PROJECT REPORT

ON

STUDY OF EMI/EMC
( ELEMENTS, EFFECTS, COMPLIANCE PRACTICES WITH SUPPRESSION TECHNIQUES )

(Code: I-02 B)
Submitted in partial fulfillment for award of degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics and Communication Branch) Awarded by:

Maharishi Dayanand University Rohtak
During Academic Session 2005-2009

Submitted by: GAURAV TRIVEDI DHRUV ARORA AJAY GARG ( 5 ECE 37) ( 5 ECE 34) ( 5 ECE 08)

Under the guidance of

Dr. D.K. THAKUR, Dean (R&D)
Submitted to: Dr. S.V.A.V. Prasad Ms. Pragati Kapoor Mr. Ajay Dagar (HOD) (Project Coordinator) (Project Coordinator)

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

LINGAYA’S INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY, FARIDABAD

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that project on the topic

STUDY OF EMI/EMC
( ELEMENTS, EFFECTS, COMPLIANCE PRACTICES WITH SUPPRESSION TECHNIQUES )

has been successfully completed and submitted by GAURAV TRIVEDI DHRUV ARORA AJAY GARG ( 5 ECE 37) ( 5 ECE 34) ( 5 ECE 08)

for the fulfillment of award of degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics and Communication Branch) Maharishi Dayanand University Rohtak During the course of the project they have worked sincerely and were good throughout the implementation and presentation of the project undertaken.

Dr. S.V.A.V. Prasad (H.O.D., Electronics and Communication)

Ms. Pragati Kapoor (Project Coordinator)

Mr. Ajay Dagar (Project Coordinator)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is our profound privilege to express sense of gratitude to our project guide Dr. D.K. Thakur Dean (R&D), Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Lingaya’s Institute of Management & Technology, Faridabad, for his kind support and encouragement throughout this project work. I really cherish the valuable advice and suggestions given to us and the time he spent in the discussions about the minute details of work in completion of the project work.

I acknowledge the valuable contribution of all the scientists and team members of Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility division at Electronics Regional Test Laboratory (North), New Delhi, who have supported me during my Industrial Project.

I am grateful to Mr. Sulekh Chand, Scientist “E” at ERTL (N) for giving me an opportunity to study & work on the on the project i.e. “ Study of EMI/EMC elements, effect, compliance practices with suppression technique.” My special thanks goes to Mr. A.U. Khan and Mr. Gyan Chand, who taught me the technical aspects of the projects assigned to me and provided ample opportunity for developing the skills on EMI/EMC practices.

I am also thankful to all the staff of Electronics & Communication Department of Lingaya’s Faridabad.
 

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CONTENTS

Chapter  No. 
 0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  ABSTRACT 

Nomenclature 

Page No. 
5  6  9  12  16  20  28  30  33  37 

INTRODUCTION TO EMI/EMC  PROBLEM OF EMI/EMC  OCCURRENCE OF EMI  TYPES OF INTERFERENCE  EMI/EMC COMPLIANCE PRACTICES  EMI/EMC SUPPRESION TECHNIQUES  EMI/EMC STANDARDS & REGULATIONS  STUDY OF EMI/EMC PROBLEMS IN SMPS  A PRACTICAL APPROACH – DESIGN &  DEVELOPMENT OF EMI FILTER   EMI TESTING OF DESIGNED FILTER FOR  SMPS  CONCLUSIONS  REFERENCES   

10 

42 

11   

54 

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ABSTRACT

The use of electronic equipment is increasing day by day. Each electronic product needs specific circuit & frequency for the operation of the products. Most of electronic products are sensitive to radiated frequency & generates emission to the environment & power line. Due to the use of electronic product in every walk of life, the electromagnetic pollution is increasing day by day, which results in the performance of products by this pollution. Now a days most of electronic products uses the digital technology for the operation. Digital as well as analog circuits are sensitive to radiated field and as well as conducted noise. These noises affect the performance of products like disturbance in TV picture by running grinder, disturbance in telephone line, resetting & hanging of computer due to power line disturbances etc.
The operation of equipment is effected by this pollution. It is desired that all products shall work satisfactorily without affecting other & getting affected to others. In view of these, the emission & immunity tests are performed. Product specification described the limit of emission as well immunity. To

verify that a specific products will work satisfactory or not on a specific EM environment, the immunity testing are performed by creating the specific environment & verifying the same. Similarly products introduce certain noise/emission in the environment and as well as in power line. Emissions are of two types, Conducted & Radiated. Conducted emission is propagated by conducting wires etc. However radiated does not need any hard connection & these are radiated through radiation. Considerations of EMI/EMC are crucial in the design of circuits and equipment for use in electrical power systems, computers, telecommunications, controls, industrial, and medical instrumentation, transportation electronics, military equipment, information technology products, consumer electronics, and home electrical appliances. It is well recognized that EMI/EMC aspects must be addressed at the beginning in the design of circuits, including printed circuit boards and packaging of equipment and systems. EMI/EMC problems often cause delays in providing satisfactory field operation of systems. Compliances practices are used to comply the emission and immunity requirements. Various techniques are followed to improve the performance in respect of EMI/EMC such as PCB design, grounding, filtering, shielding and bonding practices. In this project we wish to study all theoretical & practical aspects of EMI/EMC and various suppression techniques to comply the requirements as per national & international specifications. We will also study the compliance practices & will try to identify desired solution to comply the conducted emission requirements as per CISPR22 standard for non-compliance products. We will also discuss the details of filter used for complying the conducted emission requirements of products.

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even unintentionally. Moreover. ac power lines. World War II saw the introduction of radar and other remote sensing systems. an enemy could disrupt electrical systems such as radios and navigational devices by intentionally broadcasting electronic noise and false signals. airplanes. regulating not only electromagnetic emissions. and telephones. along with the use of radio communication in combat. could be detected at a great distance. television. With the proliferation of small. prior to the 1930's. military became interested in creating systems. The advent of electronic warfare ushered in the need for electromagnetic immunity and compatibility. which were immune from the effects of external interference. it became evident that vehicles. which were adopted by some European countries. the increased generation and use of electricity caused a proliferation of noise sources such as dc motors. relays. more and more man-made sources of electromagnetic radiation began to appear. government became involved as the manufacturers of digital computers and related devices began selling large numbers of products. This and other relatively small electronic devices were incorporated into vehicles such as ships. In the early 1960's. While the first crude radio receivers tended to be susceptible to interference from natural noise sources.S. Instrumental in the development of radar was the introduction of small microwave sources. which emitted electronic signals. CISPR produced various publications dealing with recommended emissions limits. information-carrying signals via radio. little if any thought was given to designing systems which were immune from external interference and virtually no effort was made to reduce electromagnetic emissions from electrical systems during this period. such as the cavity magnetron. integrated Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           6 . In 1933. Conflicts between early radio transmitters were easily resolved by changing frequencies or by simply moving the transmitter or receiver. Also in the years following World War II. As a result the U. however conflicts between electrical devices became much more common. the designers of electrical circuits and systems typically needed only to insure that their devices would function in the presence of natural noise sources such as lightning or sunspots. INTRODUCTION TO EMI/EMC A BRIEF HISTORY OF EMI/EMC Until the early part of the twentieth century. The design of electro magnetically compatible systems was still not a priority during this period. but susceptibility as well. In the years that followed.S. the testing of nuclear weapons reveled that the electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear blast could damage or destroy certain types of electronic equipment.1. and fluorescent light bulbs. Understandably. During the war. The U. At nearly the same time that it became possible to transmit and receive complex. MILSTD-461 was imposed. the correction of this problem was usually a relatively simple task. few man-made sources of electromagnetic radiation existed. As a result. After the war. and automobiles. the International Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR) was formed and produced a document regarding equipment for measuring EMI emissions.

ELECTROMAGNETIC EFFECTS (EME) Includes electromagnetic environmental disciplines such as Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). The source may be any object. FM radio and television reception. and many other man made sources are narrowband emissions.a narrowband signal occupies a very small portion of the radio spectrum. The interference sources may be external or internal to the electrical or electronic equipment and they may propagate by radiation or conduction. that carries rapidly changing electrical currents. and the like. Such signals are usually continuous sine waves (CW) and may be continuous or intermittent in occurrence. Narrowband Emissions . It can also affect cell phone. or can occur unintentionally. EMI is usually divided into two general categories to help in analyzing conducted and radiated interference effects: narrowband and broadband. This type of signal is composed of narrow pulses having relatively short rise and fall times EMI can be intentionally used for radio jamming. In 1979. as a result of spurious emissions for example through intermodulation products. or otherwise degrade or limit the effective performance of the circuit. The magnitude of broadband radiated emissions is usually expressed in terms of volts per meter per MHz (V/m/MHz).circuit devices came a dramatic increase in the number of compatibility problems. and decreasing size of microelectronic circuits has made electromagnetic compatibility a critical aspect of product design. powerline hum. the increasing speed. although to a lesser extent Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           7 . Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The magnitude of narrowband radiated emissions is usually expressed in terms of volts per meter (V/m). Broadband Emissions . AM. and Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) ELECTRMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI) (also called Radio Frequency Interference or RFI) is an unwanted disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic conduction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. obstruct. local oscillators. FM and SSB fall into this category. such as an electrical circuit. Today. It frequently affects the reception of AM radio in urban areas. artificial or natural. as in some forms of electronic warfare. the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) began regulating the amount of electromagnetic energy that digital devices could emit. The disturbance may interrupt.a broadband signal may spread its energy across hundreds of megahertz or more. Spurious emissions. the Sun or the Northern Lights. It is electromagnetic energy that adversely affects the performance of electrical/electronic equipment by creating undesirable responses or complete operational failure.

or noise. It is the ability of electrical or electronic equipment/systems to function in the intended operating environment without causing or experiencing performance degradation due to unintentional EMI.ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILTY (EMC) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the branch of electrical sciences which studies the unintentional generation. The goal of EMC is the correct operation. mitigation and hence electromagnetic compatibility is achieved primarily by addressing both emission and susceptibility issues. The goal of EMC is to minimize the influence of electrical noise. It is important that electronic equipment designs ensure proper performance in the expected electromagnetic environment.e. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           8 . In order to achieve this.. quieting the sources of interference and hardening the potential victims. Susceptibility or Immunity issues. It is recommended that the performance be tested or qualified to insure operation within a defined margin of safety for the required design levels of performance. i. of different equipment which use electromagnetic phenomena. refer to the correct operation of electrical equipment. and to the countermeasures which should be taken in order to reduce such generation and to avoid the escape of any remaining energies into the external environment. Proper equipment and system designs are also necessary for minimizing potential electromagnetic emissions into the operating environment. or EMI) that such energy may induce. The EMI source minus the coupling mechanism path losses should result in an emission level that is less than the victim's susceptibility threshold minus a predetermined safety margin. Electronic equipment can malfunction or become totally inoperable if not designed to properly minimize the effects of interference from the internal and external electromagnetic environments. Interference. in the same electromagnetic environment. in the presence of unplanned electromagnetic disturbances. Emission issues are related to the unwanted generation of electromagnetic energy by some source. referred to as the victim. The coupling path between source and victim may also be separately addressed to increase its attenuation. propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy with reference to the unwanted effects (Electromagnetic interference. in contrast. thus maintaining an acceptable degree of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). and the avoidance of any interference effects. EMC pursues two different kinds of issues.

Most of electronic products are sensitive to radiated frequency & generates emission to the environment & power line. In addition. Improper grounding is the source of many EMI problems. or overheating that leads to arcing.enclosure contact can cause radiated emission penetration or leaking through apertures. magnetic field flux Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           9 . Grounding is one of the least understood EMC subjects. Grounding is also necessary to reduce EMI due to electric field flux coupling. Grounding is necessary to prevent shock hazard. Since cables are usually routed to accommodate its function. which occurs when a wiring or component insulation in an equipment frame or housing breaks down. Many specifications classify wiring or cable types into four to six categories but these classifications are generally qualitative in nature. their performance is very difficult to predict. There may be anywhere from several to hundreds of individual wire-pins or coaxial sheaths making simultaneous contact via a connector. Due to the use of electronic product in every walk of life. Cables are required to distribute electrical power and transmit electrical signals for the operation of various systems. resetting & hanging of computer due to power line disturbances etc. Cables can be EMI radiating sources if they act as radiating antennas. Impedance coupling from outside sources can happen in connector grounding paths. it is often difficult to quantify its environment and it usually varies over both frequency and electric and magnetic field amplitudes. or be susceptible to EMI if they are receiving antennas. despite the fact that it seems straightforward. cables are sometimes harnessed together. Cable wiring and harnessing is a significant EMI concern. disturbance in telephone line. Poor contact connections can also result in driven-circuit voltage variations from the contact impedance modulation of the driving-circuit source. the electromagnetic pollution is increasing day by day. Improperly shielded connectors or poor cable-connector-equipment. Digital as well as analog circuits are sensitive to radiated field and as well as conducted noise. or susceptibility of termination. EMI problems from connectors are usually related to poor contact which may result in arcing. Cables can also be coupling paths. Now a days most of electronic products uses the digital technology for the operation. More quantitative classifications should look at levels of power transmitted. THE PROBLEM OF EMI The use of electronic equipment has increased day by day. Connectors are contacts that either link or separate two cables or other equipments. which results in the performance of products by this pollution. Grounding also protects against lightning damage. so interference can also be between two cables that are close in proximity. These noises affect the performance of products like disturbance in TV picture by running grinder. Therefore. Each electronic product needs specific circuit & frequency for the operation of the products.2.

circuit. It is caused by surface contamination of the insulation by moisture or solid conductive particles. their performance degrades at frequencies as low as 1MHz. There are also EMI control techniques that are applied at the component. Techniques used to minimize EMI in conductors include coating conductors with a high-permeability material and using hollow conductors at higher frequencies to minimize external fields. This is because a shielded enclosure or housing is not completely sealed. and push buttons. Conductive grease provides a low-resistivity contact path between mating members. One reason is that shock and safety control requirements existed before the electronics and high frequency area. and for controlling magnetic fields involves shielding. The problem with radio transmitters is twofold. and electromagnetic waves does not match that achieved in practice. Radio transmitters range from large. Shielding is the use of conductive materials to reduce radiated EMI reflection or absorption. and common impedance coupling. high-power transmitters such as broadcast. Inductive devices like transformers. Usually. The problem with resistors. magnetic. These apertures cause leakage and therefore compromises the integrity of the shielding material. Surface tracking (or leakage) is a condition in which small currents creep across the insulator. and relays produce low-impedance fields that are sources of EMI if they are uncontrolled. and capacitors is that they do not behave at their stated values. The main techniques available for controlling transient-producing devices involves using diodes and filters. inductors. Different considerations must be taken into account with shielding. so traditional grounding techniques were developed to satisfy those requirements. and conductive caulking which is used to shield and seal two or more metallic mating members held together by other mechanical means. A second reason is that sometimes a conflict occurs between requirements for safety grounds and EMI control. as equipment can cause interference to nearby radio and television receivers. Under certain conditions. low-power equipments such as handheld radios and cellular telephones. and equipment can be Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           10 . Any shielding application has some kind of penetrations and apertures like meter windows. and equipment levels. Sealants include conductive epoxies which are used to join. communications. and seal two or more metallic surfaces. cover plates and access cover members. Radio-frequency interference (RFI) is a serious EMI problem today due largely to the large number of radio transmitters that exist. the theoretical attenuation offered by materials to electric. Gaskets provide either temporary or semi permanent sealing applications between joints and structures. There are two reasons why grounding is not understood well. EMC sealants. The EMI control technique is to protect from contamination through the use of proper material and proper voltage design. and conductive grease. and radar to small. Shielding integrity can be restored through the use of EMC gaskets. bond. especially at high frequencies due to the effects of parasitic inductance and capacitance. Surface tracking is an insulator problem that is a source of EMI.coupling. solenoids.

A scare that has not yet been proven deals with cellular phone emissions. creating the ESD arc or spark.upset by nearby transmitters. a rapid breakdown occurs in the air. There was also an early brain cancer scare with cell phones that actually led to the FCC limiting the transmitting power of handheld cell phones to 0. If the voltage becomes large enough. Radio and television receivers can be very vulnerable to RFI pollution from nearby computers. If the levels are high enough. Filters can be used and sometimes multistage filters are needed. bounce grounds. It was this emissions problem that caused countries around the world to pass EMI regulations. High humidity is helpful because the moisture reduces surface impedance and allows charges to recombine at a faster rate. This unwanted energy can be radiated through cables and wiring acting as antennas. An ESD event starts with a very slow buildup of energy. the higher the likelihood of ESD problems. In an insulator. complaints from consumers about interference with television disruption in the 70's drove the FCC to initiate mandatory EMI testing of personal and commercial computers in the 1980's. It is this fast breakdown that causes EMI problems in modern electronic systems. The energy discharge yields EMI frequencies in the hundreds of megahertz. Repetitive digital signals contain harmonics that can extend into the GHz range. this is not a proven fact yet. In the U. The high speed and frequency of the ESD energy can damage circuits. and cause upsets through electromagnetic coupling. The most common method of ESD generation is triboelectric charging which is caused by stripping electrons from one object and depositing electrons on another object.S. Sources of triboelectric charging includes humans. so a voltage builds. or conducted through the ac power system. followed by a very rapid breakdown. the receivers can be damaged.. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is also an EMI problem. There are also issues concerning EMC when humans are the receptors. Humidity also affects ESD as the lower the humidity. In protecting equipment against RFI. it is important to start at the circuit level. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           11 . Slots and seams cause the most problem in RFI shielding. However. A source cited that radiation emitted from cellular phones has shown to cause short-term memory loss and lapses in concentration. and analog circuits are more vulnerable to RFI than digital circuits. so highquality shields and connectors are needed for adequate RFI protection.3 watts. it may be a long time before charge recombination occurs. furniture. Digital circuits are usually the primary source of emissions. and material or device movement.

For example the lower path in the diagram involves inductive.Conductive coupling occurs when the coupling path between the source and the receptor is formed by direct contact with a conducting body. cable. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           12 .Electric field Inductive Coupling .3.Electric current Radiation . coupling path and victim. There are four basic electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupling mechanisms: conductive. the Big Bang at the origin of the Universe. Any coupling path can be broken down into one or more of these coupling mechanisms working together. for example a transmission line. though the source may be a natural phenomenon such as a lightning strike. OCCURRENCE OF EMI The Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is produced by a source emitter and is detected by a susceptible victim via a coupling path.Electromagnetic field Capacitive Coupling .Magnetic field Coupling Mechanisms : The basic arrangement of noise source. receptor or sink is shown in the figure earlier. conductive and capacitive modes. in one famous case. PCB trace or metal enclosure. The coupling path may involve one or more of the following coupling mechanisms: • • • • Conduction . capacitive and radiative. Source and victim are usually electronic hardware devices. Conductive coupling . wire. electrostatic discharge (ESD) or. magnetic or inductive.

Capacitive coupling .Conduction modes Conducted noise is also characterised by the way it appears on different conductors: • • Common-mode or common-impedance coupling: noise appears on two conductors in the same direction.Inductive coupling occurs where the source and receiver are separated by a short distance (typically less than a wavelength. Inductive coupling or magnetic coupling occurs when a varying magnetic field exists between two parallel conductors typically less than a wavelength apart. Differential-mode coupling: noise appears on two conductors in the opposite direction to each other. Radiative coupling .Capacitive coupling occurs when a varying electrical field exists between two adjacent conductors typically less than a wavelength apart. Inductive coupling . inducing a change in voltage across the gap. inducing a change in voltage along the receiving conductor. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           13 . Source and victim act as radio antennas: the source emits or radiates an electromagnetic wave which propagates across the open space in between and is picked up or received by the victim.Radiative coupling or electromagnetic coupling occurs when source and victim are separated by a large distance. typically more than a wavelength.

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Continuous interference. transmission lines and substations. o Electrostatic Discharge (ESD). and as a whole is sometimes referred to as "DC to daylight". with no particular frequency accentuated. Sources include: o Mains hum from power supply units. Radio Frequency Interference. scientific and medical equipment o High Frequency Circuit Signals (For example microcontroller activity) Broadband noise may be spread across parts of either or both frequency ranges. Sources include: o Wireless and Radio Frequency Transmissions o Television and Radio Receivers o Industrial. from very low frequencies up to around 20 kHz. This type is naturally divided into sub-categories according to frequency range. also sometimes called Transient disturbance. o Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse (LEMP) o Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP). EMP.Continuous Interference arises where the source regularly emits a given range of frequencies. nearby power supply wiring.4. sometimes as regular pulse trains. TYPES OF INTERFERENCE Electromagnetic interference divides into several categories according to the source and signal characteristics. The origin of noise can be man made or natural. RFI.Electromagnetic Pulse. Sources divide broadly into isolated and repetitive events. • • • Audio Frequency. include: o Electric Motors o Electric Fast Transient/Bursts (EFT) • Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           16 . The energy is usually broadband by nature. as a result of two charged objects coming into close proximity or even contact. o Non-Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NNEMP) weapons. as a result of a nuclear explosion. although it often excites a relatively narrow-band damped sine wave response in the victim. arises where the source emits a short-duration pulse of energy. from 20 kHz to a limit which constantly increases as technology pushes it higher. Sources include: o Solar Activity o Continuously operating spark gaps such as arc welders Pulse or transient interference. Frequencies up to 100 kHz may sometimes be classified as Audio. • Sources of isolated EMP events include: o Switching action of electrical circuitry. o Power Line Surges/Pulses Sources of repetitive EMP events.

all natural sources are classified as broadband. incoherent. processes. As shown in the above diagram. galaxies. hospital equipments. and extraterrestrial sources including radiation from the sum and galactic sources such as radio stars. and other cosmic sources.SOURCES OF EMI An EMI source can be any device that transmits. They include atmospheric charge/discharge phenomena such as lightening and precipitation static. electric motors.C high voltage transmission lines. radiated. and unintentional. or utilizes any form of electrical energy where some aspect of its operation generates conducted or radiated signals that can cause equipment performance degradation. distributes. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           17 . Natural Sources : Sources that are associated with natural phenomena. fluorescent lamps. microwave ovens. It could be of two types: Equipment / Man –Made : EMI sources are A. communication transmitters etc.

and public address systems and intercoms. industrial and consumer devices. • • Natural EMI receptors . biomedical instruments. Communication electronic receivers . industrial process controls. will degrade or malfunction in performance. S. Consumer receptors include radio and TV receivers. most communication electronic systems can be emission and receptor sources because they contain transmitters and receivers. and RADHAZ.Industrial receptors include digital computers. A receptor is also called a "victim" source because it consists of any device.These receivers include broadcast receivers. receptors can be divided into natural and man-made receptors. Industrial and consumer receptors . hi-fi stereo equipment. relay communication receivers. when exposed to conducted or radiated electromagnetic energy from emitting sources.This category includes radiation hazards to electro-explosive devices and fuels.Man-made receptors can be categorized into 4 categories: communication electronic receivers. For example.RECEPTORS OF EMI Any EMI situation requires not only an emission source but also a receptor. amplifiers. Man-made EMI receptors . Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           18 . A brief description of each category is given below. Many devices can be emission sources and receptors simultaneously. Department of Defense to the program that is determining the extent of radiation hazards and methods for controlling them. Figure below shows taxonomy of different receptors that are susceptible to EMI. Amplifiers .Natural receptors include humans. and climate control systems. the name given by the U. electronic test equipments.Amplifiers include IF. and plants. and radar receivers. and audio amplifiers. communication receivers. video. RADHAZ is an acronym for RADiation HAZards. Similar to the emission source taxonomy. animals. RADHAZ . electronic musical instruments.

Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           19 . ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES Electromagnetic waves consist of both an electric field (E) and magnetic field (H). Fig. oscillating at right angles to each other. etc. • Interference in printed circuits. Electromagnetic Spectrum extends from power frequencies of say 50 Hz through radio waves say at 1 MHz. electronic games. In fact E & H in free space takes the place of voltage and current at the terminals of a circuit.POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF EMI • • Lightening affects telephone systems and electronic equipment. or other household device containing a DC motor. • Airport radars may affect many electronic devices. phones. • Secure communication problems. to X. that if the EMI is below the specified value or not as this could cause many serious errors. endangers flight due to the risk that RF emissions from carry-on electronic devices will affect avionics. vacuum cleaner. • Speaking with mobile phones generate noise on the computer screen. portable CD players.Rays at 1010 MHz and above. below shows Electromagnetic Spectrum. These Electromagnetic Interference effects are prominent in many areas and need to be checked before the functioning. • The use of portable electronic devices such as laptops computers. The occurrence of lines across the face of a TV screen when blender. • Electrostatic discharge.

One or more of the following types of EMI/EMC Tests are applicable to commercial and military electronic equipment as determined by the intended application: Conducted Emissions (CE). and Radiated Susceptibility (RS). Radiated Emissions (RE). Everything from Mobile phones. Service equipment and Modern technological products go through this process. The purpose of these tests is to ensure that other users are protected from the emissions generated when the product is used in their neighborhood.5. Figure: EMI/EMC Tests Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           20 . All commercial products will be tested against the standards which are mostly based on CISPR tests. EMI / EMC COMPLIANCE PRACTICES Electromagnetic Interference/Electromagnetic Compatibility tests are one of the basic requirements for the compliance of most electronic and electrical products. The Susceptibility Tests (CS & RS) determine the test article's ability to operate in the typical operating environment. Conducted Susceptibility (CS). The Emissions Tests (CE & RE) record any undesirable emissions from the test article. This data is plotted against the applicable specification limits. The test article is exposed to electromagnetic signals at the levels and frequency ranges required by the applicable specification.

while blocking the LF mains voltage. It has 3 major functions as described below. Although the LISN will reduce both the noise on the mains supply and variations in the supply impedance. Attenuates external interference already present on the incoming mains supply. Couples the RF interference from each of the supply phase lines to the receiver.There are basically 2 tests for RF Emissions. Ambient radiated signals should also be attenuated and it is usual to perform the measurements inside a screened room. defined RF impedance equivalent to 50 Ohm in parallel with 50µH (or 50 Ohm/5µH for high-current units) between the point of measurement and the ground reference plane. with the walls and floor of the room forming the ground reference plane. These are Conducted and Radiated Emission tests. A typical setup for conducted emission is shown in the figure below. Conducted Emission Test Conducted emissions tests use an artificial mains network which is also known as a Line Impedance Stabilizing Network (LISN) as a transducer between the mains port of the Equipment Under Test ( EUT ) and the measuring receiver. • • • Provides stable. it does not do this perfectly and a permanently installed RF filter at the mains supply to the test environment is advisable. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           21 .

A Radiated Emission Test setup is shown in figure below. The radiated RF measurement according to CISPR 22 and CISPR 11 is usually performed on a closed area test site. radiated emissions are usually associated with non-intentional radiators. but intentional radiators can also have unwanted emissions at frequencies outside their intended transmission frequency band. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           22 . Any open area test site is likely to suffer from ambient signals and radiations which are generated in the neighborhood and received on the site. An emissions plot which contains ambient is hard to interpret and. more importantly. ambient which mask EUT emissions make it impossible to measure the EUT at these frequencies. These signals can easily exceed both the EUT's emissions and the limit values at many frequencies. The types of antennas used for the measurement and their frequencies is as below. Thus it is required to conduct these Radiated emission test in closed chambers i.e. but not emitted from the EUT. Anechoic Chamber which does not allow any in-out of the ambients.Radiated Emission Test The term radiated emissions refers to the unintentional release of electromagnetic energy from an electronic device. The electronic device generates the electromagnetic fields that unintentionally propagate away from the device’s structure. In general.

The limit of emission is used as a standard to ensure that all products that comply to the EMC Directive meets this requirements before it can be marketed to the public in countries where these standards are used. switching transients. including unwanted changes of state and data errors. Other problems may also occur. The transient events can be from natural causes . Conducted Susceptibility Test The determination or measurement of a device's capability to function in the presence of undesirable conducted EMI.electrostatic discharge (ESD). When equipment is susceptible to electromagnetic interference. signal leads. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           23 . It is also necessary in ensuring that a product does not create electromagnetic emission that are too high which will cause damage to nearby equipment or device. lightning or man made . This usually involves conduction through with the I/O cables. The most typical problem for a single line telephone set is caused when a modulated RF signal is detected by the equipment and amplified so that the interference is heard as audio interference.EMC testing is necessary in ensuring that product immunity from several sources of transient phenomena and continuous radio frequency phenomena that are present in the electromagnetic environment. or power lines. it can cause the equipment to operate in an undesirable manner. The degree of susceptibility for a particular device can be evaluated by monitoring the performance of the equipment in a conducted electromagnetic field of known field strength and frequency. These involve very short duration events in the region of nanosecond or microsecond that have high amplitudes that can disrupt or destroy electronic circuits and components in an electronic device.fault surges.

two sweeps are performed across the frequency range. Both the antenna position and the uniform area are fixed with respect to the chamber. and are coplanar with the uniform area. one in each antenna polarization. swept from 80MHz to 1000Mhz and provide sufficient time to allow the equipment under test to respond. The cable layout cannot be generally specified. As shown in the figure below. and the top and bottom if it may be used in any orientation. If the frequency is swept from 80 to 1000MHz in 1% steps with the conventional minimum dwell time of 3 seconds per step. The standard requires at least 1m of connected cable length to be exposed to the field. The radiated RF immunity standard used is IEC 61000-4-3. This requires a radiated RF field generated by an antenna in a shielded anechoic enclosure using a precalibrated field. the equipment under test is placed on the 0.Radiated Susceptibility Test The determination or measurement of a device's capability to function in the presence of undesirable radiated EMI from external electromagnetic sources and by monitoring the performance of the equipment in the presence of conducted interference signals of known amplitude and frequency. face the antenna in turn. The equipment under test is rotated on the table so that each of its four sides.8m high wooden table (for table top devices) with its front face in the same plane as the uniform field area that was previously calibrated. and recommends the use of ferrite chokes to decouple longer cables. each sweep should take about 15 minutes. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           24 . but at least some of the length should be in the same plane as one of the polarizations of the antenna. For each orientation. and the whole test should take over two hours.

It is believed that human interaction can generate only one pulse as it takes time for them to accumulate charge. the machine model limits are one-tenth of HBM. Typically. The human body model uses a waveform similar to ESD by human interaction. The word electrostatic indicates static electricity. This test verifies the ESD behavior of a device when a human handles it. These devices are not biased (not powered) during this testing. therefore. If you connect this glass rod to some earthen metal object then the accumulated charge will be discharged. familiarity is often limited to the term. The electrical spark and shock you sometimes experience when you touch a metal shelf in a store is another example. They are: • • Human Body Model (HBM) Machine Model (MM). all Microchip devices are tested against two standard models. As a part of the quality process. pulses depend on the resonance of the system). For example. A machine can generate multiple pulses so the peak amplitude is low to keep energy the same (model does not use a series resistor. when you touch a device without wearing an anti-static wristband. the glass and amber will develop a static charge that can attract small bits of paper or plastic.Electrostatic Discharge ( ESD ) Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) is probably the most familiar EMC term. with most people not knowing much beyond that. This is called Electrostatic Discharge or ESD. It is possible that a device may be subjected to an ESD event during this period. Almost all CMOS devices tend to have protection circuitry to avoid damage in this condition. if you rub a glass rod with a silk cloth or if you rub a piece of amber with wool. A semiconductor device goes through lots of human interaction before it is mounted onto a board. for example. However. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           25 .

procedure and also the Fig : EFT Test Setup requirement for test equipment. you wouldn’t want it to be affected when you run your drill. levels. If you have your freezer in your garage. The IEC-compatible EFT generator provides all these options. The appliance industry is not the only industry that cares about EFT. This standard defines test waveform. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has defined a system level standard. “a burst of interference pulses that simulates inductively loaded switches”. Sounds complicated! Let’s look at a simple example of a power drill. you will find many manufacturers concerned about EFT behavior. Would you keep a freezer if its compressor randomly starts switching or acts strangely when you turn on your drill? If your answer is no.Electrical Fast Transients( EFT ) / BURST EFT stands for Electrical Fast Transients. The industrial environment is even worse than a home environment. The normal practice is to couple noise on power lines. IEC 61000-4-4(1) to address this issue. set up. Any other equipment on the same power line will be subject to that noise. By definition it is. Neutral or Power Earth or a combination of all three. The electrical motor in most simple power drills is an inductive load. then that’s the reason why appliance manufacturers care about EFT. Therefore. it is one kind of noise signal that is fast in nature. Figure below shows a test waveform. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           26 . however. The signal can have either positive or negative polarity and it’s asynchronous to the power supply. As the name suggests. It can be coupled on Line. the IEC standard does specify a mechanism to couple noise on I/O and communication ports. When you run your power drill it generates lots of noise on power lines.

Fig : EFT Waveform Typically. isolation transformers. Most EFT issues are addressed by using line filters. voltage regulators and an isolated high-power circuit. transformer less power supply and Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS)-based systems face more EFT issues compared to iron core transformer based systems. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           27 . transient protectors.

cable design. filtering. Safety : Conductor providing a path for currents to flow during circuit faults. Energy interchanges between electric and magnetic fields as the wave progresses. EMI / EMC SUPPRESSION TECHNIQUES The most common methods of noise reduction include proper equipment circuit design. and noise cancellation techniques. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           28 . shielding. A time-varying magnetic field produces an electric field and a time-varying electric field results in a magnetic field. EMC : A low effective impedance path for the return. Ground Definitions Based On Purpose: • • • • General : Equipotential reference surface. What is Ground ? • • • • • • • Ground Wire Zero Volts Ground Plane Signal Ground Chassis Ground Conductive Paint A Trace on PCB connecting Chassis. separation and orientation.Wave propagation occurs when there are two forms of energy and the presence of a change in one leads to a change in the other. circuit impedance level control. This forms the basis of electromagnetic . Electromagnetic waves exist in nature as a result of the radiation from atoms or molecules when they change from one energy state to another and by natural fluctuations such as lightning. The technology of generating and processing electromagnetic waves forms the basis of telecommunications. isolation. Grounding: Connecting all grounds in a system in such a manner that all of the objectives are met. grounding. ESD : Surface that can source or sink large amount of charge without changing its potential.6. Ground Design Objectives For EMC: • • • Minimize Cross-Talk Minimize Emissions. Minimize Susceptibility.

AF noise emission & susceptibility. Apply Shielding to Block Radiated EMI. Shielding Can Reduce Unwanted EM Effects by Many Orders of Magnitude. Shielding Applies To All Levels: • • • • • • • • Systems Cables Platforms Buildings Components Circuits Functional Stages Equipments Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           29 .• Signal characteristics and allowable noise levels are to be considered when designing a grounding scheme. etc. Shielding Last Defense Against Radiated EMI: • • • Design Circuits to Minimize Radiated EMI Effects. Safety of personnel: minimize electrical shock hazard. RF noise emission & susceptibility. Isolation Transformers. Ferrites. Electromagnetic Shielding: Electromagnetic Shielding May Have Prevented These Problems: • • • Shielding Can Reduce Unintentional Radiated Emissions. Shielding Can Reduce Susceptibility to RF Fields. Use of EMI Suppression Techniques Such as Filters. ESD Immunity. Grounding Considerations: • • • • • System performance: A system should perform reliably.

There are different tests that are required for FCC compliance. and committees. These specifications were first formed when users of television and other radio receivers complained about the interference of radiation from nearby operating digital devices. Part 15 Subpart J deals with unintentional emissions from equipment that use digital techniques and generate or use timing signals or pulses of frequencies. In the United States. industrial. Currently. The lack of harmonization of standards is a great burden on manufacturers of electrical and electronic Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           30 . a brief study of the different emission standards is necessary. The International Special Committee on Radio Frequency Interference (CISPR) is an organization sponsored by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). a United Nations commission." • A device that passes Class B limits may be used in a Class A environment. dimmer regulators. portable tools up to 2 kW. CISPR publications deal with interference for the following items: • • • • • Microwave ovens with power consumption below 5 kW Ignition systems Televisions. printers. business." Class B: "A computing device that is marketed for use in a residential environment notwithstanding use in commercial. The 2 classes are defined as follows: • Class A: "A computing device that is marketed for use in a commercial.7. It is responsible for setting uniform limits on electromagnetic emissions from equipment so that trade would not be inhibited between member countries as a result of different emissions specifications. office machines. Computing devices refer to any computer peripheral including modems. FM receivers. and other international unions. EMI / EMC STANDARDS & REGULATIONS The ability to sell electronic products depends upon the products being able to meet the specifications contained in various regulations. there is worldwide effort towards harmonizing various EMC standards to reduce the trade barriers between countries and various sectors like Defense and Civilian. FCC 15J defines 2 classes of computing devices that must conform to emissions specifications. or business environment. commissions. or which is intended to be used in the home. the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Rules and Regulations. exclusive of a device which is marketed for use by the general public. and environmental environments. Therefore. and other electrical apparatus Fluorescent lamps Compliance with CISPR usually varies from country to country and each country has their own regulations regarding enforcement of the limits. and AM receiver power-line susceptibility Conducted and radiated emission of household appliances. CISPR is composed of each of the national committees of the IEC. and other I/O devices.

CE MARKING Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           31 . CISPR has provided recommendations for the implementation of EMC. In the Civilian sector. the market unification of 16 countries to form the European Union has affected the EMC standards scenario. The CE mark is not issued by a third independent body. it must be made clear what the CE mark is not: • • • • The CE mark is not an approval mark. 1996. In the Defense sector. However. the CE mark is attached to the product by the manufacturer at there own responsibility after conformity with the protection objectives stipulated by the EC directives has been determined. This became known as the EMC Directive which went into effect January 1. In Europe. The CE mark is not a certification mark. With a number of exceptions. The national EMC standards of these countries are being combined to form a harmonized EMC standard. The increased use of these products has made it absolutely necessary to harmonize various EMC standards. All products that complied to the EMC Directive would bear a CE marking. test procedures. called European Norms. and test limits in their own EMC standards. It declares the conformity of a product to the directives applicable within the single European market. each country can choose its own set of test instrumentation. CE Marking ( European Conformity ) The CE mark is a conformity mark valid within the European Economic Area (as formulated in various directives).systems because it increases the duration of the product development cycle and the compliance evaluation costs. This mark was required for any nation that wanted to sell electrical equipment in the European Community. This causes any manufacturer wishing to supply electronic equipments to different countries and the Defense and Civilian sector having to deal with a plethora of EMC standards In the United States. The CE mark is not a safety mark. In the first instance. the MIL-STD-461D issued by the Department of Defense represents harmonized standards for military equipments and subsystems for EMI / EMC. it is necessary to protect the radio frequency spectrum from the electromagnetic noise emission of electrical systems. the success of military missions is dependent on the trouble-free field performance of the electronic and communication equipments used.

filters are only tested to the current European standard for filters. The filter then bears the safety approval mark issued by the authorizing center. After approval has been assigned by an authorized test center.Safety approval marks Now that the various national standards in Europe have been superseded. Here are some examples of safety approval marks: Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           32 . the filters are automatically approved in the other member states of the EU with no further testing.

Due to its bilateral characteristics. The performances of most filters are specified only up to 30MHz. conducted emissions. the need for an EMI filter at the power lines entry point is apparent. In the USA. these noise levels are controlled from 10kHz (or 150kHz) to 30MHz. but the filter will suppress noise at higher frequencies. At ERTL (N) we studied and tested conducted emission tests and now present a detailed description and evaluation of these “ Passive ” Line EMI filters. Therefore. to suppress noise entering in the equipment from the power lines. Although not always recognized. singular installations. which could otherwise be injected directly onto the power lines. often-called EMI filters. Such noise can cause malfunction of digital or digitally controlled equipment that may be susceptible to the noise frequencies present on the power lines. Another reason is to suppress noise entering the equipment from the power lines. The controlled equipment primarily falls into the broad category of digital devices or those that use digital techniques for any purposes. STUDY OF EMI/EMC PROBLEMS IN SMPS The continuous development of switching power supplies implies more efficient and inexpensive power lines filters. Since almost all today equipment are powered by switching power supplies operating from 20kHz to near 1MHz. The intensity of such emissions is regulated by government agencies in many countries in order not to cause interference with other equipment. the likelihood of superimposing interfering noise frequencies on the power lines is very great. the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) sets the limits for various classifications of equipment. • Second. as a function of it’s operating environment. to suppress the noise generated by the equipment. One major reason for installing a filter directly at the power entry point is the suppression of the conducted emissions that would otherwise be injected directly onto the power lines.8. The international authority in this filed is the International Electrotechnical Commission – IEC. The FCC regulates the amplitude of conducted noise frequencies from 450kHz to 30MHz. The range of controlled frequencies is broader for devices used in the general market than those used in specific. Introduction Power lines filters. are present in almost all equipment. an EMI filter also suppresses noise radiated from the power lines (that acts as an antenna). All manufacturers must respect the rules and standards issued by IEC. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           33 . Passive power lines filters are now present in almost all domestics and industrial applications. the passive EMI filters serves both of these purposes. In Europe. and serves two major purposes: • First.

It depends on the amplitude and phase of the component noise current at that frequency. with their return being the ground connection. EMI Noise Characterization Any conducted noise may be resolved into two components. The inductors and capacitors used in a filter are complex components with their effectiveness being dependent on material properties. At any one frequency.The performance of a filter in a particular application may be better understood from its Common-mode and Differential-mode equivalent circuits. Common mode noise is that noise which is identical on each line with respect to ground. FIGURE 1a. The differential mode current – IDM is a single current in the loop consisting of the power lines. The common mode currents – ICM are identical at any one frequency in both amplitude and phase. The differential mode current does not flow in the ground connection. common (asymmetrical) and differential (symmetrical) modes. Differential mode noise is that part of the total noise that occurs between the two lines with no reference to ground. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           34 . Common Mode and Differential Mode Noise Currents The common mode currents are the same in both lines. since the total noise current in one line is the sum of the components in one case and their difference in the other. the total noise current in one of the lines can be expected to be higher than that in the other line. An understanding of these modes will assist in analyzing the performance of an EMI power lines filter. The method used to install a filter in the equipment can have a significant effect on its performance. construction. and means of connection. placement. Similar filters may not perform the same in a given application because of subtle component differences and parasitic parameters.

FIGURE 8b. Similarly. parasitic capacitance effect of the inductor and the parasitic inductance effect of the capacitors. but the effects are very difficult to quantify. why it is difficult to predict conducted EMI: • Differential and common mode noises are coupled through different paths to the measured EMI. Equipment package and component layout all affect the coupling paths. In the case of multiphase or split phase filters.There are several reasons. Often. theoretical and practical. The principles will be discussed for single-phase filters only. the common core inductors must have identical windings connected in each power current carrying line. A Simple Low Cost EMI Power lines Filter In order to increase the effectiveness. Consequently. one in series in one line and the other in series in the other line. A simple EMI power filter circuit diagram is shown in Figure 8b: Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           35 .line and others connected from line-to-ground. • • Low Cost Power Lines Filter A typical power lines filter is a simply low-pass filter that provides no attenuation to the power frequency but provides large (ideal infinite) attenuation to RF energy. Beyond a certain frequency. a small change in layout could lead to significant change in EMI performance. The effectiveness of an EMI filter depends not only on the filter itself but also on the noise source impedance. filters often include capacitors connected from line-to. The inductors may take two forms. This frequency is the border between “high frequency” and “low frequency”. the effect of parasitic elements starts to surface. an EMI power lines filter consists of series of inductors and shunt capacitors. the independent inductors would appear in each of these lines. High-frequency effects include permeability reduction of choke core. The most common inductor found in almost all low-cost filters is a single magnetic core structure wound with two coupled windings.

0nF to 10nF (ceramic capacitors with very short leads that resonate at 50MHz or more). from 1.1µF to 1. a less effective EMI filter component. at a frequency higher than its self-resonant frequency. Depending on the inductance value. are shunted by distributed capacitance. Thus. Inductors.0µF (their self-resonant frequency is from (1MHz to 2MHz). Such capacitors have a relatively high value 0. Any capacitor. are not purely inductive. by their nature. Line to ground capacitors must be of very low value. therefore. coil self-resonance frequency typically occurs in the range of 150 KHz to 2 MHz. they are more effective against lower frequency. the windings geometry and the core material. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           36 .One can notice the presence of only one inductor (Lc) and a single line-to-line capacitor (Cx1). is an inductor and is. This is important in selecting the type of the capacitor and the mounting mode into the filter. The windings. The impedance increases with frequency. like capacitors. Line-to-line capacitors are usually made of metal vaporized film or film and foil. differential-mode noise.

We made some measurements using a standard forward switching power supply based on a specialized IC. the focus of filter design procedure shall be to meet low frequency requirement. The basic structure is similar with the simple EMI filter. A more complex filter is presented below. A Complete EMI Power lines Filter The design of the two independent inductors Ld1 and Ld2 must take into account both the saturation characteristics of the core material relative to the rated current and the turns required to achieve the desired inductance. the H. if necessary. This approach has the following basic rules : • • • Conducted Emission Measurement shall be performed without the filter. For the filter. Since it is difficult to predict H. performance can be tuned or readjusted. The load was a 10 ohms resistor in series with a LED. the source impedance has little effect. After the filter is designed and fabricated. It is often called the “ Total EMI filter”. two inductors. The two windings of such a component are designed with equal number of turns. The differential mode and common mode noise shall be determined separately.F performance at the design stage. Ld2 and Ld1 and one condenser Cx2 connected in a low pass configuration. the core would be saturated under normal operating conditions and be ineffective as a filter component. An EMI filter will most often contain a Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           37 . A PRACTICAL APPROACH – DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT OF FILTER FOR SMPS Designing of a filter analytically is extremely difficult and hence a practical approach is generally considered for the same. we used the more complex one (Figure 4).9.F. Otherwise. so that the magnetic forces around the core due to the power currents in these windings cancel. In general noise source impedance affects filter attenuation. But if the filter components are arranged and sized in a right manner. The condition for the filter is to meet the CISPR limit (that is more than 10dB attenuation for 10Hz to 150kHz frequency range and more than 20dB for 150kHz to 30MHz range). There are some extra elements.

They have no effect in filter performance. According to cut off frequencies for common mode the required filter component shall be determined. The required attenuation for both common and differential mode shall be determined as per step 2 and frequency versus attenuation required (dB) shall be plotted on the graphs.CM) is dependent on LCM Common Mode inductance and capacitor (Cy). Ry 1. The approach for designing a filter is as follows : 1. This frequency serves as the common mode and differential mode filter corner/cut off frequency.CM = 1.bleeder resistor to discharge the line-to-line capacitors when power is interrupted (Rx1 . Fr. mode noise. Compare the observed data with the specified limit for the mode. for attenuation required for both noises and note the frequency where this line intercepts the horizontal line.2 in Figure 4). 1. 2π√LCM CCM Where. Attenuation requirement for filter shall be determined as per procedure given below. 4. 2. LCM is common mode inductance (Equivalent) CCM is common mode capacitance (Equivalent) Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           38 . Draw a 40 dB/decade slope line on Ist peak freq. Measure the common mode EMI Noise and Differential Mode EMI noise without a filter using CE Test Setup. Required attenuation (dB) = Emission observed (in dB) – Limit (dB) +6 (dB) 3. Calculation for Common Mode Components : As per equivalent circuit for common mode filter the cut off frequency (Fr. 5. If a ground choke is included in the filter. This frequency is related to common mode inductance (equivalent) & capacitance(equivalent). it will suppress common. not differential.

CDM = Cx1= Cx2 LDM = 1. (corner freq. 2π√ LDM CDM Fr.DM}2. Cx1 and Cx2 shall be of same value. The calculation of cut off freq. the required attenuation).Fr. 1. CDM = Differential Inductance & capacitance LDM = 2Ld +Leakage Inductance. The equivalent circuit of differential mode is given in fig.2(c). Calculation of Differential Mode Components : (Ld.DM = Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           39 . CDM Fr. CCM = 2 Cy 2. DM = Differential Mode cut off freq. {2πFr.CM is Common mode cut off frequency (Determined by drawing 40 dB/decade line on plot frequency vs. LDM . Cx1 and Cx2) are the basic differential mode components.No.) are related to CDM and LDM.

by drawing 40 dB/decade on after required and frequency plot. Value of component shall be selected such that it should not have any negative impact on the SMPS or any other devices. leakage inductance is generally in the range of 0. Cx2 = 680nF Imposing the two frequencies. Larger the LDM value selected. a) differential-mode attenuation b) common-mode attenuation FIGURE 3. These exist some degree of freedom for trade off. we can calculate the elements of the filter in Figure 2. Cx1. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           40 .5 – 2% of Lc value. smaller the Cx1 and Cx2 are needed and vice versa.Fr. The diagram of the differential-mode and common-mode attenuation obtained with the filter in Figure 2. The filter has been designed and fabricated according to above procedure for suppressing both differential and common mode noise.4 mH . Cx2 and LDM are unknown.b).e. Practically.DM value has been found out by step 4 i. The following values of filter components have been calculated according to above cut off frequency and procedure. The attenuation provided by the filter for the differential-mode and common-mode are presented in Figure 3. Lc = 13.a) and 3. A filter has been fabricated by using mentioned components. Cx1 = . Cy = 22 nF.

Figure: EMI Measurements in Various Configurations Red = no EMI filtering. Grey = only inductors. Blue = complete filter solution. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           41 . Black = only X and Y capacitors.

7. Conducted emission measurement in both Cm & Dm mode. EMI TESTING OF DESIGNED FILTER FOR SMPS A filter was designed using the above formula for a SMPS for compliance purposes. Radiated Emission Test at lower frequencies with horizontal polarization. Radiated Emission Test at higher frequencies with vertical polarization. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           42 . Conducted emission measurement in differential mode ( Dm ). The SMPS along with the designed filter was tested in the laboratory (ERTL ‘N’). 9. 1. 3. 10. 4.10. Conducted emission test for class A category. Conducted emission measurement in common mode ( Cm ). 8. Radiated Emission Test at lower frequencies with vertical polarization. It was found that the electromagnetic noise in the SMPS was reduced after incorporating the designed filter and are in compliance with the CISPR 22 standards. Conducted emission initial measurement of SMPS 2. 6. 5. Average values of peak at lower frequencies. During the testing the following EMI characteristics of the SMPS were measured. The observations of measurement of the above tests were compared with the acceptable reference levels as per the CISPR 22 standards. Radiated Emission Test at higher frequencies with horizontal polarization.

Conducted emission initial measurement of SMPS Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           43 .

Conducted emission measurement in common mode Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           44 .

Conducted emission measurement in differential mode Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           45 .

Conducted emission measurement in both common & differential mode Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           46 .

Average values of peaks at lower frequencies Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           47 .

Conducted emission test for class A category Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           48 .

Radiated Emission Test at lower frequencies with horizontal polarization Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           49 .

Radiated Emission Test at lower frequencies with vertical polarization Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           50 .

Radiated Emission Test at Higher frequencies with horizontal polarization Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           51 .

Radiated Emission Test at Higher frequencies with vertical polarization Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           52 .

An Image of EMI Power Line Filter Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           53 . A High efficiency filter used to suppress the noise of a 240W forward switching power supply.CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH EFFICIENCY PASSIVE EMI FILTER Fig .

It was observed that theoretical and experimental data did match for low frequency it was also noticed that common choke became capacitive for high frequencies due to core permeability reduction and parasitic capacitance and hence the measured data deviated slightly from the predicted data. which are not determined by measurements. By rearranging the wiring and using thick wire for grounding inside the SMPS. It concludes that the designed filter met the Low Freq. The inductors and capacitors used in a filter are complex components with their effectiveness being dependent on material properties. In case of non-compliance in radiated emission. design requirements. To achieve the goal of compliance for low and high frequencies the filter should be designed for Low Frequency. which can cause damages especially to the filter capacitors.11. torodial /ferrite bead to be put at the output & input to comply the requirements. plus the properties of the materials in the components will likely make two apparently identical filters behave differently in any given application. placement and means of construction. Similar filters may not perform identically in a given application because of subtle component differences and parasitic parameters. On incorporating in SMPS the problem of non-compliance was observed for high frequencies. In case of problem for high frequency the filter should be modified accordingly. the problem was later eliminated. All of these. Power lines filters used in switching power supplies are exposed to over-voltages. in a particular application. Many parasitic parameters exist in any filter. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           54 . may be better understood from its common-mode and differential-mode equivalent circuits. CONCLUSION The performance of a filter.

EMC/EMI Selected Readings. Prentice Hall. http://www.html. New Delhi. Electromagnetic Compatibility. • Research Paper from International Conference on Electromagnetic Interference & Electromagnetic Compatibility. 1996. 1998. IEEE Press. 1992. http://www.REFERENCES • • • • “EMI Suppression Handbook.com General EMC information. 2nd Edition” Mark Montrose. Project Report  I‐02B                                                   2009                                                                                                                           55 . IEEE Publications.ieee. Dept of Information Technology. IEEE Press.emiguru. J J Goedbloed.gov. Seven Mountains Scientific.org/web/publications/home/index.fcc. By Sulekh Chand Scientist ‘E’ ERTL ‘N’ STQC.” William D Kimmel and Daryl D Gerke. “Printed Circuit Board Design Techniques for EMC Compliance. 2000. Bangalore 2003. V Prased Kodali and Motohisa Kanda. WEBSITES • • • http://www.

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