precise and exact, he may be said to be the author of the Chumma-Sampradaya, whereas he transpires to be a recipient of the Sahasa doctrine from some G a n d h a m a d a n a resulting in the form of the Vatulanatha-Sutrani.

T h e editor, Pt. Madhusudan Kaul, translates the word "by the self-composed book". Cf. p. 5 of the translation. However, this rendering appears to be incorrect. 2. T. A. X I , p . 31 (Ah. 29). 3. The work is available in Manuscript form only and happens to be in the list of the projected publications of the Research Department, Kashmir. The book is divided in about 74 sub-sections known as Kathas. Under each Katha a few verses occur in which Sanskrit verses precede those in the local vernacular. It has in all thirteen folios and bears the MS. No. 151. We have made copious use of the manuscript throughout the present study.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

His authorship of the first work is established by an irrevokable fact. According to Sivopadhyaya, he reads 'Karankini' for " K a r a n k i n i " in the context of M u d r a k r a m a under Vrndacakra. In support Sivopadhyaya cites two verses from him. 1 Fortunately these verses are traceable verbatim to the Chumma-Sampradaya2 which is still unpublished. He also seems to have written a commentary called " P r a k a s a " on it which is also in manuscript form. 3 In this connection it is perhaps significant to remember that all these works as they are available today convey an impression of their being of much later date. This conclusion is derived from three facts viz., (i) these works are nowhere referred to in the earlier literature. Even Mahesvarananda and J a y a r a t h a do not take any notice of them, (ii) the prevalence of Prakrta in the Chumma-Sampradaya a n d esoteric symbolism in the Vatulanatha-Sutrani are definitely later characteristics of the s y s t e m ; and (iii) the only other reference one gets after the Pancasatika is by Sivopadhyaya (18th century). T h e only explanation that seems plausible at this stage is that antiquity of

2. Vide C.S. (MS), folio 8. 3. The manuscript belongs to Pt. Dinanatha Yaksa, the then head pandit of the Sanskrit Section of the Research and Publication Department, J a m m u and Kashmir Government, Srinagar. I was not permitted to have a look into the work. But he very kindly supplied to me a transcribed copy of the colophon with which the commentary ends. It is written in Sarada characters. Sutras in Prakrta have been commented upon by Niskriyananda in Sanskrit verses. The colophon r e a d s :

Sources and Literature


Niskriyananda is no doubt very early and his teachings did come down to posterity unbroken, but they were consolidated a n d circumscribed into the form of the books at much later date. Or else there may be two separate authors of the same name. But in the absence of any contrary evidence, the first view seems to be more tenable. Whatever the case, he is inalienably connected with the Sahasa sub-school of the K r a m a system. According to Sivopadhyaya's account he held Vamesvari to be the primal a n d absolute principle. He believed in the sixty-four aspects of the Vrnda-cakra, the sixty-fifth aspect being constituted by Reality itself which also passes under the name of R a u dresvari. 1 This account tallies with what has been preserved to us in the two extant texts. (iv) Vidyanandanatha (750-800 A.D.) Besides the Pancasatika's mention of his, as reported by J a y a r a t h a , 2 complete darkness surrounds his identity. He is second in lineage from Niskriyananda and Rakta happened to be his spouse. This is all that is known about him. It is, indeed, almost certain that he is different from the two Vidyanandas belonging to the T r i p u r a sect. O n e is t h e author of the famous work called Artharatnavali and the other is the author of the Sivarcana-candrika and Saubhagya-ratnakara etc. Both of t h e m belong to much later date 3 (the 12th and 16th centuries respectively), hence their identification with t h e present author is totally out of question. (v) Saktyanandanatha (775-825 A.D.) Once again we seek recourse to the Pancasatika which puts him in the third place from Niskriyananda and as an
1. V.Bh... pp. 67-68. 2. T.A.V.,XI, p. 31 (Ah. 29). B.B. Dviveda, S.S., p. 25. The author has given convincing reasons to prove the lateness of (he authors in question. Vidyananda of the Krama system cannot be dragged to a later period for that would create historical absurdities. The Pancasatika was known to Somananda (T.A.V., I I I , p. 194) who flourished in the first quarter of the tenth century. And it is this Pancasatika that is one's sole access to Vidyananda.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir was

immediate predecessor of Sivananda. His spouse M a h a n a n d a by name. We know nothing more about him. (vi) Sivananda (800-850 A . D . )

Sivananda is the first literary figure about whom the history is less silent. Generally he is acclaimed as the first systematic exponent of the school 1 and for that reason is known as " A v a t a r a k a n a t h a " 2 in the doctrinal circles. He, as has already been pointed out, belongs to the opening era of the ninth century. This date is arrived at from basing our calculations on the dates of Somananda (875-925 A.D.) and Abhinavagupta (950-1000 A D . ) . He is removed by two generations from the former a n d by five from the latter. He hailed from Kashmir, the U t t a r a p i t h a , which was also the seat of his spiritual initiation. 3 He also visited K a m a r u p a where he was taken into personal favour of the deities of the J a y a class. 4 T h e circumstances pertaining to his visit perhaps have a bearing on his relation, if any, with the Kula system. He had three female ascetics as his immediate pupils who bore the burden of propounding the K r a m a dicta. They were known as Keyuravati, Madanika and Kalyanika respectively. 5 In Jayaratha's time there raged a controversy with regard to the total number of Sivananda's actual disciples. J a y a r a t h a quotes a verse giving out the number of his students as seventeen and refutes the same because the verse, in his opinion, does not take into consideration the two other pupils and also because there is always

2. T.A.V., I I I , pp. 195, l97. 3. Ibid., p. 102. 4. Ibid., p. 201.

Sources and Literature


a possibility of his having still another student. 1 By implication there was a wide range of scholars a n d devotees to whom he seems to have addressed his teachings. It is doubtful if he wrote some specific work for the propagation of K r a m a . It is unfortunate that his views on various philosophical questions have not come down to us except on one question i.e., the number of Kalis to be worshipped in Anakhya-cakra. It appears there were two interpretations in tune with the doctrinal demands of his views. The tradition is interpreted by one group to mean that he advocated the number of Kalis to be thirteen and two verses are cited from him in support of their thesis. 2 T h e other group headed by J a y a r a t h a , instead, holds the number to be twelve which, he declares, has descended to him direct from Govindaraja and cites a verse to substantiate his contention. 3 Jayaratha presents it as an uncontrovertible fact that the twelve goddesses alone were intended by the teacher-sage. 4 T o d a y it is difficult to objectively


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

determine his precise views with regard to this or that issue. This is, however, clear that the twelvefoldness of Kalis was derived by him from the purely functional interpretation of t h e Absolutic agency. Each of the four functions namely, E m a n a tion, Sustenance, Withdrawal and Rest, happens to enjoy three distinct phases of rise, maintenance a n d dissolution respectively. It may also be taken to be implied that he subscribed to the thesis of four-function doctrine (Krama- catustaya). A student of the K r a m a history is familiar with one more Sivananda (generally referred to by us as Sivananda I I I , the grand teacher of Mahesvarananda, who belongs to a period as late as the twelfth century. In the t a n t r i c history, in general, there are quite a few Sivanandas a n d any irresponsible identification must be avoided without proper and strong basis. Yet one Sivananda quoted in the Siddha-Siddhanta-paddhati,1 because of his antiquity and historical approximity, may be identical with our author. T h e tone of the citation also lends weight to the above hypothetical value at present. If such a contention has any force, it is probable that Sivananda wrote some work or works too. Earlier, in this very chapter, the identity of Sivananda with Srinatha, Antarnetranatha and J n a n a n e t r a n a t h a has been suggested Here one would like to consider additional evidence which could not be adduced there for want of space and relevance. T h e immediate transmission of the K r a m a tenets by M a n g a l a Devi to jnananetranatha 2 in Sitikantha finds a close analogue in Sivananda's receiving the spiritual secrets from Mangala Devi in the Maharthamanjari.3 Moreover, Antarnetranatha is the first preceptor ever to be mentioned in connection with the Northern Seat by the Mahanayaprakasa.4 This, again,

2. M.P.(S),p. 4.


3. Vide pp. 99, 197. M.P.(T), 2.36-37.

Sources and Literature


bears a-close affinity to Sivananda's relation with the Northern Seat. 1 Srinatha is said to have secured revelation of the spiritual truth at the first or original seat. 2 T h e caravan of corroborative facts does not stop here. Ksemaraja has quoted from some Srinatha a passage containing his views about Kali 3 which is definitely a K r a m a concept. It is interesting to note that Sivan a n d a has also been referred to as N a t h a . 4 From these premises the following conclusions can be safely drawn that (i) Srinatha subscribed to the K r a m a system, (ii) he flourished before Ksemaraja, (iii) there is no other Srinatha before Ksemaraja (except one, who is credited with the exposition of the dualistic-cum-monistic thesis and is a contemporary of Amardaka and Traiyambaka) subscribing to the monistic tradition, (iv) Srinatha 5 of Sitikantha does not appear to be different from his J n a n a n e t r a n a t h a , 6 because of the close similarity in their relation with their Pithas. 7 (v) there is only nominal and no semantic difference between Jnananetra and Antarnetra, (vi) there is a strikingly close resemblance among the accounts of Sivananda, j n a n a n e t r a , Antarnetra a n d Srinatha, and
1. T.A.V.,III, p. 192. 2. M.P.(S), p. 73.

5, M.P. (S), p. 73. 6. Ibid., p. 49.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

(vii) there is nobody else than Sivananda who could fulfil all these qualifications simultaneously before the time of Ksemaraja. Hence the proposition laying down their equation cannot be ridiculed as absurd and unfounded. However, this suggestion has been advanced here only as a tentative measure. About his personal life we know nothing except that Samaya, according to the Pancasatika, was his spouse. (vii) Vasugupta (800-850 A.D.) Among the authors ascribed to this period the claim of Vasugupta must be considered, who is primarily a Trika as well as a Spanda author and is nowhere mentioned as the K r a m a author. But a close perusal of his Siva-Sutras as well as the Spanda-Karikas would reveal his contribution to the cause of the K r a m a system too. There are two schools with regard to the interpretation of the Siva-Sutras. Bhaskara represents one school that explains it as embodying the Spanda doctrine and divides the work into three Prakaranas or Prakasas, In so doing he steps into the shoes of K a l l a t a who got the Sivasutras in four divisions, the first three of which he explained by his Spanda-Karikas and the last one by a commentary called Tattvartha-cintamani.1 Bhaskara comments on the first three chapters only. H e r e in his interpretations his taciturnity regarding the K r a m a system does not permit one to form a definite view. But the other school represented by Ksemaraja and Varadaraja interprets the Sivasutras in the light of the Trika system or so to say, the Kashmir Saivism in general and divides the whole work into the three sections in accordance with the three Upayas. Thus the second section deals with Saktopaya which is the traditional way of presenting the K r a m a system. Below in footnote a few Sutras, in addition to the second chapter, that particularly incorporate the K r a m a tenets

Sources and Literature


are also indicated. 1 In the philosophical portion a reference has invariably been made to such portions of the Siva-Sutras as have the slightest bearing on the K r a m a system. Similarly Ksemaraja, who ascribes authorship of the Spanda-Karikas2 to Vasugupta, presents the basic theme of the Karikas as consisting in the enunciation of the M a h a r t h a doctrine. 3 We have also seen Utpala, the author of the SpandaPradipika, referring to the common features between the Spanda and K r a m a systems. Hence this study. T h e date of Vasugupta does not present much difficulty. We know Kallata was the direct disciple of Vasugupta. According to K a l h a n a , 4 Kallata was a contemporary of king Avantivarman whose period of reign extends from 855 to 883 A . D . It is, therefore, reasonable to believe that Vasugupta, the teacher of Kallata, belonged to the preceding generation which might have been alive and active during the first half of the ninth century. Besides the two works alluded to above, the three other books ascribed to Vasugupta are the (i) Spandamrta,5 (ii) Vasavi Tika and (iii) Siddhantacandrika. T h e claim of the first work as an independent treatise is now rejected by the modern scholars. 6 It is supposed to be identical with the Spanda-Karikas with difference in the title only, because the word Spandamrta seems to be more of a metaphorical expression. The Vasavi Tika is a commentary on the Bhagavadgita. A complete manuscript of it has not yet been discovered. T h e first six chapters are probably mixed up in another commentary on the Bhagavadgita called Lasaki by Rajanaka Lasaka the manuscripts of which, according to Natarajan; are however available. T h e third work e.g.,
1. Sp.K., 1. 6, 12, 17,21, 22; 3. 13, 16, 25,27, 30,43.

3. Vide Sp. N., pp. 6, 74 and Sp.S., pp. 11-12, 19-22. 4. R.T.V. 66. 5. Sp.N., p. 1, verse 2; S.K.V., p. 40, verse 2. 6. Abhi., p. 156. Vide also Contribution (MS.), p. 329.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Siddhanta Candrika is noticed by Buhler. 1 Since Vasugupta is not an exclusive author on the K r a m a system unnecessary details may be avoided. 2 It may not be out of place to add that the Siva Sutras, as extant now, are known to us not in their entirety. Ksemaraja, in his Spanda Sandoha, quotes two Siva-Sutras which are not traceable to the published text. 3 Abhinavagupta also refers to one such Sutra in his Isvara-pratyabhijna-vivrti Vimarsini.4 It is possible that these Sutras belong to the fourth division of the Sivasutras which has not been commented upon by any author except Kallata who is depicted by Bhaskara to have written the Tattvartha Cintamani commentary on it. A further probe into the available literature would perhaps give us a few more such Sutras. (viii) Three female disciples of Sivananda - Keyuravati, Madanika and Kalyanika (825-875 A.D.) We have just seen that Sivananda's immediate disciples included three female ascetics namely, Keyuravati, Madanika and Kalyanika. 5 As such, there is no difficulty in fixing their approximate date. All our information about them is based on an extract from the Kramakeli as preserved by Jayaratha. Till their period one does not find any trace of the mainstream of K r a m a splitting into sub-schools. Like Keyuravati, Madanika and Kalyanika too were taken into favour by Sivananda. 6 All
1. Buhler's Kashmir Report, 1877, Cat. No. 601 (MSS). 2. For further reference of. Abhi., pp. 154-157; Contribution (S), pp. 296-299,327-330.

Both quoted by M.S. Kaul, A Short Review of the Research Publications (Kashmir State), year not given, p. 10.

Sources and Literature


of them were the guardian deities of some Pitha. 1 Keyuravati, who was also called Kakaradevi, 2 appears to be most important among the three. These three were responsible for imparting the K r a m a tenets to Sri Govindaraja, Bhanuka and Eraka. 3 Besides this, J a y a r a t h a has preserved some more information about Keyuravati. T h e historical value of the information will be determined later while discussing Cakrabhanu. In addition to these three, namely, Govindaraja etc. 4 she is said to have three other disciples as well whose names are not known. 5 Yet the preceptorial traditions ensued from the latter three students. Hence they are depicted as 'Savamsas'. It is impossible to identify these people today. At another place also from Keyuravati down to the pupil of Cakrabhanu, sixteen generations of the K r a m a teachers are said to have flourished. 6 But validity of such a view is somewhat dubious, because the intention of J a y a r a t h a behind alluding to these views is to suggest the conflicting nature of hearsays with regard to one and the same person or author and impossibility of construing any definite conclusion from such a scattered mass. Nevertheless, the respect enjoyed by Keyuravati is not compromised. This is borne out by the homage paid to her by Eraka or Naverakanatha, who eulogizes her as the Divinity par excellence.1 (ix) Kallata (825-875 A.D.) Kallata, though not exclusively belonging to the K r a m a
1. 2. 3. 4. Vide fa. 5 on p 110. See fn, 6 on p.110 T.A.V., III, p. 192. Ibid., p. 192.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

school, is one of the most creative geniuses of his time. He is preeminently a Spanda author. T h e only justification for considering him under K r a m a lies in his valued contribution to the K r a m a system through the Spanda-karika as well as his commentaries thereon. On the authority of Ksemaraja a n d Bhatta Utpala one comes to know the amount of the K r a m a wisdom as contained in the Spanda-karika. Abhinavagupta presents Kallata as indirectly propounding a Krama doctrine. 1 Being a contemporary of king Avantivarman (855-883 A.D.) his date covers the second and third quarters of the ninth century. K a l h a n a calls him a great Siddha born for emancipating the suffering masses. Historically he occupies a unique position and from him ensue the two laudable traditions of the Spanda branch. O n e begins with P r a d y u m n a Bhatta and is continued up to Bhaskara who is also a teacher of Abhinavagupta, and the other starts with M a h a b a l a and is carried up to Utpala Bhatta. Pradyumna Bhatta a n d Utpala Bhatta are famous for their contributions to K r a m a as well. Computing backwards from Abhinava (960-1020 A . D . ) who is a student of Bhaskara, one arrives at exactly the same period, since five intervening generations have filled the gap from Kallata to Abhinavagupta. Kallata, apart from being a spiritual and religious personality, was also a m a n of versatile genius a n d wide interests. Besides his numerous philosophical major and minor treatises he is credited with the composition of literary pieces as well. A few verses have come down to us through anthologies 2 and some

2. Vide Subhasitavali or Vallabhadeva, Verse N c . 136.

Quoted by D r . S.V. Singh, Contribution of Kashmir to Sanskrit poetry, Thesis (MS), p. 78.

Sources and Literature


other sources. 1 He also contributed his mite to the Kula system as well. It is apparent from Abhinava's reference to him in a positively Kula context. 2 It is difficult to say whether or not he wrote separate treatises on K u l a a n d K r a m a . But he did ventilate his views regarding problems pertaining to these systems. Such wide erudition he could command due to his curiosity and unextinguishable thirst for knowledge. He calls himself as "a student of all" and naturally he never suffered from dearth of people readily telling him everything. After the typical slang "Every T o m , Dick and H a r r y " , we take it, he avers that his teachership ranged from T a p a n a to M o t a k a . 3 Abhinavagupta quotes this verse in his Tantraloka with slight modification 4 a n d admits the debt of Kallata without reservation in one respect. He (Abhinava) also flanked the doors of all sorts of teachers even in branches of learning inferior to his own, out of sheer curiosity and quest for knowledge. In this he was largely inspired by Kallata's example. 5 T h e salient factor behind K a l l a t a ' s peerless renown consists in his controversial authorship of the Spanda-karikas. Controversial in the sense that the tradition has not remained unanimous in recognizing him as the absolute author of t h e


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

said text. T h e r e is a group of traditional scholars who attribute the authorship of the Karikas to Vasugupta. Ksemaraja 1 a n d Mahesvarananda 2 who closely follows the former, treat it as a work of Vasugupta. In fact this is the heritage that they have received from Abhinava - his (Abhinava's) own statement testifies to it. 3 Abhinava and Ksemaraja both seem to base their judgment on the authority of the following verse found in their recension as retained by Ksemaraja in his Spanda Nirnaya:

Strangely enough, this verse is not found in the recension of Bhatta Utpala, author of the Spanda-pradipika, who ascribes its authorship to Kallata. He (Bhatta Utpala) on the strength of the 53rd verse, categorically holds it to be a work of Kallata. T h e verse runs -

But, amusingly again, this verse is not found in Ksemaraja's

Sources and Literature


recension. In the beginning of his Pradipika1 Utpala emphatically asserts his position that Vasugupta revealed the Spanda secrets to K a l l a t a who wrote a compendium in fifty verses for the sake of easy understanding by his pupils. He, in this connection, also records a slight modification in the tradition in respect of the Siva-sutras to the effect that the Siva-sutras were revealed to Vasugupta by a Siddha and not by Siva himself as held by Ksemaraja etc. 2 Bhatta U t p a l a is supported by a host of scholars including Bhaskara, the author of the Varttika on the Siva-sutras, and R a m a k a n t h a who wrote a Vrtti on the Spanda-karikas. According to Bhaskara, Kallata got from his teacher four divisions of the Siva-sutras on the first three of which he wrote his Spanda-karikas or Spanda-sutras, and on the last one a commentary called the Tattvarthacintamani.3 Probably the Spanda-karikas, intended to be a commentary on the first three divisions, was known as Madhu-vahini.4 Because both of them, according to Abhinava, are commentaries on the Siva Sutras and are mentioned by him in the order that conforms to Bhaskara's stand. T h u s the following facts emerge from the above discussion Both the schools concurred that -

Sp.P., Introductory verses. This is also to be noted that Ksemaraja talks of 51 Karikas whereas Bhatta Utpala of 60 Karikas. 2. See fn. 3 below.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir (i) the Spanda-karikas were a commentary on the Sivasutras, (ii) Vasugupta and Kallata both are related to the Spandakarikas whether directly or indirectly, (iii) K a l l a t a did write two surras. commentaries on the Siva-

And the two schools disagreed with regard to (i) its authorship - an issue Vasugupta versus Kallata, (ii) origin of the Siva-sutras - Divine i.e., received from Siva, or Secular i.e., revealed by a Siddha, (iii) recension of the Spanda-karikas - mutual black-out of the verses pertaining to authorship and their number e g., fifty-one or fifty, in their respective recensions, and (iv) divisions of the Siva-sutras - three or four. On the basis of the material produced above there should be no doubt that one does not have extant today the original text of the Spanda-karikas. W h a t one has must be an edited text - rendered and modified by the schoolmen in order to cater to their doctrinal requisites. If one sets out to locate its cause, one has to make a study in the motives of these schoolmen before he can positively conclude anything. It has been frequently repeated that the Spanda system is nearest to the K r a m a for its unmistakable emphasis on the dynamic aspect of reality which technically passes under the name of Sakti or Spanda or Vimarsa. If this be granted, the Spanda-karika must propound a system that is Sakta in nature. It is why the Spanda-karika, despite the fact that it is a commentary on the Sivasutras, is considered to be the Bible of the Spanda system, whereas the Sivasutras are concerned with the Trika in general. According to Bhaskara, Kallata directly transmitted his interpretation of the Sivasutras to Pradyumna Bhatta 1 who has been ruthlessly criticized for his Sakta leanings by

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S o m a n a n d a . 1 In the wake of such contingency, if Kallata is allowed to lay his claim to the Spanda-karikas, it will be an uphill task to filter Saiva theses from the Spanda-karikas. Because that would mean leaving the Saiva system in the hands of the Saktas who, though kith a n d kin of the former, tread a different line. Hence Somananda a n d his fellow-travellers accepted Vasugupta to be the author of the Spanda-karikas and accordingly modified their edition in so far as it threw whatever feeble light on its authorship. Kallata, it appears, was the original author, for the simple reason that even before Somananda his system happens to show a m a r k e d softness to Sakta tendencies. It was for this reason that his direct disciple falls a victim to the tirade launched by S o m a n a n d a . Moreover Ksemaraja refers to Bhatta Lollata, who was a precursor of Abhinava a n d wrote a commentary on the Spanda-karikas and suggests that Lollata explained them in conformity with the gloss of Bhatta Kallata, whereas he (Ksemaraja) has not always done so. 2 Even elsewhere Ksemaraja clearly professes to have taken an independent line. 3 In this connection it is also to be noted, to which attention has been drawn earlier too, that Abhinava the prolific master author - did not write anything on the Spanda-karikas4 in spite of his numerous reverential references to


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Kallata. This we know on the authority of Ksemaraja. T h e only logical a n d irresistible conclusion that follows in the wake of such strong evidence is to admit the original authorship of the Spanda-karikas as belonging to Kallata. Besides his Spanda-karika which is most probably identical with the Spanda-sutras mentioned by Bhaskara, 1 which again is perhaps identical with his Madhuvahini, he wrote several other works. Amongst which a brief commentary on the Spandakarikas known as Spanda-Vrtti has come down to us and has been published in combined IV-Vth volumes of Kashmir Series of Texts a n d Studies. What is today known as the Spanda-sarvasva is not a different text but probably a name for the Vrtti a n d Karikas together. 2 This is clear from the concluding verses of his Vrtti. Kallata also makes it clear in the second concluding verse that he owes the Spanda-thesis to Vasugupta who got it in the form of Siva-sutras from the Lord in a dream, but the credit of bringing it before the public must go to him (Kallata). 3 This statement from Kallata also goes to favour the present ascription of authorship of the Karikas to himself. Of all his Spanda works the Tattvarthacintamani seems to have w o n special favour with the later authors. Abhinava refers to it more than once. 4 Bhatta U t p a l a quotes it twice 5 a n d

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Ksemaraja also falls in line with them. 1 On the testimony of Bhatta U t p a l a one is led to conclude that Kallata also wrote a work n a m e d Tattvavicara. It may, however, be a d d e d that this work has not been noticed earlier by any author on the Kashmir Saivism. According to Utpala, Kallata is t h e author (Granthakara) of the Karikas. He has referred twice to the Tattvavicara as another work of the author. 2 From the perusal of the quoted verses it appears to be a metaphysical treatise a n d an independent work not a commentary, by Kallata who gave expression to the outcome of his philosophical reflections in it. Whatever little material we have in our possession is sufficient to indicate that in addition to his known works he attempted several other works. Attention has already been invited to his ventures in the spheres of the K u l a system as well as the litreature. J a y a r a t h a , while explaining a reference by Abhinava to Kallata, 3 cites three sutras 4 and attributes them to the latter without assigning actual textual source. From J a y a ratha's treatment it appears that all the three sutras fall into succession. 5 These sutras are not traceable to his extant works.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

T h e last two are, however, in all probability from the Tattvarthacintamani,1 though it is extremely difficult to say a n y t h i n g definitely about the source of the first one. (x) Govindaraja, Bhanuka and Eraka (850-900 A.D.) Govindaraja, Bhanuka and E r a k a were the direct spiritual successors to the three female ascetics. They were contemporaries a n d received their lessons in K r a m a almost simultaneously from Keyuravati etc. 2 With them a new element in the K r a m a history is introduced. T h e unitary mainstream drifts into various sub-currents and the foundation of multilateral development is laid. 3 This multiplicity of traditions was kept alive till the time of J a y a r a t h a . 4 Both Govindaraja and Bhanuka head the two rich traditions. Govindaraja taught Somananda while Bhanuka was responsible for founding a different line of teachers of the eminence of Ujjata and U d b h a t a etc. Jayaratha came in this line of teachers and was in possession of the traditional a n d scholastic secrets. 5 Since only one generation intervened between these three and Sivananda and since Somananda came in the immediate next generation, their time is almost certain. They may easily be assigned to the second half, or to be more exact, the third quarter of the ninth century. After his spiritual enlightenment, it occurred to Govindaraja that nothing worthwhile was left for him to do in view of his attainment. Thus with a spirit of dedication he gave himself till his last b r e a t h to the task of imparting the system to

5. T.A.V., I I I , p. 192.

Sources and Literature


the elite capable and eager to learn. 1 T o w a r d s the last moment he handed over the doctrinal mysteries to Somananda. 2 He subscribed to the view that the number of Kalis to be worshipped in Anakhya Cakra was twelve. This view had come down to J a y a r a t h a , although he did not belong to Govindaraja's tradition. 3 Eraka was the third pupil of Keyuravati etc. 4 He developed a feeling of ascetic aversion towards worldly enjoyment that necessarily results in pain. He, therefore, decided to keep celibate all his life a n d dedicate himself to spiritual emancipation of the laity by means of the stotras 5 which he composed for propagating the system among the masses. Unfortunately none of his stotras could survive the atrocities of time. Only two verses of his have come down to us. In one of them he adores Kalasamkarsini and describes it as an inevitable outcome of one's attaining the ultimate state. 6 In the second he extols the spiritual attainment of Keyuravati, his preceptor, who by virtue of her realizing the Khecari state is said to remain in constant unison with the cosmic reality. 7 J a y a r a t h a has recorded a verse from some other source which speaks highly of Eraka as one having scored victory over the dualistic consciousness. 8 In fact


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

it is a glowing tribute to his spiritual eminence. To point out that he was an avowed celibate 1 is perhaps to imply that other teachers led a married life. He was also known as Naverakanatha 2 or Navera. 3 O u t of all the three known disciples of Keyuravati the personality of Eraka arouses some curiosity and controversy. While dealing with his own genealogy a n d preceptorial succession in the concluding portion of the Tantraloka, Abhinava mentions one Eraka 4 who is a Desika (teacher) and father of a V a m a n a t h a . T h e question is whether the two can be identified. V a m a n a t h a is mentioned as a teacher of Abhinava and Eraka happens to be his father. Eraka is, therefore, removed by one generation from Abhinava. O n e has to bear in mind that the first Eraka is a class-fellow and, for that reason, a contemporary of Govindaraja and Bhanuka a n d hence is removed by three generations (e.g., Somananda, Utpala, Laksm a n a g u p t a ) . T h e other Eraka naturally seems to be a contemporary of Utpala, the grand teacher of Abhinava. It is difficult to reject the theory of Eraka's being a classfellow of Govindaraja in view of their much insisted synchronous initiation. It is therefore, perhaps reasonable to take the two Erakas as different. (xi) Pradyumna Bhatta (850-900 A.D.) In his essay on the Tripura system Braj Vallabha Dwivedi has observed in categorical terms that the Tattvagarbha, a stotra by P r a d y u m n a Bhatta, was a K r a m a work, 5 T h e ground for his contention has been supplied by the theme of the

3. Vide in. 8 on p 1:1

Sources and Literature


stotra - it is addressed to Ambika, the Mother Divine. Before the veracity of this statement is examined, a few words about the work a n d its author appear called for. P r a d y u m n a Bhatta's importance m a y be gauged from the very fact that he has been referred to in some way or the other by every author right from Somananda to Ksemaraja. He was bitterly opposed by Somananda for his Sakta predisposition inside the Saiva fold. Utpala elucidates what has already been said by his master. Abhinava and Ksemaraja cite him in their support. He was a worthy student of his worthy teacher Kallata and also a maternal cousin of the latter. 1 Bhaskara, in the prefatory part of the Siva-sutra-vartika, gives out his preceptorial lineage as below: 2 Vasugupta Kallata | Pradyumna Bhatta (maternal cousin of Kallata) Prajnarjuna



(son of P r a d y u m n a Bhatta)

M a h a d e v a Bhatta


Srikantha Bhatta (son of M a h a d e v a Bhatta) | Bhaskara Even on a cursory glance it would be obvious that he is removed from Vasugupta by a generation only. And although he was a direct disciple of Kallata, he must have been his junior contemporary too, since he was his (Kallata's) maternal cousin. Between him and Bhaskara three generations intervened. Bhaskara was Abhinava's teacher. 3 On the other h a n d ,


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Pradyumna Bhatta preceded Somananda as the latter criticizes him. Of all these, Kallata and Abhinava are of definite dates, hence P r a d y u m n a Bhatta's time is almost certain. He is somewhere between Kallata and Somananda. He may, therefore, be conveniently placed during the latter half of the ninth century. Excepting the Tattvagarbha-stotra1 no other work of his has yet come to our notice. On Utpala's authority we know that it was his work. 2 That Somananda does not refer to anyone else except Pradyumna Bhatta becomes obvious from Utpala's testimony, though he nowhere mentions Somananda by name. T h e verses that have been cited in this connection by Utpala are prefaced with the phrase " T a i r u k t a m " (lit. said by them 3 i.e., h i m ) . H e r e " T a i r " (lit. they i.e., he), according to him, stands for the author who propounded the ultimacy of Sakti and also interpreted the Saktistage (state of Sakti tattva) in terms of slight swelling up (Kinciducchunata). 4 Besides Pradyumnabhatta none else has done so. 5 Hence, in course of Somananda's criticism of the Saktivadin, all the references and citations are deemed to be from P r a d y u m n a Bhatta, and for the matter of that, from the Tattvagarbha. Owing to paucity of material the task of forming a wellknit view of his philosophy is rendered more onerous. Yet
1. Dr. V.S. Agrawala had told the author about the presence of one manuscript of the Tattvagarbha in the Hindu University. It was a recent find. But before the present author could have managed to look into the MS personally D r . A g r a w a t a , unfortunately, passed away. Since the whole collection, in which the MS was found, is uncatalogued as yet, it is regretted that details of the MS could not be given.

Sources and Literature


whatever little is available is adequate to give an idea of his mental disposition. T h e first premise of his philosophy is to reckon Sakti as the Ultimate a n d yet continue to be a monist. 1 He stuck to his view in spite of the odds of his Saiva affiliations. Hence he was a Saktivadin though he clung to the Saiva discipline. 2 T h e Mother Divine, who is the Divinity par transcendence, is pure luminosity and passes under the name of Siva also. 3 H e , in a slight deviation from the general practice of identifying Sakti with Ananda and in apparent agreement with Somananda, equated the Sakti-category with "little swelling" which is identical with proneness (Aunmukhya). 4 This Sakti-stage came just after the ultimate stage which is akin to the Mother Divine 5 - this view was used as a counter-argument by Soman a n d a against Pradyumna Bhatta. T h e latter held the absolute female principle as identical with Siva with the reservation that it was Mother Divine who was also known as Siva. Hence, while dealing with the various stages of speech he proclaimed that there was no such form of speech as was not present in Siva, a n a m e of the Mother, marking the Para or transcendental stage. 6 All the three lower aspects of speech namely, Pasy-

4. Ibid., see fn. 5 on p. 124 5. Ibid., p. 95.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

antI, M a d h y a m a a n d Vaikhari, emerge necessarily under the aegis of succession, P a r a always remaining their fundamental fulcrum. Likewise, he was of the opinion that the entire stretch of the category kingdom encompassing the thirty-six categories is, in essence, an unfoldment of the Sakti suggesting that the godly freedom remains inevitably inherent even in the world of logical constructions. 1 Possibly this was the recurring theme of the Tattvagarbha.2 It is, therefore, due to the force of rectitude of the reflective awareness that one is able to realize everything at will. 3 This rectitude is incumbent upon one's recognition of one's potencies of knowledge and action. T h e main plank of the adverse criticism heaped on him by Somananda consists in the latter's stand that the position of Siva, as the ultimate principle, cannot be compromised. To say that Sakti appears as Siva is a statement m a d e in a fit of devotional ecstasy. 4 Otherwise, Sakti in utter isolation from its prius (Saktiman) is beyond conception. Nevertheless, if Sakti with utter disregard to its substrate is thought of, the one holding such a view may be anything but a Saiva. 5 It is argued that not only Somananda argues against him but he (Pradyumna bhatta) himself tacitly

Sources and Literature


acquiesces in the supremacy of Siva by expounding that all the stages of speech finally culminate in Siva. 1 However, the criticism by Somananda is very brief and bereft of constructive logic. In fairness to Pradyumna Bhatta, one must be cautioned that S o m a n a n d a ' s last plank is slightly misleading since the former has steered his position clear by recognizing Siva as an expression for or an appellation of the Mother Divine. Let us now be back to our original question. Is Pradyum n a Bhatta a K r a m a author? T h e answer is difficult indeed. According to the testimony of Bhaskara, a spiritual descendant of P r a d y u m n a Bhatta, he inherited the Spanda wisdom from Kallata. While discussing Kallata, it was also noticed that Somananda and his followers were rather cut-off from the Spanda school and it is the reason why one does not get any contribution from his group to the Spanda system before Ksemaraja. Pradyumna Bhatta's n a m e nowhere appears in the later K r a m a literature. Moreover Somananda himself was a m a n initiated in the K r a m a discipline, why should he criticize another K r a m a author? W h y then he (Pradyumna Bhatta) be not treated as a Spanda author rather than a K r a m a author? As has been said, a categorical commitment is impossible and also uncalled for. But for a fuller a n d better perspective one must look to the other side of the picture as well. Bhaskara's observation is no doubt a limited but not a negative one. He does not reject Pradyumna Bhatta's claim to K r a m a . Somananda himself, before the critical study and thorough survey of the K r a m a system as such, was not known to be a K r a m a thinker. Neither he (Somananda) has been mentioned in the later literature as a K r a m a author a n d nor has any work come down to us from his pen on K r a m a , yet he is a K r a m a preceptor. Moreover teachers of the early phase, excepting Sivananda, have seldom been remembered in the later literature. Hence


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

this argument loses m u c h of its force. T h e reasons for putting forward Pradyumna Bhatta as a K r a m a author lie in the central theme of the Tattvagarbha a n d its relatively deeper proclivity towards K r a m a . T h e Tattvagarbha is a hymn paying obeisance to the Cosmic Mother. Earlier it was pointed out that despite Sakta leanings Spanda considered Siva to be the Ultimate principle, as will be testified to by the very first and last verses of the Spanda-karika. T h a t is, the Spanda system retained its Saiva fervour in spite of its Sakta tendencies. But in the case of K r a m a the things were different. T h e r e were two distinct schools which occasionally and often necessarily entertained divergent trends. T h e i r most fundamental line of demarcation was drawn by their respective emphases on the Siva or Sakti aspects. T h e n a t u r a l outcome of it was to treat either of them as the Supreme Reality, all other things being derived from it. Since the school holding the supremacy of the female deity was in ascendence, K r a m a has also acquired the name of Devinaya or Kalinaya. Further, it has to be noted that there was a lot of m u t u a l digging at between the two schools, hence criticism by Somananda, the mouth-piece of the "Siva is the S u p r e m e " - theory, of the opposite "Sakti is the Supreme" - thesis is understandable, because in his entire chain of argument he takes strongest objection to the supremacy of Sakti alone. In view of the above argumentation it appears that Pradyumna Bhatta belonged to the line of the K r a m a thinkers opposite to Somananda's. Hence P r a d y u m n a Bhatta's claim to the K r a m a authorship requires a careful examination whatever decision one may ultimately arrive at. (xii) Somananda (875-925 A.D.) It may be recalled that Somananda was the immediate successor of Govindaraja who, at his last moment, transmitted all the doctrinal mysteries of K r a m a to the former. 1 All information about Somananda's associations with the K r a m a is miserably confined to this cryptic sentence from the Kramakeli as recorded by J a y a r a t h a . Nothing is known whether he ever

Sources and Literature


attempted a work on the K r a m a except that Abhinava received his lessons in the Devi-Pancasatika, a K r a m a text, from him through U t p a l a and Laksmanagupta. 1 T h e determination of his date, although recognized to be an untedious affair by the scholars, is slightly perplexing because of a few bottlenecks in the form of at least five preceptorial traditions that invite our attention in this behalf. On the basis of the following two parallel traditions Somananda emerges as a contemporary of Kallata 2 : Somananda 3 Kallata 4

Utpala M u k u l a Bhatta Bhattenduraja 5


Abhinavagupta Abhinavagupta. T h e truth of this tradition is further corroborated by a statement of Raghava Bhatta, the commentator on the Sarada Tilaka, wherein Somananda is represented to be a direct disciple of Vasugupta 6 - one simply has to recollect that Kallata, too, is an immediate student of Vasugupta. But the greatest anomaly entailed by such an admission would jeopardise the dates of Sivananda, Keyuravati etc. Because according to the original calculation the two were loosely contemporary of

Quoted from Bhtteaduraja's conmentary on the Karyalankara-Sara and Mukula's Abbidha-vrtti matrka, Abhi., p. 137.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Vasugupta a n d Kallata respectively. However both these traditions agree with regard to a gap of two generations subsisting between Somananda and Abhinava or that of three generations between Vasugupta and Abhinava. Since Kallata's date is fixed owing to his flourish during the reign of Avantivarman (855-883 A . D . ) , there should not be a gap of more than fifty years between Somananda and Abhinava. T h e implication being that Abhinava should be placed somewhere 900-950 A.D. instead of 950-1000 A.D., his commonly agreed date. Abhinava's accepted date is further established by the fact that he belonged to the next generation of King Yasaskara who ruled in 839 A . D . a n d the grandson (i.e., Sura) of whose minister Vallabha was Abhinava's student. Hence Abhinava's date cannot be advanced earlier. Let us see how one can emerge from this dilemma. T h e other three traditions, given below, widen the gap between Abhinava a n d Kallata by at least four generations in place of two as noted above. These traditions are : Mahabala1 Mahabala 2 (Vasugupta) Acarya Pandita Trivikrama 3 (Kallata) 4 | (grandson of | Srikrsna Mahabala on Pradyumna | daughter's side) Bhatta (maternal Laksmanagupta | cousin of Kallata) | Bhatta Utpala | Abhinava (author of the Prajnarjuna Spanda Pradipika) | | Mahadeva Bhatta (Abhinava) | Srikantha Bhatta Bhaskara Abhinava




4. S.SV., 1. 3-9.

Sources and Literature


A m o n g these family or preceptorial trees, the one ranging from K a l l a t a to Bhaskara (Abhinava's teacher) involves at least three intermediary generations even if one takes Pradyumna Bhatta, Kallata's first disciple, as the latter's contemporary by virtue of the former's being his maternal cousin. We have already seen Somananda criticising the view and work of Pradyumna Bhatta a n d he must have taken time in attaining eminence of the kind that he could elicit criticism from Somananda. Thus Somananda is bound to be a junior contemporary, if not a successor, of Pradyumna Bhatta w h o himself was a disciple of Kallata. In the other tradition ranging from M a h a bala to Laksmanagupta, the celebrated teacher of Abhinava in K r a m a and Pratyabhijna, the latter is separated from the former by two generations or from Abhinava, for that matter, by three generations. This distance between Mahabala and Abhinava is substantiated by yet another tradition starting from M a h a b a l a a n d coming up to Bhatta U t p a l a who transpires to be a contemporary of Laksmanagupta on the basis of the temporal equation of the two exactly parallel lines. If these latter twin traditions are correct - they ought to be correct because they come from different sources a n d yet speak of the same thing -, S o m a n a n d a being the grand-teacher of Laksmanagupta must be a contemporary of the latter's grand-father, Acarya Pandita, and may at best be a successor to or a junior contemporary of M a h a b a l a . Stretching the present logic a little further one may conclude that M a h a b a l a himself was Kallata's successor or in any case a contemporary of Pradyumna

But one should not feel baffled because such a complex analogue is found even within the traditional account of the K r a m a system itself. It has been m a d e absolutely clear that Bhanuka was a contemporary of Govindaraja, teacher of Somananda in K r a m a , a n d was at the head of the tradition which had immediate successors in Ujjata a n d Udbhata. This Udbhata was perhaps identical with one mentioned by Abhinava as his teacher, thus the gap between Bhanuka and Abhinava has been further shrunk from three to two generations, if one abides by the first two traditions mentioned in the beginning.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

In the face of such yawning incongruities it is difficult to give a year to year account. One has to make allowance for marginal errors in calculations because the requisite material is not available in its entirety. Keeping this in view, it will be found that, barring the scope of minor adjustments always, our basic stand with regard to respective dates need not be revised. Because, though twentyfive years are allowed for a generation by the historians, one's actual age has no fixed span and may even cross the barriers of middle age or long age. Abhinava himself was known to have enjoyed a long life going well beyond eighty years. Likewise, M a h a b a l a taught Trivikrama, his grandson, implying the old age of the former. In view of all these considerations Somananda seems to have enjoyed a fairly long life. Moreover, he was a very junior, if at all, contemporary of Kallata whose successors in literature too must have enjoyed a considerably long age, otherwise the two generations on the one side and the four on the other covering the same expanse of time is beyond logical comprehension. Here, in this study, twentyfive years have been allowed for each generation with a margin of another twentyfive years for computing one's period and date without prejudice to one's other claims. This practice has additional advantage of making allowance for long age as well. Somananda, therefore, has been assigned to the last quarter of the ninth and the first of the tenth century. This period is always open to minor revisions as researches proceed to make headway. He is known to have written several works. But only the incomplete texts of the Siva Drsti is extant today. One of his minor works i.e., Saktavijnana has also been brought out by the Research Department of Kashmir Government. His other two works, both commentaries, are known from references only. O n e of them is said to be on the Siva Drsti - this view has, however, been rejected by Dr. Stein. T h e other was on the Pira Trims ka according to the statements of Abhinava. 1 Let us


P.T V, pp.. 16, 52, 59, 63, 87-90,92, 95, 201.

Sources and Literature now switch over to other authors. 1 (xiii) Ujjata (875-925 A.D.)


As has already been observed, he came in the line of Bhanuka a n d the tradition that began with him remained intact up to J a y a r a t h a . 2 As an immediate successor to Bhanuka, he is supposed to be contemporaneous with Somananda. We are completely ignorant about the other aspects of his personality. (xiv) Utpala (900-950 A.D.) T h e r e is nothing in the works of U t p a l a himself that may induce one to include him among the K r a m a authors. It is J a y a r a t h a on whose account one knows that Abhinava received the K r a m a education from the same set of teachers who imparted to him the lessons in the Trika system. 3 In fact, one does not get anything in the form of a tangible contribution, earlier than Abhinava from the line of spiritual teachers as emanating from Govindaraja in the field of K r a m a . Utpala is credited with having produced as many as eleven works namely, (i) Isvarapratyabhijna-karika, (ii) Isvara-pratyabhijna vrtti, (iii) Isvarapratyabhijna-tika or vivrti, (iv) Siva-stotravali, (v) Ajadapramatrsiddhi, (vi) Isvara-sidhi, (vii) Isvara-siddhivrtti, (viii) Sambandhasiddhi, (iv) Sambondha-siddhi-vrtti, (x) Vrtti on Somananda's Siva Drsti, and (xi) Paramesa-stotravali. Except works nos. (iii) and (xi) all the works have been handed to us either in full or in fragments. W o r k No. (iii) i.e., Isvara-pratyabhijna-tika or vivrti was supposed to be a large commentary which was later commented upon by Abhinava under the title of Isvara-pratyabnijnavivrti vimarsini. T h e catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in Government Oriental Library, Mysore mentions one Isvara Pratyabhijna-Vyakhya by Utpala Deva. T h e M S . is numbered

3. Ibid., pp 192, 194.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

(B 167) A 133 Pa a n d is bound in one with Isvara-pratyabhijnanyaya-dipika by some Mahesvara N a t h a n a n d a . It is not known if it is identical with the Tika in question. 1 Work No. (xi) is noticed by Dr. Buhler in his Kashmir Report as MS No. 458. But probably this is identical with his Siva-stotravali. T h e published edition contains twenty stotras a n d it is important to note that stotras Nos. 2, 3, 8, 17 and 20 have enough material that contains the K r a m a undertones. 2 Particularly the 8th and 17th stotras are most conspicuous by their overt K r a m a propensity. There are indications that Utpala perhaps attempted several other works also. A manuscript entitled as "Mantrasara" No. 501 of 1895-98, B O R I , Poona ascribed to Utpala Deva 3 has come to our notice. T h e MS in all has 11 pages and 21 folios. It abounds in scribal errors and has later, from P. 8. onwards, been mixed with some portions of Ksemaraja's Pratyabhijna-hrdaya. But the original work differs from the latter. It seems to be a commentary on the Paratrisika and contains an account of successive emergence of Sanskrit alphabet with its symbolic mysticism and descriptive definitions of various categories followed by a discussion on Guna, Substance and various types of subjects (Pramatrs). These lines refrain from drawing any premature conclusions as to its authorship except advancing the hypothesis for future scrutiny. Utpala's probable date does not present any problem. He, being the pupil of Somananda and the grand-teacher of Abhinava, may safely be assigned to the first half of the tenth century.
1. Similarly there are two MSS numbered 466 and 464 of 1878-76 and described as Pratyabhijna-vimarsini and Pratyabhijna-Brhati-vimarsini by Utpala and Abhinava respectively at BORI, Poona. 2. Vide, for instance, S St.V., p p . 3 2 , 4 8 , 1 0 6 , 1 9 9 , 2 0 6 , 296,300,303, 340, 346 etc.

Sources and Literature


But before one passes on to the next item it appears advisable to clear up a general misunderstanding with regard to his geneology among the modern authors on the subject. According to them Utpala was both the son and pupil of Somananda. 1 Besides, he was the father and teacher of 2 Laksmanagupta. This lineage is said to have been derived from Abhinava's own s t a t e m e n t :

[Somananda, his son Utpala and his son Laksmanagupta recline on the ocean of the lineage pertaining to T r y a m b a k a ] . T h e conclusion seems to be in order on the face of Abhinava's statement. But if one accepts it, one is trapped in another anomalous situation. U t p a l a himself names his father as Udayakara in the last verse of his Isvara-pratyabhijna-karika4 and refers to Somananda as his great and illustrious teacher. 5 If Somananda was his father as alleged above, he could have utilized the opportunity to assert the same. In addition, Abhinavagupta commenting on the last Karika does not dispute Utpala's version but readily confirms the same. 6 Even on the issue of
1. Abhi., p. 160, 162; Contribution. (MS), p. 335. 2 Ibid., p. 7, 164, Contribution, (MS), p. 340. 3. T.A. 37. 61. Dr. Pandey quotes the text with slight variation and reads (Vide,Abhi, p p . 160 and 764) for as found in the printed edition of the Tantraloka. In that case, the English rendering would be 'Somananda, his son Utpala and his son Laksmanagupta, were like waves in the ocean of the lineage pertaining to Tryambaka". However, this difference in reading is immaterial for our present purpose.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

his son he has not kept m u m and gives out his name as Vibhramakara whose pursuasion impelled Utpala to undertake the commentary on the Sivadrsti.1 Had the truth been otherwise, Utpala would not have failed to mention Laksmanagupta as his son, who was infinitely more illustrious and intelligent than Vibhramakara H e r e again he implicitly refers to the author of the Sivadrsti as his guru. There was all the more reason to refer to Laksmanagupta in this context, because it was the latter who initiated Abhinava into the Sivadrsti. And if Utpala be accused of misleading the posterity, Abhinava had the opportunity to make corrective amends which he did not do. There is an additional collateral evidence to substantiate the present contention that Laksmanagupta was not Utpala's son. According to the Saradatilaka Tantra he (Laksmanagupta) was the son of some Srikrsna, grandson of Acarya Pandita and great-grand-son of Mahabala. 2 This point would be examined in detail when we discuss Laksmanagupta. Then, should Abhinava be held guilty of misguiding the people by his statement on which the conclusion at issue is b a s e d ? It is not the case. In fact, Abhinava is here alluding to his teachers 3 a n d is discussing their 'Santatikrama' (lit., geneology) which as a technical expression stands for their preceptorial lineage, implying that the unity of a tradition depends upon the extent of its continuity. Anybody falling under that tradition would be known as Santana of his spiritual predecessor. 4 Purity a n d exclusiveness of a preceptorial tradition

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is deemed to be a very sacred affair in K a s h m i r Saivism. 1 Thus the expression 'Ja' in the words 'Somanandatmaja' and 'Utpalaja' is figurative and not literal. This will be apparent from a perusal of Abhinava's statement in full, because his sole intention is to refer to all the four traditions of Kashmir Saivism pertaining to Ananda, Srinatha, T r y a m b a k a and the Fourth School. 2 Moreover, all doubts on this score have been set at rest for good by J a y a r a t h a who interprets the phrase "sons of Somananda" used by Abhinava 3 as "pupils of Somananda such as Utpala etc." 4 T h e mistake in taking Somananda as Utpala's father and Laksmanagupta as his son appears to have crept in due to interpreting the word Atmaja a n d Santati in their literal sense. T h u s Utpala's parental a n d preceptorial traditions would take the following forms respectively:

(xv) Udbhatta (900-950 A.D.) He is supposed to be the grand pupil of Bhanuka and successor to Ujjata. It is a matter of guess if he ever wrote on


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

the K r a m a system, but there is no doubt about his being a repository of the tradition that was kept intact up to Jayaratha. Besides him, there are two other Udbhatas as well. One came pretty early a n d was described as the Sabhapati of King Jayapida of Kashmir (779-813 A.D.) by K a l h a n a . 1 He was a great poetician. T h e other U d b h a t a , in question, is one mentioned by Abhinava as his teacher. 2 Of these two, the latter may be identified with the K r a m a author. However, this personalityequation is being a d v a n c e d as a tentative measure, for J a y a ratha actually reads Udbhatta and not Udbhata. 3 But this might be due to scribal mistake also. If this equation be granted, he must have been of fairly advanced age when Abhinava approached him for instruction. He may also be placed in the first half of the tenth century. (xvi) Stotrakara i.e. Sidha Natha (900-950 A . D . ) T h e authorship issue of the famous Krama stotra is a crucial question in the history of K r a m a thought. T h e tantric history has recorded the presence of about four Krama-stutis. One is attributed to Samkara, son of K a m a l a k a r a , and is taken note of by Kaivalyasrama in his Saubhagya-vardhini on the Ananda Lahari.4 T h e other is a work of Abhinavagupta and was composed in the years 990-991 A . D . which will be dealt with during our treatment of Abhinava. Uncertainty prevails about the third Krama stuti a reference to which has been made by Monier Williams under the word " K r a m a " in his dictionary without giving further details or source of information. T h e fourth is one in question whose authorship is the subject-matter of the present enquiry. We are not aware if the third and fourth works are one a n d identical. T h e first Krama stuti is presently beyond our scope owing to its adherence to the T r i p u r a system. T h e third, too, is left out in the absence of necessary and relevant data. Hence we concentrate on the fourth Krama stuti whose author is yet a matter of speculation.
1. R.T., 4.495.

3. T.A.V., I I I , p. 192. 4. S.L. (Madras Edn.), p p . 13, 45.

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The traditional account is silent even on the bare details of the author. He is always described and presented as the Stotrakara. 1 Since the questions of his identity and date cannot be investigated in isolation from each other, the only course open is to treat them together. The earliest author who refers to the Krama stotra is Abhinava himself who, on his own information, wrote commentary on it called Kramakeli.2 His date is definite i.e., second half of the tenth century, and he himself composed a Krama stotra emulating his precursor's example during the year 990991 A.D. Therefore, the lower limit of the Krama stotra is set by the date of Abhinava. It, therefore, must have been composed prior to 950-975 A.D. A dive into Jayaratha's account would reveal that various commentaries had come up by his time and certain doubts were being raised about its precise content and number of verses comprising it. Different interpretations were advanced and a state of confusion tends to overtake us. Jayaratha draws our attention to at least two such expositions.3 The other cue in Jayaratha's treatment traces the traditional line of the Stotrakara in descending order as the Author of the Stotra, Bhaskara and Kuladhara. 4 Of these, Bhaskara is comparatively familiar figure and is perhaps the same as Abhinava's teacher of the same name. This possibility gains firmer ground in view of the absence of any other Bhaskara prior to Abhinava. Since the Stotrakara preceded Bhaskara, he must belong to the first quarter or the first half, in any case, of the tenth century. In other words, his date should not be later than Bhaskara's. This is the time to which Laksmana-


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

gupta and Sambhunatha, Abhinava's teachers in K r a m a and Kula respectively, belonged. On the other hand, the upper limit of the Krama stotra does not extend beyond Eraka who, as a contemporary of Govindaraja and Bhanuka, is assigned to the third quarter or the second half of the ninth century. Because, the first ever credit of writing the stotras in the K r a m a history goes to Eraka who m a d e it a mission of his life to popularise the K r a m a system through his stotras. Hence the probable time of the Krama stotra and, for this matter, its author must fall somewhere within 850-950 A.D. From the tentative fixation of the probable period of the Stotrakara let us now proceed to discover the identity of the author. T h e Cidgagana-candrika, which on its own authority is a commentary on the Krama stotra, attributes the authorship to some Siddhanatha 1 or Siddhinatha. 2 There is no reason whatsoever to deny the account as furnished by the Cidgagana-candrika. Now, according to Prthvidharacarya, the author of the Bhuvanesi-stotra, Siddhinatha and S a m b h u n a t h a are the two names of one and the same individual. 3 During the projected period (850-950 A . D . ) only one Sambhunatha is known to the history of Tantric monism. He is the most esteemed teacher of Abhinavagupta whom he initiated into the Kula system and guided along the path of final emancipation. It is of course interesting to note that the first concluding verse of the Tantrasara echoes Prthvidharacarya's depiction of S a m b h u n a t h a not only in import but in choice of diction too. 4 This has been the

Sources and


141 Cidgagana-candrika,

main plank of A. Avalon, the editor of the in identifying the two. 1

But let us be careful. T h e odds against this personalityequation are equally heavy. First, S a m b h u n a t h a is famous for his teachings in the Kula system and not in the K r a m a . Though it is not unusual for a Kula teacher to be proficient in any other cognate philosophical system Abhinava, who is so scrupulous in mentioning the minutest possible details about his teachers, should not have failed to record this aspect of his teacher's personality. Secondly, this Siddhanatha alias Sambhunatha of Prthvidharacarya should necessarily precede the latter as it is the latter who refers to the former. As we know, Prthvidharacarya came in the tradition of the Samkaracaryas. T h e manuscript of the Balarcanavidhi in the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 2 gives out the preceptorial lineage of the Srngerimatha in this sequence - Gaudapada, Govinda, Samkaracarya, Prthvidharacarya, Brahma Caitanya, Ananda Caitanya etc. etc. Thus Prthvidharacarya is placed next to the Samkaracarya who is assigned to the 8th century. 3 As Samkara died early, Prthvidharacarya's period too falls in the vicinity of his predecessor's. Therefore his date cannot be stretched beyond the first quarter and, at any rate, the second quarter of the ninth century. Hence Sambhunatha of Prthvidharacarya transpires to be a contemporary of Samkara. But Sambhunatha, the teacher of Abhinava, cannot be put back beyond the first half of the century. In fact, in view of his being Abhinava's teacher, he need not be pushed back beyond the second quarter of the tenth century. Thirdly, Padmanabha the commentator of the Bhuvanesi stotra interprets the word Varunalaya as standing for a village on the banks of

1. C.G.C., I n t r o d u c t i o n (English). p. 3. 2. MS N o . 8 5 1 . nesimahastotram. Referred to by G o p a l R a i I n t r o d u c t i o n , p. 13. Bakura, the editor, Bhuva-




C h a p t e r , p p . 226-27. Q u o t e d . Ibid , p . 1 4 .


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Narmada 1 whereas Abhinava's teacher hailed from Jalandhar. 2 Moreover, it has also been noted that the upper limit of the Stotra cannot be extended beyond the latter half of the ninth century on the basis of the historical premises of the Krama system. In the wake of these discrepancies it is fraught with grave misgivings to identify the two Sambhunathas. It may, therefore, be firmly held that the two are two different persons and the editor of the Gidgagana candrika has been misled by the identity of names. But the author of the Cidgagana-candrika is perfectly right when he names one Siddhinatha to be the author of the Krama stotra. Fortunately, the name of one Siddhanatha in the annals of the Kashmir Saivism has come down to us and, for this, our thanks go to Bhatta Utpala whose Spanda Pradipika has proved to be a mine of information so far as the early phase of the Krama history is concerned. According to Bhatta Utpala, this Siddhanatha was the author of the work entitled Abhedartha Karika from which a passage has also been cited.3 Since Bhatta Utpala is a contemporary of Laksmanagupta, Siddhanatha may be said to have belonged to any generation earlier to Bhatta Utpala's. But we are not required to go back farther. Because according to the Krama tradition, recorded by Jayaratha and referred to earlier, Bhaskara, the teacher of Abhinava, is an immediate successor to the Stotrakara. Hence Siddhanatha, who is now identified with the Stotrakara, may in all probability have flourished during the first half of the tenth

Balabodhini on the Bhuvanesi mahastotram, p. 25.

Sources and Literature


century and be, therefore, placed some w h e r e during 900-950

It is by a happy chance that the Krama stotra, almost complete, has survived to this date in the pages of the Viveka of Jayaratha. 1 In all about twelve verses are accessible. But the chances are that it contained a few verses more, because sometimes two verses instead of one were addressed to certain Kalis, for instance, Rudrakali and Yamakali. 2 Coming to the contents of the Krama stotra we see that there was correspondence in the root idea between the Krama stotra and the Pancasatika, though they disagreed in one field. While the Pancasatika retained the name of Sukali in the list of Kalis to be adored and thus maintained the total n u m b e r of Kalis at thirteen in Anakhyacakra, the K r a m a stotra excluded Sukali and numbered them twelve. J a y a r a t h a also pointed out a misunderstanding current in a section of the followers that the Krama stotra went by the Krama Sadbhava4 in its treatment of the K i l l s in Anakhyacakra. Jayaratha rejects any such possibility and holds, instead, that it did emulate some Agama though quoted but not named by him. 5 It disagreed with the Sardasatika regarding the order of the Kalis. While Sardhasatika, as elsewhere, discusses Sthitikali after Srstikali, the Krama stotra first takes up Raktakali in lieu of Sthitikali. T h e primary object in doing so is to present the real Samvitkrama. No incongruity attaches to it. Since, in the Agama the order is modified or reversed so as to conceal . the Samvit-krama as is done in the Pancasatika with regard to the Sthitikrama. It is in sequel to this that the 'Order of Worship' (Pujana-krama) is ordained by the teachers. With a view to effectively establishing and presenting the Samvit-

1. Vide T.A.V., III, p. 158, 160, 165, 167, 169, 173,178, 1 8 1 , 1 8 3 , 1 8 5 , 187,202. A collection of these verses with the Hindi translation has now been published by Sri Laksmana Joo under the caption "Krama-nayaPradipika." 2. Cf T.A. V., p. III, p. 202. 3. Ibid., p. 189. 4. Ibid., pp. 190 191. 6. Ibid., p 162.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

krama the actual order of Kalis has been preserved and retained in the Krama stotra as well as the Tantraloka. Abhinava, according to J a y a r a t h a , has stood by it in his Kramakeli.1 J a y a r a t h a ' s presentation makes it well nigh certain that the Krama stotra, in his time, became vulnerable to two types of interpretation, one maintaining the number of Kalis to be thirteen and the other twelve. Jayaratha has no sympathy with former group which had a different text or the reading of the Stotra together with a different arrangement of the verses, as is testified to by another commentary called Vivarana. But possibly Jayaratha's group could not make much headway in appealing to the reason of the opponents as is evinced by the compromise formula evolved by J a y a r a t h a that one should better go in for that reading which has the sanction and approval of one's preceptor. 2 Abhinavagupta and Sivopadhyaya both have invited our attention to the metaphysical richness of the Krama stotra. Abhinava presents it as advocating the elimination of doubt, which as principle of limitation is the primal cause of mundane duality, for realizing the true self.3 For Sivopadhyaya the central theme of the Stotra is to prevail upon one to attain the Ultimate Divinity which uproots the limitations accruing from time and space and finds own counterpart in the PrajnaParamita of Buddhism. 4 (xvii) Bhaskara (925-975 A.D.) From the point of view of his contribution there is apparently no valid ground for including Bhaskara in the list of

Sources and Literature


the Krama authors. He is generally included among the authors of the Spanda branch, in the light of which he wrote his famous Varttika on the Sivasutras. The only reason for making a reference to him, here, consists in the fact that he is presented as the immediate successor to the Stotrakara and as transmitting the latter's doctrinal dicta to the next generation. There was a doctrinal scuffle between the two opposite groups as to whether or not the Stotrakara followed the Krama-Sadbhava. Jayaratha rejects any such adherence on the part of the Stotrakara, while the other school acquiesced into the giving out the tradition of the Stotrakara. 1 Bhaskara is a student of Srikantha in the Spanda branch2 and of the Stotrakara in the Krama. He is the son of Divakara as stated by him. 3 Abhinava's reference to one son of Divakara and author of the Vivekanjana is meant for him. 4 Yogaraja also refers to a son of Divakara as the author of the Kaksyastotra.5 A verse from this work has figured in the Pratyabhijnahrdaya of Ksemaraja.6 Abhinava has generally referred to him as Bhatta Divakaravatsa.7 These references indicate that Bhaskara was more popular as the son of Divakara than by his personal name. As Abhinava has frequently referred to him not only as Divakaravatsa but as Bhatta Bhaskara8 also, he is supposed to be earlier than Abhinava. He is also included in the list of Abhinava's teachers. 9 On the other hand the ancestral tra-

6. 7. 8. 9.

Vide, p. 86. Also see I.P. V.V., II, pp. 301, 328; S.P.V., p. 79. I.P.V.V., II, pp. 13, 14, 145; I I I , 388. Bhagvadgitarthasamgraha, Chap. 18, p. 2. T.A., 37.62.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

dition given by Bhaskara also places him approximately around t h e same period — Vasugupta Kallata Pradyumna Bhatta Prajnarjuna Mahadeva Bhatta Srikantha Bhaskara 1 T h e four generations t h a t intervened between Kallata and him may account for a century's gap in between them. Thus he is an older contemporary, if not necessarily a predecesor, of Abhinava a n d m a y be assigned to the 2nd a n d 3rd quarters of the tenth century. Apart from three works enumerated above he is also credited with the authorship of two more works namely, the Mimamsa-samgraha-kaumudi and Padyamrtasopana. This suggestion is advanced by Natarajan in his valued thesis who has relied on the information supplied by the Madhya-YuginaCaritrakosa, p. 585. T h e r e is no evidence either to affirm or deny the statement. Bhaskara is, however, most renowned for his Varttika on the Sivasutras. In this connection it is to be noted that not only his approach is different from Ksemaraja's but even their versions of the text of the original Sivasutras sometimes vary. Pt. M . S . Kaul, for instance, has called our attention to the following Sutra which is found in the Varttika but not in the Vimarsini:






(xviii) Laksmanagupta (925-975 A D . ) Laksmanagupta, the pupil of Utpala and grand pupil of
1. S.S.V., 1.3.8. 2. Short Review, p. 12.

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Somananda, h a d equal command over Trika as well as K r a m a and was, therefore, Abhinava's teacher in both the systems. 1 Abhinava has never hesitated in recording his immense respect for his teacher whenever he could get an opportunity to do so. 2 Like his teachers', none of his works on K r a m a is accessible today, but there is a strong likelihood of his having written a K r a m a work so far as available evidence goes to show. Commenting on the word 'Anyatha' of T.A. 15.246, J a y a r a t h a indicates that Laksmanagupta advocated a different type of Nyasavidhi from one advanced by S a m b h u n a t h a . 3 His main thesis is to analyse the six-fold Sakta-nyasa, which again is one of the six original Nyasas, in order to invoke and realize Kalasamkarsini. 4 This, as we know, is a typical K r a m a concept. From this one gets inclined to concede that he definitely wrote a few works. T h e only definite word in this behalf is met with in a statement where he is stated to have produced a work called "Srisastra". 5 It seems improbable to make out anything definite out of such random and cryptic statements. But there comes an incentive from another source to keep up optimism. T h e author of the Saradatilakatantra calls him-



Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

self Laksmana Desikendra towards the end of the Tantra. 1 Contents of the work are not immediately relevant, because it is an esteemed text of the Tripura sect. But what is remarkable is to find this author being presented as a student of Utpala by Raghava Bhatta, the author of the Padarthadarsa commentary.2 Raghava Bhatta places him on a high pedestal and gives further information that Laksmana was the disciple of Utpala and his preceptorial line ran as under - Srikantha, Vasuman, Somananda, Utpalacarya, Laksmana, Abhinavagupta and Ksemaraja - among whom persons till Utpala were his teachers while others after him, his pupils.3 Raghava narrates the background episode of Laksmanagupta's undertaking to write the Saradatilaka. Motivated by a sense of deep compassion he embarked upon producing a digest of entire agamic thinking for its easy comprehension by the laity yearning for spiritual enlightenment but handicapped by its limited capacities of understanding.4 In the absence of any negative evidence one cannot discard Raghava Bhatta's account as unauthentic, more so when it is endorsed by the author of the Saradatilaka himself,5 as has just been noted above. If, therefore, a suggestion is mooted

4. S.T.V., p p . 2-3. 5. Woodroffe accepts this account. Vide. Sakti and Sakta, pp. 56, 378. Also vide, The Tantras, Studies on their Religion and Literature, Chakravarti, p. 65.

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out for identifying the Sri Sastra with the Saradatilaka tantra, it must be conceded in the interest of logical consistency. The account of Laksmana's parentage also goes a long way to vouchsafe the veracity of the present thesis. At the end of the book he says that his father was Srikrsna, his grandfather Acarya Pandita and great-grand father Mahabala. 1 All of them, he says, were men of great piety and erudition and enjoyed great reputation for the same. Of all his ancestors, fortunately, Mahabala, his great-grand father, is known to us. He is the author of the Rahasyagarbha-stotra and also the greatgrand father of Bhatta Utpala on the daughter's side.2 Mahabala, as we have already noted during our study on Utpala and Somananda, is a contemporary of Pradyumna Bhatta and Somananda. Laksmanagupta and Bhatta Utpala both being grandsons, one on the son's side and the other on the daughter's, of Mahabala are contemporaries and have blood affiliations. In the history of Kashmir Saivism we have no other Laksrnana except one, the teacher of Abhinava, whose time exactly coincides with that of the author of the Saradatilaka Tantra. Care has been taken to make it absolutely clear that Laksmanagupta was only a pupil and not a son of Utpala as has been made out in some scholarly circles.3 Thus, one may be inclined to hold Laksmanagupta as identical with Laksrnana Desikendra and his Srisastra with the Saradatilaka. The name, Sri Sastra, too,

3. Abhi., pp. 7, 164.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

implies its automatic association to the Tripura cult. To repeat, he was a disciple of Utpala and son of Srikrsna. He may, therefore, be assigned to the second and third quarters of the tenth century. (xix) Bhatta Utpala (925-975 A.D.) He is an important author on the Spanda system of philosophy, but whatever glimpses one gets from his Spanda-Pradipika, a commentary on the Spanda Karikas, justifies this reference to him under the Krama context. These lines, however, are not addressed to a study of his individual Krama views, since the same have been subjected to elaborate treatment in their respective contexts in the philosophical section, but there is no gainsaying the fact that he was fully aware of the important Krama doctrines and tried to interpret the Spanda and Yoga concepts in the light of the Krama philosophy.1 Besides the Spanda Pradipika, his only extant work, he wrote one work called Bhogamoksa-pradipika. It is not known whether it was also a commentary or an independent work. He has referred to it thrice 2 and in one of these extracts the Krama attitude is easily descernible.3 In the two he deals with the rise of the Spanda principle4 and Rahasya-rnudra evidently
1. See, for instance, Sp.P., pp. 48, 49, 50 2. Vide, Sp.P., pp. 32, 49-50.

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under the influence of the 43rd Karika of the Spanda Karika.1 We are however uncertain about the contents of this word and the system it subscribed to. In addition he wrote several other work or works, passages from which have been cited by him without naming their source and have been ascribed to himself.2 In all these extracts he has dwelt on the common tenets of the monistic Saivism namely, the instrumentality of the objective world to the cause of emancipation, a priori unity of consciousness, and matchless superiority of the spiritual guide respectively. He is different from his namesake predecessor, the teacher of Laksmanagupta, and in contrast to bare Utpala, is known as Bhatta Utpala or Utpala Vaisnava. It has not been possible to trace out the origin or logic of his second epithet i.e., Vaisnava. According to a modern scholar the Spanda-pradipika is a commentary on the Spanda Karikas on Vaisnava lines.3 This might have been a probable source of his fame as "Vaisnava". But even a superficial peep into its contents belies the above contention. It is a pure Spanda interpretation with occasional flashes about the cognate systems. He hailed from a place called Narayana in Kashmir and

3. Contribution. (MS) , p . 340.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

was the son of some Trivikrama and Brahmana by caste.1 Compassion on mankind and anxiety for his students' wellbeing were the chief motives that actuated him to take up the writing of Spanda Pradipika. He was a great-grand-son of Mahabala whom he mentions as a maternal grand-father of his father.2 Thus he occupies the same position in the daughter's hertiage of Mahabala which Laksmanagupta does in the filial lineage of Mahabala. His time, therefore, is almost definite and may be assigned to the second and third quarters of the tenth century. (xx) Bhutiraja I (900-950 A.D.) Bhutiraja is a very important name in the history of the Krama thought despite the unfortunate fact that none of his works is extant today. There are four Bhutirajas that attract our notice in the whole range of the Kashmir Saivism. The first happens to be a teacher of Abhinava in Brahmavidya. The second is the father of Bhatta Induraja. The third is the father of Helaraja, the illustrious commentator on the Vakyapadiya. And the fourth is a pupil of Cakrabhanu, a Krama celebrity, and who rather proved to be the focal point of a heated controversy in Jayaratha's time. We are presently concerned with the number one Bhutiraja because, while quoting him in the Krama context, Abhinava refers to him as his teacher. 3 But there should be no misunderstanding, he did not teach the Krama system to Abhinava. The subjects in which he imparted lessons to Abhi-

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nava were Brahmavidya 1 and Sambhu Sastra. 2 J a y a r a t h a has taken extra pains to clear out the misgiving that Bhutiraja ever taught Abhinava the K r a m a system. J a y a r a t h a explicitly admits that Bhutiraja was a teacher of Abhinava but what he objects to is that the K r a m a system or any text pertaining to K r a m a e.g., the Devipancasatika, was not his specific field of instruction. 3 But at the same time, he did make some solid contribution to the K r a m a system in his own right which is borne out by the two extracts attributed to him. In one he derives the word Kali from the root K a l a n a meaning Ksepa a n d J n a n a 4 and in the other he asserts the sameness of M a n t r a with the transcendental principle of Awareness owing to its all-encompassing capacity. 5 Besides the above two sciences, he also initiated Abhinava in three mystic disciplines 6 pertaining to Pranava Maya and Bindu. 7 He also entertained definite views of his own regarding B h u v a n a d h v a n 8 and Pratistha K a l a . 9 Abhinava h a d an extremely high sense of respect for his, teacher so that he respected his teacher more t h a n his father. 10

7. T.A.V., X I I , p. 216. 8. T.A., 8.265. 9. Ibid., 410.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

He looked upon him (Bhutiraja) as the Lord-incarnate himself in a human frame.1 Perhaps barring the teachers of the four main schools (Mathikas), nobody else has won so much praise at the hands of Abhinava as Bhutiraja. Jayaratha had to justify the mention of Bhutiraja's name by Abhinava in the Tantraloka2 while paying obeisance to his teachers, as the Tantraloka having a defined aim and scope need not refer to persons from the outer circles.3 Bhutiraja, by dint of being Abhinava's teacher, may be bracketed with his other teachers and therefore may be said to have belonged to the previous generation of Abhinava. But his date may be pushed a little earlier, because Abhinava was not a student of Bhutiraja alone but of his son as well.4 Hence he must have been of fairly old age when Abhinava approached him. He may, therefore, be assigned to the first half of the tenth century. He is also identical with the Bhutiraja Number Two who has been referred to as father of Bhattenduraja who, in addition to Dhvanisastra, initiated Abhinava in the mysteries of the Gita. The genealogy of Induraja given by Abhinava in the concluding portion of his Bhagvadgitartha-samgraha is selfexplanatory. The same is reproduced below: Katyayana Sausuka


Bhutiraja Bhattenduraja5 In this connection the issue of the third Bhutiraja may also be taken up, who is identified with the father of Helaraja.


2. T.A, 1.9. 3. T.A.V.,I,p.


5. Bh.G.S., p. 186, also see Abhi., p 214.





According to Pandey, and there is no reason to dispute him, Bhutiraja in question is identical with this Bhutiraja also. Because Helaraja, in the colophon to each section of his commentary on the Vakyapadiya, regularly refers to himself as the son of Bhutiraja (Bhutirajatanaya). 1 Abhinava has included one Bhutirajatanaya w h o m he does not name among his teachers. 2 He came in the lineage of Srinatha, the first exponent of dualistic philosophy, and was possibly taught by his father. By implication, he educated Abhinava in the dualistic Saivism. T h e two Bhutirajas m a y be identified since, (i) Abhinava does not refer to his teacher in Saiva dualism by name but by his parental description i.e., Bhutirajatanaya, (ii) Except Helaraja nobody else refers to himself as Bhutirajatanaya, (iii) Abhinava evinces great familiarity with Bhartrhan's system as presented by Helaraja specially in respect of the Kalasakti that acted as harbinger of the K r a m a concept of K a l i . If that be so, the two Bhutirajas, too, become one and Induraja and Helaraja happen to be brothers, one shining as the literary critic and the other as a philosopher. In this connection attention may be drawn to a reference by Sitikantha to some Dutirajatanaya who, in spite of his not belonging to the K r a m a system, had inherited different versions regarding the Yuganathas and tried to thrust them on the K r a m a system proper. 3 Sitikantha has criticised such behaviour. O u r contention is that this Dutirajatanaya is none else than Bhutirajatanaya. 'Du' and 'Bhu' in hastily written Sarada characters are difficult to distinguish, hence the scribal mistake. This is borne out further by the fact that Bhutirajatanaya is shown as adept in the Dualistic Saivism. H e r e too Du (?Bhu)ti-


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

rajatanaya is an outsider in the K r a m a fold. We may, therefore, possibly identify t h e two. Coming to the fourth Bhutiraja we find that he is a different person altogether. Because this Bhutiraja, the pupil of Cakrabhanu, could not have been Abhinava's teacher. For the simple reason that C a k r a b h a n u , as will be seen in the sequel, is historically posterior (i.e., circa 1050-1100 A.D.) to Abhinavagupta. Hence to say that his pupil (circa 1075-1125 A.D.) was a teacher of Abhinava would be a historical absurdity. 1 Moreover, the method of worship advocated by this Bhutiraja is said to be based on the Pancasatika, according to which the number of deities to be worshipped is not twelve. It, therefore, seems logically incongruous to treat Bhutiraja, a spokesman of the not-twelve doctrine, as a teacher of Abhinava, a staunch protagonist of the twelve-deity doctrine. 2 Thus these two Bhutirajas seem to be two different personalities, though both having definite relationship with the K r a m a system. (xxi) Kuladhara (950-1000 A.D.) We know nothing about him except that he directly came into the line of the Stotrakara after Bhaskara. 3 He, therefore, appears to be a contemporary of Abhinavagupta. (xxii) Bhatta Damodara (950-1000 A.D.) He seems to be a minor K r a m a author a n d is said to have composed certain M u k t a k a s (independent verses). He has been referred to only once by Ksemaraja 4 and no other reference,

Sources and Literature


either before or after Ksemaraja, appears to have been made by any author to him. The guess that he devoted a few verses to Krama is based on the circumstantial and contextual evidence because the verse ascribed to him 1 deals with the Pancavaha, a typical Krama phenomenon, and is quoted in the same context in particular and under Saktopaya in general. He has been commended for his intuitive realisation of the Supreme Bliss. Since he has not been noticed by any author before Ksemaraja, he might have belonged to the latter's preceding generation. Hence, it is possible he might be a contemporary of Abhinava (950-1020 A.D.). He is different from Damodaragupta, the author of the Kuttanimatam and a minister of King Jayapida of Kashmir (779-813 A.D.). He is also different from one Damodara who was a contemporary of Mankha. (1125-1175 A.D.) and has been mentioned as such,2 whereas the present author comes prior to Ksemaraja (975-1025

(xxiii) Abhinavagupta (950-1020 A.D.) The personality as well as the volume and scope of Abhinava's contribution is so rich, enormous and extensive that we propose to confine ourselves strictly to his contribution in the field of Krama alone. Exception will be made only when some new information is intended to be furnished. According to all available accounts, Abhinava was not his actual name but a title conferred on him by his teachers in recognition of his extraordinary calibre and outstanding intellectual accomplishment.3 He was also called Bala-valabhibhu-


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

janga. 1 Abhinava possibly knew the immense value of furnishing historical data in respect of an epoch-making personality. It is why Abhinava's date, span of creative life etc., do not pose problems. To begin with, he has given the dates of composition in the case of his three works. The Kramastotra2 was composed during 990-991 A.D. (4066 Saptarsi Era), the Bhairavastotra during 992-993 A.D. (4068 S.E.)3 and the Brhati Vimarsini during 1014-15 (4090 S.E.). 4 Thus the whole period of his literary activity, giving a margin of five years on each side for other possible undertakings, appears to have been spread over a period from 985 to 1020 A.D. In view of his vast erudition acquired through personal approaches to almost every teacher in all the then possible branches of learning, if he is allowed a preparatory period to thirty to thirtyfive years before he could embark upon writing, he may be said to have flourished and lived during 950-1020 A.D. One will arrive at approximately similar dates from a different source as well. Kama, one of his favoured students, was the grandson of Vallabha, the courtminister of King Yasaskara, who definitely reigned in the year 939 A.D. 5 It is a strange coincidence that Purna Manoratha, the first known ancestor of Jayaratha, was a colleague of Vallabha in the court of the same king.6 Vallabha's son Sauri (who was also a minister) and daughter-in-law Vatsalika7 were Abhinava's contemporaries and the latter was looked after by Vatsalika when he was engaged in writing his Tantraloka.8 In addition, Yogesvaridatta, the son of Karna, came of age and displayed merits equal to his name before the eyes of Abhinava. 9 Thus

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Quoted from an unspecified source, Contribution, p. 342. KS.(A), 30. Bhairava Stotra, verse no. 10. I.P.V.V., III, p. 407. P.T.V., p. 279; T.A., 37.65. T.A.V., XII, p. 430. P.T.V., p. 279; A.A., 37.73, 75. T.A., 37.82. T.A., 37.76.

Sources and Literature


Abhinava belonged to the generation next to king Yasaskara's and continued to live for another two generations. Even on this calculation his probable time remains almost the same as above. In all about fortyfour works, both major and minor, are ascribed to him 1 and twentythree of these have been published till now. But this list does not include three other minor Stotra works2 attributed to him namely, Amaresvarastotra3 Devibhujanga4 and Sivastotra.5 The Tantroccaya which figures in the above list, like the Tantra-vata- dhantka, is a summary of the Tantraloka. A manuscript of it is available in the Tagore Library of the Lucknow University. 6 Of all the five pages and nine folios, six folios contain Sutras and the rest verses. But the whole thing is so haphazard, and style and method so shabby that it raises serious doubts about its being a work from the pen of Abhinava. Besides, Abhinava refers to one Slokavarttika in the Tantrasara.7 It is uncertain whether this is identical with the famous Mimamsa text of the same name by Kumarila. But the way Abhinava refers to it and the context in which it finds a place, make it quite probable that Abhinava might have attempted a work under this name. Or else it might be another name of the Malini-vijayavarttika. The evidence in hand, how1. See Abhi,, p p . 26-27; Contribution, pp. 342.44. 2. The Works of Abhinavagupta, J.O.R.I., XIV-1V, pp. 318-28. 3. R.A. Sastri refers in his "Diary" to this Stotra which is in the personal library of Pt. Ram Jiva Kokil, Banmahal, Kashmir, Ibid. 4. It is in the library of Vishvabharti, Shantiniketan, Ibid 5. The following portion from the letter no 125/R addressed to the present author from the Dy. Director, Research Publication Department. Jammu and Kashmir Government is self-explanatory - "However it is to inform you that the Sivastotram by Abhinavagupta is available with Pt. Lambodar Razdan, 5/o R.N. Temple, Srinagar". We unsuccessfully tried our best to contact Pt. Razdan. 6. Accession N o . 45827 and Catalogue no. RS 180.414/A174T.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

ever, is not conclusive to indicate anything definitely. Jayaratha also appears to attribute to him one work named Anupratyabhijna and cites a passage from the same.1 Here again one is totally ignorant if it was another name of certain work among the known works or an original one by itself, or a work by his pen at all. Yet it is difficult to say that all these works, enumerated or alluded to above, exhaust the total expanse of his literary activity. The profuse and frequent references to and extracts from Abhinava 2 hint at his having written infinitely more than is known today. The MS of the Sarika-nityapujapaddhati contains a few verses that are ascribed to Abhinavagupta by the colophon.3-4 At least in one field, that is, Stotras, one may feel absolutely certain that he penned many that have not come down to us. His and his successors' own statements bear the palm of this contention.5 Similarly he wrote a commentary, called the Tattvaviveka, on the Trikasutra which was later embodied in his Vivarana on the Paratrimsika.6 Raniero Gnoli, an Italian scholar of Saivism, has called our attention to yet another five unpublished verses of Abhinava-

MS. No. 5727, Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. V I I I , (Tantras), p. 568. For other verses see MS. No. RS 180. 4/A14B, Accesion No. 45723, Lucknow University Library. These verses are bound together with the Pranava-bala-bodhini of Samkaracarya. 5. Vide, Bh.G.S,, 12.6.8; T.A. 26.63-65; P.T.V., pp, 22, 59, 163, 198, 223; Dh.L., pp. 197, 397; Bhas. (V), I, p. 42; St.C., V., p. 112; P.S.V., p. 112. 6. Vide Contribution, p. 347. But no textual authority could be traced in support of this statement.

Sources and Literature


gupta. 1 According to the colophon of the MS there should be two verses 2 instead of five as available. As to the possibility of their having been composed by two authors - the first three verses by some unknown author and the remaining two by Abhinavagupta - , Gnoli is inclined to believe that they are all by Abhinavagupta since ''Nothing in the style or contents however forbids us from attributing them to Abhinavagupta." 3 A manuscript of the same is preserved in the Bhandarkar Institute 4 which has not be?n consulted by Gnoli as per his own statement. A final judgement on his findings can only be pronounced after looking into the said manuscript. Let us revert to the K r a m a system. T h e system has profited by him in at least four positive ways - firstly, as an indispensable respository of tradition and t h o u g h t ; secondly, as a sourcebook of authors and their works preceding h i m ; thirdly, as a commentator on the few important K r a m a t e x t s ; a n d finally, as an original thinker of enviable value who fostered the thought with a critical analysis and insight. But for him, we, today, would have missed the richness of the entire traditional intellectual development. 5 He assimilated the tradition and then enriched it by exposition and embellishment. In the history of the K r a m a thought only two names can be cited to match him in the enormity of historical allusions. They are Jayaratha, his own commentator, and M a h e s v a r a n a n d a . But for Abhinava's Kramakeli the early history of the system would have remained the "pre-history" for a m o d e r n student. As a commentator he has produced the Kramakeli on the Kramastotra 1. Vide Miscellanea Indica, (2, Five Unpublished Stanzas of Abhinavagupta), pp. 222-23. The MS., according to Gnoli, belongs to a private collection, details of which have not been furnished. Vide, p. 216.

3. Ibid., p. 222. 4. See Buhler, N o . 474.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

(of Siddhanatha). His other commentary Vivarana is an exposition of his own Prakarana Stotra. T h e Tantraloka, Krama Stotra, Prakarana Stotra and Tantrasara are his original contributions to the system. T h e Tantraloka covers a vast expanse and, in its massive efforts 10 preserve a n d present the Kashmir Saiva thought in its fullness, deals with the K r a m a dicta a n d theses to almost perfection. T h e Tantrasara tries to do the same in brief. His K r a m a works will be taken up for a fuller treatment. When he diverted his attention from literature to the study of Saiva monism, K r a m a was his first love in philosophy. T h e earliest date of the Krama Stotra bears ample testimony to it. T h e first verse of the Krama Stotra makes it obvious that he was restless and had no peace of mind before he t u r n e d to K r a m a . 1 Abhinava attained his proficiency in Kramic experiments and went very far in realizing the true spirit of the system. He himself affirms it. 2 Apart from his specific K r a m a treatises, there are certain other texts namely, the Malinivijqya-varttika, Paryanta Pancasika and Paratrimsika-vivarana wherein he occasionally dwells on the K r a m a tenets at length. Among his K r a m a works, the Krama Stotra is his first contribution in the chronological order as its earliest date would vindicate. 3 After ventilation of his views about the nature and purpose of devotional prayer, the Stotra grows through four stages viz., (i) the background of the Kramic emanation, (ii) rise and emergence of Kramic evolution through twelve Kalikas, (iii) repose of K r a m a in the Absolute, and (iv) the epilogue invoking the Godhead's grace

Sources and Literature


on humanity. T h e order in which the various stages i.e., Kalis, succeed each other is in consonance with the metaphysical aspect (Samvit-krama) of it and not with the ritualistic one (Pujana-krama). T h e ante-penultimate verse indicates Abhinava's unmistakable adherence to the school that held Siva as the ultimate reality. 1 T h e Prakarana Stotra is known today only from a reference to it by Abhinava in the Tantrasara.2 Its chief purpose was to dwell on the concept of K a l i with an accent upon its etymological implications. T h e Prakarana Vivarana3 was in all probability a commentary by Abhinava himself on the said Stotra. Both of these works were intended to cover in detail the nature of the dynamic Absolutism and its modus operandi echoing the manifold derivative significance of the word 'Kalana.' A word of caution may be added. Abhinava does not give out the n a m e of this text as the Prakarana Vivarana. He simply says Vivarana. It is not known whether he meant by it the Kramakeli, a commentary on the Krama Stotra, or an independent commentary on the Prakaranastotra itself. In such a fluid state of affairs one has to base one's hypothesis on the contextual evidence and should press it only to that extent, no further. In this connection, it may be noted that he wrote another work called the Prakunaka-vivarana.4 It is yet hypothetical to say that the two were identical Dr. Pandey appears to take them as two separate works. 5 Nagarajan follows Dr. Pandey. 6 But on a close perusal

Jayaratha explains the word 'Anyatra' thus -

5. Vide Abhi, pp. 28 38. 6. Contribution , p. 356.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

their difference does not remain tenable. According to Nagarajan 1 it is a grammatico-philosophical work. If one accepts this contention, which one should, their distance vanishes. Because even the two contexts resemble each other in the respect that the books in question are purported to answer the grammatical and derivational requirements and analyse ensuing implications of the philosophical concepts. Let us, however, await the verdict of future investigation on it. T h e single work called Tantraloka is sufficient to make him the doyen of the monistic philosophers of Kashmir. For fear of repetition no reference is being made to its varied contents. However, Ahnikas 4, 13, 31 and 32 specially deal with the K r a m a system while Ahnikas 1, 3, 9, 15 and 30 contain brief but useful information about K r a m a . T h e Tantrasara is an abridged Tantraloka. Its Ahnikas 4 and 13 are particularly relevant. T h e former presents a masterly epitome of the K r a m a ideals. T h e Kramakeli2 is an important K r a m a text. Although it is a commentary on the Krama Stotra of an earlier author, it speaks of the originality and vast comprehension of its author's mind. At present our knowledge is limited to references only made by himself, 3 Ksemaraja, 4
1. Ibid. 2. While in Kashmir (1963 Summer) we made an extensive search to trace out its manuscript. We were told by Pt. D.N. Yaksa of the Sanskrit Section of Research Department, Jammu and Kashmir Government, Srinagar that a MS of the Kramakeli was available with Mr. Somanatha Razdan of Purshiar, Aba Kadal (2nd bridge), Srinagar, but it was difficult to procure from him. The personal meeting with the gentleman resulted in the impression that he had inherited a large treasure of rare MSS from his grandfather, an avowed Sanskritist. But he could not be persuaded even to allow us to have a look of the text, not to talk of parting with it. Even the monetary temptations failed. On a later date Prof. B N. Pandit of Khannabal informed us that he knew of one MS of the Kramakeli in possession of a person whom he knew. But his efforts, too, were doomed to failure.

Sources and Literature


Jayaratha 1 and Mahesvarananda. 2 The only thing worthy of note is that it was also liable to two sorts of interpretation with regard to its stand about the full-size controversy on the correct number of Kalis. Jayaratha is very insistent that the Krama Stotra (of Siddhanatha), and for that matter Abhinava, did not budge an inch from the twelve-kali theory.3 But on the other hand, Mahesvarananda tends to show him as supporting thirteen-kali theory. 4 Nevertheless, so far as the question of interpreting Abhinava is concerned, it is more advisable to abide by Jayaratha not only because of his Viveka on the Tantraloka, but also because of his claim that he was in possession of the original tradition which started with Sivananda and was actuated by Abhinavagupta. A brief explanation would perhaps be necessary for exclusion of the Dehartha-devata-cakra-stotra from amongst the Krama works, since the same has been taken as a Krama text by some authors. 5 The stotra, in question, eulogizes the physical body as an abode of spirituality, and each constituent organ of the body has a particular divinity stationed in it. This theme is taken to be a particular aspect of the Krama system. In fact, the things do not appear to be so. This is a general feature of the Kashmir Saivism and consequently all the systems comprising it share this notion.6 Hence it has not been considered to be a Krama work.
1. T.A.V., I I I , pp. 162, 191. 2. M.M.P., pp 104, 106, 127, 156, 178, 179, 180, 192. rendering of these extracts see Abhi., pp. 482-84. For the English

5. Vide Abhi., p. 485. 6. It may, further, be noted that such a theory in particular may be associated with the Kula system. Cf. N.T. 12.1-4; T.A.V., I, p. 23.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

(xxiv) Ksemaraja (975-1125 A.D.) An illustrious student of an illustrious teacher, Ksemaraja may be ascribed to the close of the tenth or the beginning of the eleventh century. He was both Abhinava's cousin and a pupil.1 Of all Abhinava's students he is the only figure who is mentioned by name by Madhuraja Yogin in his Gurunathaparamarsa.2 After an examination of the available data, Dr. Pandey has established Vamadeva, Abhinava's uncle, to be his father.3 Among his own pupils he mentions, inter alia, Sura or Suraditya, son of Gunaditya, for whose enlightenment most of his works were written. 4 Among others he includes Srirama, Raktika Bhatta, Gargesa with particular reference to the Netra Tantra,5 and Kesava. Besides Abhinava he mentions Prayaga as his teacher.6 There were probably a few more teachers according to a hint thrown by himself. Accordingly Sankarajnadhara was also probably his teacher. 7 The present enquiry is concerned with Ksemaraja as an eminent post-Abhinava Krama thinker. He seems to have profound knowledge of the system and in his Uddyota on the Netra
I. Vide T.A., 37.87.

3. Abhinava, p. 254. 4. St.C.V., p. 130; N.T.U., I I , p. 343; Sp.N, p. 77. 5. N.T.U., II, p. 343 -

This line may also be construed to mean that Sankara and Ajnadhara both were his teachers. In this case there would be two persons instead of one as suggested above .

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Tantra he refers to Krama as a distinct system.1 In fact it is to single out even a small work except the Vrtti on the Stavacintamani from his printed works in which he has not specifically referred to the Krama or Mahartha system. In his Uddyota on the Svacchanda Tantra he does the same.2 The Pratyabhijnahrdaya3 and Siva-stotravalivivrti4 abound in references to Krama. Likewise, his commentary on the Siva-sutras called Vimarsini5 and those on the Spanda-karikas known as Spanda-samdoha6 (on the first Sp. K. alone) and Spanda-nirnaya7 are no exception to the rule. His attachment to the system appears to be so deep that he spares no opportunity to elucidate, present or expound the Krama tenets. He even goes to the length of interpreting the entire Spanda philosophy in terms of Krama. 8 His own pronouncements make it sure that he planned and achieved this on conscious level. In addition, he also commented upon certain sutras from the Krama-sutras by some earlier authority.9 This incidence has prompted scholars to credit him with the authorship of a Tika on the Krama-sutras.10 However, the bulk of available material fails to substantiate it conclusively. Because

2. 3. i. 5.

Sv.T.V., I, p. 11. Vide pp. 58-59, 64-66, 69-71, 77-73, 81, 85-S6, 92-94, 101-02, etc. Vide p p . 32, 48, 55, 106, 140, 159, 199, 206, 340, 346 etc. The 2nd chapter deals with Saktopaya which is identical with the Krama system, vide p p . 20-23. 6. Vide pp. 8, 11-12, 16, 19-22. 7. Vide pp. 6-7, 20, 38, 42, 49, 62, 74.

10. Abhi., pp. 258-57, 485-86.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

nowhere - neither in the Pratyabhijnahrdaya where a reference has been made to the two sutras of the Krama-sutras and their explanation by Ksemaraja,1 nor in the Parimala of Mahesvarananda 2 wherein the entire portion with regard to the Krama-sutras has been adopted verbatim from the Pratyabhijnahrdaya - one comes across any statement to the effect that he wrote a commentary on it. Hence it is doubtful and difficult both to maintain his having written such a work. But he did write some works is pretty clear from his own and Mahesvarananda's statements to this effect. The latter is indebted to him for his exposition of Pancavaha, a Krama concept.3 Extracts from his own Stotras in Pratyabhijnahrdaya4 and Siva-stotravali-vivrti5 entertain an unmistakable Krama undertone. Dr. Pandey has enumerated as many as eighteen that are ascribed to Ksemaraja. 6 The mere number of the attempted makes him a formidable author. The list Natarajan swells upto twenty.7 But the following noticed by Dr. Pandey, are missed by h i m : (i) Dhvanyalokalocanoddyota (ii) A Commentary on the Pratyabhijnahrdaya (iii) A Commentary on the Krama-sutra works works of Dr. works

6. Vide Abhi., pp. 254-56. 7. Vide Contribution , pp. 363-64.

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(iv) A Stotra (v) Vrtti on the Parameasa Stotravali of Utpala. T h e following works recorded by Natarajan, however, seem to have escaped notice of Dr. P a n d e y : (i) Sattrimsat-tattva-samdoha (ii) Paramartha Samgraha (iii) Vamodaya (iv) Sivastotra (v) Spandanilaya (vi) Svacchandanaya It is unfortunate that Dr. Natarajan has not disclosed the sources of his information in connection with the works noted above. A few necessary remarks might be welcome here. His Uddyota on the Vijnana-bhairava is available only upto the 23rd verse. Sivopadhyaya starts his commentary from the 24th verse 1 finding Ksemaraja's commentary henceforward mutilated beyond repairs. T h e Samba-pancasika on which he wrote a commentary, published long ago, is a work of some Samba Misra according to the Rjuvimarsini. Its full name, therefore, is the Samba-misra-pancasika and the Sambapancasika is only an abbreviated form. 2 Hence Ksemaraja's commentary was also known as Samba-misra-pancasika-vivrti The Bhairavanukarana Stotra from which Ksemaraja has preserved fourteen verses in his Vivrti on the Svacchanda Tantra3 is not fortunately lost to us. Gnoli has published this Stotra4 which he found in the same manuscript belonging to a private collection in which he found five stanzas of Abhinavagupta. In all there are 48 verses out of which stanzas 16-21, 22, 24-29, 31 are quoted in the Svacchanda Tantra and verse 3 in the Samba-pancasika.

3. Sv.T.V., V I , pp. 110-20 (14th Patala). 4. Miscellanea Indica (Bhairavanukarana Stotra by Ksemaraja), East & West (New series) IX-3, Sep, 1958, p p . 223-26.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

The metre of the verses is Arya. The Stotra is dedicated to the homage of Cidbhairava. Similarly, one manuscript of the Paramarthasarasamgraha-Vivrti is available at the BORI. Poona.1 A comparative look into the contents of the MS with the one written by Yogaraja proves beyond doubt their absolute identity and it is through a scribe's mistake that the authorship has been confused. The colophon ascribes the work to a student of Ksemaraja.2 Regarding other works there is no fresh material to add. But this does not close the list of his possible ventures. Apart from his suspected Krama works, he quotes from his own unnamed work in the Pratyabhijnahrdaya.3 Jayaratha also cites a passage from him without specifying the precise source.4 There is a verse in the Siva-sutra-varttika5 by Varadaraja which raises serious doubts as to whether Ksemaraja wrote a commentary on the Tantrasara as well. For want of any internal or collateral evidence the possibility of such a work is not very strong. Srinivasabudha, the author of the Tatparyadipika on the Tripura Rahasya cites a verse from Ksemaraja.6 But the same verse is attributed to the Agamarahasya by Bhatta Utpala in the Spanda

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Pradipika.1 Owing to Bhatta Utpala's chronological antiquity the proposition seems unlikely that Ksemaraja was the author of this verse or the work from which the verse is quoted. In addition to these he has cited several other passages ascribed to himself,2 which are not traceable to the available works either in print or manuscript. Among his works the Pratyabhijnahrdaya was popular as Sakti Sutra3 and its commentary by him as Sakti Sutra Bhasya4 in the Tripura circles. The Kamakala-vilasa refers to it as the Hrdaya-sutra5 and also as the Pratyabhijna-sutra6 - a name that has been usually in vogue for Utpala's Pratyabhijnakarikas among the Saivist schools. The various stages in his creative thinking may be discerned in the chronological order on his own testimony.7 He had his first philosophical encounter with the Spanda system. First, he wrote the Spanda Samdoha followed by the Spanda Nirnaya in which he perceptibly deviated from the traditional Spanda schoolmen. The Pratyabhijna was his next field in which he produced his two famous works namely, Pratyabhijnahrdaya and Svacchanda-tantlra-uddyota. This was followed by his illustrious commentary on the Siva-sutra called Vimarsini. Similarly his commentaries on the Stava-cintamani and Netra Tantra, too, came after that on the Svacchanda Tantra. During this period he continued his other literary and philosophical minor ventures allusions to which are splashed through all his works.8 He has tremendous respect for his teacher and has closely drawn on him for whatever has passed through under his pen. Yet he never compromised reason and originality with love and reverence. His own pronouncements to the effect amply bear
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Vide Sp.P., p. 23 Sv.T., I, p. 108; VI, p. 16. Yoginihrdaya-dipika. pp. 13, 16, 70, 107. Ibid., pp. 16, 70. K.K.V., p. 2. Ibid., pp. 3, 13. 26. S.S.Vi., pp. 3, 12; Sp.N., pp. 1. 7; P.Hr, p. 63; St.C.V., p. 126. P.Hr., p. 84; Sp.N., p. 13, 34, 36, 77; S.S.Vi., p. 146; Sv.T, I, p. 108.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

out his claim. 1 In the last verse of his Spanda Samdoha2 he makes it absolutely clear that though he owes much of the Spanda doctrine to Abhinava yet whatever he has written embodies his own reflections as well. From the verses at the end of the Vivrti on the Stavacintamani it is manifest that he lived at the Vijayesvara, the modern Bijbihara (in Kashmiri Vyajibror), a town about thirty miles off Srinagar on the eastern side where, on persuasion of his pupil Sura, he finished within a couple of days the writing of his commentary on the Stavacintamani of Narayana Bhatta, 3 who was Ksemaraja's grandteacher also. Thus, there is no doubt that his contribution to the Kashmir Saivism as well as the K r a m a system is inferior only to his redoubtable master. (xxv) Varadaraja (1000 - 1050 A.D.) alias Krsnadasa Varadaraja perhaps did not write any treatise pertaining to K r a m a . T h e only factor that has necessitated his mention here consists in the fact that his work, Siva-sutra-varttika, contains enough important material to indicate t h e historical development of the K r a m a concepts and ideas. 4 In the philosophical section of the thesis every opportunity has been exploited to deal with this aspect of his contributions in their relative contexts. In this connection it has to be noted that notwithstanding his enormous debt to Ksemaraja, he does add a touch of his own with regard to the presentation of the K r a m a dicta. T h e Sivasutravarttika is his famous work which he has wholly drawn on Ksemaraja's Sivasutravimarsini as confessed by

4. Vide his Varttika on the S.S. 1.6, 7, 12, 17, 22; 2-5, 6; 3.16, 43.

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him. 1 In addition to this, he appears to have written a book called Laghu-vrtti-vimarsini whose manuscript is available in the Curator's Office Library, Trivandrum. 2 In the opening verses the author calls himself as Krsnadasa 3 (and this agrees with the colophon) 4 a n d tells that it is a commentary on the Paratrimsika.5 T h e r e is no problem in identifying the authors of the two works. Because in his Varttika also he gives out his other name as Krsnadasa. 6 Besides, at both the places he refers to Madhuraja. In the Varttika he presents himself as his youngest son 7 and in the Laghuvrttivimarsini as M a d h u r a ' s student. 8 In the latter work he throws a veiled hint at his being a direct disciple of Abhinava. 9 In fact Madhuraja a n d M a d h u r a are the same persons. M a d h u r a j a himself refers to it in his Gurunatha-

S.S.V., 1.5 6; also see 2.13.14; 3.214. 2. MS. No. 1074 D. C.O.L. No. 2108D, DCSMCOL. Trivandrum Vol. V , p . 2401.

9. See fn. 8 above.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

paramarsa.1 According to P.N. Pushp, M a d h u r a is a place n a m e and is identical with modern Madurai. 2 If such be the case, which it probably is owing to the extensive countrywide tours of Madhuraja, it forms a prelude to Kashmir's cultural a n d intellectual intercourse with the South that reached its culmination in Sivananda, Mahaprakasa and M a h e s v a r a n a n d a from Cola (Modern K a r n a t a k ) . T h e date of V a r a d a r a j a m a y be settled easily. On the basis of a probable interpretation of the phrase used by Madhuraja e . g , "Siddha-visakha-krpamrta-varse", Dr. Pandey hypothetically places Madhuraja in the Saptarsi year 4167 (1093 A D . ) when he was eighty years of age. 3 And if it is interpreted in terms of Kali era, the year of his birth comes to be 4087 Kali On this latter calculation, he would be 28 years old during the year 4115 of Kali era (1014-15 A D.) when the Isvara-Pratyabhijnavivrti-vimarsini of Abhinava was completed. 4 This would naturally place Varadaraja somewhere between 1020-1080 A.D. But on certain additional evidence Varadaraja seems to have flourished little earlier. T h e 38th verse of the Gurunathaparamarsa explicitly mentions Madhuraja's age at 74 when he first called on Abhinava. 5 He lived there for four years at his master's feet and was 78 when he composed Gurundthaparamarsa.6 At that time Abhinava was alive. On the above

2. Prefatory to Gurunathaparamarasa, p. ii. 3. Abhi., p. 259. 4. Ibid., p. 285.

Dr. Pandey quotes this verse as No. 6 from the Svatma-paramarsa.

Abhi, p. 258.

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calculation it would appear that Madhuraja visited Abhinava during 1060-61 A.D. a n d remained with him till 1064-65 A.D. This would be probably stretching the date of Abhinava beyond proportions. Moreover Varadaraja, though closely following Ksemaraja, does not introduce himself as latter's pupil. Instead, he flashes a subtle hint that he was taught by Abhinava and Madhuraja both. In that case, he might have been of mature age when his father approached Abhinava, because then his father himself was 74. Since he follows the Vimarsini of Ksemaraja which was among the latter's last works, he comes to be his slightly junior contemporary and may be placed around 1000-1050 A.D. It therefore seems likely that the interpretation of the verse, alluded to above, requires a further probe. In this connection we may suggest as a tentative measure that if the word Visakha be interpreted as standing for number 'one' representing Karttikeya (himself) instead of 'six' (representing his six faces) as taken by Dr. Pandey, we find the phrase "Siddhavisakha-krpamrtavarse" will mean "in the year 4117 (and not 4167)." This will further mean that Madhuraja was eighty years old in 4117 (1016-17 A.D.) of Kali era. Thus he would be 78 years when Abhinavagupta completed his Brhari-vimarsini. Accordingly all events connected with Madhuraja, on this interpretation, will go back by 50 years. This will more or less tally with our date assigned to Varadaraja and eliminate the difficulties enumerated above. (xxvi) Devabhatta (Devapani?) 1025-1075 A . D . Mahesvarananda refers to himself as a devout adherent to the school of Devapani and accordingly admits that the functional cycles are to be adored in the order that commences with Srsticakra and closes with Bhasa cakra. 1 He rejects any alternative arrangement. Beyond this one knows nothing of Devapani.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Of late certain material has come to notice that may help one hazard a guess in this regard. Dr. Raghavan has invited the attention of the scholars to a work, Anuttara-srigurupanktiparamarsa, by name. 1 The MS belongs to the Madras Govt. Oriental Library and bears No. MD 15330. The work deals with the linear chronology of the Pratyabhijna authors in the following sequence - Somananda, Utpala, Laksmanagupta, Abhinavagupta, Ksemaraja and Sura. Sura is mentioned as a pupil of Ksemaraja. The author of this Gurupankti is one Deva Bhatta who describes himself as a pupil of Sura.2 We are not aware whether or not Devapani can be equated with this Devabhatta, Bhatta being an honorific title or surname. There is another name ending with the word Pani e.g., Cakrapani, among the Krama authors to be discussed subsequently. He has also been referred to as Cakranatha instead of Cakrapani. 3 Hence, it does not seem utterly irrelevant to view Devapani's whereabouts in this perspective.4 If, at all, such possibility is conceded, Devapani's (?) date is fairly certain, since he comes next to Sura, the pupil of Ksemaraja (975-1025 A.D.) and may, therefore, be assigned to a period about 1025-1075 A.D . But, it may be repeated, it is a mere hypothesis. (xxvii) Hrasvanatha (1025-1075 A.D.) With Hrasvanatha one enters into one of the most complicated arenas of the Krama history. His advent is a landmark
1. "The Works of Abhinavagupta", JOR, XIV-IV, p. 327.

4. Dr. Raghavan also refers to a work named Sivasutra-varttika in the MS: No. 21 (other details missing) by one Bhisag Devaraja. JORI, X I V IV, p. 323. His silence over other aspects of the author or text makes. it meaningless to derive any implication whatsoever.

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in the K r a m a annals, because he heads a tradition that has produced the texts of the eminence of the Cidgaganacandrika and Mahanayaprakasa(S) etc. His time m a y be discussed first, since it is the main hurdle. T h e forthcoming paragraphs are addressed to examining the relevant data to the extent available a n d allowing each factor and evidence to suggest its own conclusion. It may, however, be pointed out that Cakrabhanu's date is a key-factor in deciding the date of Hrasvanatha. Let us take these data one by one. (i) J a y a r a t h a (1150-1200 A.D.) refers to Hrasvanatha, Bhojaraja and Somaraja in a succession. 1 Hrasvanatha, therefore, must precede Jayaratha and, in view of the intervening generations, be placed around 1075-1125 A . D . In other words he should not be later than this date. (ii) According to a tradition current in J a y a r a t h a ' s time, 2 the series of the K r a m a teachers from Keyuravati (825-875 A.D.) to Bhutiraja, the pupil of Cakrabhanu, (both inclusive) account for sixteen generations of K r a m a . In other words, the distance between Keyuravati a n d Cakrabhanu (both exclusive) spreads over thirteen generations. Allowing 25 years to each generation (i.e. about 325 years) he may be placed a r o u n d 1150-1175 A . D . since Keyuravati belongs to the second and third quarters of the ninth century. But at this point we encounter another tradition recorded by J a y a r a t h a . 3 It does not take the first six


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

pupils of Keyuravati in vertical order but in horizontal one, that is, the first six pupils were mutually contemporary. Hence, C a k r a b h a n u ' s removal from Keyuravati is cut short from 13 to 8 generations ( 1 3 - 6 = 7 , +1 representing all the six disciples). T h e approximate date of Cakrabhanu may, therefore, be put in the vicinity of 10251075 A.D. This conclusion is further substantiated by Jayaratha's final premise 1 that twenty generations account for the entire preceptorial tradition from Sivananda to Bhutiraja, pupil of Cakrabhanu. Among these, first generation has three teachers (Keyuravati e t c ) and the second six (Govindaraja etc.). Thus C a k r a b h a n u (and not his pupil) is removed from Sivananda not by twenty but by ten generations (both exclusive). Ten we say, because between Sivananda and Cakrabhanu seventeen (excluding both as well as Cakrabhanu's pupil) generations have intervened. If we deduct seven generations (not nine because three pupils would account for one and the other six for the other generation) from seventeen the gap is reduced to ten. Computing it from Sivananda (800-850 A.D.) upto Cakrabhanu, a period of 250 years seems to have elapsed. Cakrabhanu, therefore, comes close to the era (1050-1100 A.D.) as discussed above. (iii) J a y a r a t h a has drawn our attention to the fact that Hrasvanatha either possessed a commentary in manuscript form on the Krama Stotra (of Siddhanatha) or else wrote a commentary on it. 2 Whatever be the case, Hrasvanatha therefore cannot be placed earlier t h a n 925-975 A.D., the date of the Stotrakara. From J a y a r a t h a ' s description it is obvious that people had started speculating about the number of the verses in and the central theme of the Krama Stotra and, consequently,

Sources and Literature


numerous commentaries h a d come into existence. 1 Therefore an allowance has to be m a d e for the adequate lapse of time between the Stotra a n d Hrasvanatha so as to give rise to the controversies with regard to the Stotra. A hundred years' gap m a y be sufficient to account for the confusion. Consequently his date falls about 1025-1075 A . D . On this count, Bhojaraja a n d Somaraja being t h e consecutive successors would naturally be placed a r o u n d 1050-1100 A.D. and 1075-1125 A.D. respectively. (iv) J a y a r a t h a quotes two verses from Somaraja describing his preceptorial ancestry. 2 It is to be noted that Hrasvan a t h a was removed from Somaraja only by one generation e.g., Bhojaraja. It was n a t u r a l for Soma to come at the end of the tradition since he himself is recording the tradition. 3 (v) In this connection the Cidgaganacandrika also traces the origin of the tradition to Sivananda and places Soma at the end of the t r a d i t i o n 4 T h e place of C a k r a b h a n u comes in between and he is referred to as the pilot (ananagra) among the pupils It is therefore implicit in it that Soma came at the end of that tradition which was presided over by Cakrabhanu. (vi) C a k r a b h a n u is described by Sitikantha as marking t h e end of h u m a n tradition (Manavaugha) but constituting the beginning of the line of disciples (Sisyaugha). W i t h Hrasvanatha the h u m a n tradition begins. 5 In other words Hrasvanatha


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

precedes Cakrabhanu. This tradition was in course of time handed down to Sitikantha. (vii) Since (a) Hrasvanatha precedes Cakrabhanu, 1 (b) Soma or Somaraja comes at the end of the tradition presided by Cakrabhanu, 2 and (c) only one generation intervenes between Hrasvanatha and Somaraja,3 the gap between Hrasvanatha and Somaraja is necessarily filled in by Cakrabhanu on the one hand and Bhojaraja on the other. (viii) To come back to dates again. It has been seen that the Cidgaganacandrika takes note of a tradition headed by Sivananda and concluded with Soma. The author of the Cidgaganacandrika claims to have learnt the secrets of the system from Somaputra i.e, Soma's son.4 That is, the author of the Cidgaganacandrika chronologically succeeds the son of Soma. This text has been frequently quoted by Mahesvarananda in his Parimala on the Maharthamanjari.5 Mahesvarananda is assigned to the close of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth (1175-1225 A D.) century. In the circumstances, the following picture of the authors' chronological succession emerges : Cakrabhanu Soma | Somaputra | Author of the C.G.C. (Srivatsa?) Mahesvarananda (1175-1225 A.D.) Thus one arrives at Cakrabhanu's probable period which falls about 1075-1125 A.D. Hrasvanatha, owing to his historical priority, would naturally belong to 1050-1100 A.D.
1. Ibid. 2. C.G.C, 4.121. 3. T.A.V., III, p 196.



6. M.M.P., pp. 28, 53, 71, 9 3 , 9 4 , 9 5 , 9 6 , 9 9 , 1 0 2 , 1 0 3 - 1 0 4 , 1 1 0 , 124, 131, 145, 154, 167.

181 Sources and Literature (ix) In this connection a point must be considered. The last verse of the Cidgaganacandrika mentions the name of its author as Srivatsa.1 If this Srivatsa is taken to be identical with one who is Mankha's friend and contemporary, 2 Srivatsa would be placed round about 1125-1175 A . D . ; because Mankha was a court-minister of King Jayasimha 3 (11271151 A.D.). In that case the son of Soma, Soma and Cakrabhanu would naturally come around 1100-1150, 1075-1125 and 10751100 A.D. respectively. Contemporaneous with Cakrabhanu, Bhojaraja would also be placed during 1050-1100 A.D. Hrasvanatha being an immediate precursor of Cakrabhanu would automatically date back by a generation i.e., 1025-1075

Thus from all these considerations Hrasvanatha may be assigned to the second and third quarters of the eleventh century. Similarly Bhutiraja, the pupil of Cakrabhanu, may be bracketed with Soma (1075-1125 A.D.). Corning to his creative side, one is not placed in a very happy position to say much about his scholarship and contribution. He was also known by another name i.e., Viranathap a d a . 4 I f one abides by Dr. Pandey's suggested modification of 'Hrasvanathenapi' into 'Hrasvanathasyapi', 5 one may be able to say that Hrasvanatha wrote a commentary on the Krama Stotra in his own hand-writing and the same was accessible to Jayaratha. If, however, the original construction is retained, one would have an occasion to say that Hrasvanatha had his own manuscript copy of a commentary on the Krama Stotra. A verse from his manuscript of the Krama Stotra which contained


Abhi.,p. 473.

182 an

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir additional verse pertaining to Rudra-kali, not traceable to

other commentaries, has been cited by J a y a r a t h a . 1 H r a s v a n a t h a had seen this verse in his script. H r a s v a n a t h a , too, was not free from the complications of points precise out that he had controversy, n u m b e r of his a controversy J a y a r a t h a criticises a verse that gave the number of his pupils as five, whereas J a y a r a t h a six students, however, students. There is one more H r a s v a n a t h a , who is said to have written a work entitled Advayasampatti. His father's name was Harsadatta. 3 T h e problem is whether the two could be the clarifies t h e issue of the sixth being Bhojaraja. 2 The

In the Library of BORI, Poona, (here is a manuscript of (no. 472 of 1875-76) a work called Bodhavilasa. Its author is some Harsadattasunu (i.e., son of Harsadatta). The colophon reads -

It is a small work in Sarada characters. Its author is the son of some Harsadatta very proficient in the Mimamsa system. But the comparison of the text with that quoted by Sivopadhyaya from Advayasampatti ascribed to Vamananatha vide V.Bh.V., pp. 78-79 shows their verbatim affinity barring a few minor variations. The only difference between the two texts consists in the four additional verses contained in Bodhavilasa, two in the beginning and two towards the close. Keeping in view the arguments advanced above it leads one to formulate the following views - (i) Bodhavilasa was an additional title of the Advayasampatti, (ii) the MS as it is, has been copied from the Vivrti of Sivopadhyaya, appending four extra verses to it, (iii) whatever the name of the text it was written by the son of Harsadatta, possibly also known as Vamananatha, (v) the work was intended to be a commentary on

Sources and Literature


identified. Abhinava refers to one Vamana, author of a commentary on the Advayasamparti, called Advayasampatti-varttika.1 If there is a Varttika on the Advaya-sampatti of Hrasvanatha, son of Harsadatta, he gets even remoter and older than Abhinava. Naturally the two cannot be identified. There is an additional support for the above contention. T h e same quotation is attributed to V a m a n a n a t h a by Sivopadhyaya who attributes Advayavartrika to Hrasvanatha, the son of Harsadatta, in a different context. 2 Here he is spoken of as the author of Dvayasampatti. Actually initial 'A' is missing owing to the scribe's omission. T h u s Hrasvanatha alias V i r a n a t h a p a d a is different from Hrasvanatha at issue who was considerably older than the former. (xxviii) Cakrabhanu (1050-1100 A.D.) A comparative estimate of the various opinions expressed about Cakrabhanu elevates his stature in the eyes of the reader as an eminent K r a m a author. T h e problem of his date has already been settled by us in the foregoing pages. 'He seems to have flourished around the second half of the eleventh century. It is to be regretted that no work of his either in reference, manuscript or print has come down today. Hence it is extremely difficult to ascertain the magnitude and nature of his contribution. A few scattered allusions to him are one's onlyguide. With him the main human pedigree (Manavaugha) of teachers comes to an end and an intra-human series of disciples (Sisyaugha) begins. He enjoys an position of unchallenged superiority among all the persons that constitute the chain of the Advayasampatti, since Vamananatha wrote another commentary in addition to the existing one by somebody else, and (vi) the commentary also went by the name of the original text as the two extracts cited by Sivopadhyaya prove. This is all that may be said at present.



Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

disciples (Sisyaugha).1 He was possibly a student of Hrasvanatha, because he belongs to the tradition of Soma,2 the grand pupil of the former, and because the former had six pupils one of them being Bhojaraja, the teacher of Somaraja.3 The enviable status enjoyed by Cakrabhanu among the tradition of the disciples is possible only when he is at the helm of the tradition. That this is so has been confirmed by Sitikantha 4 and the Cidgaganacandrika.5 Since Somaraja is separated from Hrasvanatha by one generation, Cakrabhanu together with Bhojaraja in all probability be a pupil of Hrasvanatha. Although he belonged to a different tradition from one subscribed to by Jayaratha and Mahesvarananda etc., he came direct in the original tradition of Keyuravati. 6 As after Keyuravati etc , many a tradition became afloat within the precincts of the Krama system, Cakrabhanu might be associated with one of those traditions. He, through tradition, might be linked with any of the three unnamed disciples of Keyuravati, 7 since the whereabouts of other remaining three are well known. Cakrabhanu had eight pupils, himself being the master of them. Amongst these a lady ascetic called Isana was responsible for a fresh tradition which continued uninterrupted till the time of Sitikantha.8 His (Cakrabhanu's) role as a Krama teacher has elicited extreme admiration from Sitikantha.9 Till the time of Jayaratha his importance had blurred the precise view of his actual contribution, so much so that his pupil Bhutiraja was confused with one of the same name who

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

C.G.C., 4.121. T.A.V.,III ,p. 106. Ibid. C.G.C. 4.121. T.A.V., I I I , p. 193. Ibid, pp. 195-96.

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was Abhinava's teacher in Brahmavidya. 1 J a y a r a t h a completely rejects the theory as without foundation that Cakrabhanu's pupil was Abhinava's teacher. J a y a r a t h a even goes to the extent of decrying the claim of Bhutiraja as a pupil of Cakrab h a n u . Cakrabhanu's abstinence from such type of teaching has been the main source of confusion and consequently numerous interpretations of his views. 2 Thus the respective stands taken by J a y a r a t h a and Sitikantha tend to appear paradoxical. In view of the weighty collateral evidence frequently referred to, it is difficult to agree with Jayaratha that he never taught anybody. H e , therefore, might be construed to mean that Cakrabhanu never taught any Bhutiraja and thus the paradox be tentatively reconciled. Possibly this will be a more reasonable attitude towards J a y a r a t h a too. (xxix) Cakrapani (1050-1100/1075-1125 A.D.) According to the original plan Cakrapani was to be discussed among the authors of the next generation, but this deviation appears necessary in view of the foregoing discussion impelling us to hazard certain suggestions in the context. The Research Department of Kashmir Government has brought out as the 14th volume of Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies a work called Bhavopahara ascribed to one Cakrapani with a commentary by Ramyadeva. T h e Bhavopahara, on going through its contents, transpires to be a K r a m a stotra. Ramyadeva's commentary totally actuated by the K r a m a ideology leaves no doubt about it. Its precise philosophical views have been fully taken into account at appropriate occasions luring the course of philosophical treatment. Ramyadeva, in the opening verses of his commentary 3 and in his commentary 4 on the


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

last verse 1 of the Stotra, gives out the name of the author of the Stotra as Cakrapani who has been variously called Cakranatha and Cakresa etc. Coming to the personal details and time of Cakrapani one finds a veil of mystery surrounding it. Let us try to pierce through it. The commentator of the work is Ramyadeva who refers to a work of his son also. 2 Now both of these, father and son, are described by M a n k h a as members of his brother's (Lankaka's) intellectual club. 3 Ramyadeva, therefore, appears to be a senior contemporary of Mankha (1125-1175 A.D.) and may be assigned to the twelfth century (1100-1150 A . D . ) . The Bhavopahara, in the fitness of things, would precede this period, that is, the lower limit of the Bhavopahara's period would not go below 1075-1125 A.D. T h e work cannot be much older, because no K r a m a author beyond Devabhatta (1025-1075 A.D.) takes note of it. Moreover the language of the Stotra a n d the contents both have a greater imprint of mysticism and esoteric symbolism which are definitely signs of the later phase of the K r a m a system. During this period there is only one person, except Cakrapani, who has the word Cakra forming part of his name. He is Cakrabhanu. He is a known K r a m a author. Will it, therefore, be incongruous and without basis to identify Cakrapani with C a k r a b h a n u ? C a k r a b h a n u ' s time is about 1050-1100 A.D. Cakrapani's probable time is not later than 1075-1125 A . D . T h u s a gap of twentyfive years is not an unbridgeable gap and since there is rather greater certainty about Cakrabhanu's date, it will be better to push the date of Cakrapani slightly back. If this equation be conceded, one would be in a better position to appreciate the creative aspect of C a k r a b h a n u ' s genius.

2. B.U.V., p. 6. 3. S.K.C , 25. 33,36.

Sources and Literature


(xxx) Bhojaraja (1050-1100 A.D.) Whatever little is known about him, has already been brought to notice. A few points of information alone remain to be given here. As seen already, Bhojaraja as the sixth student of Hrasvanatha a n d a contemporary of Cakrabhanu belongs to the latter half of the eleventh century. He was also known by his other name i . e , V a m a n a b h a n u . Somaraja, from whom Jayaratha quotes, while giving out his preceptorial pedigree in two verses figuratively suggests that Bhojaraja perhaps wrote a work, the Kramakamala by name, on the system. Because in both the passages he is portrayed as an adept in letting the Kramakamala, bloom. O n e knows of a similar title e.g., Kulakamala, belonging to the K u l a system. Hence it is not at all improbable that he might have written some such work. He was a m a n of high spiritual attainments. 1 Sri Braj Vallabha Dwivedi in his essay on the Tripura Darsana 2 raises an important question in this regard. According to him, the Rjuvimarsini by Sivananda refers to one Dipakanatha who was ostensibly influenced by Bhojaraja. This Dipakanatha is one a m o n g the Tripura teachers preceding Jayaratha. According to the Tripura tradition, Dipakanatha is posterior to D h a r m a c a r y a who is the author of the Laghustava, and for that matter, the Pancastavi, on the authority of Amrtananda, the author of the Saubhagyasudhodaya. T h e 18th verse of the third Stava has been quoted by Bhojaraja in the fifth chapter of Sarasvatikanthabharana and a verse from the same Stava has also been cited by Mammata in the 10th chapter of


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

his Kavya Prakasa. T h u s Dharmacarya is definitely anterior to Bhojaraja and M a m m a t a . His successor (not necessarily immediate) Dipakanatha is said to have been demonstrably influenced by Bhojaraja. Now the question is who is this Bhojaraja - the author of the Sarasvatikanthabharana or a different one. Mr. Dwivedi has raised an important problem. It is difficult to say that the problem can be answered easily. Yet, an annexure may be added to the question itself. From the above presentation it is definite that whosoever this Bhojaraja might be, he does belong to the same period as do Dipakanatha etc. T h e author of the Sarasvatikanthabharana and the Tattva-prakasika (a Saiva Siddhanta text) is identified with the king Bhoja of D h a r a whose period is taken to be 10101060 A.D. by Smith. 1 Now this Bhojaraja, the K r a m a author, has been assigned above to the period 1050-1100 A.D. It is, however, not definitely known whether all these Bhojas are one or different. But as a hypothesis one must consider the issue if Bhojaraja, the K r a m a author, can lay any claim to influencing Dipakanatha. In the history of the tantric system, however, such cross-influences or synthetic personalities do not present an unusual spectacle. (xxxi) Somaraja (1075-1125 A.D.) Somaraja came next to Hrasvanatha, his teacher, in order of succession. He probably wrote a work which included the details of his preceptorial ancestry. T h e two verses cited and ascribed by Jayaratha 2 to him are probably from this work. He was the last teacher in the tradition that came direct from Sivananda 3 and was punctuated with the teachers of the eminence of Cakrabhanu. He h a d a son who later transmitted the mysteries of the system to the author of the Cidgaganacandrika4 H e , as discussed earlier, may be assigned to the close of the eleventh and beginning of the twelfth century.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Abhinava, p. 172. T.A.V. III pp. 196-97. C.G.C., 4.121. Ibid., 4.125.





(xxxii) The great-grand (Paramesthi) teacher of Jayaratha (Visvadatta?) (1075-1125 A.D.) T h e Paramesthi guru of J a y a r a t h a is mentioned only once and a verse is also attributed to him by Jayaratha. 1 In fact the verse is very popular among the authors of Kashmir Saivism and appears in many a text as a benedictory verse. J a y a r a t h a gives the three interpretations of the first verse of the Tantraloka in accordance with its bearings upon the K u l a and K r a m a systems and Abhinava's parentage respectively. It is in the context of the second i.e., K r a m a interpretation, that the verse is cited in support of his presentation of the Ultimate Awareness technically called Anakhya. Fortunately J a y a r a t h a gives in full both of his genealogies 2 - parental as well as preceptorial. In the line of his teachers one finds only one person, Visvadatta, who could perhaps be equated with J a y a r a t h a ' s Paramesthi guru in question. 3 Visvadatta is the father of T r i b h u v a n a d a t t a and the grandfather of Subhatadatta who is credited with having performed Jayaratha's initiation. If one puts the two genealogies side by side, it will be apparent that Visvadatta was a contemporary of the two great grandfathers of J a y a r a t h a , namely, Gunaratha a n d Devaratha. They themselves were grandsons of U t p a l a r a t h a who was a minister of the king A n a n t a (1028-1063 A.D.) a n d their eldest uncle Sivaratha was a minister of king Ucchala (1101-1111 A . D . ) . Therefore, G u n a r a t h a and Devaratha m a y be placed somewhere during 1075-1125 A.D. Visvadatta being their con-


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

temporary would also belong to near about the same period. It m a y also be noted that U t p a l a r a t h a II was the maternal nephew as well as a pupil of Vibhutidatta, the father of Visvadatta. 1 Vibhutidatta could not bear the loss of his elder son a n d consequently being completely disillusioned and detatched he could not educate his another son, Visvadatta, who was quite young. 2 Visvadatta was therefore left to the care of Sricakra, a student of Vibhutidatta, a n d who handed over all the ancestral learning to Visvadatta. 3 Utpalaratha I I , the maternal cousin of Visvadatta brought the latter to his home and brought him up. When he attained the age, Utpalaratha got a residence erected for him opposite the temple constructed by some K a n a k a d a t t a and gave him sufficient resources - movable a n d immovable both - in order to relieve him from worldly worries. 4 It was this Visvadatta who is possibly referred to as J a y a r a t h a ' s greatgrand teacher. It is really striking to observe that from the very beginning the teacher and t h e taught relationship had been obtaining between the two ancestral lines - one preceptorial a n d the other parental - of Jayaratha. (xxxiii) Somaputra (1100-1150 A.D.) T h e author of the Cidgaganacandrika expresses his indebtedness to the son of Soma for divulging to him the K r a m a

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secrets 1 or the text on which the former commented. T h e part of the text that contains this information is very defective, yet its sense may easily be derived. Soma, his father, is the terminal point of the tradition originating from Sivananda. 2 Being the son of Soma or Somaraja, his time may be determined about 1100-1150 A.D. (xxxiv) Ramyadeva (1100-1150 A.D.) Ramyadeva is the most important author of his era. His Vivarana on the Bhavopahara is undoubtedly a K r a m a work. Despite the fact that he is more inclined towards esotericism, his commentary does not lack in original flashes. 3 He has tried to point out the specific character of the K r a m a system. 4 An attempt has been m a d e to take note of each contribution of his in its proper place. In addition to his Vivarana on the Bhavopahara he has written six other works as stated by him. T h e works are given below : (i) Akrama-kallola-karika5 (ii) Akulakalika-trimsika6 (iii) Siva-rava-stotra7

3. B.U.V.,vp. 26, 31-32 etc. 4. lbid., pp. i, 22, 23. 29, 38, 40, etc.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

(iv) Cakresvara-bhairavastaka1 (v) Siva-ratri-vicara-varttika.2 (vi) Krtanta-tanti-santi-stava3 The third and sixth works are admittedly classed as stotras. The second and fourth are also possibly stotras as a close look into the extracts ascribed to them would reveal. The fifth seems, on the usual pattern, to be a commentary on the text entitled Sivaratrivicara, which might be from his own pen or from somebody else's. We do not know. The first appears to be an independent work dealing with the Krama system. According to the colophon4 he was the son of Bhatta Jyogdeva and according to the closing verse of his commentary his teacher's name was Yogananda. 5 He also cites a verse from his son6 but does not give his name. From Mankha we know that his name was Losthadeva. 7 The fact that his son was mature enough so that his father might quote him leads one to think that Ramyadeva wrote this Vivarana at quite an advanced age. As has been hinted earlier, Ramyadeva was an older contemporary of Mankha. According to Mankha, Ramyadeva was a man of ascetic temperament. He had thorough command over Vedanta and his action bore the imprints of his thought. He was an extremely proficient and generous teacher. He was

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specially at home in the Kathavalli and was a successful exponent of the Vedanta text called Istasiddhi. These autobiographical touches no doubt lend special richness to Ramyadeva's manifold personality. It is strange that M a n k h a does not refer to Ramyadeva's attainments in K r a m a though he was fully conversant with the system. 1 Maybe Mankha is referring to that aspect only with which people were not so conversant, or else Mankha is taking note of only those aspects of the author's personality that won recognition in the intellectual circle. Both, Ramyadeva and his son Losthadeva, are mentioned in the company of Lankaka, L a n k a t a or Alamkara, M a n k h a ' s elder brother. 2 Lankaka was a minister statesman under the king Sussala of Kashmir (1112-1127 A . D . ) . 3 T h e Raja-tarangini refers to him as a man of martial achievements. 4 M a n k h a was an officer-in-charge of state administration under king Jayasimha, the son and successor of Sussala. 5 T h e reign of J a y a s i m h a falls between 1126-1159 A.D. T h u s the literary circle of his elder brother must have been a long affair spread over 11121159 A.D. Since R a m y a d e v a is mentioned along with his son, he must be of ripe age when an audience took place between him and Alamkara. It would, therefore, be reasonable if he is assigned to the first half of the twelfth century. (xxxv) Lostadeva (1125-1175 A.D.) As alluded to above, Ramyadeva quotes a passage from his son with marked overtones of the K r a m a system. 6 It is 1. S.K.C. 5.40
2. Ibid., 25.26


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

possible that his son might have written a treatise on Krama from which a passage has been cited by his father. Although Ramyadeva does not disclose the name of his son, he is none other than Losthadeva. This information is furnished by Losadeva himself.1 He was also known as Lostaka. Being tortured by worldly trammels he diverted his attention from poetry to spiritualism. His work pertaining to Krama might be a product of this period. Mankha has spoken highly of his linguistic accomplishment. He had a linguist's command over six languages and his speech and poetry were characterised by their flawless felicity and lucidity.2 Several verses read in praise of Lankaka find place in the Srikantha-carita and they betray a real poetic flavour in his utterances.3 He is credited with writing a stotra entitled Dinakrandanastotra which has been brought out by Nirnayasagar Press in the Part VI of the Kavyamala series. Towards the close of his life he went to Varanasi, turned ascetic and renounced the world. The stotra gives powerful expression to the pangs of his disillusioned heart pining for the spiritual ultimate. He ultimately gets peace and in a tranquil mood refers to his achievement.4 Jalhana, in his

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Suktimuktavali, attributes a verse to Lostadeva.1 It, therefore, goes without saying that he was equally gifted in language, literature and philosophy and it is a misfortune that his works, either on Krama or other systems, have not survived the atrocities of time (xxxvi) Srivatsa : Author of the Cidgaganacandrika (1125-75 A.D.) The time of the author of the Cidgaganacandrika is not so puzzling as his identity. The Candrika is a commentary described as Pancika by him, on the Krama Stotra of Siddhanatha. And in autobiographical references he too introduces himself as Kalidasa.2 The proposition ascribing the Candrika's authorship to Kalidasa has been reiterated and echoed several times.3 In addition, the last line of the second opening verse is practically the same as the last line of the opening verse of the Malavikagnimitra of Kalidasa. 4 These factors have led the editor of the Calcutta edition of the Cidgaganacandrika to concede its authorship to Kalidasa. 5 Karra Agnihotra Sastri, the erudite modern commentator on the text, fully endorses the


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

views of Svami Trivikrama Tirtha, the editor of the Calcutta edition. Besides, Sastri advances a few more arguments in favour of his contention.1 As his entire methodology consists in finding analogues between the present and the original Kalidasa and interpreting them to suit his convictions, it is not very relevant for us to go into whole of it here. However, to cite an instance, he finds an implicit reaffirmation of the Abhijnana-sakuntala's eightfold Purls in the eightfold structure of the Vrnda-cakra. Even to the last verse, where the name of some Srivatsa occurs, he accords an entirely mystic interpretation taking him as a crest of meaning called Srivatsa. This is the verse which is of key importance in connection with the authorship-issue. The only difference between Sastri and Trivikrama Tirtha revolves round the identity of this Kalidasa. The former insists that the present Kalidasa is identical with the original one,2 while the latter is prepared to concede to the existence of some later Kalidasa who seems to have flourished before Abhinavagupta.3 The testimony of the tradition also lends weighty support to the present thesis. The passages from the Cidgaganacandrika quoted by Bhaskararaya in his commentary famed as Saubhagyabhaskara on the Lalitasahasranama have been acknowledged by him to be the assertions of Kalidasa occasionally with reference to the name of this text.4 Similarly, Sastri has invoked the support of a Tantric text called Hrdayacandrika by Kavi Cakravartin which explicitly identifies the author of the Cidgagana-andrika with Kalidasa.5 But it must be frankly stated that a host of scholars, who have profusely quoted from the text in
1. C.G.C. with the Divyacakorika, (first part of the Introduction), I, pp. 2-4. 2. Ibid., p. 4. 3. C.G.C., Calcutta, p. 3. (Skt. Int.). 4. Saubhagyabhaskara on the Lalitasahasranama, pp. 26, 52, 82, 153, 157, 161.

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question, have maintained complete silence over its authorship. Among these are Mahesvarananda, 1 Amrtanandanatha 2 and Kaivalyasrama. 3 A modern student, however, finds it difficult to swallow the claim for the original Kalidasa's authorship of the Cidgaganacandrika. To begin with, the author mentions some Siva as a pioneer of the preceptorial line, Cakrabhanu as an eminent teacher and Soma as the concluding figure of the lineage to which the author pledges his allegiance. The author received his tuitions in Krama from the son of Soma. It simply means that he is not the legendary Kalidasa, but a different person. Cakrabhanu and Somaraja, and for that matter his son, more or less have a definite chronological status that puts them within a century's bracket running from 1050 to 1150 A.D. as they come in preceptorial hierarchy. Even the earliest limit cannot go beyond the tenth century, because the author of the Krama Stotra i.e., Siddhanatha, belongs to the first half of the tenth century. But since the author maintains direct doctrinal and scholastic affiliation to Cakrabhanu etc , his date need not be pushed back from the point of actual occurrence which falls in the vicinity of the temporal bracket mentioned above. Besides, the earliest references made to this work are by Mahesvarananda who belongs to the close of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth century. Therefore his date cannot be advanced either, barring the modifications by a margin of 25 to 50 years on each side. Had he flourished much earlier, the early texts could not afford to ignore him altogether. Therefore, on every count, the present author is different from the great poet. Coming to the other aspect of the question, let us try to find out who this Kalidasa was.
1. MM.P., pp. 27, 53, 71, 73, 9 3 , 9 4 , 96, 99, 102, 103, 104,110,124, 130, 154, 167. 2. Y.H.D., pp. 11, 18, 94, 132,144, 179. 3. S.V. on A.L., p. 4.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

The author of the Cidgaganacandrika in the last verse gives out his name as Srivatsa in unmistakable1 tone. Kalidasa seems to be his honorific title and not his actual name, according to his own statement.2 Owing to the grace of Mother Divine his unique literary and spiritual accomplishment fetched him this valued title. However, from the historical perspective, many authors have quite frequently allowed to envelop their true personalities due to this practice in India. In order to cater to his vanity it has been natural for an author to emphasise his title as compared with his name. The present thesis with regard to the Candrika's authorship becomes more convincing, if something with regard to the historicity of the author named Srivatsa be available. Fortunately, exactly during this period, one Srivatsa arrests one's attention. Mankha refers to a pair of the two celibates namely Bhudda and Srivatsa3 in course of his description of the literary circle of his brother and heaps an exceedingly high praise on both of them for unparalleled poetic richness and beauty of their verses - as if the Goddess Muse herself put a stamp on the wealth of their poetic art. Mankha, being a contemporary of king Jayasimha (1127-1151 A.D.) is ascribed to the second and third quarters of the twelfth century. Srivatsa, too, therefore, would belong to the same period. Since (i) this Srivatsa and the author of the Candrika flourished on an almost synchronous point of time, and (ii) Srivatsa, the author of the Candrika, has the title of Kalidasa 4 for his poetic brilliance

4. Cf. fn. 2 above.

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and ingenuity like his illustrious counterpart hailed for his poetic achievements, it will not be entirely unfounded to treat the two as identical. The necessary corollaries that follow in the wake of such proposition are that the author of the Candrika was Srivatsa, identical with his namesake referred to by Mankha, who made this attempt for the welfare of mankind. He was known as Kalidasa for his literary genius. The verse containing the line from the Malavikagnimitra is spurious and a later interpolation. He was a pupil of Soma's son who perhaps was also known as Gupta. 1 He belonged to Purnapitha, the centre of his spiritual activity, where he wrote this Pancika on the Krama Stotra.2 The whole work, according to the author, comprises three hundred and nine verses in traistubha metre. 3 However, there are in all three hundred and twelve verses in the printed edition and the first two verses are not in the above metre. Thus the total number of verses in the above metre amounts to three hundred and ten and if the last verse pertaining to the author himself is excluded, the total corresponds to the figure mentioned by the author. But it is doubtful that the original text has come down to us in full, because a few verses quoted by Kaivalyasrama, 4 Amrtanandanatha 5 are not traceable to the printed text.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

(xxxvii) Ojaraja (1125-1175 A.D.) He was probably an authority on the Devipancasatika, a recognized agama on the Krama system. With regard to the portion of the text dealing with the importance of the "final seed" (Antya Bija), he differed from the usual interpretation owing to a variation in the reading of the text.1 This is the only information available about him at present. Since this view was conveyed to Jayaratha by his teacher, Ojaraja might have been a predecessor or contemporary of the former's teacher. His date is quite uncertain. He may, tentatively, be placed during the period 1125-1175 A.D. due to his priority to Jayaratha's teacher. We are completely ignorant about other aspects of his personality. (xxxviii) Sivananda II (1125-1175 A.D ) : Grand Teacher of Mahesvarananda The contribution of the grand teacher of Mahesvarananda is so vivid, rich, versatile and profound that it is difficult to find a like of him in the post-Ksemaraja period save, perhaps, Mahesvarananda and Jayaratha. The only drawback that has obscured his exuberant personality is the non-availability of his works in print. In him one is able to trace a systematic development of the post-Ksemaraja form of the Krama system for which Mahesvarananda fully leans on him. And it is really strange, when the Krama philosophy was moving towards its slow but gradual decay in Kashmir, Mahesvarananda and his teachers kindled the fire in full blaze in Cola, the modern Karnatak, on the banks of Kaveri. One may, in other words, still say that their contribution was immense and so powerful that they succeeded in evolving a sort of Southern school of the Krama system - though it is not stated nor claimed anywhere. The thirteen-deity or not-twelve-deity doctrine, the extra emphasis on the five-fold functional dynamism of the Absolute, the sixtyfive mystic aspects of the Vrnda Cakra, and induction

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of greater esotericism in the body metaphysic of the Krama system in common with other cognate tantric creeds are the chief features of this school. Except once, Mahesvarananda does not refer to his grand teacher, Sivananda, by name. 1 That he is doing so is itself established on going through the collateral evidence. He, however, ascribes the following works to his grand-teacher : (i) Rjuvimarsini2 (ii) Krama-Vasana3 (iii) Subhagodaya4 (iv) Saubhagyahrdaya5 (v) Samvit Stotra6 (vi) Tripurasundarimandira Stotra.7 Of these the first and third works namely, the Rjuvimarsini8 and the Subhagodaya, are extant even today. Their manuscripts in Malayalam characters are available in the Curator's Office Library, Trivandrum. The Subhagodaya9 is a Tripura work and Sivananda Yogi is the author of the text according to the concluding verses.10 The Rjuvimarsini11 purports to be a commentary on the Nityasodasikarnava Tantra12 on the lines of

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

M.M.P., pp. 112, 123, 129, 178, 193. M.M.P., pp. 115, 117. Ibid., p. 132. Ibid., pp. 13,73. Ibid., pp. 71, 129. Ibid., p. 195. The Rjuvimarsini has since been brought out under Sarasvati Bhavana Granthamala by the Research Institute, Sanskrit University, Varanasi. It was under preparation while the present work was in progress. 9. M S . No. 878B, C.O.L. No. 960B, vide DCSMCOL, Trivandrum, V. p. 1916-1917.

MS No. 878B, C.O.L. No. 960B. 11. MS. No. 878D, C.O.L. No. 690D., Ibid., p. 1920. Ibid., p. 1921.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

the Lopamudra sect of the Tripura system.1 Its author is Sivananda and his teacher is Svatmananda. 2 The third work i.e., Krama-vasana also passes in the name of the Subhagodayavasana. Its manuscripts are preserved in the libraries of the Madras Government and the Kerala University.3 The fourth work e.g., Saubhagya-hrdayastotra is available in manuscript in the library of BORI, Poona.4 Both of these works have been taken note of by Mahesvarananda, 5 the Yogini-hrdaya-dipika6 and the Kama-kala-vilasa-cidvalli.7 According to Dwivedi, the Sambhavaikya-dipika too is a work by Sivananda and its incomplete manuscript is in the Madras Government Library.8 Mahesvarananda refers twice to this work but is silent about its authorship. 9 Before adverting to the question of his time one is called upon to answer an important problem whether Sivananda can be credited with the authorship of the Mahanayaprakasa (T) as well. As will be realized later, a correct answer will necessarily reduce complexity of the riddle. The authorship of the Mahanayaprakasa is clouded in mystery, as nowhere in the body of the text itself one finds any reference whatever to its author. But the author makes it absolutely clear that he has writter some more works10 as the secrets of the Krama discipline cannot, for fear of corruption and

5. 6. 7. 8 9.

M MP., pp. 13,73. Y.H.D., p. 68. K.V.V., (C), pp. 5, 18; 36, 4 1 , 43, 56, 57, 58, 61, 64. S.Su. XX-2, p. 25. M.M.P., pp. 18, 167.

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complacence, be put together at one place and only those who are well conversant with the antecedents and consequents of the Mahanayaprakasa can appreciate its teaching fully.1 It is against this background that he refers to the Samvit-stotra in respect of certain doctrines.2 And in the end of the printed text he attributes the authorship of the Stotrabhattaraka, too, to himself.3 It is to be noted here that one of these texts i.e., Samvit-stotra, has been attributed to his grand teacher by Mahesvarananda. The other work i.e., the Stotrabhattaraka,4 as well as the Mahanayaprakasa5 have been frequently quoted by Mahesvarananda. Many of the passages ascribed to the Mahanayaprakasa are traceable to the printed text.6 But quite a few of them7 could not be located in the printed form. This simply goes to prove that the present text as printed is incomplete. It is, no doubt, bewildering that Mahesvarananda, who is so scrupulous in referring to his teacher or grandteacher even where there is no occasion, should maintain reticence over the authorship of these important texts. In the first instance it appears that these works have a different author. But on the second look one may probably have to revise one's opinion. The reasons for this may be set forth below:

4. M.M.P., pp. 104-5, 116, 127, 131. 5. Ibid, pp. 85, 87, 88, 94, 95, 96, 97, 101, 104, 120, 179, 182. 6. M.P.(T). I i, 32; 7.127-128, 175; 9.4.5, 50-51, 67-68. 7. MM P., pp. 85, 87-88, 94-96, 99, 101-2, 104.

204 (i)

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir The author of the Mahanayaprakasa and the Stotra Bhattaraka is the same, because the former uses the word "maya" (by me) with reference to the latter. Although the reference to the Samvit-stotra is not accompanied by the word "maya" or the like, it comes from the same pen -, contextual evidence lends enough support to it. The Samvit-stotra has been ascribed to his grand teacher by Mahesvarananda. Hence, by implication, these two works should also be credited to the same authorship. Mahesvarananda's reticence with regard to the two works is suggestive, yet it is not necessarily a negative gesture. Because in the case of the Sambhavaikyadipika it was pointed out that it is also a work of Sivananda, the grand teacher of Mahesvarananda, in spite of the fact that he (Mahesvarananda) keeps silent about its authorship, too. The work named Stotrabhattaraka cannot be dismissed as spurious1 since (a) it has been quoted by Mahesvarananda as well as Jayaratha 2 besides Sivananda, and (b) there is complete correspondence between the Mahanayaprakasa and the Stotrabhattaraka on the issues e.g., the thirteen Kalis, unity of Prakasa and Ananda, Mantra as Supreme awareness, etc. 3 Sivananda in his Rjuvimarsini has elevated Prakrta as the official language of the Tripura school. This view was endorsed and its application extended to the Krama system by Mahesvarananda. 4 There is an unmistakable evidence to suggest that the Mahanayaprakasa was written originally in vernacular (Bhasaya






1. Abhi., pp. 478-479. 2. T.A.V., I I I . p. 223. 3. M.M.P., pp. 105, 116, 127. 4. Ibid., p. 194.

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i.e., in Prakrta). 1 This coincidence lends a further support to the alleged identity of the authors of the Rjuvimarsini with that of the Mahanayaprakasa. Even if, for a second, this authorship-equation is not granted there is absolutely no doubt that both - the author of the Samvit-stotra, as well as that of the Mahanayaprakasa - occupy the same point on chronological scale because the author of the latter refers to the former and the grandson of the author of the former refers to the latter. In fact this historical coincidence in point of time is additional evidence in favour of the present contention establishing identity of the two.

In this connection one may agree with Dr. Pandey2 in rejecting the ascription of the Mahanayaprakasa to Abhinavagupta by Sambasiva Sastri. 3 The contention is utterly untenable in the face of the Mahanayaprakasa clearly betraying the influence of Ksemaraja.4 Let us now revert to the period of Sivananda. The latest author referred to by Sivananda is Ksemaraja in the Rjuvimarsini.5 The books referred to are the Sambapancasika and Pratyabhijna-hrdaya Sutra. The precise implication is that Ksemaraja marks Sivananda's upper time-limit. Amrtananda, the author of the Dipika on the Yogini Hrdaya and a pupil of Punyananda, refers to the Subhagodayavasana (i.e., Krama-vasana) of Sivananda.8 Although Amrtananda's time has not been finally

2. Abhi., p. 477. 3. M.P.(T), Int., p. 2(Skt. Int.) 4. For instance, see

Y.H.D., p. 68.







settled the general opinion among the scholars is to place him somewhere in the twelfth century. 1 This may form the lower limit of Sivananda's emergence. It is extremely significant to note that Jayaratha refers to two works of Sivananda namely, the Stotrabhattaraka and Mahanayaprakasa. The first is mentioned with explicit reference to the title of the text.2 A passage is cited3 from the other without disclosing the source, but the same is found in the Mahanayaprakasa.4 It is quoted as a prima facie view propounding the thesis of the thirteen Kalis against that of Jayaratha's Kali-theory. Jayaratha's time is almost certain. His father Srngararatha was a court-minister of king Rajaraja who is identified with the king Jayasimha (1127-1151 A.D.). Hence he, in any case, must be active during the second half of the twelfth century (1150-1200 A.D.). Thus Sivananda cannot be brought below this period, i.e., 1150-1200 A.D. Ksemaraja, who constitutes upper limit, is assigned to about 9751025 A.D. The gap can be reduced further, Mahesvarananda refers to the Cidgaganacandrika of which the probable time is almost settled. It is put around 1125-1175 A.D. Mahesvar-

1. Y.H.D., p. na. (Skt. Int.).

4. M.P.(T)., 9.15.18.

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a n a n d a is the grand pupil of Sivananda. It is, therefore, necessary that whatever probable period of Sivananda's existence o n e may arrive at, it must account for both of them. Sivananda is removed from M a h e s v a r a n a n d a only by a generation. Since the latter refers to the Cidgaganacandrika, his upper limit must be determined by this fact, that is, M a h e s v a r a n a n d a cannot belong to an earlier period t h a n 1125-1175 A.D. On the other h a n d , Sivananda, by virtue of his being alluded to by J a y a r a t h a , is not supposed to cross the period 1150-1200 A.D. In other words the upper limit of S i v a n a n d a does not extend beyond 1075-1125 A.D. (As it is 1125-1175 A.D. for M a h e s v a r a n a n d a ) T h e lower limit of Sivananda is almost decided, as noted above. Hence Sivananda must flourish somewhere between 1075-1125 A.D. to 1125-1200 A.D. In order that J a y a r a t h a might be able to refer to him he must be placed, at least by a generation above J a y a r a t h a i.e., 1125-1175 A . D . He may, therefore be assigned to the second and third Q u a r t e r of the twelfth century. This also satisfactorily accounts for both of them, the grandteacher and his grand pupil, as will be clear from the following table : Sivananda (1125-1175 A.D.) M a h a p r a k a s a (1150-1200 A.D.) Mahesvarananda (1175-1225 A . D . ) . In this case M a h e s v a r a n a n d a does not ascend beyond 11251275 A.D. on the upper side and Sivananda does not descend below 1150-1175 A . D . on the lower side. Now his system-wise contribution may be detailed in the form of the following table : Tripura system Rijuvimarsini Kramavasana Subhagodayavasana) 3. Subhagodaya 4. Saubhagyahrdayastotra 5. Tripura-sundarimandirastotra. 1. 2. Indefinite 1. Sambhavaikya(or dipika. Krama system 1. Mahanayaprakasa. 2. StotraBhattaraka 3. Samvit-stotra


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

For reasons of space we are constrained to leave out the detailed discussion on each work. (xxxix) Mahaprakasa (1150-1200 A.D.) Mahaprakasa is the esteemed teacher of Mahesvarananda 1 and himself a disciple of Sivananda. His time, therefore, ceases to be a problem and he is assigned to the latter half of the twelfth century. Mahesvarananda has paid glowing tributes to his wide erudition, profound scholarship and spiritual achievements. 2 It was upon his interpretation of the dream and inspiration that Mahesvarananda took to writing of the Mahartha-manjari.3 He had traditional insight into the Mahartha system which came direct to him through his teacher and which he passed on to his illustrious pupil. 4 He is described as an author of the tantric treatises (Tantrakrt), though none of his works is physically extant. All his works are accessible only in the form of extracts therefrom in the Parimala. He was a prolific author of the Stotras, three of which have been brought to our notice by Parimala. His Matangistotra probably dealt with the concept of Suddha-vidya. 5 His another stotra was the Anandatandavavilasa-stotra pertaining to the Absolute

3. Ibid. 4. Ibid., p. 197.

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freedom as the cosmic principle of causation.1 The third stotra i.e., Manonusasana-stotra dealt with the principle of mind as a unique sense-instrument.2 His greatest contribution, however, was Mahesvarananda himself. (xl) Jayaratha (1150-1200 A.D.) The name of Jayaratha is a milestone in the history of the Krama thought. His commentary on the first, fourth, thirteenth and twenty-ninth Ahnikas of the Tantraloka is not only a monument of the Krama culture and philosophical discipline but also a repository of the innumerable historical allusions without which the Krama history would have suffered in accuracy, precision and vastness. The last verse of his Viveka on the Tantraloka proclaims him to be a thinker of profound merit and matchless standing in Krama in addition to all the then important branches of learning. 3 And it is not a boastful or conceited statement, since it is well known that his contribution covers a vast field ranging from all the schools under Kashmir Saivism and Tripura System to literature. In Krama, he is proud of the fact that he directly came in the preceptorial lineage of Bhanuka, a student of Keyuravati. 4 He


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

was, equally, conversant with the other tradition h e a d e d by Govindaraja. 1 And, in addition, his familiarity with the southern scholars 2 goes to evince the vast realm of K r a m a practically covered by him. J a y a r a t h a probably understood the value of viewing a scholar, for fuller appreciation, against his historical background. H e , therefore, provides us with a sufficiently detailed account of his ancestral as well as preceptorial lineage which may be given in these tables. 3 (see p p . 211, 212) From these tables it may be clear that his time poses no difficulty. T h e dates of his three ancestors are known. F r o m Utpalaratha II (1028-63 A . D . ) he is away by four generations and from Sivaratha (1101-11 A.D.) he is separated by three generations. Srngararatha, his father and a minister of Rajaraja, who is generally identified with king Jayasimha (11271151 A D . ) , is succeeded by him immediately. On the preceptorial plane, he is removed by two generations from Visvadatta, his great-grand teacher and a younger contemporary of Utpalaratha II (1028-1063 A . D . ) , who brought the former up after the death of his father. After giving due allowance for the intervening generations, he may be safely assigned to the second half of the twelfth century (i.e.,1150-1200 A . D . ) . This is further confirmed by the fact that he in his Vimarsini refers to the Prthvirajavijaya4 of Jayanaka. According to the general consensus of historians Prthviraja died in the year 1193 A . D . a n d before his death the work h a d been written. This is vindicated still further by the fact that J a y a r a t h a wrote his Vimarsini on the Alamkara Sarvasva of Ruyyaka who was a senior (Seep. 211)

2. Ibid., pp. 128 [quoting Mahanayaprakasa (T)] and 223 (quoting Stotra bhattaraka). 3. Ibid., XII, pp. 430-433.

Sources and Literature I. Parental Genealogy


1. T.A.V., X I I , p. 430, verse 8. 2. Ibid., verse 13.

4. T.A.V., X I I , p. 432, verse 2 8 : Alamkara-Sarvasva-Vimarsini, p . 257. 5. We know of one Rajadeva (1213-1236 A.D.) also. But it is difficult to identify him with Rajaraja because, on the testimony of Jonaraja (Raj. Verse 74-87) he was just a usurper and had neither talents nor energy for asserting his authority (vide Raj. of Jonaraja, pp. 56-57 V . V . R . I . ) . It is difficult to believe that such a king would have patronized Jayaratha. In addition, this equation will also lead to historical and chronological absurdities which it would be difficult to reconcile.

II. Preceptorial Genealogy1

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

(From p. 210)

contemporary of Mankha (1125-1175 A.D.). 2 Hence Jayaratha's date may either coincide with Mankha's or be little later. Since Jayaratha's father is a minister of king Jayasimha (11271151 A.D.), he must succeed his father. Moreover, Jayaratha owes the inspiration for writing his Viveka to the same king,3 his date must be in the vicinity of the time of Jayasimha's reign. In view of all these factors, he must be placed during the latter half of the twelfth century. Thus he was gifted both ways - parentally as well as preceptorially. Even his younger brother Jayadratha is famous for his epic poem called Haracarita-cintamani and his stotra
1. T.A.V., XII, pp. 430-31, 433-34.

Sources and Literature


called Paridevitadvadasika, still unpublished, but available in manuscript 1 in the library of Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow. There is no ground for the identity of the two brothers as alleged in some quarters because Jayaratha makes it clear that he was the elder.2 He was son of Srngararatha who carried out renovations of five buildings at the Mahadeva hill.3 His initiation was performed by Subhatadatta 4 whose Vivarana on the Tantraloka proved a model for his Viveka.5 In statecraft he owed his proficiency to his father's teacher Srngara, son of Dasirajanaka.6 He received lessons in Saivism and other agamic lores from Kalyana. His other teacher Sankhadhara or Sangadhara imparted education in all other sciences including Grammar and Mimams. 7 Coming to his works one finds that his creative genius almost covered all the fields and in this he is superseded only by his master Abhinavagupta. The Viveka on the Tantraloka is

1. Classification No. 175 (Bhakti).

Also see T.A.V., X I I , p. 433, verse 39-41.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

a monument of his learning, but for which Abhinava would have been a mystery to us. On the Tripura system he gave us Vivarana which was a commentary on the Vamakesvarimata. On the rise and development of the Tripura system in Kashmir no better source can be pointed out. In the field of poetics he worte Vimarsini on the Alamkarasarvasva of Ruyyaka and presented a model of constructive literary criticism to the later commentaries. Among his thoroughly original works he is credited with writing a work called Alamkarodaharana that served as a preliminary to the studies in poetics by his grandson Sangaka. In the last verse of this work, he refers to his Vimarsini.1 There is a manuscript of it in the BORI Library, Poona.2 Besides these, he composed a Stotra also3, three verses from which are quoted by Sivopadhyaya in his commentary on the Vijnanabhairava.4 Sivopadhyaya also cites his opinion on the natural Japa. 5 Jayaratha quotes from himself without specifying the source of his own statement in the Vamakesvarimata-vivarana.6 On comparing the nature and versi-

5. Ibid., p. 138. 6. V.M.V., p. 58.

Sources and Literature


cular style of the two passages, the likelihood of his having written another work or works on the Tripura or other systems becomes stronger. (xli) Mahesvarananda (1175-1225 A.D.) Mahesvarananda is one of the most prolific authors on the Krama system. His solitary extant work, the Maharathamanjari with the Parimala on it, gives a clear idea of his deep insight into and enormous contribution to the Krama system. Like Jayaratha, he also claims a complete command over not only the Pratyabhijna Karikas and Sivadrsti, but also on the manifold secrets of the Krama philosophy.1 He moved with equal felicity in the Kula system.2 The very pattern on which the Maharthamanjari moves, conforms to his synthetic approach to the Krama system by placing it in the overall perspective of the Kashmir Saivism. This attempt of his reflects the impact of the Tantraloka which marks an essay in synthesis and not in isolated analysis of the Trika systems. His original name was Goraksa, but on his baptism he was named Mahesvarananda 3 by his teacher. He is apparently different from his various namesakes in tantric philosophy.* The traditional Krama philosophy was inherited by him and he came direct in the line of the Krama teachers.5 He hailed from Cola, modern Karnatak, on the banks of Kaveri (southern Mysore). He was the son of Madhu (Madhava) and a devout pupil of Mahaprakasa. 6 He became a consummate scholar in

4. Abhi., p. 274. 6. M.M.P., pp. 98, 99, 134, 197.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

poetics after acquiring an insight into the Kavyaloka of Anandav a r d h a n a and the Locana by Abhinava. 1 Then he m a d e his way into the Pratyabhijna system. As a yogin he conducted successful experiments in spiritualism and consequently was a self-realized person. 2 Like J a y a r a t h a , he has secured an enviable position, since he ensures a monolith of information for the historical reconstruction of the Kashmir Saivism in general and the krama system in particular. As mentioned by him, he travelled far and wide in almost every direction before he took to writing the Maharthamanjari.3 He belongs to the close of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century (1175-1225 A . D . ) . O n e need not go into the reasons for it, since they have already been dwelt upon at length while discussing the period of his grand teacher Sivananda. Whatever contribution he has made to the K r a m a system or other fields is known today from references only m a d e by himself in the Parimala commentary. So far we know of eleven works from his pen Name of work Number of the reference-page in M.M.P. 1. Mahartha-manjari 2. Parimala 3. Padukodaya 4. Samvidullasa 5. Maharthodaya 6. Sukta (Extant). (Extant). 11-12, 90, 99, 100, 103, 105, 112, 118, 149, 177. 12, 23, 29, 32, 33, 78-9, 1 0 4 , 1 1 1 , 127, 137, 151, 152, 158-59, 172. 108, 132. 59.

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Name of work Number of the reference-page in M.M.P. 7. Parastotra 77-78, 94, 107, 140, 148. 8. Komalavallistava 53, 73, 75, 79, 89, 116, 123. 9. Mukundakeli 73. 10. Kundalabharana 73. 11. Nakhapratapa 73. Perhaps, he has written certain other works in addition to the above. In the penultimate verse of the Parimala he has spoken of one Krama as his work. 1 We are not aware if the verse may be interpreted otherwise. For, the use of plural number in the word "Krama" coming at the end of SamaharaDvandva compound should bear out the present observation. Even otherwise he cites a passage without indicating its source and ascribing it to himself.2 The verse in question discusses the technical Krama concept of 'Gati'. It is again doubtful if the said verse is from the book suggested above. If this contention holds good, the number of his works goes upto twelve. It appears that the Parimala on the Maharthamanjari is his last work, because it is here that the cognizance of these works is taken. It is, however, certain that Maharthamanjari was taken up immediately after his Padukodaya.3 On his own admission4 we know that at least his five works namely, Maharthamanjari (and for the reason of that Parimala, too), Padukodaya, Komalavalli-or Komala-stava, Parastuti and Krama are strictly the Krama

4. Fn. 1 above.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

texts. However, this list leaves out the Maharthodaya which, too, is a Krama text as its very name implies and which primarily deals with rejuvenation of the respective deities and mantras. 1 His other two works namely, Samvidullasa and Sukta, are no doubt philosophical works and in a broad way echo the salient theses of the Kashmir Saivism, but no information is at hand about their precise doctrinal associations. Regarding the rest of the works that comprise Kundalabharana, Mukundakeli and Nakhapratapa, the absence of extracts therefrom and Mahesvarananda's wholesale taciturnity make it extremely difficult to be definite about them. But the contextual evidence does demonstrate his emphasis on the literary merit of these works.2 Probably these were the pieces of literature. Although the Komalavallistava and Parimala have also figured in along with these, they have been shown to be Krama works. The Maharthamanjari was the practical realization of a divine vision. The story has it that he was impelled by a Yogini, in whom he visualized Kalasamkarsini, to undertake the writing of the Maharthamanjari.3 Obviously, according to Prof. A.N. Upadhye, it is a composition of the Saptati or Saptati pattern. 4 Since the Yogini, who appeared in dream used Prakrta in expressing her will, he adopted Prakrta in his Maharthamanjari though he does not betray the command on Prakrta which he has on Sanskrit.5 But philosophically it is a mature text and

4. 'Prakrit Languages and Kashmir Saivism', Prof. A.N. Upadhye Dr. S.K. Belvalkar Felicitation Volume, p. 193. 5. The composition of the Gathas clearly betrays that the author thinks and mentally drafts first in Sanskrit and then renders them into Prakrit. This introduces a mechanical form and dialectical artificiality in the verses. Ibid.

Sources and Literature


well deserves its description as a "Prasthana Grantha". 1 It was also known as Mahakrama-manjari.2 The work called Padukodaya is so named because it expounded the notion of Paduka as its central theme. Paduka is identical with the Power-absolute which consists in pure bliss and tends to eliminate the sense of duality between self and notself.3 It is purely a Krama concept.4 Mahesvarananda has considerably influenced the subsequent tantric literature. For instance, Sivopadhyaya leans on him for supporting his several statements.5 Ramesvara, the commentator on Parasu-ramakalpa-sutra, refers to him on no less than three occasions.6 Kaivalyasrama quotes from his Parimala in the Saubhagyavardhini on the Ananda-Lahari,7 Rajanakalaksmirama, an 18th century commentator on Paratrimsika quotes the Maharthamanjari in his commentary styled as lagku-Vrtti.8 Saubhagyavardhi i also refers to some Parastotra and cites from it.9 It is not known if it was identical with one composed by our author. It is to be noted that Jayarasi Bhatta, the author of the Tattvopaplava-simha styles his work as the Maharthodaya.10 But it is definitely a different work, because (i) Jayarasi Bhatta is much anterior to Mahesvarananda, and (ii) the work by the former is addressed to the Lokayata system, whereas the latter's deals with the Krama system. Hence the two cannot be identical.
1. M.M.P., p. 202. 2. Ibid.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

V.Bh.V., pp. 109 111,137. P.K.S., pp. 64, 95, 114, 115, 117. S V. on A.L., p. 46. P.T.L.V., p. 7. (KSS No. 69). S.V. on A.L., p. 46.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

With such an outstanding personality the later stage of the creative phase comes to an end and one finally enters into a period of darkness and complete decadence. (xlii) Sitikantha (1450-1500 A.D.) Barring the studies in Cola, the Krama studies in Kashmir practically came to a dead stop after Jayaratha. This lull is broken by Sitikantha. Thus there were a few sporadic activities during this period as references to one Siddhapada1 by Sitikantha show, who like Lalla ventilated his views through the then Kashmiri dialect. There is reason to believe that the traditional lore of the system also did not die out completely because Sitikantha himself claims to have inherited from, through preceptorial lineage indeed, Isana who was one of the eight students of Cakrabhanu. 2 But there is no evidence to indicate if it had any creative activity worth the name. The three hundred and odd blank years are beset with the appearance of Sitikantha on the Krama horizon with his Mahanaya Prakasa which is different from its namesake by Sivananda from Cola. Besides the Mahanayaprakasa, his other works include the Stotramala,3 Kaulasutra and commentary on the Katantra Vrtti. The Mahanayaprakasa or Maharthaprakasa, as it is alluded to by several catalogues, is extant in print and is almost complete (KSS No. X X I ) . Not only that it helps one trace the missing links in the history but also that it gives a thorough exposition of the Mahartha principle. It is composed in the local vernacular of Kashmir of his time.4 But the commentary, that too

It may, however, be noted that the pedigree of his teachers to be given towards the end of this section does not include the name of Isana. It is possible that Soma, who heads the list, might have come in that tradition - we do not know. 3. Dr. Pandey attributes, perhaps due to oversight, this work to the author of Mahanayaprakasa. Vide Abhi. p. 439. Sitikantha ascribes the work to himself; M.P. (S). p. 47.

Sources and Literature


also by the same author, is in Sanskrit. Towards the beginning of the century Grierson contributed a valued paper on the philological study of the Kashmiri language as used in this work. For reasons of space as well as relevance one has to abstain from going into details on this question.1 He himself refers to the Stotramala as a work from his pen.2 There are two manuscripts of the same name in the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona.3 As the contents of the MSS could not be looked into, it is difficult to be sure of its author or subject matter. But presumably it pertains to the Stotramala of Sitikantha, because hitherto no Stotramala by any other author has come to light as belonging to the Kashmir Saivism. The Kula Sutra or Kaulasutra is his next work which pertains to the Kula system. Sitikantha also quotes from one Kulasutra without mentioning the author. 4 But the two manuscripts that are available today ascribe it to the authorship of Sitikantha in their colophons.5 Aufrecht has taken notice of this
1. " T h e results value from two points of view. In the first place, they show clearly the lines of connection between the Indo-aryan side of Kashmiri and Sanskrit and, in the second place, they throw light on the various forms in Modern Kashmiri that, but for the Mahanayaprakasa, would be inexplicable." Sir George A-Grierson, " T h e Language of the Mahanayaprakasa : An Examination of Kashmiri as written in the Fifteenth Century", Mem. Asiat, Soc, Vol. xi, No. 2, p . 79.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

work.1 The one of the two extant manuscripts of this work belongs to Pt. Dinanatha Yaksa, the formerly head Pandit of Sanskrit section, Research Department, Srinagar and other is available in BORI Library, Poona.2 Both the MSS begin with a similar remark by the scribe that he has written only a part of the text owing to the mutilated and dilapidated condition of the model script.3 But still the MS at BORI is more correct and enlarged. The (BORI) MS appears to have finished where its Kashmiri counterpart ends,4 but it again takes up the thread. The Kulasutra seems to have been originally divided into sixteen chapters called Svarakalas. 5 The (BORI) MS in its continuation gives seven such Kalas from 10th to 16th. The nine are missing. Under such circumstances one should not be surprised if one does not find the passage cited by Sitikantha in the MS. The work is in the Sutra style and highlights the esoteric aspect of the Kula system. The relevant aspects of the text of the MS have been taken note of in the philosophical portion of the thesis. It may, however, be noted in passing that the BORI MS refers to the Kula and Krama system alike.6 And a comparative analysis of the Mahanayaprakasa and the Kulasutra unearths the identity of views with regard to a few controversial problems of the Krama and further establishes the oneness of their authorship. His fourth work, called Nyasa, is a famous sub-commentary on the Balabodhini commentary by Jagaddhara on the Katantra Vrtti. The present enquiry would not be even remotely connected with the work in the present
1. Cat. Cat, App. I. 445. 2. MS. No. 445 of 1875-76, BORI, Poona.

Sources and Literature


context, but for its autobiographical references that make the task of determining his date much easier. He is remotely bloodrelated to Jagaddhara. He is son of the daughter's daughter of the great-grandson of Jagaddhara. 1 And he wrote his Nyasa during the reign of Hasan Shah, the son of Haider Shah. 2 Sri Mahavira Prasad Dwivedi basing his conclusions on the various statements of the Nyasa points out that before he undertook to write the Nyasa, he visited Gujarat and was warmly received by the king Mohammad Shah. 3 According to the Kasmirakusuma by Hariscandra, Husain Shah came to throne in 4583 Kali year equivalent to 1482 A.D. This date is confirmed, with slight modification, by Srivara who puts the period of reign of Hasan Shah from 1472 to 1484 A.D. 4 and, according to the Rasamala,5 Mohammad Shah ruled over Gujarat from 1458 to 1511 A.D. On the basis of these historical data it is easy to find out his place in the chronology. He had visited Gujarat before he wrote his commentary; and while he started writing, king Hasan Shah was at the helm. Hence he must have begun his work by 1480-82 A.D. Allowing a margin of about thirty years for intellectual equipment he may be assigned to the latter half of the loth century. That is, he seems to have flourished during 1450-1500 A.D. On the basis of a few verses in the introduction, according to Dr.Nagarajan, 6 his family tree on the parental

3. Vide Kalyana, Sivanka, pp. 317-325 Sahitya Sandarbha). 5. Contribution, p. 520, 6. Contribution, p. 520.

by Mahavira Prasad Dwivedi, (reproduced from his work called

4. (Vide Raj. T. by Srivara, Chap. VI) Ibid.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

side, may be roughly drawn up in this manner :—

It is also gathered that Srivara, perhaps the famous historian who was patronized by Sultan Zainul-Abidin, Haider Shah and Hasan Shah successively, Srinasesa (?) and Varadesvara were his teachers. It is, thus, obvious that preceptorially and ancestrally - on both sides - he was richly endowed with an atmosphere conducive to scholarly pursuits. (xliii) Ananta Saktipada (1700-1750 A.D.) The colophon of the published commentary on the Vatulanatha-sutra attributes it to some Anantasaktipada. 1 Although the tradition as recorded here belongs to the Sahasa school and is traced to one very old preceptor of the Krama school namely, Niskriyanandanatha, the commentary as such is quite recent. One knows nothing about the actual author of the Sutras or the commentator thereon. One of the reasons behind this ignorance lies in its total escape from the notice of other texts and scholars. This commentary, like Chummasampradaya-prakasa, must be of quite late origin. In the absence of any evidence, either external and internal, it may be bracketed with the

Sources and Literature


Chumma Sampradaya on the basis of the similarity of contents. Since a passage from the Chumma Sampradaya has been quoted by Sivopadhyaya (18th century), Ananta Saktipada can only be placed somewhere before him. 1 While discussing Niskriyananda some doubts in this behalf have already been expressed. According to M . S . Kaul, the editor of the printed text, the glossator seems to have commented also upon the Bahurupagarbha-stotra.2 T h e M S . No. 1135 of 1886-92 at BORI, Poona contains the text of the Bahurupagarbhastotra with a Vrtti which is bound in a single cover with the Svacchanda Tantra. It is not known if it is identical with one in question. (xliv) Bhattaraka (1700-1750 A.D.) Not much is known about Bhattaraka except that he was the author of the work named Prakrtatrimsika-vivarana. T h e frequent discussion on the nature of the V r n d a c a k r a was the main feature of the book 3 - this is all that Sivopadhyaya tells us. T h e fact that the text primarily deals with the V r n d a cakra is enough to prove that it was a K r a m a text. From the pattern of the title of the text, it may be conjured up that it was probably an exposition of some text in Pakrta language modelled on the pattern of the Para Trimsika in Sanskrit. Since it is from Sivopadhyaya's reference that one comes to know of him, he may be tentatively placed prior to Sivopadhyaya who is assigned to the period 1725-1775 A.D. (xlv) Sivopadhyaya (1725-1775 A.D.) With him the K r a m a system finally comes to a full stop. He is not primarily a K r a m a author, yet the reason for present temptation to include him among the K r a m a authors lies in his ingenious remarks that he has never failed to make about the intricacies of the K r a m a system, whenever he could seize an opportunity to do so throughout his Vivrti on the Vijnana1. V.Bh.V , p. 67. 2. V.N.S., Foreword, p. 2.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

bhairava.1 In depth, subtlety a n d maturity, he sometimes reminds us of the best masters a n d presupposes a little bit of acquaintance with the system on the part of the reader. It will be amply borne out in the philosophical portion of the present work. His erstwhile printed work, the Vivrti, is an attempt to restore to posterity the commentary of Ksemaraja that was irreparably lost even in his time. It was available only upto the 23rd verse. 2 In continuing the venture he closely draws on Ksemaraja as is evinced by the fact that he attributes SpandaKarikas to Vasugupta and not to Kallata. 3 By now one is fully conversant with the significance that this controversy assumed in the realms of Kashmir Saivism. But at the same time he points out the omissions of Ksemaraja and throws veiled hint of the improvement brought about by him. 4 His only other known work, the Srividyavivarana pertaining to the T r i p u r a system - is extant today only in manuscript. O n e of the available manuscript entitled Srividyavivarana belongs to Pt. D i n a n a t h a Yaksa of Kashmir, whereas the other named Mantraraja to B O R I , Poona, which is bound with other M S S numbering 452, 481 and 482 of 1875-76. It is not numbered and has been described as "fragment Mantrasastriyo granthah." T h e book seems to be complete work although the last few words are missing. Some of his whereabouts have come down to us. In the e n d of his commentary on the Vijnanabhairava, he gives out his name as Sivaguni, Gotra as Kausika and suggests the necessary accompaniments of his name with the Jati-litle " U p a d h y a y a " . 5
1. V.Bh V., pp. 47, 50-52, 58, 66-69, 85-86, 95-97, 104-111, 115, 140 etc.

Sources and Literature


He was also known as Siva-Svamin, but the Jati-title U p a d h yaya always formed the part of his name - this one learns from the concluding verse of the Srividya-vivarana. It was a commentary on a Tripura text called Mantraraja pertaining to the Saubhagya school. He belonged to Kasthula province of Kashmir which, though escaping a definite identification, was a village or township on the banks of Jhelam (Vitasta) 1 . T h e colophon of the MS also gives the name of his father as Prakasopadhyayasvamin and also the other title of his commentary as Anubhavabodha-vidya.2 Similarly, the colophon of the Vivrti tells us that he was the pupil of some Sundarakantha w h o was probably famous as Govindaguru or the teacher of Govinda. 3 In this connection it is quite interesting to know the real psychology behind his unusual insistence on the Jati-title U p a d h y a y a . In his time the Jati-title Upadhyaya carried a special social recognition. He alone could lay claim to the membership . of the Upadhyaya class (or Padipi in the spoken language) who could teach respective systems to their followers distinguished by their respective surnames as the Trika, Kaula and Bhatta. In the local dialect the first and third were known as the Tiki, and R a i n a or Rajana respectively. Those who concentrated on the


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

Trika system were called Tiki; those who were dedicated to the performance of the Kaula rituals a n d the study of the Kula sutra were called Kaula; and, those who belonged to the higher strata among the Brahmins and claimed highest accomplishments with their proficiency in the science of Mantras were called R a m a or Rajana. Naturally, Sivopadhyaya is fully justified in his extra emphasis on the class-title, because it reflected his still higher social status and superb intellectual achievement. 1 His time is almost certain. According to him, he completed his commentary on the Vijnana-bhairava when Kashmir was being ruled by King Sukha-Jivana. 2 According to historians king Sukhajivana reigned over Kashmir from 1754 to 1762 A . D . Hence he may be assigned to the second and third quarters of the 18th century. 3 6. Certain Krama works by anonymous authors including exclusive Krama Agamas Really speaking these works which are proposed to be taken up presently did not require a separate section. T h e y should have been dealt with in the preceding section, but for the reasons specified below. Presently the main intention is to take a brief notice of those works whose authorship, for various factors, is not known today. And consequently their exact chronological position is also a matter of speculation. In the last section a special endeavour was made to maintain a chronological continuity to the fullest possible extent. Perhaps that continuity would be difficult to maintain, if these works of unknown whereabouts were also included therein.

3. Kashmir through the Ages, G.L. Kaul, p. 63.

Sources and Literature


In this section we have two types of literature. T h e first type consists of the revealed i.e., Agamic literature and the second includes the works of h u m a n authorship. In the first category there are again two subtypes. O n e pertains to the Agamic Saiva literature of Kashmir in general which every system of the Kashmir Saivism feels impelled to draw upon, and which in its deliberations anticipates many K r a m a doctrines. T h e other relates to the exclusive K r a m a Agamas that are mainly responsible for the rise of divergent traditions with regard to the important K r a m a theses. Owing to the enormity of the literature of the first type it is not possible to discuss them here, more so in view of their having been resorted to wherever called for in the philosophical part of the thesis. This category includes such esteemed agamas as the Malinivijaya, Sarvajnanottara, Brahmayamala, Tantraraja a n d Kiranagama, etc. etc. T h e other type comprises the K r a m a agamas alone. They are but a few in number and the relevance of introducing them need not be questioned. T h e next category of works includes the works of h u m a n origin a n d though their names are known from references, their authors are not known and the texts are not extant. In view of the importance attached to them in the system, a reference to t h e m seems justified. It is proposed to take up the agamas first a n d then, the other works. (a) The Krama Agamas Before the discussion of the individual agamas is embarked upon, it may be noted that the K r a m a agamas as such are of a comparatively later date t h a n their counterparts in the general field. In this connection it is also interesting to note that they generally belong to the ' N i g a m a ' class of the tantric classification. 'Agama' refers to that class of scriptural literature which is addressed to Parvati by Siva, while ' N i g a m a ' is said to refer to works spoken by Parvati to Siva. 1 T h e


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

majority of the K r a m a agamas would fall in line with the Nigama class. In fact these two classes of agamas in the strict K r a m a parlance, represent the two tendencies distinguished by their respective emphasis on the supremacy of the either of Siva and Sakti. Let us now advert to the agamas proper in their probable chronological order. (i) Pancasatika or Devipancasatika1 T h e Pancasatika is one of the earliest or the earliest known K r a m a agama. J a y a r a t h a explicitly tells us that this a g a m a was known to Somananda. 2 Abhinava also seems to h a v e referred to it. 3 It was also known as Devipancasatika.4 A fairly definite date can be assigned to it. Since the Pancasatika contains the n a m e of the first four teachers of the K r a m a including the last one i.e., Sivananda, 5 and also since it was known to Soman a n d a also, it may be placed somewhere in between them.
1. It has been included among "the works of Early Teachers" by Dr. Pandey, Vide Abhi., pp. 471, 474. But it is not so. That it is an agama is proved by its construction and that it was taken to be so, is established by Jayaratha's own statement. In a passage quoted from it (T.A.V., iii, p. 181) Devi is the speaker and Siva is being addressed, vide For a similar passage also see p. 169. Likewise, Jayaratha is very clear on its being an Agama. Vide

5. T.A.V., X I , p. 31 (Ah. 29th).

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Sivananda, the first preceptor, is ascribed to the first half of the ninth century and Somananda is distanced from him only by two generations - that is, Somananda belongs to the close of the ninth and the beginning of the tenth century. It is, therefore, quite likely that this agama would have come up towards the middle of the ninth century. Coming to the views of the Pancasatika one finds that the Rudrakali, which signifies the nature of withdrawal with reference to the means of knowledge in Anakhya cakra, was termed Bhadrakali by it without any change in the meaning. 1 One of the important implications of Jayaratha's discussion on the pancasatika is that by including the name of Sukali in the list, the text seems to subscribe to the thirteen-kali theory. 2 This marks a sharp contrast from the Kramastotra which sticks to the twelve-kali doctrine. The opponents of Jayaratha object as to how he (Jayaratha) still maintains that the Kramastotra follows the Pancasatika. First, Jayaratha side-tracks the issue by calling attention to the original question - whether or not the Kramastotra adhered to the twelve-kali thesis3 - and then, retorts that if the opponent persists in his accusation he does not even know the meaning of the Pancasatika4. However, this goes to evince amply that its tradition had suffered a great setback by the time of Jayaratha. Even its text started having variants and naturally became liable to varying interpretations. Jayaratha has cited one such instance, while referring to Ojaraja's interpretation of a portion of it.5 Besides these it maintained a topsyturvy manner in Sthitikrama so as to hide the real Samvit-krama. In designing Pujakrama the Krama authors rather emulated it.6 Similarly it maintained the separate identity

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ibid. p. 173. Ibid., p. 189. T.A.V., I I I , pp. 190-91, Ibid., p. 194. Ibid., X I I , p. 197.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

of the Cakras like Srsti and S a m h a r a , etc. 1 (ii) Sardhasatika

T h e Sardhasatika is another important agama that completely dittoes the stand taken by the Pancasatika with regard to the precise number of Kalis in Anakhya Cakra. And, therefore it always mentioned Sthitikali after Srstikali. On the contrary, in the Kramastotra Rakta-kali and not Sthitikali is m a d e to follow Srstikali. An objection is raised by the opponent as to whether it is not a clear violation of the agamic authority. 2 T h e context makes it abundantly clear that Sardhasatika, too, was an equally authoritative K r a m a agama as the Pancasatika, otherwise sanction of the same would not have been invoked on an exclusively K r a m a issue. T h e only other available reference to it has figured in a similar context. 3 It appears to be a fairly old agama. On the basis of dialogue between it a n d the Pancasatika it may be assigned to the same period subject to future investigations in the field. (iii) Krama-rahasya

T h e Krama-rahasya seems to be a minor agama. It is referred to only once by Abhinava. 4 It may, therefore, be

233 Sources and Literature concluded that this agama may not be as old as the Pancasatika, but its antiquity does go beyond Abhinava. Abhinava quotes it in a Kula context in order to show how the emphases vary from system to system. In Kula rituals wine is said to be of utmost importance. But, the Krama-rahasya is represented to hold the other view and, instead, attaches the supreme importance to the trio of Arghapatra, Yagadhama and D i p a Now which else can this other system b e ? Obviously it ought to be K r a m a as is suggested by the very nomenclature of the text. T h a t it belonged to the agama's category is confirmed by the fact that it was the Lord Himself who expounded this view in the Krama-rahasya. Perhaps, it mainly concentrated on the ritualistic part of the system. (iv) Kramasadbhava

T h e Krama-sadbhava is again an agama of the Nigama type, because it is in the form of a dialogue between Parvati and Siva. 1 Authors of the rank and file of Abhinavagupta, J a y a r a t h a , Mahesvarananda and Sitikanthacarya have referred to it. It was possibly known as Krama also. While reasoning out the necessity of the removal of doubt, Abhinava looks up to the agamas as well. Among the other agamas the n a m e of the Krama also appears. 2 Jayaratha's immediate interpretation of the word is in terms of the K r a m a philosophy, but soon after he quotes from each agama at issue and it is the Krama-

The address "Mahadeva" may be noted. Vide also


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

sadbhava which is quoted for the Krama.1 This seems to be conclusively established, because elsewhere also Jayaratha refers to the Krama Sadbhava as Kramabhattaraka, the title bhattaraka being only an honorific one.2 This is further confirmed by his reference to Krama Sadbhava as the Kramasadbhavabhattaraka.3 It is thus certain that Abhinava by the name Krama means the Kramasadbhava. Consequently this agama, too, belongs to the period preceding Abhinava. By the time of Jayaratha, people appear to have lost direct touch with the text. Evidently some confusion prevailed in respect of its actual stand on the number of Kalis to be adored in Anakhya-cakra. At one place, while invoking its authority in support of the Sodasara Cakra Jayaratha takes their number to be sixteen,4 while at other place the statement ascribed to it recognizes their number to be seventeen.5 Due to the unity of their source it is difficult to know today what its actual stand was. Yet, it is sure that it did not agree with the projected number of the deities at twelve or thirteen. Despite the controversy with regard to the real allegiance of the Kramastotra, there is no doubt that the Kramastotra took a different line from that of the Kramasadbhava The view, therefore, that the Stotrakara closely followed this agama is erroneous and misleading.6 It coined a few phrases to describe





certain deities. Thus Sthitikali is termed as Sthiti-nasakali 1 and Bhadrakali as Rudrakali. 2 According to Sitikantha, the Kramasadbhava discussed V r n d a Cakra in detail. 3 This is borne out by at least one passage, cited from it by Mahesvarananda, that deals with the Patakrama under Vrndacakra. 4 T h e Krama Sadbhava is quoted again in support of his view that the order of the five functions of the Absolute, in which they ought to be worshipped, begins with Creation and ends with Bhasa. 5 A few minor views also have been ascribed to the Kramasadbhava, which are not referred to here. 6 (v) Kalikakrama T h e utterances quoted from the Kalikakrama are marked by their genuine philosophical aptitude unnoticed in any of the agamas discussed so far. It is the reason why Ksemaraja 7 quotes so profusely from it in his Vimarsini on the Sivasutras

6. Ibid., pp. 88, 101. 7. S.S.Vi, p p . III, 113, 118, 119, 120, 123, 133, 139.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

and the later authors do not, except for one identical passage. 1 Because with the passage of time real philosophical zeal started to simmer down among the K r a m a authors. Among the later authors are included Yogaraja, Sivananda (the author of the Mahanayaprakasa), Jayaratha and Mahesvarananda. T h e work also passed in the name of the Devikakrama. For, while quoting the some passage as hinted above, Mahesvarananda attributes it to the Devikakrama.2 T h e very first look at the extracts conveys the impression of their being from some philosophical treatise and not from an Agama. But a passage cited from it by Ksemaraja 3 leaves no scope for doubting its agamic character. In this extract the work is said to be of divine origin, that is, the philosophical truths herein are revealed by Bhairava. Coining to its time some broad outlines may be indicated. Till Abhinava there is no trace of the work; it is learnt from Ksemaraja for the first time. Since Ksemaraja claims to have received all his knowledge from Abhinava, it may be surmised that Abhinava at least knew of it. Even otherwise, the text might be contemporaneous with or slightly later than Abhinava, because one has already seen that Vimarsini is the last work of Ksemaraja. As to its philosophical contents, one may begin with the most famous passage to which attention has been drawn. As its first premise it declares the entire manifold - whether internal or external - to be of the nature of pure awareness. It is awareness that assumes the form of respective objects.

Sources and Literature


Nobody has even visualised the objective world unless it has become a fact of his experience. Since awareness does not proceed without its object, just as affirmation is meaningless without negation; and, since the two are always simultaneously realised, the awareness and its object are bound to be one in essence. It is why the Krama system views the objective variety as an expression of the Absolutic dynamism.1 In another similarly popular passage it draws one's attention to the nature of the Absolute as supreme awareness and that of its power, called Vimarsa, as omniscience. In fact the two cannot be visualised analytically. Thus the process of Japa, if undertaken by a yogin, transpires to be self-reflection on the self-divinity.2 In a similar strain it is insisted upon that one, who could realize knowledge - without its referent and as consisting in self-consciousness, achieves true freedom even during the embodied span of life.3 Ignorance and knowledge, both being the manifestations of the ultimate reality, the talk of destruction of either is meaningless. Because, even when the interplay of nescience is said to have been eliminated, the real nature of it remains intact. To talk of rise and annihilation of nescience is the sheer luxury of figurative language. The only cure, therefore, by implication, lies in appreciating the


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

basically Absolutic character of the two. 1 Thus the experience of pleasure and pain is a necessary outcome of the enormous mental construction. A yogin is advised to pierce through this great illusion of duality so as to attain the real fruit of the yoga.2 In fact, the entire objective paraphernalia beginning with the categories of the pure order such as Siva etc. is the logical corollary of the loss of knowledge coupled with the rise of mental constructions. And all the good or bad objects stem from the same. What one calls evil, leads one to pain and hell because of its character as sheer intellectual fabrication.3 It is, therefore, imperative for one to eliminate all the empirical as well as imaginary associations (Vrtti), to rest on the inner plane, to relinquish the empirical network of mental constructs through one's monistic attitude, and then to remain self-composed and ever prepared to kill the element of time, if he cares to reach the highest stage of his existence consisting in freedom. Such a view needs no explanation. Because, just as in one's daily life the objects of a dream are no longer perceptible when the person is awake, in the same way the world ceases to figure in the yogin's perception when he views

Sources and Literature it through Bhavana i.e. self. 1 identifying it

239 with the universal

This was of course a K r a m a text as the above deliberations would show, in addition to the suggestivity of the title. (vi) Krama-siddhi T h e Kramasiddhi is an a g a m a of a later origin. It is difficult to ascertain its exact period but it was known to none of Abhinava, Ksemaraja and J a y a r a t h a . Throughout the history of the Krama thought it is Mahesvarananda alone who draws our attention to it. 2 It, therefore, appears likely that the work did not come into light until the lapse of the 1 l t h century. T h e lower limit may further be stretched upto the time of J a y a r a t h a . It may also interest one to note that even in later K r a m a or other t a n n i c literature one does not hear of this work. It, therefore, must have been a minor work. It chose the form of a dialogue between two - the God a n d the Goddess. But it is doubtful who really played the role of teacher and who that of disciple. Because, of all the four extracts cited by Mahesvarananda only two have some bearing on this point. In one Siva is addressed by Devi who imparts to him the secrets of the Samvitkrama. 3 whereas in the other Siva is approached by Devi and he tells her the esoteric

S.S.Vi., p p . 133-34. 2. M.M.P., pp. 89, 97, 101, 109.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

significance of the word Krama. 1 The obvious conclusion seems to be that this agama adopted a midway course and alternately subscribed to both the tendencies about the concept of the Absolute in the Krama system. Certain other views, beside those described above, have come down to us. There were varying opinions about the precise order of the five flows (Pancavaha) of the Universal Energy. The order followed by Mahesvarananda was the one laid down by the Kramasiddhi.2 The question has been fully considered in connection with this study on the Pancavaha. In another passage, the Kramasiddhi is represented to have prescribed a specific type of the Patakrama. The Patakrama is one of the constituents of the eightfold approach to the Vrnda Cakra. The Pata consists in finding out the basic identity between Pancavaha and Vrndacakra. But the same may be found to consist in the identity between the five siddhas namely, Jnanasiddhas etc., and the five Absolutic functions ranging from Srsti to Bhasa.3 He also explains the logic behind naming a particular power. It is to be recalled that in each of the five powers (Srsti etc.) all the five powers are present, yet each of them is so termed as to indicate the most predominant one in the group.

Sources and Literature


A metaphor will elucidate it. T h e milk, though present in whole of a cow's body, drips down through her udder only. Likewise, the power of the Lord is all-pervasive and allinclusive, yet it spreads fully through one power. 1 All these concepts predominate the later phase of the K r a m a system. This also testifies to its recency in origin. W i t h this agama one comes to the close of the K r a m a list of the agamas. But this simply shows the limitations of our knowledge and information at this stage. Numerous references, m a d e to and extracts quoted from the anonymous sources, simply labelled as the agama, 2 will perhaps bear out the above statement. In this connection it m a y also be pointed out that the agamas named Brahmayamala, Tantraraja Bhattaraka etc., have not been included among the K r a m a agamas, as has been done in certain quarters. 3 Because in the first place, they belong to the general category of agamas and, in the second place, the contents of the manuscript of the Brahmayamala, available in the library of Asiatic Society of Bengal 4 and the study m a d e by J o h n Woodroffe of the Tantraraja5 do not present them as exclusive K r a m a agamas. It is of course a different matter that they do contain useful material on the K r a m a system too, but not as the K r a m a system as such but as a part of the wider tantra literature. We have, therefore, not ventured to. dilate on them at the moment. (b) Non-Agamic Krama works H e r e again the proposed discussion will be restricted to the exclusive K r a m a texts.

2. Vide, for instance, T.A.V., III, pp. 132, 171; M.P.(S),p. 45 etc. 3. Abhi., pp. 470-71. 4. MS No. 6392, Catalogue No. 5892, Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts, Vol. VIII (Tantras), Asiatic Society of Bengal, pp. 94-95. 5. Tantraraja Tantra (A Short analysis), Sir John Woodroffe, with a. Preface by Yogi Suddhananda Bharati, Ganesh & Co., Madras.

242 (i) Krama-Sutra

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

About the Krama-Sutra certain remarks have already been made while discussing Ksemaraja who, for the first time, invites our attention to this text. It was probably written in the Sutra style as the title and the two extracts go to show. T h e most significant thing about it seems that it was originally written in the own vernacular of the author. 1 T h e necessary implication being that the Sanskrit version or rendering cited by him was done either by him or was done in his time. If this hypothesis be true, the Krama-Sutra in its original form might have been an older text than Abhinava. But, in any case, it must belong to the same period as Abhinava does. This also shows that the trend of composing the K r a m a works in vernaculars, which later on was acknowledged to be a salient feature of the K r a m a literature, had its seeds in the early stages of the K r a m a history. T h e first of the two Sutras quoted by Ksemaraja asks the aspirant to consume the objects of the sense which act like fetters, just as the fire set ablaze consumes fuel. 2 T h e second Sutra lays down the twofold path towards self-realization. T h e first, which is characterized by inwardness, is known as the K r a m a Mudra. This consists in turning from the outward to the inward. T h e second, which is called M u d r a - k r a m a , consists in looking from the inward to the outward, that is, in looking upon the worldly objectivity as an expansion of the inner self.3 Both these types are the spontaneous outcome of Samavesa. T h e second Sutra has been commented upon by Ksemaraja. 4 Mahesvarananda also

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refers to the second Sutra and quotes it together with its explanation by Ksemaraja. 1 But it looks quite feasible that Mahesvar a n a n d a did not have the actual text before him, because he does not appear to quote from the original itself but from the Pratyabhijnahrdaya instead, which contains both the Sutras as well as its exposition. Moreover, he does not add a word of his own to it. (ii) Siddhasutra It is referred to only once in the Mahanayaprakasa ( T ) . T h e r e were two traditions with regard to the proper order in which the various cycles were supposed to succeed one another for the purpose of worship O n e of the traditions placed Anakhyacakra immediately after Vrnda-cakra and discarded the worship of the three cycles such as Srsti etc. This was probably the tradition followed by J a y a r a t h a etc. O n e may infer this from J a y a r a t h a ' s criticism of the Mahanayaprakasa's attitude as representing opponent's tradition. T h e Mahanayaprakasa did not agree with his view and maintained that after Vrnda-cakra these cycles must be worshipped in order to ensure the total completion of Pujana that results in acquisition of the tremendous capacity. In this context the Siddha-Sutra is quoted in support. 2 It holds that the worship of all these cakras leads to the attainment of the Khecara state. And as a secondary outcome of the self-knowledge one is able to command the Siddhis like Anima etc. on their own accord. In this connection it is to be specially noted that Sitikantha also refers to the Subhasita (pithy or noble sayings) of some Siddha. 3 He has quoted some Siddhapada earlier. Both,


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

however, appear to be one, owing to the identity of the extracts attributed to them. It is not known if the Siddha-sutras have to do anything with the Siddha-subhasitas, if one is permitted to present them in this way. T h e only hurdle seems to be the language. Because, the Subhasitas have been composed in Prakrta, whereas the Siddhasutra is apparently a Sanskrit work. However, this is left out as an unsettled question. T h e work, in question, belongs to a later date. Sivan a n d a I I , the author of Mahanayaprakasa ( T ) is assigned to the second a n d third quarter of the twelfth century. The work, therefore, m a y be assigned to a slightly earlier period. (iii) Mahanaya-paddhati

It was a minor work and is referred to only once by M a h e s v a r a n a n d a . 1 It is quoted to substantiate the contention that the external formalities amount to plain mockery. According to it, the strong and abiding reflection on the ultimate reality unobscured by anything constitutes the genuine form of worship. This is a peculiar K r a m a thesis. In addition, the title of the text goes to prove its Kramic complexion. It might be chronologically slightly anterior to Mahesvarananda who alone refers to it. (iv) Kramodaya T h e Kramodaya seems to be an important work. T w o extracts from it appear in the Parimala on the Maharthamanjari. 2 A m r t a n a n d a in his Yogini-hrdayadipika3 refers to it twice, though citing the same passage. Bhaskaracarya in the Setubandha4 commentary on the above also alludes to the work repeating the quotation just mentioned.

2. MM.P., pp. 50, 87. 3. Y.H.D., pp. 266, 283. 4. Y.H.S.B., pp. 286.

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Its main accent seems to have been ritualistic. However, in one passage it refers to the five limiting conditions of the individual subject as such as Raga, K a l a etc., due to which the universal self appears as personal self.1 In the other, he calls upon the aspirant to perform Duti-yaga before he embarks upon the worship of nine powers stationed in the body. 2 The stress on ritualism was so predominant that fivefold esoteric worship (Pancamakara) seems to have overshadowed other things. Like sex in the former, wine occupies a place of eminence in yet another extract. According to it once the liquor, which is a sort of final oblation (Purnahuti) and is defined by h a r m o n y of ' I ' and 'this' experience, gets in, it obliterates the duality; a n d the resulting pleasure comes to persist even though there is visibly no object to cause pleasure. 3 Hence, it is m e a n t to suggest that one should worship the external cycles only when one's mind has become stable and poised. In this connection an important point deserves careful attention. T h e verse quoted by A m r t a n a n d a and Bhaskararaya


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

also occurs with little modification in the Mahanayaprakasa(T).1 It forms part of the text a n d there is absolutely no hint of its having been borrowed from some other source. T h e first ever mention of the Kramodaya which finds in Mahesvaran a n d a a n d A m r t a n a n d a is not far away from him, hence the Kramodaya does not seem to be an old text. Mahesvarananda also refers to the Mahanayaprakasa. T h a t means the two were different works. Now the question is which is the borrower. T h e whole situation is confusing. T h e answer depends upon another question - which work is e a r l i e r ? If the kramodaya is earlier the Mahanayaprakasa must have borrowed from it, a n d if later, the Kramodaya must be the borrower. But, since (i) Sivananda II the author of the Mahanayaprakasa, belongs to the 2nd and 3rd quarters of the 12th century, (ii) the Kramodaya is earliest referred to towards the close of the 12th or the beginning of the 13th century, and (iii) the verse in question is a part of the text and fits well in the context and conforms to the construction of the text, one may be tempted, for the timebeing, to conclude that it is Kramodaya which appears to have borrowed from the Mahanayaprakasa(T). (v) Amavasyatrimsika

T h e Amavasyatrimisika seems to be an important text of the age of decadence. It was produced during the lull between Mahesvarananda and Sitikantha who refers to it. 2 W h a t was the real purport behind such nomenclature is a matter of guess today. Either it contained thirty verses or. like the Paratrimsika, dealt with the three Absolutic powers. Sitikantha has elsewhere quoted a verse bringing out the etymological meaning of the word Amavasya. 3 T h e verse is self-explanatory. What is important to note in this connection is that Ramyadeva describes

2. M.P.(S).p.p. 9, 13.

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the K r a m a system as the one steeped in or infused by the idea of Amavasya. 1 It, therefore, appears fairly certain to take this work as belonging to the K r a m a system. This work was probably more famous as the Samvada, because the first of the three verses quoted from the Amavasyatrimsika has been attributed to the Samvada.2 Otherwise, Samvada as a loose expression stands for a dialogue or discourse. A perusal of the extract reveals that the book probably owed its name to the three aspects of the ultimate power of the Lord, the three aspects being Will, Knowledge a n d Action. T h e present judgement is based on the second verse of the passage. In other words it speaks of the transcendence-plus-immanence, all-pervasiveness, infinitude, ubiquity and equanimity of the Absolute. T h e innate power of the Lord is all-powerful and. though one in herself, she accounts for the multiplicity by virtue of Her constituting the powers such as Will, Knowledge and Action. But this duality is nothing but functional when She is at work. Otherwise on retiring from activity, She rests in Siva, the infinite Absolute and principle of harmony, holding these differences back in Herself. 3 T h e esoteric idea of the Amavasya came into existence with reference to the K r a m a system with Ramyadeva who


The Krama

Tantricism of Kashmir

belongs to the first half of the 12th century. And it is referred to by Sitikantha, who flourished at the threshold of the 15th16th century. T h e work, therefore, may be placed somewhere during this intervening period. (vi) Rajika This seems to be a minor work of very late origin a n d has been mentioned once only by Sitikantha. As to the n a t u r e of the contents, it will suffice to say that it dealt with the real character of the great Yaga, otherwise known as Madhya-yaga also. It has three varieties namely, gross, subtle and the ultimate. In the first stage mind, intellect and ego-feeling are w i t h d r a w n in order to put an end to the emergence of mental uprisings (Cittavrttis). In the second round the vital airs are w i t h d r a w n . Ultimately Prakrti, the principle of pure awareness, makes an anxious present of herself to the Lord finding H i m half-satiated. This is the land of unison, harmony. It is in this connection a verse is cited from the Rajika.1 In the Viveka, J a y a r a t h a refers to certain Rahasyarajikayoginis who were blessed, due to the grace of Divinity, with a beatific vision a n d attainment of true knowledge. W h a t one is not supposed to miss in this context is that Rajikayoginis have been referred to as belonging to the "different" system. Since the context is primarily occupied with the Kula system, the 'different' system means " o t h e r than the K u l a " . Hence, in the Kula context these Rajikayoginis are to be remembered only and not worshipped. 2 It is not known if the Rajikayoginis and the Rajika text are correlated. This episode also lends an additional weight to the thesis that it is most likely a K r a m a text. Like its predecessor it also belongs to an age prior to Sitikantha.

CHAPTER VII K R A M A ' S PLACE IN THE W I D E R F R A M E W O R K O F K A S H M I R S A I V I S M W I T H A N EYE U P O N ITS GENERAL T A N T R I C CHARACTER A synthetic approach to correlation between basic structure of Tantra and Kashmir Saivism vis-a-vis sixfold Artha and fourfold Upaya and its bearing on the Krama system. I. Overall Perspective of Synthesis between Saiva Metaphysics and Tantricism Throughout all these pages an attempt has been made to point out and gauge the quantum of the contribution made by the K r a m a system to the cause of metaphysics and mysticism of monism against the background of its twin personalities condensed into one. These two aspects are its being a part of the philosophical complex known as Kashmir Saivism in the first place and, at the same time, retaining the general T a n t r i c character in the second place. In this section, therefore, our main task would be to see how this synthesis is arrived at. In other words, an effort will be m a d e to examine the perspective in which the sixfold Tantric approach defined by the Arthas is coordinated with or corresponds to the fourfold approach of the Kashmir Saivism spelt by the Upayas And in so doing the place of K r a m a is to be determined in this perspective. 2. Jayaratha's Consistent Approach to the Problem

Mahesvarananda and J a y a r a t h a , the two savants of the K r a m a system, take up the issue. Mahesvarananda regards the M a h a r t h a or K r a m a system as the ultimate among all the philosophical disciplines and the culminating point of all the


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

six stages of Tantric culture. 1 But this is hardly a scientific approach. In fact it is dismissing outright the very issue out of the doctrinal enthusiasm. J a y a r a t h a , on the contrary, is very balanced, logical and to the point 2 T h e subsequent observations are, therefore, drawn from him. 3. Sixfold Artha Defining the Six Approaches to Tantric Understanding T h e six ways or approaches to the understanding of t h e T a n t r a , as outlined by the Yogini-hrdaya, are - (i) Bhavartha. (ii) Sampradayartha, (iii) Nigarbhartha, (iv) Kaulikartha, (v) Sarvarahasyartha, and (vi) M a h a t a t t v a r t h a . 3 All being technical concepts it is no use rendering them into the English language. Let us see what they stand for. J a y a r a t h a , at the very outset, cautions that thetraditionalists should not look for the reproduction of the orthodox a n d conventional views. He is approaching them entirely from the point of view of their precise implications. 4 Except the methodology, he toes the line adopted by the Yogini-hrdaya Tantra.5

Krama, its General Tantric Character


Bhavartha consists in the literal meaning according to the intention of the speaker at the time. It may even belong to the other sciences than the T a n t r a proper. T h e same, despite its externality, is to be regarded as Sampradayartha, if it is m e a n t for enlightenment owing to the exposition of self-knowledge etc. T h e only conditions it must comply with are that it should be consistent with the Saiva teachings and uncensured by the teachers. Vedic passages like and furnish fine examples of the same. But there is one difficulty. T h e self in the above quoted passages is represented to have shone only once (Sakrdvibhata), whereas Siva is a continuously manifest principle. Similarly, these passages depict the self as knowable (Jnatavya) and thus reduce it to the status of an object. Consequently it would deserve its reference as 'this' instead of 'I', while the self-luminous Siva is always a subject, an agent. According to Jayaratha no fundamental incongruity is involved here. In fact, Siva, the principle of reality, never forsakes its agenthood even when he manifests the objectivity within because the objective multiplicity is an . expression of his unfettered freedom. Since Siva himself becomes an object, there is no discrepancy if he is referred to by 'this' pronoun. 1 The viewing of the manifold variety as essentially one with Siva becomes possible only when objectivity is there. It is why the third type named Nigarbhartha consists in its emphasis on realisation of the internal character of multiplicity as Siva by the pure self2 which may be Siva, the teacher, or the aspiring self. If this process is continued, a stage comes







when the Universal Self is instinctively realized as principle of self-luminous pure awareness even in our empirical and phenomenal experiences. Since the prius of such awareness is self and the same is technically known as Kula, 1 the fourth type passes by the name of Kaulikartha.2 In the above noted stages what happens is that the emphasis is gradually shifted from 'this' to 'I'. In the first instance, the aspirant has to exert himself to realize this identity, whereas in the second this identity of the self with objectivity itself becomes a fact of experience. Here, too, once this process is rigorously pursued further, immediate self-revelation takes p l a c e - t h e objectivity not being identified with but transformed into pure subjectivity. 3 Since it is impossible for an unaccomplished layman to appreciate it, it is termed as Rahasyartha (Secret meaning), the fifth type. W h e n even this stage is transcended and pure, alogical, irrelational immediacy prevails and there being no further destiny, it is designated as Maha-paramatattvartha,4 the sixth type. 4. Synthesis between six Arthas and four Upayas arrived at Now, it may be noted that the first two stages, types or approaches obviously find an analogue in the Anava Upaya 5 which, with the aid of external means, tries to unfold the aspirant's real nature. T h e extrinsic means include, inter alia,

Krama, its General Tantric Character


usage of sacred syllables etc. Similarly, Nigarbhartha and Kaulikartha find their counterpart in the Saktopaya1 because the Saktopaya consists in processes designed to achieve the refinement of Vikalpas (logical constructions) The purification of logical construction or dualistic consciousness, by definition. means a thorough overhauling of the perspective with reference to objectivity. In simple words, the Saktopaya consists in realising 'this' as an expression of ' I ' (Sarvo mamayam vibhavah). Yet, despite this transformation, the Vikalpa remains. The Saktopaya elevates the relation of duality into that of unity and harmony, but the relation itself does not vanish. Therefore, then comes Sambhava which corresponds tothe fifth type i.e., Rahasyarthaor Sarvarahasyartha and consists in the indeterminate self-realization.2 And the last stage i.e., Mahaparamatattvartha is equalled by Anupaya which is the reality per se - Awareness pure and simple. In fact Sambhava and Anupaya are not generally distinguished because the Anupaya reflects the highest stage of the Sambhava. In that case the Sambhava would stand for both of the final types. 5. Conclusion : Nigarbhartha and Kaulikartha Versus Saktopaya i.e., Krama Thus we see how the synthesis between the fundamental structure of the Kashmir Saivism and that of the Tantra in general is brought about. It is to be noted that Krama is generally identified with Saktopaya. Hence Saktopaya on the one hand and Nigarbhartha along with Kaulikartha on the other, provide the common ground where the Tantra and Kashmir Saivism meet. It is, however, beyond the scope of this section to go into the intricacies of the Saktopaya etc., because the same is taken up for detailed analysis in the very first chapter of the philosophical study. These lines are, therefore, intended


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

to serve as a preliminary to the following section. But for J a y a r a t h a it would not have been possible to find out the traditional, yet logical, attitude towards the two independent literatures - T a n t r a and Kashmir Saivism - which have more points of contact than those of departure.



1. Bhairava-stava-tika Sobhakaragupta, from Vaisnava point of view, MS belonging to Dr. K . C . Pandey, Lucknow, Devanagari. 2. Bodha-vilasa Harsadatta-sunu, MS belonging to B O R I , Poona. MS No. 472 of 1875-76, Sarada. 3. Chumma-sampradaya (C.S.) Niskriyanandanatha, MS belonging to the Research Department, J a m m u and Kashmir Govt., Srinagar, MS No. 253. Devanagari. 4. Chumma-sampradaya-prakasa Niskriyanandanatha, MS belonging to Pt. Dinanatha Yaksha, formerly Head Pandit, Sanskrit Section, Research Deptt., J a m m u and Kashmir Govt., Srinagar, Sarada. 5. Isvarapratyabhijnasutra-vimarsini-vyakhya Of an unknown author, on the Vimarsini of A bhinavagupta, MS belonging to the collection of Dr. K . C . Pandey, Abhinavagupta Institute of Aesthetics and Saiva Philosophy, Lucknow University, Devanagari. It is different from Bhaskari a n d equally illuminating. T h e text has almost been edited by D r . K . C . Pandey in collaboration with D r . N. Rastogi and is to be published shortly under the auspices of the Abhinavagupta Institute. 6. Isvarapratyabhijna-vivrti Acarya Utpaladeva, MS belonging to Shri K a n t h a Kaul, V . V . R . I . , Hoshiarpur, a Devanagari transcript of which is available in Dr. Pandey's collection at Abhinavagupta Institute, bound with others including Paratrimsika of Rajanaka Lasaka, available in fragments only (33 leaves), Sarada.
* Asterisk has been used to indicate the edition generally referred to in the present work, in case there is more than one edition of the text.







7. Jnana-kriya-dvaya-sataka Author unknown, MS belonging to BORI, Poona, MS No. 107 of 1875-76, Devanagari. 8. Kula-sutra (a) Also known as Kaula-sutrani, M.S. belonging to BORI, Poona, MS No. 445/1875-76, Devanagari. (b) Another MS belonging to Pt. D.N. Yaksa, Alikadal, Bulbul Lankar, Srinagar, Transcribed from Sarada into Devanagari.

9. Mantrasara Ascribed to Utpaladeva, MS belonging to BORI, Poona, MS No. 501 of 1895-98, Devanagari. 10. Paramartha-sara-samgraha-vivrti Ascribed to Ksemaraja, but actually identical with its namesake by Yogaraja, MS belonging to BORI, Poona, MS. No. 459/1875-76, Devanagarl. 11. Paratrisika-laghu-vivrti (Also called Lasaki), Rajanaka Lasaka, MS belonging to Dr. K.C. Pandey, Lucknow, Devanagari. 12. Paridevita-dvadasika Rajanaka Jayadratha, MS belonging to the Akhila Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow, Classification No. 175 (Bhakti), Devanagari. 13. Saivastaka Kosa (S.K.) Author unknown, MS belonging to the Research Department, Jammu and Kashmir Government, Srinagar, MS No. 0/E/1 (A glossary of technical terms used in Kashmir Saivism), Transcribed fromSarada into Devanagari. 14. Sivastaka Yogaraja, MS belonging to Akhil Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow, Classification No. 175 (Bhakti), Devanagari. 15. Srividyavivarana or Mantraraja (a) Sivasvamin, MS belonging to BORI, Poona. Not numbered but bound with MSS Nos 452, 481 and of 1475-76, Devanagari. (b) Another MS belonging to Sri Dinanatha Yaksha, formerly Head Pandit, Sanskrit Section, Research Deptt., Jammu and Kashmir Government, Srinagar, Sarada.

Classified Bibliography


16. Tantroccaya Abhinavagupta, MS belonging to the Tagore Library, Lucknow University, Catalogue No. RS 190/414/A174 T. Accession No. 45927, Devanagari. 17. Verses (of Abhinavagupta) Bound in one with Pranava-balabodhini of Sankaracarya, MS belonging to Lucknow University T a g o r e Library, Cat. N o . R s . 180. 4/A 14 B, Accession N o . 45723, Devanagari. B. Exclusive Published Krama Literature

1. Bhavopahara (B.U.) Cakrapani, with 'Vivarana' (B.U.V.) by R a m y a d e v a , K.S.S. No. 14, 1918. 2. Cid-gagana-candrika (C.G.C.) *(a) T a n t r i c Texts, Vol. X X , Ed. Trivikrama Tirtha, Calcutta, 1936. (b) With 'Divyacakorika' (C.G.C. Coram.) by K a r r a Agnihotra Sastri, pub. same, Letukuru, East Godavari District, 1943, Two parts. 3. Krama-stotra (K.S.) *(a) Author unknown (but possibly by Siddhanatha) incorporated in T.A.V., p p . 157-202. (b) W i t h Hindi translation by R a j a n a k a Laksmana, Guptaganga, Srinagar, 1958. 4. Krama-stotra (K.S. (A)) Abhinavagupta, published in Appendix C (pp. 948-950) of Abhinavagupta : An Historical a n d Philosophical Study, D r . K . C . Pandey, 2nd edition, Chowkhamba, 1963. 5. Mahanaya-Prakasa [M.P. (S)] Sitikantha, K.S.S. No. X X I , ed. M. R. Shastri, 1918. 6. Mahanaya-prakasa [M.P. (T)] Author unknown, ascribed to Abhinavagupta by the editor K. Sambasiva Sastri (but ascribed to Sivananda II by us), T.S.S. No. C X X X , Shri Citrodaya-manjari Series N o . X I X , 1937. 7. Mahartha-manjari *(a) (M.M.) M a h e s v a r a n a n d a , with 'Parimala' (M.M.P.) by the same, T.S.S. No. 66, editor Ganapati Sastri,. 1919.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

(b) K.S.S. N o . 11, editor M . R . Sastri, 1918. 8. Tantraloka ( I V Ahnika) (T.A.) Abhinavagupta, with 'Viveka' (T.A.V.) by J a y a r a t h a . Vol. III, editor M . S . Kaul, K . S . S . No. X X X , 1921. 9. Vatuta Natha Sutra (V.S. or V.N.S.) *(a) Vatulanatha, with 'Vrtti' (V.S.V. or V.N.S.V.) of A n a n t a Saktipada, edited with English translation a n d notes by M . R . Sastri, K . S . S . 39. 1923. (b) with the commentary by A n a n t a Saktipada, edited a n d translated into French by Lilian Silburn, Institute of I n d i a n Civilization Publication Series No. 8, Paris, 1959. C. Texts pertaining to Kashmir Saivism 1. Bhaskari (Bhas.) A commentary by Bhaskarakantha on the Isvarapratyabhijna-vimarsini of Abhinava [Bhas. (T)], ed. K.A.S. Iyer and K.G. Pandey. Three parts - 1st and 2nd constitute the text of Bhaskari and Vimarsini, while the 3rd incorporates an English translation of the Isvarapratyabhijnavimarsini in the light of the Bhaskari with ' A n Outline of History of Saiva Philosophy,' Sarasvati Bhavana Texts Nos. 70 (1938), 83 (1950), 84 (1954). 2. Bhairava-stotra *(a) Abhinavagupta, published in Appendix 'C (pp. 951952) of ' A b h i n a v a g u p t a : An Historical and Philosophical Study', 2nd edition, Chowkhamba, 1963. (b) Edited in part among other stotras by Prof. Klaus Ludwig Janert, under the title "Fine SanskritSammelhandshrift des Linden-Museums mit minia t u r e n " , A r i s : T r i b u s (Verffentlihungen des LindenMuseums, x, 1961, pp. 71-72). Bhagavadgita (a) W i t h " S a r v a t o b h a d r a " by R a m a k a n t h a , ed. by M . K . Shastri, K.S.S. No. L X I V , 1943. (b) W i t h 'Sarvatobhadra' of R a m k a n t h a , ed. by Srinivas N a r a y a n a . A n a n d a s r a m a Sanskrit Series, T a d p a t r i k a r , A.S.S. No. 112, Poona, 1939. *(c) U n d e r the title "Srimadbhagavadgita with Sarvatob h a d r a " , critically edited with English and Sanskrit





Introductions etc., by T.R. Chintamani, University of Madras, 1941. (d) With "Anandavardhini by Anandavardhana (different from the famous author of the Dhvanyaloka), ed. S.K. Belvalkar, BORI, year not available. 4. Bhagavad-guartha-samgraha (Bh. G.S.) *(a) A comm. by Abhinava on Gita, edited by Pandit Laksman Raina, Srinagar, 1933. (b) Included among eight commentaries under the title "Srimadbhagavadgita" with the commentaries Srimatsamkarabhasya with Anandagiri, Nilakanthi Bhasyotkarsa-dipika of Dhanapati, Sridhari, Gitarthasangraha of Abhinavagupta, and Gudhartha-dipika of Madhusudana with Gudhartha-tattvaloka of Sridharmadatta Sarma, ed. Vasudev Lakshman Shastri Pansikar, Nirnayasagar, Bombay, 1912. 5. Bhairavanukarana-stotra Ksemaraja, pub. in "East & West", New Series, 9-3, Sep. 1958, ed. R. Gnoli. 6. Gurunatha-paramarsa (G.N.P.) *(a) Madhuraja Yogin, ed. P.N. Pushp, published in Kashmir Research Biannual, I, I, Srinagar, 1960 (later published as K.S.S. No. 85). (b) Ed. Dr. V. Raghavan, Bulletin of the Govt. Oriental MSS Library, Madras, II, I, 1949; later published by Supt., Govt. Press, Madras. 7. Isvara-pratyabhijna-karika (I.P.K.) Utpaladeva, with his own Vrtti upto 3.20, published together with the Siddhitrayi, K.S.S. 34, ed. M.S. Kaul, 1921. 8. 1svara-pratyabhijna-vimarsini A commentary by Abhinava on the I.P.K. of Utpaladeva, Two parts, K.S.S. Nos. X X I I and XXXIII, editors M.R. Shastri and M.S. Kaul respectively, 1918 and 1921. 9, Isvara-pratyabhijna-vivrti-vimarsini (I.P.V.V.) A commentary by Abhinava on the Isvara-pratyabhijna-vivrti of Utpaladeva, three parts, K.S.S. Nos. LX (1938), LXII (1941), LXV (1943), ed. M.S. Kaul.

260 10. Malini-vijayottara-tantra 37, 1922. 11.

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir (M.V.T.) Ed. M.S. Kaul, K.S.S.

Malini-vijayottara-vartika (M Y.V.) A running commentary by Abhinava on M . V . T . , K . S . S . No. X X X I , ed. M.S. Kaul, 1921.

12. Naresvara-pariksa Sadyojyoti, with commentary by R a m a kantha, K.S.S. No. L X V , ed. M . S . Kaul, 1926. 13. Netra-tantra (N.T.) With ' U d d y o t a ' by Ksemaraja (N.T.V.) two parts, ed. (M.S. Kaul, K . S . S . Nos. X L V I & L X I , 1926 and 1939 respectively. 14. Pratyabhijna-hrdaya (P. Hr.) *(a) Ksemaraja. with English translation and notes by Jaideva Singh, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1963. (b) Ed. J . C . Chatterji, K S.S. No. III, 1911. (c) With Hindi translation, notes and introduction by Vishal Prasad Tripathi, National Publishing House, Delhi, 1969. (d) Bound in one with Sat-trimsat-tattva Samdoha and Parapravesika of Ksemaraja, with Hindi translation by Sri Swami Ji Maharaj, Pitambara Pitha, Datia, year not mentioned. (e) With Hindi commentary called " T a t t v a b o d h i n i " by S.S. Awasthi, Chowkhamba, Varanasi, 1970. (f) U n d e r the title " T h e Secret of Self-Recognition", English translation by K u r t F. Leidecker (from G e r m a n Translation and notes by Rev. Emil Baer), Adyar Library, Madras, 1938. (g) With Hindi translation, introduction and notes by Jaideva Singh, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1973. (h) U n d e r the title " T h e Secret of Self-realization," with English translation and commentary by I.K. Taimni, Adyar, Madras, 1974. 15. Parayanta-pancasika (P.P) Abhinavagupta, ed. with notes and introduction in English by Dr. V. Raghavan, 1951, Madras (originally published in the Annals of Oriental Research, M a d r a s ) .

Classified Bibliography


16. Paramartha-sara (P.S.) *(a) Abhinavagupta, with 'Vivrti' (S.P.V.) by Yogaraja, ed. J . C . Chatterji, K.S.S. Vol. V I I , 1916. (b) U n d e r the title " T h e Paramartha-sara of Abhinavag u p t a , " with English translation and notes by L.D. Barnett, J o u r n a l of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 1910. (c) W i t h annotated Hindi translation by Prabha Devi, I s h w a r Ashram, Kashmir, 1977. 17. Paratrimsika-vivarana (P.T.V.) A commentary by Abhinava on the Paratrimsika, ed. with notes by M . R . Shastri, K.S.S. No. X V I I I , 1918. 18. Sarada-tilaka-tantram (S.T. or S.T.T.) Laksmanacarya (identified with Laksmanagupta by us), with " P a d a r t h a d a r s a " (S.T.V.) of Raghava Bhatta, two parts, Tantric texts Vols. X V I - X V I I , ed. A. Avalon, 1933. 19. Saktavijnana Somanandanatha, published together with one Paratrisika-tatparya-dipika, K.S.S. No. 74, J . D . Zadoo, 1947. 20. Siva-drsti (S. Dr.) *(a) Somananda, with Vrtti by Utpaladeva, ed. M . S . K a u l , K.S.S. L I V , 1934. (b) U n d e r the title "Sivadrsti by Somananda", Chapter I, translation and commentary by R. Gnoli, p u b . in "East & West", New Series, V I I I , 1957. 2 1 . Siva-sutra (S.S.) (a) Vasugupta, with Rjvartha-bodhini of PitambaraPithasthasvami, Datia ( M . P . ) , Sam. 2017. (b) U n d e r the title " T h e Ultimate Reality and Realizat i o n " , with English translation and commentary by I K . Taimni Adyar, M a d r a s , 1976. 22. Siva-sutra-vartika (S.S.V.) A commentary by Bhaskara on the Siva-sutra of Vasugupta, ed. J . C . Chatterji, K.S.S. Vol. I V , 1916. 2 3 . Siva-sutra-vartika [S.S.V. (V)] A commentary by V a r a d a raja on S.S., edited with preface and foreword by M . S . K a u l , K.S.S. No. X L I I I , 1925.


The Krama Tantricism qf Kashmir

24. Siva-sutra-vimarsini (S.S.V.) *(a) A commentary by Ksemaraja on S.S., K.S.S. Vol. I, ed. J.C. Chatterjee, 1911. (b) English translation by P.T. Srinivasa Iyengar, Allahabad, 1912. 25. Siva-Saktyavinabhava-stotra Abhinava, quoted by himself in his Bh.G.S. on Gita 15-19, ed. Laksmana Raina, Srinagar, 1933. 26. Siva-stotravali (S. St.) Utpalacarya, with 'Vivrti' of Ksemaraja (S. St. V.) edited with Hindi commentary by Rajanaka Laksmana, Chowkhamba, 1964. 27. Spanda-karika-vrtti (Sp. K.V.) A brief commentary by Kallata on his own Sp. K.ed. J.C.Chatterji, K.S.S. Vol. V, 1916. 28. Spanda-karika-vivrti Ramakantha, K.S.S. Vol. VI, ed. J.C. Chatterji, 1913. 29. Spanda-nirnaya (Sp. N.) A commentary by Ksemaraja on Sp. K., edited with Preface, Introduction and English translation by M.S. Kaul, K.S.S. No. XLII, 1925. 30. Spanda-pradipika (Sp. P.) *(a) A commentary on Sp. K. by Bhatta Utpala or Utpala Vaisnava, ed. Vamanasastri Islampurkar, 1898, publishers not known. (b) Included in the Tantrasamgraha, Part I, ed. M.M. Gopinatha Kaviraja, Yogatantra-Granthamala No. 3, Varanasi, 1970. 31. Spanda-samdoha (Sp. S.) A commentary by Ksemaraja on the first verse of Sp. K., ed. M.R. Shastri, K.S.S., Vol. XVI, 1917. 32. Stava-Cintamani (St. C.) Bhatta Narayana, with 'Vivrti' by Ksemaraja (St. C.V.), ed. M.R. Shastri, K.S.S. No. X, 1918. 33. Stuti-Kusumanjali jagaddhara Bhatta, with 'Laghupancika' by Ratnakantha translated into Hindi by Prem Vallabh Tripathi, Pub. Achyuta Granthamala, Kashi, 2nd. edition, 1964.

Classified Bibliography


34. Svacchanda-tantra (Sv. T.) With 'Uddyota' (Sv.T.V.), by Ksemaraja, ed. M.S. Kaul, six volumes (Volume 5 in two parts), K.S.S. Nos. XXI (1921), X X X V I I I (1923), XLIV (1926), XLVIII (1927), LI (1930), LIII (1933), LVI (1935) respectively. 35. Tantraloka (T.A.) Abhinava, with 'Viveka' by Jayaratha (T.A.V.), 37 Ahnikas, 12 parts, Part I edited by M.R. Shastri, and parts II-XII by M.S. Kaul, K.S.S. Nos. X X I I I (1918), XXVIII (1921), X X X (1921), XXXVI (1922), X X X V (1922), XXIX (1921), XLI (1924), XLVII (1926), LIX (1938,) LII (1933), LVII (1936) and LVIII (1938). (The author has come to learn that the Tantraloka has been translated by R. Gnoli into Italian, but the author has not been able to see the work.) 36. Tantrasara (T.S.) *(a) Abhinavagupta, edited with notes by M.R, Shastri, K.S.S. No. XVII, 1918. (b) Under the title "Essenza dei Tantra" translated with notes into Italian by Paolo Boringhieri, with a long introduction by R. Gnoli, 1st edition, Torino, 1960. 37. Tantra-vata-dhanika (T.V.D.) Abhinavagupta, ed. M.R. Shastri. K.S.S. XXIV, 1918. 38. Vamakesvarimatam (V.M.) With 'Vivarana' by Jayaratha (V.M.V.), ed. by M.K. Shastri, K.S.S. No. LXVI, 1945. 39. Vijnana-bhairava (V. Bh.) *(a) With a commentary by Ksemaraja on V.Bh. upto the 23rd verse and by Sivopadhyaya (V.Bh.V.) onwards, edited with notes by M.R. Shastri, K.S.S. No. VIII,. 1918. (b) With a commentary called Kaumudi by Ananda Bhatta, edited with notes by M.R. Shastri. K S.S. No. IX, 1918 (bound with the above) . (c) Under the title "Le Vijnana Bhairava" Text and commentary, translated with notes into French by Lilian Silburn, Institute of Indian Civilization Series No. 15, 1961.



Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

(d) With subtitle "Samagra Bharatiya Yogasastra" and two commentaries called Anvayartha & Rahasyartha in Sanskrit & Hindi respectively, by Vrajavallabha Dvivedi, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1978. 40. Virupaksa-pancasika *(a) Virupaksanathapada with commentary by Vidyacakravartin, ed. Ganapati Sastri, T.S.S. No. I X , 1910. (b) Included in the Tantrasamgraha, Part I, ed. M . M . Gopinatha Kaviraja, Yogatantra-granthamala No 3, Varanasi, 1970. 4 1 . Five unpublished stanzas of Abhinavagupta Published in 'East & West', New Series 9-3, September 1958, ed. R. Gnoli. D. Texts pertaining to other Tantric Systems

1. Bhuvanesi-mahastotram of Prthvidharacarya, with Balabodhini by P a d m a n a b h a , Rajasthan P u r a t a n a Granthamala No. 54, Ed. Gopal Rai Bahura. 2. Daksinamurti-stotram Samkaracarya, with 'Laghu-tattvas u d h a ' by Svayamprakasa Yati a n d Varttika by Suresvaracarya, Nirnayasagar, Bombay, 1902. 3. Devinama-vilasa Sahib Kaul, ed. M . S . K a u l , K.S.S L X I I I , 1942. 4. Japasutra Svami Pratyagatmananda Sarasvati, text in Sanskrit with his original in Bengali (in 6 parts), Introduction by G.N. Kaviraj, translated in Hindi by Premlata Sharma, Pt. I (remaining 5 unpublished), Varanasi, 1966. 5. Kama-kala-vilasa ( K . K . V ) (a) P u n y a n a n d a , with Skt. comm. by an unknown author, ed. M . R . Shastri, K . S . S . No. X I I , 1918. (b) with 'Cidvalli' by N a t a n a n a n d a n a t h a , translated with comm. by A. Avalon, 2nd edition (revised and enlarged), M a d r a s , 1953. 6. Lalitasahasra-naman with Bhaskararaya's commentary, translated into English by R.A. Sastry, 3rd edition (revised and e n l a r g e d ) , Madras, 1951.

7. Luptagama-samgraha Edited and collected by M . M . Gopinath Kaviraja, Pt. I, Sanskrit University, Saka 1892.

Classified Bibliography


8. Ntiyasadasikarnava-tantra with two commentaries, 'Rjuvimarsini' by Sivananda and 'Artharatnavali' by Vidyananda, cd. by Vrajavallabha Dwivedi, Yoga-tantragranthamala, Vol. I, Varanasi, 1968. 9. Parasurama-kalpa-sutra (P.K.S.) with Ramesvara's commentary, ed. A. Mahadeva Sastri, 2nd edition by S.Y. Sastri Dave, G O.S. No. X X I I , 1950. 10. Saundarya-lahari (S.L.) Samkaracarya, with commentaries Saubhagyavardhini of Kaivalyasrama (S.V.), Laksmidhara a of Laksmidharacarya, A r u n a m o d i n i of Kamesvarasurin, English translation and notes by Pt. R. Anantakrishna Sastri and Sri Karra R a m a m u r t h y Garu, Madras, 1957. 11. Tripura-rahasya (Jnanakhanda (a) With 'Tatparya-dipika' natha Kaviraja, 2nd G r a n t h a m a l a , Vol. 15, [T.R. ( J . K h . ) ] of Srinivasa, ed. M . M . Gopi¬ edition, Sarasvati Bhavan V a r a n a s i , 1965.

(b) (English Translation and a comparative study of the process of Individuation), A.V. Vasavada, with a Foreword by C.A. Meiev, Chowkhamba, Varanasi, 1965. 12. Vamakesvarimata-vivarana (V.M.V.) A commentary by J a y a r a t h a on V . M . , ed. M.S. Kaul, K.S.S. No. L X V I , 1945. 13. Varivasyarahasya Bhaskara-raya M a k h i n , with his own commentary. 'Prakasa', edited with English translation , by Pt. S.S. Sastri, Adyar, 1948. 14. Yogini-hrdaya (Y.H.) - With commentaries 'Dipika' of A m r t a n a n d a (Y.H.D.) and Setubandha of Bhaskara Raya, second edition, Ed. M . M . Gopinath Kaviraj, Varanasi, 1963. E. Other relevant texts 1. Alamkara-sarvasva Ruyyaka, with 'Vimarsini' (A.S.V.) of J a y a r a t h a ed. Girijaprasad Dvivedi, K . M . No. 35, N . S . 1939. 2. Brahma-sutra (Samkara Bhasya) (B.S.) with the commentaries Bhamati, Kalpataru and Parimala, edited with notes


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir by M.M. Anantakrishna Sastri, 2nd edition, re-edited by" Bhargava Sastri, N.S., 1938. Chandogya-upanisad (Ch. U.) Incorporated in "The Twenty-eight Upanisads" (pp. 68-158), compiled by Swami Dwarikadasa Sastri, Varanasi, 1965. Dhvanyaloka - Anandavardhana, with 'Locana' (Dh. L.) of Abhinava and Balapriya, edition Mahadeva Sastri and P. Sastry, Kashi Sanskrit Series, No. 135, 1940. Dinakrandana-stotra - of Losthadeva, Kavya-mala Series No. VI, Nirnayasagar, 1930. Gaudapada-Karika (G.K.) Gaudapada's commentary on the Mandukya-upanisad, with 'Mitaksara' of Svayamprakasananda, ed. Pandit Ratna Gopal Bhatta, Haridas Sanskrit Series No. 1, Varanasi, 1910. Hara-carita-cintamani Attributed to Jayaratha, ed. M.M. Siva Datta and K.N. Panduranga Parab, Nirnayasagar, 1897. Haravijaya Ratnakara, with Sanskrit commentary by Rajanaka Alarka, ed. Durgaprasad, Kavyamala 22, Nirnayasagar, 1890. Laksmi-tantra Ed. V. Krishnamacarya, Adyar, 1959 Lallesvari-vakyani (a) In Kashmiri dialect, Sanskrit rendering by Rajanaka Bhaskaracarya, Srinagar, other particulars not available. (b) under the title "The Wise Sayings of Lal Ded" edited with English translation and notes by George A. Grierson and L.D. Barnett, Asiatic Society Monograph No. XVII, London, 1929. (c) under the title "The Word of Lalla, the Prophetess", ed. Richard Temple, Cambridge, 1924. Nyaya-parisuddhi Vedanta Desika, Vedantadesika-granthamala, Vol. II in Vedanta Section, ed. Annangaracarya, 1940 (specially 2nd Ahnika, Sabdadhyaya). Nilamatapurana Ed. with introduction etc. by R.L. Kanjilal and J.D. Zadoo, Punjab Sanskrit Series No. V., 1924. Katha Upanisad with Bhasya of Samkara and Hindi



5. 6.



9. 10.




Classified Bibliography


translation, Upanisadbhasya Khanda I, Gita Press, Gorakhpur. 14. Raja-tarangini (R.T. or Raj. T.) (a) Four editions of R.T. - (i) Kalhana (1138 A.D.), (ii)Jonaraja (1402 A.D.) (iii) Srivara (1407 A.D.), (iv) Prajya Bhatta (1550 A.D.) - all bound in one, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1885. (b) under the title "Kalhana-krta Raja-tarangini", edited with translation and commentary by Raghunath Singh, Thesis approved for the Ph. D. Degree of B.H.U., Hindi Pracharaka Sansthan, Varanasi, 1970 (A very detailed work). (c) under the title ''Rajatarangini of Kalhana'' critically edited by Vishva Bandhu and others, Woolner Indological Series - 5 (Pt. I - Tarangas 1 to 7) and 6 (Pt. II - taranga 8), Hoshiarpur, 1963 and 1965 respectively. (d) under the title "Rajatarangini of Jonaraja", critically edited with an exhaustive introduction in English by Srikantha Kaul, W.I. Series-7, Hoshiarpur, 1967. (e) under the title "Rajataranginis of Srivara and Suka", critically edited by Srikantha Kaul, W.I.Series-8, Hoshiarpur. (f) under the title "Hindi Rajatarangini (of Kalhana), Pt. I (tarangas-1-7), translated by G.K.S. Dvivedi, Varanasi, Sam. 1998. J5. Sarvadarsana-samgraha (a) Sayana-madhava, edited with an original commentary in Sanskrit by M.M. Vasudev Shastri Abhyankar, 2nd edition, Govt. Oriental Series class Z, No. 4, BORI, Poona, 1951, (b) Translated with Hindi commentary "Prakasa' by V.S. Sharma 'Rishi', Chowkhamba, Varanasi, 1964. (c) Translated into English with notes by E.B.Cowell and A.E. Gough, Reprint by Chowkhamba, Varanasi, 1961. 16. Srikantha-carita Mankha, with Vrtti of Jonaraja, K.M. Series No.III.







17. Sukti-muktavali J a l h a n a (Bhagadatta), ed. E. Krishnamacarya, Baroda,1938. 18. Vakyapadiya (a) B h a n r h a r i , ed. K . V . Abhyankar and V . P . Limaye, University of Poona, Sanskrit and Prakrit Series, Vol. I I , Poona 1965. *(b) with the commentaries, Vrtti and Paddhati of Vrsabhadeva, ed. by K.A.S. Iyer, Deccan College Monograph Series 38 (Kanda I ) , a n d 21 (Kanda I I I , Part I), Poona, 1966 and 1963 respectively. 19. Vikramanka-deva-carita (Vik.) Bilhana, Sarasvati Bhavan Texts Series No. 82, edition Murari Lal Nagar, Benares, 1945. SECONDARY SOURCES A. Works and Theses pertaining to Kashmir, Kashmir Saivism and Krama System 1. Abhinavagupta: An Historical and Philosophical Study (Abhi.) Dr. K . C . Pandey, Second revised edition, Chowkhamba, 1963. 2. (Unpublished) N. Rastogi, A Dissertation submitted to the Lucknow University for partial campletion of M.A. (Final) Examination, 1959. 3. (unpublished) K m . Meera Rastogi, A Dissertation submitted to the Lucknow University for partial completion of M.A. Examination, 1974.

4. Aspects of Kashmir Saivism Dr. B.N. Pandit, Utpala Publications, Srinagar, Kashmir, 1977. 5. Atma-vilasa A carya Amrtavagbhava, with Hindi commentary 'Sundari' by the author, Amritsar, Sam. 1993. 6. Ancient Geography of Kashmir (Memoir on M a p s illustrating the Ancient Geography of Kashmir) M . A . Stein, Indological Book Corporation, Patna, 1977. (Reprinted from the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. L X V I I I , Part I : Extra-number 2, 1899). 7. The Book of the Secrets Discourses on "Vijnana Bhairava T a n t r a " (in 5 volumes) by Acharya Rajneesh,

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Rajneesh Foundation, Poona, 1974 ed. Ma Ananda Prem & Swami Ananda Teerth. 8. A Comparative Study of Kashmir Saivism (Unpublished). D r . B.N. Pandit, thesis presented to Punjab University for the Degree of Ph. D . , 1964. 9. Comparative Aesthetics, Pt. I (Indian Aesthetics) Dr. K . C . Pandey 2nd revised edition, Chowkhamba (Chapter I I ) , 1963. 10. Contribution of Kashmir to Sanskrit Literature [Contribution]. (Unpublished). Dr. K . S . Nagarajan, Thesis submitted to the University of Poona for the degree of Ph. D., 1961. 11. Contribution of Kashmir to Sanskrit Poetry [Contribution(s)]. (Unpublished). Dr. S.V. Singh, thesis submitted to the Lucknow University for the degree of D. Lilt., 1960. 12. A Critical and Comparative Study of Pratyabhijna Philosophy (Unpublished). Shishir K u m a r J h a , thesis submitted for Ph. D. degree, Darbhanga, 1972. 13. Detailed Report of a Tour in Search of Sanskrit MSS made in Kashmir, Rajputana and Central India George Buhler, Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1877, Extra N u m b e r . 14. The Doctrine of Recognition Dr. Hoshiarpur, 1967. R. K. Kaw, V . V . R . I . ,

15. Early History and Culture of Kashmir D r . Sunil Chandra Ray, Calcutta, 1957. 16. An Essay on the Hindoo History of Cashmere H . H . Wilson, Asiatic Researches, X V , Calcutta, 1825. 17. The Jummoo and Kashmir Territories Frederic Drew, First Indian Reprint, Oriental Publishers, Delhi, 1971. 18. Kashmir Shaivism (K.S.) J . C . Chatterji, K.S.S. Vol. I I , 1914. 19. Kashmir Saivism (A Pamphlet) J . C . R u d r a p p a , Gandhi Nagar, Bangalore, year not given. 20. Kashmir Saivism (A Pamphlet) K. Gurudatt, Bangalore, 1952.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

21. Kashmir Saivism L. N. Sharma, Varanasi, 1972. 22. B.N. Pandit, Jammu, 1973. 23. Dr. Bhanwari Lal Joshi, Chowkhamba, Varanasi, 1988. 24. Kasmiretihasah H.P. Shastri, Lal Bahadur Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapitha, Delhi, Sam. 2024. 25. Malinivijayottara-tantra - A source book of the Trika Sastra of Kashmir and Religious Significance (Unpublished). Dr. V.D. Shastri, thesis presented to the Punjab University for the Degree of Ph. D. 1956. 26. Man and his Destiny according to the Trika Philosophy of Kashmir (Unpublished). Deva Brat Sengupta, thesis submitted to B.H.U. for the degree of Ph. D., 1958. 27. The Nilamata Purana. Dr. Ved Kumari Ghai, Vol. I— A Cultural and Literary Study, J. & K. Academy of Arts, Culture and Languages, Srinagar - Jammu, 1968. 28. The Philosophy of the Tantratoka in the first three Ahnikas with translation into English (Unpublished), Km. Ira Bajpai, thesis presented to Lucknow University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 1971. 29. Political History of Kashmir (From A.D. 600 to A.D. 1200) K.S. Saxena, Upper India Publishing House, Lucknow, 1976. 30. Rajatarangini Kosa Ram Kumar Rai, Chowkhamba, Varanasi, 1967. 31. Purnata-pratyabhijna Acharya Ramesvara Jha, Darbhanga, Sam. 2017. 32. Saiva-darsana-bindu Dr. K.C. Pandey, Visista-pravacanaVol. 3, Sanskrit University, Varanasi, 1964 (Sam. 2021). 33. Schools of Saivism Jadunath Sinha, Sinha Publishing House, Calcutta, 1970 (Chap. I deals with the Pratyabhijna School of Saivism, pp. 1-79). 34. A Short Review of the Research Publications Kashmir State: (Short Review) M.S. Kaul, Srinagar, year not mentioned.

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35. Sufism in Kashmir (From the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century) Abdul Qaiyum Rafiqi, Delhi-Varanasi, year not given. 36. Srimahanubhavasaktistava Acarya Amrtavagbhava, with commentaries in Hindi and Sanskrit by B.N. Pandit, Bharatpur, Sam. 2010. 37. Srisrivimsatika-sastra Acarya Amrtavagbhava, with Sanskrit commentaries Vimarsini and Prakasini by B.N. Pandit and Raghunath Chandra Vashishtha respectively and Hindi commentary Prasadini by Ramanand Tewari, Bharatpur, Sam. 2016. 38. Svatantryadarpana B.N. Pandit, Srinagar, other details not given (copy per courtesy of the author). 39. A collection of 10 discourses by Acharya Rajneesh, ed. Swami Chaitanya Kirti, Rajneesh Foundation, 1975. 40. Sarojini Rastogi, thesis submitted to the University of Lucknow for the degree of Ph. D., 1972. 41. A Study of the Haravijaya Mahakavya of Rajanaka Ratnakara (Unpublished). Satyapal Gupta, thesis presented to the Lucknow University for the degree of Ph. D., 1964. 42. Studies in the History and Art of Kashmir and Indian Himalayas Hermann Goetz, Pub. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1969. 43. The Way of Swan (Poems of Kashmir) Presented by Nilla Cram Cook, Allied Publishers, Bombay, 1959. 44. Srikanthacaritam - A Study Bhagavatprasad Natvarlal Bhatt, M.S. University of Baroda Research Series-14, Baroda, 1973. B. General Sources containing references to the Kashmir Saivism 1. Age of Imperial Kanauj (History and Culture of Indian People, Vol. IV) Ed. R.C. Majumdar and A.D. Pusalkar, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1955, pp. 299-303. 2. Umesa Misra, Information Deptt., U.P. Govt., Lucknow, 1957, Chap. 13 (pp. 379-93).


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

3. A Constructive Survey of Upanishad Philosophy R . D . R a n a d e , Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay, 2nd edition, 1960, ( p p . 2 0 , 7 1 , 140-42). 4. Darsanodaya Laksmipuram Srinivasacar, with a Foreword in English by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, Mysore, 1933. (pp. 253-55). 6. Shankar Chaitanya Bharati, Sarla Press, Varanasi, 1948. 6. Development of Psychological Thought in India C. R a m c h a n d r a Rao, Mysore, 1962 (pp. 201-202). 7. A History of Indian Philosophy {Southern School of Saivism) S.N. Dasgupta, Vol. V, Cambridge, 1955 (pp. 98, 101102). 8. History of Philosophy : Eastern & Western Ed. S. Radhakrishnan and others, London, 1952, Vol. I, Part I I , Chapter, X V , Secs. B. (pp. 381-392) and D. (pp 401428). 9. Hindu Philosophy Theos Bernard, Jaico Publishing House, Bombay, 1958 (pp. 25-31, 152-165, 181-243). 10. Idealistic Thought of India P.T. Raju, London, 1953 (Chap. IV, specially pp. 135-44). 11. Indian Idealism S.N. Dasgupta, Cambridge, Reprint, 1962 (pp. 192-95). C. Research Papers, Articles and Journals Pertaining to Kashmir Saivism 1. Abhinavagupta and the Bhasya on the Yogasutras V. Raghavan, Annals of Oriental Research, Madras, Vol. III, Pt. I I , 1938-39. 2. Abhinavagupta and Bhagvala S.N. T a d p a t r i k a r , A B O R I , X V , 19S4. 3. Aspects of Kashmir Saivism -1: Nature of Mind in Pratyabhijna R K. K a w , K a s h m i r Research Biannual, Vol. I, No. 1. 1960. 4. R a g h u n a t h a Pandey, S. Su„ Vol. 17, Nos. 1-4. 5. N. Rastogi, D.S., Vol, 10, N o . I, 1964.

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The Cardinal Tenets of the Toga Vasistha and their relation to the Trika system of Kashmir S.P. Bhattacharya, A B O R I , Vol. 32, 1952.

7. Contemporary Background of Dhvanyaloka G . T . Deshpande, Summaries of Papers, Pt. I, 22nd International Conference of Orientalists, New Delhi, 1961. 8. Cidgaganacandrika (A review) A B O R I , Vol. 25, 1944. 9. Concept of Siva as a category in Kashmir Saivism N. Rastogi, Indian Philosophy and Culture, Vol. I X , No. 3, 1964. 10. The Conception of Absolute in the Trika System of Kashmir Sen, A B O R I , Vol, L I , 1970. 11. Contribution of Kashmir to N. Rastogi, Paper read at ference, New Delhi, 1972, 258-266. Later published D.B.

Philosophy, Thought and Culture. the International Sanskrit ConProceedings, Vol. I Part I, p p . in A B O R I , Vol. L V I , 1975.

12. The Doctrine of Pratibha in Indian Philosophy M . M . Gopinath Kaviraj, A B O R I , Vol. 5, Pts. I and I I , 1924. 13. The Doctrine of Recognition - Preliminary R . K . Kaw, Sharada Peeth Research Series, I-I, J a n . , 1959. 14. The Doctrine of Self-recognition B.O. K a u l 'Nazir'; Kashmir Today, VI.I. J a n - F e b . 1962. 15. Distinctive Features of the Pratyabhijna System R . K . Kaw, Proceedings and Transactions of the All India Oriental Conference, 21st Session, Srinagar, 1961. 16. Evolution of the Studies of the Pratyabhijna Literature R . K . Kaw, Sharada Peetha Research Series, I-1I, May, 1959. 17. Finite Self in Pratyabhijna System R . K . Kaw, sophy and Culture, 1963. Indian Philo-

18. Kashmir Vol. IV, No. 10, Oct. 1954, Issued by Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt of India, New Delhi. 19. Kashmir's Contribution to Sanskrit Poetry B.N. Pushp, Poona Orientalist, X V . 1951. 20. Kashmir Saiva Realism B.N. Pandit, Biannual, Vol. I, No. I, 1960. Kashmir Research,

274 21.


Krama Tantricism of Kashmir M . M . Gopinath Kaviraj,

Kalyana, Sivanka. 22. Kashmir Saivism T . M . P . Mahadevan, Bharati Vidya (Quarterly Research Organ of the Bhavan), Vol. X I I I , 1952. 2 3 . Kashmir Saivism B N . Pandit, J a m m u & Kashmir sity Review, I I - I , May, 1959. Univer-

24. Kashmir Saivism and Tantric Buddhism (A study in comparative mysticism). R . C . Dvivedi, Summaries of Papers, Pt. I, 22nd International Conference of Orientalists, New Delhi, 1961. 25. Kashmir Saivism and Vedanta B.N. Pandit, J a m m u and Kashmir University Review other particulars not known, off-print supplied by the author. 26. 10, No. 2, 1964. 27. Kali as a metaphysical concept in the Krama system of Kashmir Saivism N. Rastogi, T h e Journal of the Ganganatha J h a Research Institute, Vol. X X I I , Pts. 1-2, November, 1965 Feb., 1966. 28. Abhinandana Grantha, Parishad, Lucknow, 1967. N. Rastogi, Akhila Bharatiya Kaviraja Sanskrit N. Rastogi, D.S., Vol.

29. The Krama Stotra and its Authorship N. Manisha, Vol. I1I-I, April 1977.

Rastogi, Bharata

30. The Language of the Mahanaya Prakasa : An example of Kashmiri as Written in the Fifteenth Century George A. Grierson, Memoir Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. X I , No. 2, year not given. 3 1 . The meaning of Sruti in the Philosophical Literature of Kashmir K . C . Pandey, J o u r n a l of Oriental Research, Vol. X I I I , 1939. 32. Miscellanea Indica - "Corrections and Foundations to the text of the Paratrimsikavivarana" R. Gnoli, East and West (New Series, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep. 1959), R o m e .

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1. The Bhagavadbhaktistotra by Avadhutasiddha 2. Five unpublished stanzas of Abhinavagupta 3. The Bhairavanukaranastotra by Ksemaraja R. Gnoli, East & West, (New Series, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep. 1958), R o m e . 34. Prakrit Language and Kashmir Saivism A.N. Upadhye, D r . S.K. Belvalkar Felicitation Volume, Motilal Banarasidass 1957. 35. Vol. 22, No. 4, 1976. 36. X I , No. 1, 1965. 37. Pratyabhijna System: Some Controversial viewpoints R . K . Kaw, Sharada Peetha Research Series, I - I I , Feb.-May, 1959, I - I I I , Feb.-July, 1960. 38. Pratyabhijna system: Its Religious and Philosophic Background R . K . Kaw, Sharada Peetha Research Series I - I I I , Feb.July, 1960. 39. Presidential Address to the Tantra-darsana Parisad Dr. K . C . Pandey, Skt. University, Varanasi, S. Su., Vol. X I , No. 1 (Lecture deals with the K r a m a system). 40. Recognition in Pratyabhijna School : A Study in Epistemology N. Rastogi, A B O R I , Vol. L V I I I (Diamond Jubilee Vol.) 1977. 4 1 . Saiva Sastra (Hindi) B.N. Pandit, 1960. Vishva Jyoti, May, N. Rastogi, D.S., Vol. Meera Rastogi, D.S.,

42. Saivistic Conception of Liberation B.N. Pandit, Jarnmu and Kashmir University Review, other particulars not mentioned, off-print supplied by the author. 43. R a g h u n a t h Pandey, S. Su., other particulars not known, off-print supplied by the author.

44. The Svatantryavada of Kashmir and the Voluntarism of Schopenhauer K.G. Pandey, Proceedings of A I O C , X V I Session, Vol. I I , 1951.

276 45. Svatantrya-siddhanta July 1960.

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir (Hindi) B.N. Pandit, Vishva Jyoti,

46. Saivism and Vedanta B.N. Pandit, Summaries of papers, A I O C , X X I Session 1961. 47. Kedarnath Ojha, 1-4, Sam. 2017. 48. V I . 17, Nos. 1-4, Sam. 2019. 49. Raghunath Pandey, S. Su., Vol. Nos. 1-4, S a m . 2017. 50. 2022. 51. Sam. 2022. 52. The So-called Kashmir Recension of Bhagavadgita S K. Belvalkar, New Indian Antiquary, Vol. I I , N o . 4, 1939. 53. Some More Nyayas K.A.S. Iyer, J O R , M a d r a s , Vol. 5, 1 9 3 1 ; Vol. 6, 1932. (The article, published in a series of two, discusses some Nyayas particularly used in K a s h m i r Saiva text.) 54. Sutasoma's teaching to Gajavaktra, the Dr. J. Ensink, pp. 3-4 16, 1 8 , 2 4 . the author. (The portion deals with - an important concept of the K r a m a snake and the tigress Off print supplied by the concept of T a r k a system). Vol. XIV, N. Rastogi, S. Su., Vol. 20, N o . 1, R . C . Dvivedi, S. Su., Vol. 20, No. 1, Sam. 15, S.S. Avasthi, S. Su., S. Su., V o l . 1 5 , Nos.

55. Works of Abhinavagupta V. Raghavan, J O R I , IV,1933.


Works pertaining to tantra and tantricism in general


(BS.S.) M . M . Gopinath Kaviraj, Bihar R a s h t r a b h a s h a Parishad, Patna, T w o Parts - Pt. I (1923) and Pt. II (1964).

Classified Bibliography


2. Collected works of Sir R G. Bhandarkar Vol. IV (Vaisnavism, Saivism and Saktaism), BORI Govt. Oriental Series Class B,No, 4, 1929. 3. Elements of Hindu Iconography T.A. Gopinath Rao, edited with introduction and notes by K.K. Dasgupta, Vol. I : two parts, Vol. I I : two parts, Indological Book House, Varanasi-Delhi, 1971 (Both parts of Vol. II are of special interest). 4. Devatma Shakti (Kundalini) (Divine Power), Swami Vishnu Tirth, 3rd. edition, Rishikesh, 1974. 5. Garland of Letters (G.L ) Sir John Woodroffe, with a Foreword by T.M.P. Mahadevan, 3rd. edition, Madras, 1955. 6. History of Dharmasastra P.V. Kane, Vol. V, Part II, Govt. Oriental Series Class B, No. 6, BORI, Poona, 1962 (Section VI, Chap. XXVI, pp. 1031-1151 - specially dealing with the Tantrik doctrines and Dharmasastra.) 7. An Introduction to Pancaratra and Ahirbudhnya Samhita F. Otto Schrader, Adyar, 1916. 8. An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism S.B. Dasgupta, University of Calcutta, 1958. 9. Japasutram (English) (The Science of Creative Sound). Swami Pratyagatrnananda, with an Introduction by Prof. Charu Chandra Chatterji, and an Appendix by Justice P.B. Mukherji, Madras, 1961. 10. The Kapalikas and Kalamukhas (Two Lost Saivite Sects) David N. Lorenzen, Australian National University Centre of Oriental Studies - Oriental Monograph Series, Vol. XII, 1972, Indian edition by Thomson Press, New Delhi, year not given. 11. Lights on the Tantra M.P. Pandit, Madras, 1957. 12. Jai Shankar 'Prasad', 5th edition, Allahabad, Sam. 2015. (Chapter on Rahasyavada, pp. 46-68). 13. Kalyan (Sivanka) Ed. by H.P. Poddar, Vol. 8-1, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, Sam. 1990 (together with Parisistanka).


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir

14. Kalyan (Saktyanka) Ed. by H.P. Poddar, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, Vol. 9-1, 2, Sam. 1991. Vishvambhar Nath Upadhyaya, Allahabad, 1963. (The work deals with Kashmir Saivism in the fourth chapter, pp. 237-327. The presentation on the whole, however, lacks in authenticity). Shivashankar Avasthi, Chowkhamba, Varanasi, 1966. Hajari Prasad Dvivedi, Allahabad, 1960. 18. Non-dualism in Saiva and Sakta Philosophy Nundo Lal Kundu, Calcutta, year not given. (Work lacks in authenticity). Author unknown, published by M.M. Gopinath Kaviraj, Varanasi, year not mentioned. 20. The Philosophy of Bhedabheda P.N. Srinivasachari, Adyar Library Series No. 74, Adyar, (Chapters I-IV, V, IX and X). 21. Principles of Tantra (Tantra-tattva) The Tantra-tattva of Siva Chandra Vidyarnava Bhattacharya, with Introduction by Arthur Avalon and Barada Kanta Majumdar, ed. Arthur Avalon, 3rd edition, 1960, Madras. 22. The Relevance of Saiva Siddhanta Philosophy N.M. Mudaliar, with a Foreword by Dr. T.M.P. Mahadevan, Annamalai University, 1968 (Lecture IV, especially pp. 149-158). S.B. Dasgupta, translated by the same author in Hindi from Bengali, Varanasi, 1956 (Chapters IV and V deal with the concept of Sakti in Pancaratra and Kashmir Saivism). 24. Sadhana for self-realization (or Mantras, Yantras and Tantras) Swami Pratyagatmananda Saraswati and Sir John Woodroffe, Madras, 1963.

Classified Bibliography


25. Sakti and Sakta (Essays and Addresses on the Sakta Tantrasastra) Sir John Woodroffe, Madras, 5th edition, 1959. 26. Sakti Cult in Ancient India (with special reference to Puranic literature) Dr. Pushpendra Kumar, Varanasi, 1974. 27. shanker Tripathi, Varanasi, 1975. 28. Suryodaya Special number of Yoga, Bharat Dharma Mahamandal, Varanasi, year not available. 29. Tantra (The Indian Cult of Ecstasy) Philip Rawson, Thames & Hudson, London, 1973. 30. Tantraraja Tantra (A Short Analysis) Sir John Woodroffe, with a Preface by Yogi Shuddhananda Bharati, Madras 1954. 31. (A Pamphlet) M.M. Gopinath Kaviraj, published on the occasion of Tantra-sammelana organized by the Sanskrit University, Varanasi, 1965. M.M. Gopinath Kaviraj, Bihar Rashtra Bhasha Parishad, Patna, 1963. Nagendranatha Upadhyaya, with a 'Prakkathana' by M.M. Gopinath Kaviraj, Kashi, Sam. 2015. The Tantras, studies on their Religion and Literature Chintaharan Chakravarti, Calcutta, 1963. The Tantric Tradition Agehananda Bharati, Rider & Co., London, 2nd Impression, 1969. Theism in Medieval India J.E. Carpenter, William & Corgeti, London, 1921. The Vaisnava Sects, The Saiva Sects, Mother Worship Swami Tattvananda, Pub. N.B. Sengupta, Calcutta, year not given. Yuganaddha (The Tantric view of Life) Herbert V. Guenther, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Studies, Vol. III, Banares, 1952. Dr. Rama-

32. 33

34. 35. 36. 37.


280 39.

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir The World as Power (Reality, Life, Mind, Matter, Causality and Continuity) Sir J o h n Woodroffe, with an Introduction by M . P . Pandit, 2nd edition, M a d r a s , 1957.


Works relating to the systems of Philosophy in general

1. Buddhist Logic T h . Stcherbatsky, in two vols., Vol. I— Introduction, Vol. II-English translation of Nyayabindu of Dharmakirti with its commentary 'Nyaya-bindu-tika' by Dharmottara, Dover edition, New York, 1962. 2. Behaviourism J o h n . B. Watson, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., USA, 2nd edition, 1931 (Chapters X & XI). 3. Acharya Narendra Dev, with a lengthy 'Bhumika' by M . M . Gopinath K a v i r a j , Bihar RashtraBhasha-Parishad Patna, 1956. The Fundamentals of Vedanta Philosophy (A Realistic Approach) Svami Pratyagatmananda Sarasvati, Madras, 1961.


5. Critique of Indian Realism (A study of the conflict between the Nyaya-Vaisesika and the Buddhist Dignaga School), N.D. Shastri, with a Foreword by D r . S. Radhakrishnan, Agra, 1964. 6. Studies in Jaina Philosophy Nathmal Tatia, with a Foreword by M . M . Gopinath Kaviraj, Sanmati Publication No. 6 of the J a i n Cultural Research Society, Banares, 1951. 7. Philosophy, Logic and Language (P.L.L.) Kalidas Bhattacharya, Allied Publishers, Bombay, 1965. 8. Philosophy of Logical Construction (An Atomism a n d Logical Positivism in sophies of Bhartrhari, Dharmakirti H e m a n t a K u m a r Ganguli, with a Mookerjee, Calcutta, 1963. examination of Logical the light of the Philoand Prajnakaragupta), Foreword by Satkari

Classified Bibliography 9.


The Philosophy of Word and Meaning (Some Indian approaches with special reference to the Philosophy of Bhartrhari), Gaurinath Sastri, Calcutta Sanskrit College Research Series N o . V, Studies No. 2 Calcutta, 1959.

10. Philosophies of India Heinrich R. Zimmer, ed. J. Campbell, Bollingen Series, Vol. X X V I , Pantheon Books, New York, 1953. 11. Presuppositions of India's Philosophies K a r l Englewood Cliffs (U.S.A.), 1963. H. Potter,

12. The Real and the Negative B.K. Mallik, London, 1940. F. Research Papers and articles relating to the tantric as well as other systems of Philosophy

1. The Agamic Tattvas and the Agamic Conception of Mind T.S. Meenakshisundaram, Summaries of Papers, A I O C , X X I , Session, 1961. 2. A I O C , 22nd Session, 1965, Presidential Address by Dr. V.S. Agrawal. 3. The Ascent According to Kaulika Outlook M . M . Gopinath Kaviraj, Bharata Manisha, Vol. 1-4, J a n . 1976. 4. Bhartrhari on Vyakarana as a means of Attaining Moksa K.A. Subramania Iyer, T h e Adyar Library Bulletin, other particulars not available, off-print supplied by the author. 5. Fundamentals of Jaina Mysticism K a m a l Chand Sogni, Summaries of Papers, Pt. I, 22nd International Conference of Orientalists, New Delhi, 1961. 6. The Point of view of the Vaiyakaranas K . A . Subramaniya Iyer, J O R , Vol. X V I I I , Pt. I I , Madras, 1948. 7. Philosophy of Tripura Tantra M . M . Gopinath Kaviraj in Sarsvati Bhavan Studies, Vol. I X , 1934, p p . 85-98. 8. The Philosophy of Kamakala M . M . Gopinath Kaviraj, Bharat Manisha ; Vol. 1-3, October 1976. 9. Some Aspects of the Philosophy of Sakta Tantra M.M.Gopinath Kaviraj in Sarasvati Bhavan Studies, Vol. X, 1938, pp. 21-27. 10. N . R . Bhatta S. Su., Vol. 20. Pt.. I. Sam. 2022.


The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir Braj Dvivedi, S. Su., Vol. 20, Pt. II Sam., 2022. Vallabh

12. The Tantric Doctrine of DivineBi-unity A.K. Coomaraswamy in ABORT., Vol. 19 : 1938, pp. 173-183. 13. The Temple of Mother Sri M . M . translated from Bengali by H.N. Manisha, Vol. 1-1, April, 1975. G. Gopinath Kaviraj, Chakravorty, Bharat

Lexicons, Bibliographies and Catalogues etc.*

1. Alphabetical Index of Skt. MSS in Adyar Library V.K. Krishnamacharya. 2. Annual Bibliography of Indian History and Indology A Fernadez Braz, Bombay Historical Society, 1931. 3. Author-Index of Manuscripts in Libraries in South P.P.S. Shastri. Sn Venkteshwar Institute, M a d r a s . India

4. Catalogue of the Sanskrit MSS in the Sanskrit College Library Benares, 1011 ( T a n t r a Section). 5. Catalogus Catalogorum Theodor Aufrecht, I edition. 6. Catalogue of Manuscripts preserved in the Oriental Manuscripts Library, Ujjain Part I I , 1941 (Collected during 1935-37). 7. Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Punjab University Library Vol. I, 1932 (Sections V I I I - I X ) . 8. Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS in Govt. Oriental Library, Mysore, 1922. 9. A Catalogue of the Collections of MSS deposited in the Deccan College S.R. Bhandarkar, Poona, 1888. 10. A Catalogue of MSS in the Akhila Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow Ed. Subramania Iyer, Part I, 1965. 11. Catalogue of MSS belonging to Govind Sastri Nirantar of Nasik R.G. Bhandarkar, Poona. 12. A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar K . V . Abhyankar, Gaekwad Oriental Series No. 134, Baroda, 1961. 13. The Dictionary of Philosophy Ed. Dagobert D. Runes, London, year not mentioned. * While taking notes, the publication years, in some cases, have escaped notice.

Classified Bibliography


14. A Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS in the Curator's Office Library, Trivandrum (DCSMCOL) Vol. V, ed. K. M a h a deva Sastri, Vol. VI, ed. P.K. N a r a i n Pillai, 1939. 15. Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Bengal, Vol, V I I I (Tantra). MSS Asiatic Society of

16. Index of Papers submitted to the All-India Oriental Conference Sessions

1. 1917-1944 (Part I) 2. 1945-1954 (Part II)
K. Venkateshvara Sarma, T h e All I n d i a Oriental Conference, Poona. 17. List of Sanskrit MSS in Private Libraries of the Bombay Presidency P a r t I, by R.G. Bhandarkar, Poona. (or Dictionary of Technical terms of Indian Philosophy) By B. Jhalkikar, ed. V.S. Abhyankar, Bombay Sanskrit and Prakrit Series No. X L I X , Poona, 1928. 19. A Triennial Catalogue of Manuscripts (1937-38 to 1939-40), Vol. X (Tantras) Madras. (A descriptive Catalogue), Compiled by M . M . G o p i n a t h Kaviraj, Hindi Samiti, Lucknow, 1972.

APPENDIX Name Index Abhinavagupta 2, 4 fn, 10, 27, 28, 33, 34, 35 fn, 38, 42, 46, 47, 55, 59, 61, 72, 77, 80, 83, 87, 88, 94, 97, 104, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119, 122, 123, 124, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134 fn., 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159 fn, 160, 161, 162, 165, 166, 169, 172, 173, 174, 175, 183, 185, 189, 196, 205, 213, 214, 216, 230, 232, 233, 234, 236, 239 Acaryapandita 130, 131, 136, 149 Agarwal, V. S. 124 fn. Ajnadhara 166 fn. Akbar 98 Alamkara 98, 98 fn, 193 (cf. Lankaka) Amardaka 32, 107 Amrtananda 187, 197, 199, 205, 244, 245, 246 Amrtanandanatha cf. Amrtananda Amrtaratha 211 Ananda 137 Ananda Caitanya 141 Anandavardhana 216 Ananta 189, 212 Ananta Saktipada 26, 68, 69, 70, 92, 94, 224, 225 Antarnetranatha 89, 106, 107 Arjuna 86, 224 Aufrecht 221 Avantivarman 93, 97, 109, 112, 130 Avataraka 224 Avatarakanatha 83, 104 (cf. Sivananda) Avalon, A. 141 (cf. John Woodroffe) Bala-Valabhibhujanga 157 Bilhana 82 Bhanuka 91, 111, 120, 122, 131, 133, 137, 140, 209 Bhartrhari 63, 64, 87, 155 Bhaskara Kantha 99 Bhaskara 94, 110, 112, 115, 116, 118, 123, 127, 130, 131, 139, 142, 144, 145, 146, 156 Bhaskararaya 196, 245 Bhaskaracarya 244 Bhatta Bhaskara 145, 343 (cf. Bhaskara)


Bhatta Damodara 156 Bhatta Divakaravatsa 145 Bhattenduraja 129, 152, 154 (cf. Induraja) Bhatta Jyogdeva 192 Bhatta Lollata 117 Bhatta Kallata 97, 117, cf. Kallata Bhatta Raghava cf. Raghava Bhatta, Bhattacharya, B. 44 fn, 60 Bhatta Utpala cf. Utpala Bhatta Bhattaraka 225 Bhisag Devaraja 176 fn. Bhojaraja 94, 177, 179, 181, 182, 184, 187, 188 Bhoja cf. Bhojaraja Bhudda 198 Bhutiraja I 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 177, 178, 181, 184, 185 Bhutiraja II 154 Bhutirajatanaya 155, 156 Brahma Caitanya 141 Buhler 110, 134 Cakrabhanu 90, 94, 111, 152, 156, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 192, 197, 220 (also cf. Vamana Bhanu) Cakranatha (cf. Cakrapani) Cakrapani 176, 185, 186 Cakresa 186 (cf. Cakrapani-natha) Cidbhairava 170 Damodara 157 Damodaragupta cf. Damodara Dasirajanaka 213 Devabhatta (Deva Pani ?) 94, 175, 176, 186, 192 Devaratha 189, 211 Dharmacarya 187, 188 Dharmaratha 211 Dinanatha Yaksa cf. Yaksa, D. N. Dipakanatha 187, 188 Divakara 145 Dutirajatanaya 155 (cf. Bhutirajatanaya ) Dwivedi, Braj Vallabha 44 fn., 103 fn., 122, 180, 187, 202 Dwivedi cf. Dwivedi, Braj Vallabha Dwivedi, Mahavir Prasad 223 Ensink, J. 59-60 fn. Eraka 91, 111, 120, 121, 122, 140

Name Index


John Woodroffe 36 fn., 37 fn., 241 Gandhamadana Siddha 92, 93, 101 (Also cf. Avalon, A.) Gargesa 166 Jyestharatha 211 Gaudapada 141 Gnoli, Raniero 160, 161, 161 fn., 169 Gopinath Kaviraj, M. M. 21 fn. Kaivalyasrama 138, 191, 199, 219 Gopinath, T. A. 37 fn., 38 fn. Kakara Devi 111, (cf. Keyuravati) Goraksa 215 Kalidasa 195, 196, 197, 198, 199 Govinda 141, 227 Kallata 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 123, 124, Govinda guru 227 127, 129, 130, 131, 132, 146, 226 Govinda-Raja 91, 92, 105, 111, 120, 121, 122, 128, 131, 133, 140, 178, Kalhana 97, 98, 98 fn., 109, 112, 138 Kalyana 213 210 Grierson 221 Kalyanika 51, 104, 110 Gunaditya 166 Kamala Datta 212 Gunaratha 189, 211 Kamlakara 138 Gungaratha 211 Kanaka Datta 190 Gupta 199 Kane, P. V. 36 fn., 43 fn. Karna 97, 158 Haider Shah 223, 224 Karra Agnihotra Sastri 195, 196 Hariscandra 223 Katyayana 154 Harsa Datta 182, 182 fn. 183 Kavi Cakravartin 196 Hasan Shah 88, 89, 223, 224 Kesava 166 Kesava Bhatta 66 Helaraja 152, 154, 155 Hiuen-tsang 97 Keyuravati 90, 92, 104, 110, 111. Hrasvanatha 90, 94, 176, 177, 178, 120, 121, 129, 177, 178, 184, 209 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 186, Kokil, Ramjiva 159 fn. 188 Krishnamacarya, V. 65 Husain Shah 223 Krsna 86 Krsnadasa cf. Varadaraja Induraja 152, 154, 155 (cf. Bhatten- Ksemaraja 4 fn., 10, 22, 26, 35 fn., duraja) 42, 51, 53, 54, 71, 72, 94, 107, 108, Isana 220 109, 110, 112, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119, 123, 129, 134, 145, 146, 148, Isana 184, 220, 220 fn. 156, 157, 164, 166, 168, 169, 170, I-tsing 97 171, 172, 175, 176, 200, 205, 206, 226, 235, 236, 239, 242, 243 Jagaddhara 222, 223 Jainul Abidin (cf. Zainul Abidin) Kuladhara 139, 156 Jalhana 194 Kumarila 159 Jayadratha 211, 212 Jayanaka 210 Laksmana cf. Laksmanagupta Jayapida 97, 138, 157 Laksmana Desikendra 148, 149 Java Simha 96, 98, 181, 193, 198, 206, Laksmana Joo 143 fn. 210, 211, 212 Laksmidatta 212 Jayarasi Bhatta 219 Laksmana gupta 34 fn., 94, 122, 129, Jayaratha 2, 2 fn., 10, 26, 27, 28, 29, 130, 131, 135, 135 fn., 136, 137, 32, 33, 34 fn., 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 139, 142, 146, 147, 148, 149, 151, 74, 77, 80, 82, 83, 90, 91, 91 fn., 152, 176 94, 95, 97, 98, 102, 104, 105, 110, Lalitaditya 96, 97 111, 119, 120, 121, 128, 133, 137, Lalla 220 138, 143, 144, 145, 147, 152, 153, Lankaka 186, (cf. Alamkara also) 154, 158, 159, 161, 163 fn., 165, 193, 194 170, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 184, Lankaratha 211 185, 187, 188, 189, 190, 200, 204, Lasaka, Rajanaka 109 206, 207, 209, 210, 211, 211 fn., Lollata cf. Bhatta Lollata 212, 213, 214, 215, 216. 220, 230, Lostaka 194 (cf. Losthadeva) 230 fn., 231, 233, 234,' 236, 239, Losthala 98 243, 248, 250, 251, 254 Lostadeva 195 Jnanadipti 91, 101 Losthadeva 192, 193, 194 Jnananetranatha 89, 106, 107 Jonaraja 1 fn., 211 fn., Macchanda 3

Madanika 90, 104, 110 Madhu (Madhava) 215 Madhuraja (cf. Madhuraja Yogin) Madhurajayogin 166, 173, 174, 175 Madhusudan Kaul 101 fn. 146, 225 M. S. Kaul cf. Madhusudan Kaul Mahadeva Bhatta 123, 130, 146 Mahananda 91, 104 Maha Prakasa 87, 174, 215 Mahesvarananda 2, 8, 10, fn., 17, 19, 23, 31, 39, 42, 44 fn., 45, 56, 58, 64, 78, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 94, 95, 102, 106, 114, 161, 165, 168, 174, 180, 184, 197, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 215, 218, 219, 233, 235, 236, 239, 240, 242, 243, 244, 246, 249 Mahesvara Nathananda 134, (cf. Mahesvarananda) Makaradevi 89 Mammata 187 Mangala Devi 87, 88, 89, 106 Mankha 1, 97, 98, 157, 181, 186, 192, 194, 198, 212 Manohara 224 Manoratha 211 Mocaka 224 Mohammad Shah 223 Monier Williams 138 Motaka 113 Mukula Bhatta 129 Mukhopadhyaya, Pramatha Nath 42 fn., (cf. Pratyagatmananda Swami) Nadopada 60 Nagarjuna 62 Nagarajan, K. S. 109, 146, 163, 164, 168, 169, 223 Nandiratha 211 Natananandanatha 65 Narayana Bhatta 172 Nataranjan* cf. Nagarajan, K.S. Navera cf. Naveraka Natha Naveraka Natha 111, 122, (cf. Eraka also) Niskriyananda Natha 70, 72, 73, 91, 92, 92 fn., 100, 101, 102, fn., 103, 224, 225 Nivasabudha 170 (cf. Srinivasabudha Ojaraja 200, 231 Padmanabha 141 Padmakara 137 Pandey, K. C. 19, 80, 135 fn., 155, 163, 166, 168, 169, 174, 175, 181, 205, 220 fn., 230 fn.

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir
Pandit, B. N. 164 fn. Paramesthi 189 Patanjali 58, 59, 61 Pradyumna Bhatta 94, 112, 116, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 146, 149 Prajnarjuna 123, 130, 146 Prakasaratha 211 Prakasopadhyaya, Svamin 227 Pragalbhacarya 83 fn. Pratyagatmananda Swami 42 fn. Prayaga (teacher of Ksemaraja) 166 Prthvidharacarya 140, 141 Punyananda 57, 205 Puma Manoratha 97, 158, 211 Pushp, P. N. 174 Raghavan, V. 176, 176 fn. Raghava Bhatta 20, 129, 148 Rajanaka Lasaka 109 Rajanaka Laksmirama 219 Rajdan Lambodar 152 fn. Rajadeva 211 fn. Razdan Somanatha 164 fn. Raja-raja 98, 206, 211, 211 fn. {cf. Jayasimha) Rakta 91, 103 Raktika Bhatta 166 Ramakantha 54, 115 Ramyadeva 39, 41, 94, 98, 185, 186, 191, 192, 193, 246, 247 Ratnakantha 99 Ratnakara 93 Ramesvara 219 Ruyyaka 98, 210, 214 Sahib Kaul 99 Sakraratha 211 Saktyananda 91, 103 Samba Misra 169 Samaya 91, 108 Samkara 66, 138, 141, 166 fn. (—Acarya) 141, 160 fn. Sangaka 214 Sankarajnadhara 166 Sankhadhara (Sangadhara) 213 Sambhunatha 34, 140, 141, 142, 147 Sammaratha 211 Sastri, Sambasiva 205 Sauri 150 Sausuka 154 Shastri, H. P. 43 fn. 44 fn. Shastri, R. A. 159 fn. Siddha 87, 100, 101, 112, 115 116, Siddhanatha (Siddhinatha) 94, 138, 140, 141, 142, 162, 165, 178 195, 197 Siddhapada 220, 243

*Actually it is Nagarajan, Nataranjan is a misprint.

Name Index
Sitikantha 3 fn., 20, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 42, 43 fn., 44 fn., 56, 88, 89, 90, 94, 98, 99, 106, 155, 179, 180, 184, 220, 221, 222, 224, 233, 235, 243, 246, 248. Sivananda 3, 10 fn., 19, 44 fn., 83, 84, 87, 90, 91, 92, 93, 104, 106, 107, 108, 110, 120, 127, 128, 165, 174, 178, 179, 180, 187, 188, 191, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 216, 230, 231, 236 Sivananda II 26, 47, 87, 94, 95, 106, 200, 244 Sivananda Yogi 200 Sivaguni 226 Sivaratha 189, 210, 211 Sivasvamin 227 Sivopadhyaya 63, 92, 94, 99, 102, 103, 144, 169, 182 fn., 183, 183 fn., 214, 219, 225, 227 Smith, A. H. 188 Soma 179, 180, 181, 184, 190, 191, 199, 224 Somananda 3, 34, 34 fn., 75, 91, 92, 103 fn., 104, 117, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 135 fn., 137, 147, 148, 176, 179, 180, 230, 231 Somaputra 180, 190 Somaraja 94, 177, 179, 184, 187, 188, 191, 197 Sricakra 190, 212 Srikantha 145, 146, 148, 224 Srikantha Bhatta 123, 130 Srikrsna 130, 136, 149, 150 Srinasesa 224 Srinatha 32, 89, 90, 106, 107, 137, 155 Srinivasabudha 170 Srirama 166 Srivara 223, 224 Srivara Pandita 99 Srivatsa 94, 180, 181, 195, 196, 198, 199 Srngara 213 Srngara-ratha 98, 206, 210, 211, 213 Stein, K. 132 Subhata Datta 189, 212, 213 Sukhajivana 99, 228 Sumatinatha 27 Sundarakantha 227, (cf. Govindaguru also) Sura 134, 166,, 172, 177 Suraditya cf. Sura Suryaratha 211 Sussala 97, 98, 193 Svatmananda 202 Svami Trivikrama Tirtha 196 Tapana 113 Tribhuvana Datta 189, 212

Trivikrama 130, 132, 152 Trayambaka 32, 34, 107, 135 135, fn., 137 Ucchala 189, 211 Udbhata 91, 96, 120, 131, 138, (cf. Udbhatta also) Udbhatta 94, 96, 137, 138 Ujjata 91, 120, 131, 133, 137 Upadhye, A. N. 218 Utpala 10, 34 fn., 75, 94, 109, 119, 122, 123, 124, 129, 133, 134, 134 fn., 135, 135 fn., 136, 137, 146, 148, 149, 150, 151, 171, 176 Utpala Bhatta 112, 114, 115 fn., 115, 118, 119, 130, 131, 142, 149, 150, 151, 170, 171, (cf. Utpala and Utpala Vaisnava also) Utpalacarya cf. Utpala Utpala Deva 133, 134 Utpalaratha I 211, 293 Utpalaratha II 190; (Minister of king Ananta) 189, 210, 211, 212 Utpala Vaisnava 10, 52, 54, 64, 65, 94, 151, (cf. Utpala Bhatta also) Uttamaratha 211 Vallabha 97, 130, 158 Vamana 96, 183 Vamanabhanu 187, (cf. Cakrabhanu also) Vamadeva 166 Vamanatha 122, 183, 183 fn. Vamananatha 182 fn., 183, 183 fn. Varadaraja 42, 108, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175 Varadesvara 224 Vasugupta 3, 108, 109, 110, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 130, 146, 226 Vasuman 148 Vatsalika 158 Vatulanatha 100 Vedanta Desika 65, 65 fn. Vibhuti Datta 190, 212 Vibhramakara 132, 136 Vidyananda 91, 97, 103 fn. Vidyarnava 83 fn. Viranatha Pada 181, 183 Visistaratha 211 Visvadatta 189, 190, 212 Yaksa, D. N. 102 fn. 164, 222, 226 Yamunacarya 65 Yasaskara 97, 130, 158, 159, 211 Yodhaka 224 Yogaraja 64, 145, 170, 236 Yogananda 192 Yogesvaridatta 158 Zainul Abidin 98, 99, 224



Work Index Abhedartha-karika 142 Abhijnana-sakuntala 196 Advaya-sampatti 182, 182 fn., 183, 183 fn. Advayasampatti-vartika 182 fn., 183 Advayavartika 183 Agama-pramanya 65 Agamarahasya 170 Ajada-pramatr-siddhi 133 Akrama-kallola-karika 191 Akula-kalika-trimsika 191 Alamkara-sarvasva 210, 214 Alamkarodaharana 214 Amaresvarastotra 153 Amavasyatrimsika 246, 247 An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism 63 fn. Anandalahari 138, 219 Anandatandavavilasa Stotra 208 Anubhavabodha-vidya 227 Anupratyabhijna 160 Anuttara-srigurupankti-paramarsa 176 Artharatnavali 103 Bahurupa-garbha-stotra 225 (-vrtti) 225 Balabodhini 222 Balarcanavidhi 141 Bhagavadgita 109 Bhagavadgitartha-samgraha 154 Bhavopahara 41, 185, 186, 191 (-vivarana) 42 fn., 191, 192 Bhairavanukarana-stotra 169 Bhairavastotra 158 Bhargasikha 63 Bodhavilasa 182 fn. Bhogamoksa-pradipika 150 Bhuvanesi-stotra 140, 141 Brahmayamala 229, 241 Brhati-vimarsini cf. Isvara-pratyabhijna-brhati-vimarsini Cakresvara-Bhairavastaka 192 Candrika cf. Cid-gagana-candrika Cidgagana-candrika 44 fn., 140, 141, 142, 177, 179, 180, 181, 184, 188, 190, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 206, 207 Cidvalli cf. Kamakala-vilasa-cidvalli Chumma-sampradaya 8, 70, 72, 73, 94, 99, 101, 102, 225 (-prakasa) 102, 224 Dehastha-devata-cakra-stotra 165 Devi-bhujanga 159 Devika-krama 236 Devinamavilasa 99 Devi-pancasatika 91, 91 fn., 92, 92 fn., 101, 102, 103, 103 fn., 108, 129, 143, 153, 156, 200, 230, 231, 232, 233 Devya-yamala cf. Devi-Yamala Deviyamala 73, 74 Dhvanyalokalocanoddyota 168 Dinakrandanastotra 194 Dipika (Yogini-hrdaya Dipika) 205 (Author of the-) 205 Divya-krida-bahumana-stotra 27 Dvayasampatti cf. Advayasampatti Ekayanaveda 65 Gana Karika 81 Gita 86, 154, 109 (Another commentary on-) 109 Gurunathaparamarsa 166, 173-75 Haracarita-cintamani 212 Haravijaya 93 History of Dharmasastra 37 fn., 43 fn. Hrdaya-candrika 196 Hrdaya-sutra 171 In the Footsteps of Buddha 44 fn. Istasiddhi 193 Isvarapratyabhijna-dipika 134 Isvara-pratyabhijna-karika 133, 135 (-vimarsini) 99, 134 fn. (-vrtti) 133 (-vyakhya) 133 (-tika or vivrti) 133, 134 (-vivrti-vimarsini) 110, 133, 174 (-brhati-vimarsini) 134, 158, 175. Isvara-siddhi 133 Isvara-siddhi-vrtti 133 Jayakhya-samhita 64 Jnana-kriya-dvaya-sataka 80, 96 Kaksyastotra 145 Kalika-krama 235 Kamakalavilasa 57, 65, 171 (-cidvalli) 65, 202 Karika 118 (cf. Spanda Karika) (Author of the-) 119 Kasmiragama-pramanya 65 Kasmirakusuma 223 Katantra-vrtti 220, 222

Work Index
Kaulasutra 220, 221 Kavya Prakasa 188 Kavyaloka 216 Kiranagama 229 Komalavallistava 217, 218 Komala-Stava cf. Komalavallistava Krama 217 Krama-bhattaraka 234 Krama-dipika 66 Krama-kamala 187 Kramakeli 83, 85, 90, 110, 128, 139, 144, 161, 163, 164, 164 fn. Krama-malika 66 Krama-naya-pradipika 143 fn. Krama-rahasya 232, 233 Krama-ratna 66 Krama-ratnamala 66 Krama-samgraha 66 Krama-sadbhava 143, 145, 233, 234, 235 Krama-sandhana 66 Krama-siddhi 239, 240 Krama-stotra 138, 139, 140, 143, 144, 158, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 178, 181, 195, 197, 199, 231, 232 (Vivarana on the-) 144 Krama-stuti 66, 138 Krama-sutras 11, 167, 168, 242 (Tika on the -) 167 Krama-vasana 66, 201, 202, 205, 207 Kramodaya 246 Kramottama 66 Krtanta-tanti-santi-stava 192 Kulacudamani Tantra 43 fn. Kula-kamala 187 Kulasutra 221, 222, 228 Kundalabharana 218 Kuttanimatam 157 (Author of the-) 157

203, 204. 205, 206, 244, 246 (The author of the-) 26 Mahartha-manjari 8, 18, 37, 39, 106, 180, 208, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219 (-parimala) cf. Parimala Mahakrama-manjari 219 Mahartha-prakasa cf. Mahanayaprakasa Maharthodaya 216, 218, 219 Malini-vijaya 229 Malini-vijayavartika 2, 159, 162 Malini-vijayottara-tantra 34 Malavikagnimitra 195, 199 Mano'nusasana-stotra 209 Mantraraja 226, 227 Mantrasara 134 Matangistotra 208 Mimamsa-samgraha-kaumudi 146 Mukundakeli 217, 218 Nakhapratapa 217, 218 Netra Tantra 166, 171 (Uddyota on-) 166 Nirnaya 52, 114, 167, 171 Nityasodasikarnava-tantra 201 Nyasa 223 Nyaya-parisuddhi 65 fn.

Padarthadarsa 148 Padukodaya 216, 217, 219 Padyamrta-sopana 146 Panca-krama 62, 63 fn. Panca-ratra-sruti 65 Pancaratra-upanisad 65 Pancasatika cf. Devipancasatika Pancastavi 187 Pancika 195, 199, cf. (Cidgaganacandrika also) Paramartha-samgraha 169 Paramartha-sara-samgraha-vivrti 170 Parastotra 217, 219 Laghu-stava 187 Parastuti 217 (Author of the-) 187 Parasu-rama-kalpa-sutra 219 Laghu-vrtti 219 Paratrimsika 132, 134, 160, 173, 219, Laghu-vrtti-vimarsini 173 225, 246 Laksmi-samhita 64 (-vivarana) 160, 162, 225 Laksmitantra 64, 65 Paridevitadvadasika 213 Lalita-sahasra-nama 196 Parimala 3, 18, 87, 168, 180, 208, 215, Lasaki 109 216, 217, 218, 219, 244 Locana 216 Paramesa-stotravali 133 (Vrtti on-) 169 Paryanta-pancasika 162 Madhavakula 73, 74 Prakarana Stotra 162, 163 Madhuvahini 115, 118 Prakarana-vivarana 163 Madhya-yugina-caritrakosa 146 Pranava-bala-bodhini 160 fn. Mahanaya-paddhati 244 Mahanaya-prakasa (S) 87, 90, 99, 177, Prakirnaka- vivarana 163 Prakrta-trimsika-vivarana 8 207, 220, 221 fn, 222, 243 (The author of the-) 2, 23, 95, 99, Pratyabhijna-hrdaya 35 fn., 134, 145, 167, 168, 170, 171, 243 220 fn. (A commentary on—) 168 (The author of the other-) '89 (—Sutra) 205 Mahanaya-prakasa (T) 106, 202,

Pratyabhijna Brhati-vimarsini — cf. Isvara-pratyabhijna-brhativimarsini Pratyabijna-karika 171, 215 (cf. Isvara-pratyabhijna-karika also) Pratyabhijna-sutra 171 Pratyabhijna-vimarsini — cf. Isvarapratyabhijna-vimarsini Prthvirajavijaya 210 Rajika 248 Raja-tarangini 99, 193 Rahasyamnaya 65 Rahasyagarbha-stotra 149 Rasamala 223 Rjuvimarsini 44 fn., 58, 84, 169, 187, 201, 201 fn., 204, 205, 207 Sadhanamala 43 fn. Sakti Sutra 171 Sakti Sutra Bhasya 171 Sakta-vijnana 132 Sambandhasiddhi 138 (—vrtti) 133 Samba-pancasika 169, 205 Samba-misra-pancasika 169 Samba-misra-pancasika-vrtti 169 Sambhavaikya-dipika 204, 207 Samvada 247 Samvidullasa 216, 218 Samvit Stotra 201, 203, 204, 205, 207 Sarada-tilaka (Tantra) 20, 129, 136, 147, 148, 149 Sardhasatika 143, 232 Sarasvati-kanthabharana 187, 188 Sarika-nityapuja-paddhati 160 Sarvajnanottara 229 Sattrimsat-tattva-samdoha 169 Saubhagya-bhaskara 196 Saubhagya-hrdaya 201 (—stotra) 202, 207 Saubhagya-ratnakara 103 Saubhagya-sudhodaya 187 (Author of the—) 187 Saubhagya-vardhini 138, 219 (—on Ananda Lahari) 219 Setubandha 244 Sekoddesa-tika 60 Siddhanta-candrika 109, 110 Siddha-siddhanta-paddhati 106 Siddhasutra 243, 244 Siva-drsti 132, 136, 215 (—vrtti) 133 Sivaratrivicara 192 Sivaratri-vicara-vartika 192 Siva-rava-stotra 191 Sivarcana-candrika 103 Siva-stotra 159, 159 fn., 169 Siva-stotravali 133, 134 Siva-stotravali-vivrti 167, 168

The Krama Tantrcism of Kashmir
Siva-sutra(s) 20, 108, 109, 110, 115. 116, 118 (—vartika) 115, 123, 145, 146, 170, 172, 173 (—vimarsini) 52, 146, 167, 171. 172, 176, 235, 236 Slokavartika 159 Spandamrta 109 Spanda-karika(s) 52, 108, 109, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 118, 128, 150. 151, 167, 226 (Vrtti on the—) 115 Spandanilaya 169 Spandanirnaya—cf. Nirnaya Spanda-pradipika 65, 109, 114, 115, 130, 142, 150, 151, 152, 171 Spanda-samdoha—cf. Spanda Sandoha Spanda Sandoha 110, 167, 171, 172 Spanda-sarvasva 118 Spanda-sutra 115, 118 Spanda-vrtti 118, (cf. Spanda-karikas also) Sri-guhya-samajatantra 59, 60 Srikanthacarita 1, 194 Sri-krama-samhita 66 Sri-sastra 147, 149 Srividya-vivarana 226, 227 Stava—cf. Pancastavi Stava-cintamani 171, 172 (—Vivrti) 172 (Vrtti on the—) 167 Stotra 144 (cf. Krama-stotra) Stotra 169 (cf. Bhairavanukaranastotra) Stotra-bhattaraka 203, 204, 206, 207 Stotramala 220, 221 Stuti-kusumanjali 99 Subhagodaya 201, 207 Subhagodaya-vasana 202, 205, 207 (cf. Kramavasana) Subhasita(s) 243, 244 Sutasoma's Teachings to Gajavaktra, the Snake and the Tigress 60 fn. Sukta 216, 218 Suktimuktavali 195 Svacchanda Tantra 71, 167, 169, 171, 225 (Vivrti on the—) 169 (Uddyota on the—) 167, 171 Svacchandanaya 169 Taittiriya Aranyaka 80 Tantraloka 2, 4, 5 fn., 32, 37, 42, 46, 68, 73, 87, 113, 122, 135 fn., 140, 144, 154, 158, 159, 162, 164, 165, 189, 209, 215 (—viveka) 143, 165 (cf. viveka) Tantraraja 229, 241 Tantraraja-bhattaraka 73, 241

Work Index
Tantrasara 38, 140, 159, 162, 163, 164, 170 Tantra-vata-dhanika 159 Tantroccaya 159 Tatparya-dipika— (Author of the—) 170 Tattva-prakasika 188 Tattvartha-cintamani 108, 110, 115, 118, 120 Tattvagarbha 122, 124, 124 fn., 126, 128 (—stotra) 124 Tattvavicara 119 Tattvaviveka 160 Tattvopaplava-simha 219 (Author of the—) 219 The Saktas 37 fn. Trika-bheda 20 Trikasutra 160 Tripura-rahasya 170 Tripurasundarimandira Stotra 201, 207


Vasavi-tika 109 Vatula-natha-sutrani 67, 69, 69 fn., 73, 92, 94, 100, 101, 102, 224 Vijnanabhairava 92, 99, 169, 214, 226, 228 (Uddyota on the—) 92, 169 (vrtti on the—) 225 Vimarsini (on the Alamkara-sarvasva) 210, 214 (on the Sivasutra) cf. Siva-sutravimarsini Vivarana 144 (—on the Vamakesvarimata) 214 (—on the Tantraloka by Subhata Datta) 213 (on the Paratrimsika) 162, 163 (—on the Prakarana Stotra) 162, 163 Viveka 143, 165, 209, 212, 213, 248, (cf. Tantraloka-viveka also) Vivekanjana 145 Uddyota— Vivrti (cf. Sivopadhyaya) 182 fn. (on the Svacchandatantra) 167, 171 Vrtti— (on the Netratantra) 166 (—on Somananda's Siva Drsti) 133 (on the Vijnana-bhairava) 92, 169 (—on Spanda Karika) 117 (—on the Stavacintamani) 167 (—on Vijnanabhairava) 225, 226 Vakyapadiya 152, 155 Yoga Sutra 59, 60 Vamakesvarimata 214 Yoginihrdaya 205, 250 (—vivarana) 214 (—Tantra) 250 Vamodaya 169 Yogini-hrdaya-dipika 202, 205, 244



Subject Index Abhasa 37 fn. Abhasavada 51 Abhyanujna—cf. Anujna Abhyudaya 40 Absolute (Godhead) 7, 11, 25, 30, 48, 53, 75, 76, 77. 78, 235, 237, 240, 247 (Five acts of) 11, 235, 240 Absolutic agency 13, 106 Absolutic dynamism 12, 31, 53, 76, 81, 237 Absolutic functionalism 7, 11, 13, 30, 70, 76, 81, 200 (fourfold—) 10, 12, 13. 51-53, 58, 77-81 Action 126, 147 Adhvan 39 Adyaksara-sampradaya 47 Agama—Throughout (two categories of—) 75 (Krama—) 75, 229-241 _ (Sad—) 38 Agamic systems Agni—cf. Fire Akara 47 Akrama 15 Alamgrasa 68 Amavasya 246-247 Ambika 123, 125 Anakhya 7, 25, 58, 62-63, 76, 78, 189 (—cakra) 20 fn., 46, 78, 80, 105, 121, 143, 231, 232, 234, 243 (—krama) 30, 56 (—samayesvari) 56 Ananda 77, 78, 79, 80, 89, 157, 204, 219 (—cakra) 46 Anava-upaya 252 Anima 243 Antaryaga 49 Anugraha 7, 11, 77 Anupaya 4, 253 (—krama) 17 Anusmrti 60, 61 Anuttara-krama 16, 17 Apohana 62 Arabic 99 Ardha Traiyambaka 8, 32 (—mathika) 32 Arghapatra 233 Artha 23, 249, 250, 252 (—satka) 249, 254 Asana 60 Atimarga 27, 28, 29 Atinaya 27-29 Atmaja 137 Aunmukhya 125 Auttara Artha-tattva 19 Auttara-krama 18-21, 83 Auttara Tattva 19 Avyakta 64 Awareness—Throughout Awareness-cycle—cf. Samviccakra Ayati-krama 88 Bandha 5 Bhadra-kali 231, 235 Bhairava 86, 87, 236 (Cid—) 178 Bhairavi 79, 86, 87 Bhakti 37 fn. Bhasa 7, 12, 76, 77, 78, 235, 240 (—cakra) 175 (—samayesvari) 56 Bhatta 227 Bhavana 49, 239 Bhavartha 250, 251 Bhedabhedavadin 5 Bhedabhedopaya 5 Bhoga 40 Bhoga-moksa-samarasya 6, 42 Bhrumadhya 79 Bhucari 78 Bhuta-suddhi 37 fn. Bhuvanadhvan 153 Bija 37 fn. (Antya—) 200 Bindu 53, 153 Bodha-krama 16 Brahmavidya 152, 153, 185 Buddha 63 Buddhism 59, 62, 63, 97, 144 Buddhist 61, 62 Buddhist Tantricism 61-66 Cakra 58 (Nava—) 20 fn., 46 (Theory of—) 48 (—krama-sampradaya) 46 (Sri—) 57, 83 Caruka 83 fn.

Carya 37 fn., 41, 42 Catustayartha 12, 13 fn. Chumma 54, 70-73 (—school of Krama) 67, 70-73 (Paryanta—) 72 Chummaka 71-72 Cit 7, 77 (—krama) 16 Citta-vrtti 248 Cola 44 fn., 174, 200, 215, 220 Consciousness—Throughout Creation cf. Srsti Devata 15 fn., 40 (—krama) 17 (—naya) 29-30 Devi 29, 30, 75, 76, 238 (Krsa—) 41 (Purna) 41 (—naya) 29-30, 128 (Mangala) 87 Dhama 7 (—krama) 18 fn., 79 Dhvani-sastra 154 Diksa 37 fn. Dipa 233 Divyaugha 79, 84-90 Divine grace—cf. Anugraha (Principle of—) 144 Dualistic Saivism 155 Dutiyaga 19, 245 Dynamic Absolutism 53, 163 Five-function theory—cf. Absolutic functionalism and Pancartha Four-function theory—cf. Absolutic functionalism and Catustayartha Freedom—Throughout Functional cycles 13, 46, 80 Functionalistic doctrine—cf. Absolutic functionalism Gati 81, 217 Ghara 55, 71 Godhead—cf. Absolute Godly functionalism—cf. Absolutic functionalism Grace—Cf. Anugraha Grammarian 75 Guna 37 fn., 134 Guru 37 fn. (—pankti) 78. 87 (Sad—) 38 Hathapaka 68 Hindu (kings) 96-98 Homa 39 Hrt 79 Iccha (volition, will) 78, 126, 247 (—.Sakti) 86. 87

Ignorance 11, 38, 297 Jalandhara 142 Japa 214, 237 Jaya 83, 104 Jnana 41, 42, 78, 81, 88, 153


Kalana 81, 153. 163 Kalana—cf. Kalana (five types of—) 81 Kala 14, 29 (—krama) 14 Kala 222, 245 Kalasakti 63, 155 Kalasamkarsini 30, 57, 74, 76, 86, 93, 121, 147 Kali year 223 Kali(s) 13, 15, 29. 30, 63, 75, 76, 77. 81, 105, 107, 143, 153, 155, 163. 165, 232, 234 (—naya) 30, 75, 128 (twelve or thirteen—) 13, 30, 45, 56. 76, 77, 78, 105, 106. 121, 143-44. 162, 165, 200, 204, 206, 231, 234 (Srsti) 52, 143, 232 (—kula) 91 fn. Kancukas 37 fn. Kanda 79 Karanesvari 15 fn. Karana 15 fn. Kancukas 37 fn. Karankini 79, 102 Karankini 102 Kashmir Saivism—Throughout Kashmir 99, 172, 220 Kashmiri 99 Kasthula 227 Kaula 227, 228 Kaulikartha 250, 252, 253 Kaveri 200, 215 Khagendra 87 Khecara 69, 243 Khecari 68, 69, 79, 121 (—drsti) 69 Kinciducchunata 174 Knowledge (cognition) 126, 237, 238. 247 Krama—Throughout (Pata—) 235, 240 (—catuska) 10, 58, 74, 106 (—Mudra) 11, 242 (—naya) 10-16, 75 (asTryartha) 13 fn. (as Catustavartha or Pancartha) 12, 13 fn. (Southern school of—) 200 (—Sakti) 63 Kramodava 57 Kriya 37 fn. 41, 42, 78 Krodhani 79

Ksanikavada (theory of instantaneous being) 62 Ksepa 81, 153 Ksetra 54, 73 Kula 1, 3, 4 fn., 5, 6, 7, 8, 27, 28, 32, 33, 34, 35, 42, 56, 70, 83 fn., 91 fn., 101, 165 fn., 189, 248, 252 (—prakriya) 32, 34, 35, 36, 52, 74 fn. (—yaga) 83 fn. Kundaliniyoga 37 fn. Lakulisa Pasupata 80 Language—cf. Vak Lelihana 79 Lokayata 219 Lopamudra Sect 202 Logos 23 Maya 37 fn., 153 (—kosa) 37 fn. (—yoga) 37 fn. Madhyama (vak) 78, 126 Madhyamikas 62, 63 Mahakrama 12, 17 Mahanaya 25, 26, 70 Mahartha 17, 20, 21-25, 26, 27, 52, 56, 109, 167, 220, 243 (—krama) 18 (—drsti 21 (—naya) 10, 21, 26 (—Siddhanta) 22 (—tattva) 27 (—tantra) 39 Mahaparamatattvartha 252 Mahasahasa-carca-sampradaya 68 Mahasara 26, 27 Mahatattvartha 250, 253 Mahaugha 89 Mahayanic 62 Makaradevi 45, 88 Mala 38 (Paurusa—) 38 (Bauddha—) 38 Mamsa (meat) 40 Manavaugha 85, 87, 89, 90, 100, 179, 183 Manthana 76 Manthana-bhairava 76 Mantra 36 fn., 37 fn, 40, 43, 80, 88, 153, 204, 228 (—sastra) 37 fn. Mata 54, 74 (—sastra) 54 Matantara 74 Mathika 32, 154 Melapa 79, 88 Mina 87 Moksa—6, 40 Mudra (s) 37 fn., 40, 43, 54, 68

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir
(—krama) 69, 71, 80, 11,68, 80, 102,247 (five — ) 68 (Virabhairava — ) 68 (Mahavismaya — ) 69 fn. Murti ( + C a k r a ) 46, 78, 80, 89 Muslim rulers — 98, 99 Nabhi 79 Nada 53, 81 Natha 90, 107 Nava-cakra-sampradaya 46 Netra-traya 78 Nigama 259, 230, 233 Nigarbhartha 250, 253 Nihsreyas 40 Niyama 60 Not-twelve-deity doctrine — 200 Nyasa (S) 37 fn. (Sakta—) 147 (—vidhi) 147 Ogha 84, 85, 89-90 Order of Awareness cf. Samviccakra Ovalli(s) 54, 55 (Mahananda) 55 (Kularani — ) 55 Pada-viksepa 57 Paduka 219 Palli 55, 71 Pancakrtya 48 Pancamakara 245 Panca-pindas 79 Pancaratra 37 fn. 64-65 (Samhita — ) 64 (Samkarsana —) 64 Pancartha 12, 13 fn. Pancatattva 47 Pancavaha 76, 78, 79, 157, 168, 240 Paramesvara 29, 76 Parama Siva 86 Para 125, 126 Paraugha 89 Para Vak 40 Parvati 229, 233 Pasyanti 78, 125-126 Pata 240 Pentad 78, 79 Pentadic activity 11 (—tendency) 78, 79, 80 Persian 99 Pitha 43, 44 fn., 54, 55, 56, 73, 74, 84, 89, 107, 111 (—devis) 70 (Kamakhya—) 44 fn. (Kamarupa—) 44 fn. (Oddiyana—) 44 fn., 84 (Purna—) 44 fn., 84

Subject Index
(Purnagiri—) 43 fn. (Purna Matanga—) 43 fn. (Uttara—) 44 fn., 83, 84 Prajna-paramita 144 Prakasa 20 fn., 39, 46, 48, 76, 78, 80, 89, 204 Prakrta 8, 58, 102, 102 fn., 218, 244 Prakrti 37 fn., 64, 248 Pralaya 78 Pramatr 134 Pranava 153 Prasamkhyana—cf. Samkhyana Pratiyogin 15 Pratistha kala 153 Pratyabhijna 1, 3, 4, 5, 6. 7, 8, 20, 21, 33, 34, 35, 48, 176 Pujana 40, 43, 243 Pujana-krama 143, 231 Purana 85 Purnahuti 245 Purusa 37 fn. Puryastaka 80 Raga 245 Rahasya-mudra 150 Rahasya-rajika-yoginis 248 Rahasyartha 252, 253 Raina or Rajana 227, 228 Rajaputra 55, 80 Raktakali 143, 232 Rasa 53 Raudresvari 103 Reality 5, 24, 25, 39, 47, 48, 52, 76, 103, 237, 244, 251 (two aspects, Vacaka and Vacya, of—) 23 (Dynamism of—) 12-13, 23 Right Logic—cf. Sattarka Rudrakali 143, 182, 231, 235 Rupa 53 Sabda (—brahman) 54 (—purva-yoga) 63 (—Samskara) 63 Sadhana 42 Sadardha-krama-vijnana 33 Sadrsaparinamavada 51 Sahasa 68, 69, 70, 72, 73 (—mudra) 69 (—sub-school of Krama) 67, 69, 70, 101, 103, 224 Saiva 51 Sakta 3, 51-52, 116 (—system) 8, 28, 51, 56, 66 (—Siddha) 88 (—tantra) 23, 51 Saktopaya—Throughout Samavesa 242 Sambhavopaya—Throughout Sambhava-siddhas 68, 79

Sambhu-sastra 153 Sakti 3, 4, 4 fn., 37 fn., 48, 52-53, 76, 93, 116, 124-126, 128, 230 (—cakra) 56 (—tattva) 124 (—vadin) 124-125 'Sakti is the Supreme' —thesis 128 Saktiman 52, 126 Samaya 49 Samaya-vidya 28, 56 Samayacara 54 Samkarsini 93 (cf. Kala-samkarsini also) Samadhi 61 Samkhya 37 fn., 51 Samkhyana 81 Samkoca 37 fn. Samskrta 8, 52, 218, 221, 242, 244 Samvit 12, 48 (—cakra) 13, 17, 30, 46, 47, 76, 163 (—krama) 18 fn., 143-144, 231. 239 (—devis) 56 Samhara 11, 78 (—cakra) 58, 232 Sampradayartha 250, 254 Santati-krama 136 Saptarsi (year or era) 174 Sarada 82, 155 Sarada-desa 82 Sarma 71 Sarva-rahasyartha 250, 253 Sat 48 Sattarka (tarka) 38, 49, 58-59, 61 Sense-d. inity —cf. Karanesvari Siddha 79, 240 (Jnana—) 79 (Mantra—) 79 (Melapa) 79 (Sakta—) 79 (Sambhava—) 79 Siddhaugha 84, 87-90, 100 Siddha-santati 87, 88 Siddhanta (Saivism) 6, 42, 54 Siddhis 243 Sisyaugha 90, 179, 184, 183 Siva 3, 4, 19, 20, 75, 76, 77, 80, 115, 116, 125-128, 229, 230, 233, 238, . 239, 247, 251 'Siva is the Supreme'—theory 128 Sixteen-spoked—cf. Sodasara Cakra Smrti 85 Sodasara cakra 234 Spanda 3, 4, 7, 33, 51-54, 108, 109, 112, 115, 116, 127-128, 145, 150, 151, 171, 172 Speech—cf. Vak Sruti 85 Sripitha 78

Sricakra—cf. Cakra Srsti 10, 11, 30, 46, 78, 85, 235,240 (—cakra) 58, 78, 175, 232, 243 Srividyanagara 83 fn. Sthiti 11, 46, 78 (—cakra) 55 (—krama) 87, 143, 231 (—kali) 143, 232, 235 (—nasa-kali) —cf. Sthiti-kali Suddhavidya 39, 208 Sukali 143, 231 Suksma 78 Sunyata 62 Sunya 62 (Sarva—) 62 (—vada) 62, 63 Sunyatavada (nihilism) 62-63 Sunyata-samavesa 70 Tantra 31, 35-36 fn., 37 fn., 43 fn., 49, 254
(Varna—) 20

The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir
Vacaka-vacya-bhava 23 Vacya 23 Vahni—cf. Fire Vaibhasika 97 Vaikhari 78, 126 Vaisnava 66, 151 (—Tantricism) 66
Vak 64, 80, 127

(Daksina—) 20 (Siddhanta—) 20 (Sukta—) 23 (characteristics of—) 38-39 (four fold division of tantric subjectmatter) 41-42 Tantric approach 249 (Six stages of—) 250 Tantric Philosophy 9, 23 Tantra-prakriya 32-34, 36, 74 fn., 55 Tattva (category) 37 fn., 51, 126 Thirteen-deity-doctrine 200 Tiki 227, 228 Tirodhana 7, 11, 77 Traistubha (metre) 273 Traiyambaka Mathika 32 (—School) 33, 34 fn. Trika—Throughout Trinetra (Prakasa, Ananda and Murti cakras) 46 Tripura 8. 23. 28, 44 fn., 56. 66, 103, 138. 150, 187, 204, 209, 214, 226 Twelve-spoked—cf. Dvadasara Upadhyaya 226-228 Upaya 249, 252 (four upayas) 42 (three upayas) 108 Utsava 37 fn. Uttaramnaya 19, 20, 21, 44 fn. Uttara-pitha 19, 83, 84, 90, 104 Vacaka 23

(Fourfold or fivefold theory of—) 63, 64, 78 (three stages of—) 125-126 (Para—) 40 Vaktramnaya 72 Vamamarga 19 Vamesvari 103 Varna 7 Varna-krama 79 Varnasrama-dharma 37 fn. Varunalaya 141 Vijayesvara 172 Vikalpa (logical construction) 126,253 Vikalpa-samskara (spiritual progression, purification or refinement of logical construction) 6, 38, 49, 62, 63, 253 Vimarsa 39, 48, 76, 116, 237 Vindu 53 Vitasta 227 Vrata 39 Vrndacakra 18 fn , 46, 56-57, 68. 76, 78, 80, 84, 88, 102, 103, 196, 200, 225, 235, 240, 243 (Two types of—) 57 Vyoma-vamesvari 76, 78 Vyomesvari 76 Vyuha 37 fn. Wine 40, 47, 233 Woman 40, 47 Will—cf. Iccha Yaga 39, 248 (Madhyama—) 248 Yagadhama 233 Yama 60 Yamakali 143 Yantra 37 fn. Yoga 38 fn., 39, 41, 42, 61-150, 238 (Sadanga—) 58-61, 79-80 (Astanga—) 58-59, 79-80 (Yama, Niyama, Asana etc.) 59 Yogacara 97 Yogin 237, 238 Yogini 45, 4 fn. Yuga-natha(s) 55, 80, 87, 155

4 23 30 39 52 53 53 67 70 72 96 104 109 112 114 122

Foot note

14 17 7 11 3 3 1 2 16 1 18 11 1 20 3 22

works. T h e fact word Kalinaya tantra the palpitate S p . P., p p . 49-50 S p . P., p p . 49-50 to divergent etc.4 In cf. fn. 1 , p . 5 5 s u p r a 1149 A . D . 1000 A . D . Sp. K. 960 I . P . V . , III, p. 312

w o r k s . B e c a u s e o f t h e fact Word Kalinaya2 Tantra to palpitate (delete) (Add after ) to excite divergent etc.4, in Cf. f n . 2 s u p r a 1155 A . D . 1020 A . D . S.S. 950 I . P . V . V . , II, p. 312 ( A d d after 'different' :) "Moreover the 2nd Eraka is referred to as father of some V a m a n a t h a while the first o n e kept celibate t h r o u g h o u t h i s life. As such, their identity appears quite remote." p . 121 complete text Sardhasatika work it is difficult to single o u t works pronouncements8 claim. I n t h e last verse o f his S p a n d a S a n d o h a 1 Stavacintamani2 a n d 1050 — A b h i . , p . 4 7 3 , Cf. o n p . 178 s u p r a Lankara Losthadeva 6. Y . H . D . , p. 68 1155 A . D . (See p . 2 1 2 ) be a little

if any

1 2


1 3

122 132 143 151 167 171 171 172


1 29 20 2 1-2 24 28 1

172 181 181 193 194 205 209 210 210 212 215 215 230 236


10 9 1 11 5 3 2 15 28 2 I 2 6 4-5

p . 1:1 i n c o m p l e t e texts Sardasatika word it is to single o u t works8 pronouncements claim1. I n t h e last verse of his S p a n d a Samdoha2 Stavacintamani and 1075— Abhi., p. 473 Lankata Losadeva Y.H.D., p. 68 1151 (See

Fn. 2

5 3

A.D. p. 211)


3 6 1

S i v a n a n d a (the author o f t h e Mahanayaprakasa)

Sivananda II (the a u t h o r of t h e nayaprakasa (T))


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