Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos, para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor

. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno.

Reading # 8 Richards, J. C. and Rodgers, T.S. Approaches and Methods in laneuaee teachin~. C.U.P., pp. 44


The Audiolingual Method

The Coleman Report in 1929 recommended a reading-based approach to foreign language teaching for use in American schools and colleges (Chapter 1). This emphasized teaching the comprehension of texts. Teacliers taught from books containing short reading passages iii the foreigii language, preceded by lists of vocabulary. Rapid silent reading was tlie goal, but in practice teachers often resorted to discussing the coiitent of the passage in English. Those involved in the teaching of Englisli as a second language in the United States between the two world wars used either a modified Direct Method approach, a reading-based approach, or a reading-oral approach (Darian 1972). Unlike the approach that was being developed by British applied linguists during the same period, there was little attempt to treat language content systematically. Sentence patterns and grammar were introduced at the whiiii of the textbook writer. There was no standardization of the vocabulary or granimar that was included. Neither was there a consensus o n wlint graiiiniar, sentence patterns, and vocabulary were rnost important for beginning, intermediate, or advanced learners. But the entry of the United States into World War 11 had a significant effect on language teaching in America. To supply the U.S. government with personnel who were fluent in German, French, Italian, Chinese, Japanese, Malay, and other languages, and who could work as interpreters, code-room assistants, and translators, it was necessary to set up a special language training program. The government commissioned American universities to develop foreign language programs for inilitary persoiiiiel. Thus the Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) wns establislied in 1942. Fifty-five American universities were involved i n thc program by the beginniñg of 1943. Tlie objective of the army programs was for students to attain conversiitional proficiency in a variety of foreign languages. Since this was not tlie goal of conventional foreign language courses in the United States, iiew approaches were necessary. Linguists, such as Leonnrd Blooiiifield a t Yale, had already developed training prograins as part ot thcir liriguistic research that were designed to give linguists and antliropologists mastery of American Indian lang~iagesand other Ianguager

Richards, J.C. y T.S. Rodgers (1987). The Audiolingual Method. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. 44-63). Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press.

Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos, para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno.

The Audiolitzgual Method they were studying. Texcbooks did not exist for such languages. The technique Bloomfield and his colleagues used was sometiines known as the "informant method," since it used a native speaker of the language - the informant - who served as a source of phrases and vocabulary and who provided sentences f o r imitation, a n d a linguist, who supervised the learning experience. The linguist did not necessariiy know the language but was trained in eliciting the basic structure of the language from the informant. Thus the students and the linguist were able to take part in guided conversation with the informant, and together they gradually learned how t o speak the lariguage, as well as to understand much of its basic grammar. Students in such courses studied ten hours a day, six days a week. There were generally fifteen hours of drill witli native speakers and twenty to thirty hours of private study spread over two to three six-week sessions. This was the system adopted by the army, and in small classes of mature and highly motivated students, excellent results were often achieved. The Army Specialized Training Program lasted only about two years but attracted considerable attention in the popular press and in the academic community. For the next ten years the "Army Method" and its suitability for use in regular language programs was discussed. But the linguists who developed the ASTP were not interested primarily in language teaching. The "methodology" of the Army Method, like the Direct Method, derived from the intensity of contact with the target language rather than froni any well-developed methodological basis. It was a program innovative mainly in terms of the procedures used and the intensity of teaching rather than in terms of its underlying theory. However, it did convince a iiurnber of prominent linguists of the value of an intensive, oral-baskd approach t o the learning of a foreign language. Linguists and applied linguists during this period were becoming increasingly involved in the teachirig of English as a foreign language. America had now emerged as a inajor international power. There was a growing demand for foreigii expertise in the teaching of English. Thousands of foreign students entcred the United.States to study in universities, and many of these st~identsrequired training in English before they could begin their studies These factors led t o the emergence of the American approach to ESL, wliich by the mid-fifties had become Audiolingualism. In 1939 the University of hlichigan developed the first English Language Institute in the Uniteci States; it specialized in the training of teachers of English as a foreigii language and in teaching English as a second o r foreign language. Charles Fries, director of the institute, was trained in structural linguisrici, ;trtd he applied the principies of structural linguistics to language teaching. Fries and his colleagues rejected approaches like those of ttie 1)irzct blethod, in which learners are exposed

Richards, J.C. y T.S. Rodgers (1987). The Audiolingual Method. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. 44-63). Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press.

For Fries. Thus was borii a major industry in American applied linguistics . D. drill. in supervising programs for the teaching of English (Moultoii 196 1). State Department. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Washington. Rodgers (1987). puhlished between 1953 and 1956 (Ivloulton 1961).illyabsorb its grammatical patterns. . The guidelines were publislied as Structzrral Notes and Corpus: A Basis for the Preparation of Maierials to Teach English as a Foreigrr Language (American Council of Learned Societies 1952). under contract to the U.C. particularly contrastive analysis. A number of other similar programs were established. Michigan was not the only uiiiversity involved in developing courses and materials for teaching Englisli. was commissioned to develop textbooks tor teaching English to speakers of a wide number of foreign langiiages. In many ways the methodology used by U. Pattern practice was a basic clnssrooin technique..ige teaching to the language.S. Fries set forth his principies in Teaching a n d Learn(1945). Austin. 44-63). "lt is these basic patterns that constitute the learnerV\ rnsk They require drill. although the two traditions developed independently. U. Richards. and at the University of drilling of its basic sentence patterns. or "strticriirc. and more t drill. linguists \vere becoming increasingly active. The langitiigi was taught by systematic attention to pronunciation and by intensivc or. with a view toward solving rhe iiiiidamental problems of foreign language learning. In 1950 the Ainerican Council of Learned Societies. Approaches & methods in h~r~:<ir.e.S. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. followed by drills and exercises. y T.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. The structlire of the language was identified \ \ i r l i irs basic sentence patterris and grammatical structures. morphology. however. A lesson began with work on pronunciation. The format the Iinguists involved in this project followed was known as the "general forrn". in which the problems of ing English as a Foreign Lang~r~rge learning a foreign language were nrtributed to the conflict of different structural systems (¡.." was the starting point. The Audiolingual Method. use it. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. aiid grammar. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno.systematic comparisons of English with other languages. J. Contrastive analysis of the two langiiages would allow potential problems of interference to be predicted aiid addressed through carefully prepared teaching materials. and oniy enough vocab~ilary o inake such drills possible" (Hockett 1959). and gs:i~iii. in its strong alliance with American striictural linguistics and its applied linguistic applications.S.C. both within the United States and . differences between the grammatical and plionological patterns of the native toiigue and the target language).S.ibrond. grammar. The American approach differed. This became an influentinl document and together with tlie "general form" was used as a guide to developing English courses for speakers of ten different languages (the famotis Spoken Lang~tngesrrirs). linguists and lariguage teaching experts at this period sounded similar to the British Oral Approach. some of the riirliest being at Georgetown University and American University.

the ciassroom materials produced by Fries and linguists at Yale. The U. aural-oral proced~ires. for the development of reaching materials. If there was any learning theory underlying the Aural-Oral iiiaterials. .earning. It was the incorporation of the linguistic principies of the AuralOral approach with state-of-the-art psychological learniiig theory in the mid-fifties that led to the method that came to be known as Audiolingualism. Rodgers (1987). Language teaching specialists set about developing a method rli. This cornbiiiatioii of structural linguistic theory. reading. and speech was approached through structure.S. the '4ural-Oral Approach. however. contrastive analysis. colleges and university classroonis. Cornell. Not surprisingly. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. The Audiolingual Method. This was a period when expertise in linguistics was regarded as a necessary and sufficient foundation for expertise in language teaching. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. among other measures.and behaviorist psychology led to the Audiolingual Method. They were widely used. aiid the applied linguistic principies on which they were based were thought to incorporate the most advanced scientific approach to langurige teaching. This approach influenced the way languages were taught in to the United States throughout the fifties. Tliey drew on the earlier experience of the army programs and the Xural-Oral or Structural Approach developed by Fries and his colleag~ics.C. and elsewhere evidenced considerable Iingiiistic analysis but very littie pedagogy. It advocated aural training first. 44-63). Aiidiolingualism Richards. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. and tor rlie training of teachers. and the Structural Approach. The need for a radical change 2nd rethinking of foreign language teaching methodology (most of whicli \vas srill linked to the Reading Method) was prompted by the laiiriching of the first Russian satellite in 1957. J.S.riously as the Oral Approach. provided funds for the study and analysis ot niodern languages.i8). Language was identified with speech. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. followed by speaking. As an a ~ p r o a c h tlie teaching of English as a foreign language the new orthodoxy was proinoted through the University of Michigan's journal Language 1. then pronunciation training. y T. and writing.S. There is no explicit reference to then-current learning theory in Fries's work. Government ackiiowledgcd the need for a more intensive effort to teach foreign languages i i i order to prevent Americans trom becoming isolated from scientific adviiiices rnade in other countries. it was a commonsense application of the idea that practice niakes perfect.adding insights taken from behaviorist psychology. Teachers were encouraged to atterid sumrner iiistitutes to improve their knowledge of foreign languages and to learii tlic pririciples of linguistics and the new linguistically based teaching iiictliocis. The Audiolirrgual Method The approach developed by linguists at Michigan and other universities became known va. resulted from the inThe emergence of the Audiolingual ~ e t h o d creased attention given to foreign language teaching in tlie IJiiited States toward the end o i the 1950s. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines was applicable to conditions in U. The National Defense Education Act ( 1Y.

S. Many nineteenth-century language scholars had viewed moderri Eiiropean languages as corruptions of classical grammar. Approaches e methods in language teaching ? (the term was coined by Professor Nelson Brooks i i i 1')64) claimed to have transformed language teaching from an art t o . and procedure. y T. and the grammatical categories of Iiido-European languages were thought to represent ideal categories ir1 lariguages.C. and langunges from other parts of the world were viewed as primitive and underclcveioped. The Audiolingual Method. Rodgers (1987). A more practica1 interest in language study emerged. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor.i \cience. Audiolingualism aiid riiaterials based on audiolingual principles continue to be widely iised today.iiisiinge effectively foreign and efficiently. and syntax developed By the 1930s. the scientific approach to the study of language was rlioiight to consist them acof collecting examples of what speakers said and . design. J. Approach Theory of language The theory of language underlying Audiolingualism was derived from linguists in the 1950s . which Darwiir's Origin of the Species had helped promote. phonology.niiguage Services 1964). El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. which would enable learners to achieve mastery of a foreign I. 44-63).itcs nrid Canada.iiinl\-~iiig cording to different levels of structural organizatiori r. and its principles formed the basis of such widely used series as the Lado English Series (Lado 1977) and English 900 (English L. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. As linguists discovered new so~ind types and new patterns of linguistic invention and organization. and the structural theory o f language constituted its backbone. a riew interest in phonetics. Traditiorial approaches to the study of language had linked the study of langtiage to philosophy and to a mentalist approach to grammar.ither than according to categories of Latin grammar. Although the method began to fall from favor i i i tlie late sixties for reasons we shall discuss later.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. Grammar rvns considered a branch of logic. Let us examine the features of the Audiolingual Method n t tlie levels of approach. . and by an increased iiiterest in nonEuropean languages on the part of scholars. Linguistics had enierged as a flourishing academic discipline in the 1950s.a view that came a view proposed by ~ m e r i c a n to be known as structural linguistics.nching languages in North American colleges and universitic\. I r provided the methodoiogical foundation for materials for the teachiiig of foreign languages at college and university leve1 in the United St. A sophisticiircd rnethodology Richards. The method was widely adopted tor i~. The reaction against traditional grammar was promptcd by the movement toward positivism and empiricism. morphology. Structural iinguistics had developed in p a a as a reaction to traditional grammar. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press.

El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. . Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press.rnricesin a !anguage phonetically aiid later working out the phoneniic.). iiot writing. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. In 1961 the American linguist William Moulton. in a report prepared for the 9th International Congress of Linguists. from phonerne to rnorpheme to word to phrase to sentence. Therefore. Since many languages do not have a written form and we learn to speak before we learn to read or write. A language is a set of habits. A lariguage is what its native speak- Richards.).S.. rnorphemes. phrases. J. ir was argued that language is "primarily what is spoken and only secondarily what is written" (Brooks 1964). sentence types) systems underlying the grammar of the language L.anguage is speech. Learning a language. entails mastering the elements or building hlocks of the Ianguage and lcarning the rules by which these elements are conibined. proclaimed the linguistic principies on which laiigtiage teaching methodology should be based: "1.Teach the language. clnuscs. prefixes. suffixes. and sentences. 2nd sentence types. The phonological and grammatical systems of the language constitute the organization of language and by implication the units of production and comprehension.ihout the language. their phonetic realizations in specific environments (allophones). . This was contrary to popular views of the relationship of the spoken and written forms of language. morphological. and these in turn led to the higher-level systems of phrases. and sentences. deletion. worcls. . i~~orphological (stems. The grammatical system consists of a listing of grammatical elements and rules for their linear combination into words. . it was assumed. The term structural referred to these characteristics: (a) Elements in a language were thought of as being linearly produced in a ruie-governed (structured) way. .Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. etc. it was assumed that speech had a priority in language teaching. (c) Linguistic levels were thought of as systems within systems . structures. phonemic. the elements being phonemes.that is. . The Audiolingual Method for collecrii~~ analyzing data developed. y T. and their permissible sequences (phonotactics). Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. r i o t .C.. etc. sirlce it had been widely assumed that language existed principally as syrnbols written on paper. clauses. and transposition of elements. . Rule-ordered processes involve addition. and syntactic (phrases. This scientific approach to language analysis appeared to offer the foundations for a scientific approach to language teaching.aiiguage was viewed as a system of structurally related elements for tlie encoding of meaning. . En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. (b) Language samples could be exhaustively described at any structural level of description (phonetic. which involved transcribing 2nd spoken ~itrc. The phonological system defines rliose sound elements that contrast nieaningfully with one another iii the language (phonemes). as being pyramidally structured. Rodgers (1987). and that spoken language was an imperfect realization of the pure written version. The Audiolingual Method. phonemic systems led to morphemic systems. An imporrant tenet of structural linguistics was that the primary medium of language is oral: Speech is language. 44-63).

and the reinforcement as the extrinsic approval iind praise of the teacher or fellow students or the intrinsic self-satisfactioii ot target language use.empiricallv biised approach to the study o human f . Brown 1980). the Iiuiiinn heing is an organism capable of a wide repertoire of behaviors.S. . El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno.known as behavioral psycholoev .. which serves to mark tlie response as being appropriate (or inappropriate) and encourages the repetition (or suppression) of the response in the future (see Skinner 1957. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press.. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. the stimulus as what is rniight or presented of the foreign language. . It also needs to refer to the psychology of learning and to learning theory. T o apply this theor? ro language learning is t o identify the organism as the foreign language leiirner. Reinforcement 1s a vital elemeiit tn rlie learning process. y T. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. Languages are different" (quoted in Rivers 1964: 5 ) . Rodgers (1987). The Audiolingual Method..1. Language mastery is represented as acquiring 3 ser of appropriate language stim"Z . which serves to elicit behavior. To the behaviorist. Theory of learning The language teaching theoreticians and methodologists who developed Audiolingualism not only had a convincing and powerful theory of language to draw upon but they were also working in a period when a prominent school of American psychology . . because it increases the likelihood that the beiicivior will occur again and eventually become a habit. the behavior as verbal behavior.. Richards. It is to this aspect of Audiolingualism that we now turn. Approaches & methods in language teaching Stimulus - Organism - Response Behavior No reinforcementi \ Negative reinforcement again) (behavior not likely to occur / (behavior likely / Reinforcementbecorne a habit) to ocagan and cui ers say. A representation of this can be seen in Figure 4.claimed to have tapped the secrets of al1 human learning. Behaviorisiri. and reinforcement. .Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. not what someone thinks they ought to say. like structural linguistics. J. behavior. 44-63). But a metliod cannot be based simply on a theory of language. the response as the leariier'~reaction to the stimulus. including language learning. The occurrence of these behaviors is dependent upon three crucial elenieiits in learning: a stimulus. a response rriggered by a stimuliis.C. is another antimentalist.

that verbal belinvior differs in any funt damental respect from non-verbal behavior. c r s 1964: 19-22).icxplanations of rules are therefore not given until siudcnts have practiced a pattern in a variety of contexts and are thouglir r o have acquired a perception of the analogies involved. Drills can ennhlc learners to form correct analogies. 4 The meanings that the words of a language ha\c tor tlie native speaker can be learned only in a linguisric and cultural coritcxt and not in isolation. O u t of these various influences emerged a iluiiiber of learning priiiciples. and henLc . it was assumed that language t e a c l ~ i i should focus on inasi~ tery of speech and that writing o r even writteii proinpts should be withheld until reasonablv late in the language lenriiinn .process. F. y T. 'Ihc . En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp.t$c Ienrning h a n analysis Analogy involves the processes of generalizatioii . Rodgers (1987).age learning.behaviorism: The prominent ~ ~ r v a 1. early practice should focus on mastery of phonological arid grainmatical structures rather than on mastery of vocabulary. For example. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. priniary and wririiig secondary. Aural-oral training is needed to provide the foundation for the development of other language skills. since linguists normall! J~.ehaviorist B. Language skills are learned more effectively if rhe itcins to be learned in the target language are presented in spoken forin hefore they are seen ir1 written form. proponents o t Aiidiolingualism were drawing on the theory of a well-developed scliool of American psyrd cholog. . Since speech was n o w held t í ) l. Since the structure is what is important and unique about n language.S.that is.1~~diolingual Method The descriptive practices of structural lingiiiii\ siiggested a number of hypotheses about langu. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. The Audiolingual Method. By memorizing dialogues nnd pcrforming pattern drills the chances of producing mistakes are rniriiiiii/ed. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. 44-63). 3. Teaching a language thus involves teaching aspects of the cultural system of the people who speak the language ( f t i i . it was assumed that this was also the appropriLirc scquence for learriing and teaching. which became the psychological found:itioiis of Audiolingualisii~ and came t o chape its methodological practices Xinong the more central are the following: - 1 . J. . Foreign language learning is basically a procesi ot niechanical habit formation. Analogy provides a better foundation for langu. ~ k i n n e r had elaborated a theory of learning applicablc to language learning in his influential book Verbal Behavior (1957). para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor.iiiout language teachirig as well. the automatic production iiiid comprehension of utterances . or ~ l i a any new pririciples must be invoked to account for ir" (1957: 10j Xrined with a powerful 51 * . .. Language is verbal behavior .iiid dis~rimination.: Richards.and can be learned-by:inducingrhe stiideiits to do likewisc 2. Cood habits are formed by giving corrccr responses rather thaii by making mistakes.. "We have n o reason to assume. i i i which he stated.i. In advocating these principies.scribedlanguages beginning with the phonological level and finishiiig \citli the sentence level.C. Hence the approach to the teacliiiig of grammar-is essentially inductive rather than deductive.

I<e. Oral proficiency is equated with accurate pronunciation aiid graiiiniar and the ability to respond quickly and accurately in speecli sitiiations. pronunciation. . ltnd vocabulary are al1 related to development of oral fluency. and a tlioro~igh house cleaning of methods. y T. Long-raiigc ohjectives "must be language as the native speaker uses it. nnd rhird. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. in terms of the signiíicance these verbal symbois have ior those w h o speak the language natively" (Brooks 1964: 113). Language is primarily speech in audiolingual theory. The Audiolingual Method. 44-63). In practice this means that the focus in the early stages is on oral skills. form. audiolingualists could now turn to the design of language teaching courses and materials. Like the nineteenth-century reforrners. but they are dependent upoii prior oral skills.iding and writing skills inay be taught. The teaching of listening comprehension. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. Design Audiolinguaiists demanded a complete reorientation of tlie foreign lariguage curriculum. i>iir speaking skills are themselves dependent upon the ability to acc~ir:trely perceive and produce the major ph~nologicalfeatures of the target I. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. . a new orientation of procedures is demanded. they advocated a return to speech-based instruction with the primary oblective of oral proficiency. Objectives Brooks distinguishes between short-range and long-range objectives of an audiolingual prograrn.trigiiage. recognition of speech symbols as graphic signs on the printed page. There nilist he some knowledge of a second language as it is possessed by a true biliiigiialist" (Brooks 1964: 107).S. inaterials. control of the strucrures ot sound. graiiiiii. second. and knowledge of sufficient vocabulary to use with these pnttcriis with gradual Links to other skills as learning develops. J. "A radical transformarion is called for. Rodgers (1987). accurate pronunciation.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. Approaches & methods in language teaching theory of the nature of language and of language learning. artd nbtlity t o reproduce these symbols in writing (Brooks 1964: 111).. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. "These inimediate objectives imply three others: first. and dismissed the study of grammar or literature as the goal of foreign language teaching. . texts and tests is unavoidable" (Brooks 1964: SO). fluency in the use of the key grammatical patterris in the Iniigiingr. and order in the new language. Short-range objectives include training in listening comprehension. acquaiiitance with vocabulary items that bring content into these structures. meaning.

Rodgers (1987). rhythrn.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. Dialogues are used for repetition and rnemorizarioii. The language skills are taught in the order of listening. Listening is viewed largely as training in aura1 discriminatiori of basic sound patterns.4fter a dialogue has been presented and memorized. and writing. Correct pronunciation. At more advanced levels. y T. students are taught to read and write wlint rhey have already learned to say oraily. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. Throughout he concentrares upon gaining accuracy before striving for fluency. . In Foundations for English Teaching (Fries and Fries 1961). speaking. . for example. more compiex reading and writing tiisks may be introduced. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. (Brooks 1964: SO) When reading nnd writing are introduced. Richards. J.S. The Audiolingual Method. . arrangernents. approach t o language teaching. and forriis does he center his attention on enlarging his vocabulary. and syntax of the language arranged according to their order of presentation. 44-63). The learner's activities must at first be confined to the audiolingual and gestural-visual baiids of language behavioc. In addition. The starting point is a linguistic syllabus. and intonation are ernpliiisi~ed.C. The language rnay be presented entirely oraily at first. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Dialogues provide the means of contextualizing key structures and illustrate situarioiis i i i which structures might be used as well as some cultural aspects of t:-2 target language.:. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. written representations are usually withheld from learners in early stages. These may have been derived in part from a contrastive analysis of the differences between the native tongue and the target language. a lexical syllabus of basic vocabulary iterns is also usually specified in advance. The Audiolingual Method The syllabus Audiolingualism is a linguistic. a Corpus of structural and lexical items graded into tliree levels is proposed. Oiily when he is thoroughly familiar with sounds. Recognition and discrirnination are followed by imitation. . En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. together with suggestions as to the situations that could be used to contextualize them. An atternpt is made to miniinize the possibilities for making mistakes both in speaking and writing by iising a tightly structured approach to the presentation of new langliage items.. since these differences are thought to be the cause of the major difficulties the learner will encounter. stress. Types of learning and teaching activities Dialogues anci cirills form the basis of audioliiigual classroom practices. repetition and mernorization. specific grniiiin3rical patterns in the dialogue are seiected arid becomr the focus o1 viirious kixids of dril1 and pattern-practice exercises. morphology. reading. or structiire-based. which contains the key items of phonology. .

1 used to know him. then repeat that whole utterance and add more words. They gave their boss a. watch.ittern practice i s a distinctive feature of the Audiolingual Method. A change in word order is necessary when a word is added. One word in an utteonce is replaced by another EXAMPLES. !iieirlier). . -So . Restatement. . (so). . EXAMPLE. -They gave him a wntch 4. -Wait for me. Approaches & methods in lunguage teaching T h e use of drills a n J p. Rodgers (1987). Richards. -1'11 go my way and you go yortrs. He bought this house cheap. -He bought it clieap Helen left early -She lefr early. Inflection.S. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. . 1 bought the ticket. J. EXAMPLU. Tell him to wait for you. I'll go my way and yoii go. -We al1 have our own troubles. .. 6. Sound is as important as form and order. i'll never do it again. He does this wirhoiit looking at a printed text. . para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. He bought the candy -She bought the candy. -1 iised to know him.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. The studeiir tephrases an utterance and addresses ir to someone else. 44-63). EXAMPLES. Replacement. y T. Transposition. The srudent hears an utterance that is complete except for one word.. EXAMPLES. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press.own troubles. Repetition. The utterance must be brief enough to !>e retained by rhe ear. EXAMPLES. . according to instructions. -1 used to know hini years ago when we were in school.C. .lin l. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. Brooks (1964: 156-61) includes the follo\viiig: l. After a student has repeared an utterance. 2. he inay repeat it again and add a few words. -1 bought the tickets. -This is the seventh monrh. This is the seventh month. when did you begin? . . . The studenr rcpears an utterance aloud as soon as he has heard ir. 5. . 1 used to know him y e ~ r s ogo. Ask her how old she is -How old are you? Ask John when he began -John. Completion.. EXAMPLES. One word in nn utterance appears in another torm when repeated. 1 called the young man. i'm hungry. The Audiolingual Method.. V~iriouskinds of drills are used. -1 called the young men 3. We al1 have . -Neither w:ll 1 . En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. then repeats the utterance in complered form.

Does he know my address? He used to know my address. Integration Two separate utterances are integrnted into one. -Put your hand there They believe that the earth is flat -They believe it V . y T. J. This is irnportant.. Fail to understand. They must be honest. T h e Audiolingual Method 7. Agree emphatically. o r modality. 11. 10.n?ii. Thank you.. Expansion When a word is added it takes a certniii place in the sequence. -You're welcome. Rejoinder The student makec an appropriri. Question what is said.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos.ES.S. EXAMPLES. voice. . aspect. EXAMPLES. Express sucprise. . -1t is important that they be honest. -1 know him well. May 1 take one? -Certainly. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. The Audiolingual Method. 1 know him. -1 hardly know him. A single word stands for a phrase o r clnuse. Express regret. 8. If he had known my address. BE L'OLITE. EXAMPI-ES. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. A sentence is transformed by beirig made negative o r interrogative o r through changes in tense. He knows my address.. Disagree emphatically. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp.ES. Rodgers (1987). He is told in advance to respond in one ot rlic following ways: Be polite. tlic niaii who is looking for you. Disagree.C. Trnnsformation. Contractiort. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. 44-63). (well). Answer the question. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. .~reji. . 1 know him. FXAMPI. Agree. He is looking for you. -1 kno\r. (hardly). EXAMPLES. Put your hand on the table. . Where did it happen? -1n the middle of the street Richards. mood. He doesn't know my address. ANSWER THE QUESTION.i 10 3 gi-vsii utisrance. What is your name? -My name is Srnitli. EXAMPI. 1 know that man.

- Learner roles Learners are viewed as organisms that can be dirccted by skilled training techniques to produce correct responses. pace.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. Approaches & methods in language teachi?zsy AGREE. The teacher models the target language. Rodgers (1987). 44-63). from the teacher not providing sutficierit practice o r from the learner not memorizing the essential patteriis nrid structures. EXAMPLES.. or future. y T. EXAMPLES. He's following us.. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. for example. . .English in the language clascioc~iii Richards. students/waitine/bus -The students are waiting tor the bus. 12. Teacher roles In Audiolingualism.C. In accordance with behaviorist learning theory. Leariiers play a reactive role by responding to stimuli. imitating accurately. This is good coffee.and not use . teaching focuses on the exteriial rnanifestations of learning rather than on the interna1 processes. and thus have little control over the content. and harmonize the learning o i thc Iour skills in this order: hearing. and monitors and corrects the learners' perforinarice. and responding to and pertorniing controlled tasks they are learning a new form of verbal behavior. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Failure to learn resuits only from the improper applicatioii of the method. -Ir's very good. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. because this may lead to mistakes. sustain. reading and writing. Larig~iagclearning is seen to result from active verbal interaction between tlie teacher aiid the learners. as in Situational Language reaching. Use . Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno.S. The teacher must keep the learners attentive by varying drills and tasks and choosing relevant situations to practice structures. for by Iistening t o the teacher. o r style of learning. They are not encouraged to initiate interaction. speaking. it is a teacher-dominated method. -1 think you're right. uses these words with a minimum of changes and additioiis to restore the sentence to its original form. Brooks argues tliat the teacher must be trained t o do the following: Introduce. Restoration The student is given a sequence ot \\. but the method itself is never to blame. The Audiolingual Method. The fact rhat in the early stages learners d o not always understand the meanirig of what they are repeating is not perceived as a drawback. J. past.ords that have been He culled from a sentence but still bear its basic iii~~niiing. the teacher's role is central and active. boys/build/house/tree -The boys built a house'in n tree. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. He may be told whether thc tinic is present. controls the directioii and pace of learning.

It provides tlie opportunity for further drill work and t o receive controlled errorfree practice of basic structures. When textbooks and printed materials are introduced to the student. drills. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Procedure Siiice Audiolingualism is primarily an oral approach t o language spoken language in dialogue form. there is little provision for grammatical explanatioii or t a l k ~ n g Richards. A taped lesson may first present a dialogue for listening practice. . En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. J.S. At this stage in learning. and provide follow-up fluency drills on grarnmar o r pronunciation. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno.ic. repeating. the tape recorder provides accurate models for dialogues and drills. (Brooks 1964: 143) The role of instructional materials Irtstructional materials in the Audiolingual Method assist the teacher to develop language mastery in the learner. will have access to a teacher's book that contains the structured sequence of lessons to be followed and the dialogues. If the teacher is not a native speaker of the target laiiguage. 1:stnblish and maintain a cultural island. they provide the texts of dralogues and cues needed for drills and exercises.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. I)trcct choral response by al1 or parts of rhe class. and other practice activities. and enforce them. 1 c:icli tlie use of structure through pattern practice. and responding. allow for the student to repeat the seritences in the dialogue line by line. y T. Fornialize on the first day the rules according to which the language class is to he conducted. Rodgers (1987). para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. equipment often have ceritral ro!es ir: Tape recorders and audiov~sual ari audiolingual course. They are primarily teacher oriented. (. because it distracts attention from the aural input. i t is not surprising that the process of teaching involves extensive oral iristruction.\lo~ielthe various types of language behavior that the student is to learn 1 c. exposure t o the printed word may not be considered desirable. The teacher. The Audiolingual Method. A student textbook is often not used in the elementary phases of a course where students are primarily listening. Tbe Audioli~zgual Metbod . Teacli a short story and other literary forms. 511o\v how words relate to meaning in the target language. A Ianguage laboratory may also be considered essential. The focus of instruction is on immediate and accurnte spccch. (iet tlie individual studenr to talk. It also adds variety by providing an alternative to classroom practice.C. I<cw:ird rriais by the student in such a way that learning is reinforced. 44-63).iiicle the student in choosing and learning vocabulary. however.

nnd translation o r use of t h e native t o n g u e is discouraged. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. Students first hear a moJel dialogue (either read by the teacher o r o n tape) containing the key strucrures that are the focus of the lesson.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. 3. Soiiic 3r:imniatical explanation inay be offered a t this point. At the beginning leve!. Correction of mistakes of pronunci:itioii ur grammar is direct and immediate.ords o r plirases. Certain key srructiires troiii [he dialogue are selected and used as tlie basis for pattern drills ot ditttreiir kinds. J. The subordination of tlie niother tongue to the second language by rendering English inactive while the new language is being learned. The early a n d conrinued trainiiig of the ear aiid tongue without recourse to graphic symbols. The dialogue is adnpred ro tlie students' interesr o r situation. arder. The Audiolingual Method. The gradual substitutioii of graphic symbols for sounds after sounds are thoroughly known.C. 44-63). Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. Rodgers (1987). The summarizing of thc iiiain principies of structure for the student's use when the strucrures are already familiar. and fluency. The minimizing of vocabulnry until al1 common structures have been learned. The study of vocabularv oiily in context. a l t h o u g h larger classes a r e ofren tlie norm. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. and form. Sustained practice in rhe use of tlie language only in the molecular form of speaker-hearer-situation.S. line by line. 4. A line may be broken down into several phrases i t tiecessary. Classes oí ten o r less a r e considered optimal. This enhances the factor of reinforcement in iearning. individually and in chorus. without inrerrupcing rhe response. t h e target language is used a s t h e medium of instrucrion. but this is kept ro ni1 nbsolute minimum. These are first practiced in chorus and then individually. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. The teacher pays attention to proti~iiici. The dialogue is read aloud in chorus. Practice in translation oiily as a literary cxercise at a n advanced level.ition. wriiiii? is p~trelyimitative and consisrs of litrle more thaii Richards. They repeat each line of tlie clialogiie. This is acted o u t by the students. The students d o not consult rheir hook rhroughout this phase. (Brooks 1964: 142) In a typical audiolingiial lessori t h e following procedures w o u l d be observed: 1. through changing certain key i\. The students may reter r o their texrbook. 2. The shortening of the time spari between a performance and the pronouncement of its rightness o r rcrrongness. y T.intonation. one half saying one speaker's pnrt 2nd rhe orher half responding. aiid follow-up reading. The learning of structure tlirough the practice of patterns of sound. As far a s pocsible. rarher than by euplanaóon. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. especially when they differ from those of rhe mother tongue. writing. o r vocahulary activities I>nssd on the dialogue may be introduced. . Approaches 6 methods in language teaching a b o u t t h e language. The dialogue is memorized graciilnlly. Brooks lists t h e following procedures t h e teacher should a d o p t i i i iising t h e Audiolingual Method: The modeling ot al1 learnings by the teacher.

Students were often found to be unable to transfer skills acquired through Audiolingualisrn to real communication outside the classroom. Behaviorism regarded language learning as similar in principie to . Ordinary linguistic behavior cliriracteristically involves mnovation. Chornsky also ~ r o ~ o s an alternative rheory of language learning to that of the belia\. The theoretical attack on audiolingual beliefs resulted from changes ir1 American linguistic theory in the sixties. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. It was subject to the sarne laws of stirnuliis and response. On tlic oiie hand. Tiie MlT linguist Noam Cliomsky rejected the structuralist approach to Ianguage description as well as the behaviorist theory of language learniiig. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. Chomsky argued that such 3 learning theory could nor possibly serve as a model of how humans Icarii language. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. students rnay write out yariations of s t r i i ~ r i ~ r items they have pracriced nl wirh the help of framing quesor write shoct compositions on given i o p i ~ s tions. Chomsky's theory of transformational grarnmar proposed that the fundamental properties of language derive from innate aspects of the rnind and from how hurnans process experience through Ianguage. J. the theoretical foundations of Audiolingualisrn were attacked iis being unsound both in ternis of Ianguage theory and learning theory. 0 1 1 the other. Rodgers (1987). 44-63). Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno.iiigiiiige.C. But then came criticism on two fronts. The Audiolingual Method. as well as to texts for teaching the riicijor European languages.S." Richards. since much of human language use is not imitated beliiivior but is created anew from underlying knowledge of abstract rules. which will p i d e their use of thc I. and many found the experience of studying through audiolingual procedures t o be boring and unsatisfying. wherc further dialogue and dril1 work is carrieci o i i r The decline of Audiolingualisrn Audiolingualisrn reached its period of niost wides~read in the 1960s use and was applied both to the teaching of foreign languages in the United States and to the teaching of English as a second or foreign language. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno.iorists. . Sciirences are not learned by imitation and repetition but 'cgenerated" troin the learner's underlying " competente.icticed.iny other kind of learning.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. formation of new sentences and patterns in accordance with rules of great abstractness and intricacy" (Ctionisky 1966: 153). reinforcemenr and association. It led to such widely used courses as Englisl~ and the Lado Englisl~ YO0 Series. 5 . Follow-up activities may take place in 111c Iiitiguage laboratory. As proficiency increases. The Audiolingual Method copyirig out sentences that have been pr. y T. His theories were to revolutionize American linguistics and focus the attention of linguists and psychologists on the mental properties people bring to bear on language ed use and language iearning. "Language is not a habit structure. practitioners tound that the practica1 results fell short of expectations.

The Natural Approach. nor did aiiy particular method incorporating this view of learning. Tliese developments will be considered in the remaining chapters of this h o o k Conclusion Audiolingualism holds that language leariiing i \ Iikc other forms of learning. froiii coiitemporary theories of langliage and second language acquisitioii (e.cognitive code learning. it can be formally Richards.. oii rhc other are competing approaches that are derived. It is ripe for major revision. Carroll. perhaps fifteen years ago in step witli tlie state of psychological thinking of that time. and come conlusion. The term cogniti~~r is still somecode times invoked to refer to any conscious atteinpt r o organi7. Learners should be encouraged to use their innate and creative abilities to derive and make. Rut n o clear-cut niethodological guidelines emerged. The Audiolingual Method.S.C. Silent Way. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. This created a crisis in American language teaching circles frorn which a full recovery has not yet been made. but they were not resulting in cornpetence. . En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. Practice activities should involve meaningful learning and language use. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. experimentation.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. y T. Lugton 1971). particularly in rhe direction of joining it with some of rhe better elements of the cogiiitive-code leariiing theorv (Carroll 1966: 105) This referred to a view of learning that allowed for a conscious focus on grammar and that acknowledged the role of absrrnct mental processes in Iearning rather than defining learning simply in terms of habit formation. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno.e rnaterials around a grammatical syllabus while allowing tor meaningful practice and use of language. but it is no longer abreast of recent developments. Approaches & methods in language teaching Suddenly the whole audiolingual paradigm was called into question: pattern practice.g. see Jakobovits 1970. J. wrote: The audio-lingual habit theory which is so prevalent i i i American foreign language teaching was. Since language is a formal. These inight lead t o languagelike behaviors. In 1966 John B. rule-governcd svsrcin. The lack of an alternative to Audiolingualism in language teachLg & the United States has led to 3 period of a>aptation. memorization..g. 44-63). innovation. a psychologist who had taken a close interest in foreign language teaching. Communicative Language Teachiiig). Rodgers (1987). O n rhe o n e hand are new methods that have been developed independently of current linguistic and second language acquisition theory (c h. explicit the underlying grammatical rules of the language. Counseling-Learning). Temporary relief was offered in the form of a theory derived in part from Chomsky . drilling. For a time in the early seventies there was a considerable interest in the implication of the cognitive-code theory for language teaching (e. Total Physical Response.. it is clairned.

J B. Language Teaching. though these views were in fact developed froni quite different traditions. T h e order in which the language skills arc iiitroduced. 1966a. Principies of Language Learning and Teaching Eiiglr. The Hague: Mouton. C. Browii. Bnltiiiiore Linguistic Society of America. . There are many similarities benveen Situational Language '1 c. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor.\\. New York: Holt. 44-63).). Research in Foreign Language Teaching: The /.icliiiig a n d Audiolingualism. Mead. 1969. Jr. A~dioliii~ii. J.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. r ~ K. of Applied Ihguistics 7: 79-106. N 1957. pp. International Ko!.USIf-ive i'erlrs In R. The l>evelopmerzt of Modern Langtragc Skills I / v < > I It. might siiggest that these methods drew from each other. N.: Harvard University I'ress.xts. y T. 1933.L. Anierican Council of Learned Societies.C. The contributions of psychological theory and edii~:iti(~iinl rcsmrch to the teaching of foreign languages. The Audiolingual Method. K. Language and 1. The Audiolingual :t. Cli:istain. Bibliography Alleii. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno.I~>thod organized to maximize teaching and learning efficiency. (ed.anguage Learning: Theory and Prrrctii~.irir~uage Teaching. and G. B. Sir~icitiorial Language Teaching was a development of the earlier Direct Metliorl (see Chapter 1)a n d does not have the strong ties t o linguistics a n d behavioral psychology that characterize Audiolingualism. V F. 111. I r-c>ricis ir1 1. D. Valdman (ed j. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1953.211glroge..S.ooJ Cliffs. 1952. Syntactic Structures. C:arroll.: National Council of Teachers of English. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. Language. Washington. ChoiiisL!. 1965.ilisi11 thus stresses the mechanistic aspects of language learning a n d I:iii~ii:ijie use. /'i<rctice Chicago: Rand McNally. J.: Prentice-Hall. a n d the focus o n accuracy through drill a n d practice in thc Ii. N 1964. f%looiiitield. Richards. Rodgers (1987). H D 1980. Broader Contr. pp 11-41.isic structures a n d sentence patterns of the target language. Cambridge. The Study ofLanguage: A Survey of Linguistics and Kcl.irroll. 1971. <. Bloch.iiict of laiiguage learning.zted Disciplines in America. however. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp.anguages (. The audio-lingual habit theory versus tlie cognitivi cedelearnirig theory: some theoretical considerations. 1966b. Trager. G. On Teaching English to Speakers of Other 1. Mass. J. 1942 Outline of Linguistic Analysis. Northeast Conference Reports on the Teaching of Forcigii 1 iirigii3gts Reports of the Working Committees.2nd cd New York: Harcourt Braie. In fact. T h e similarities of the t w o methods reflect similar views a b o u t the nature of language .C.: American Council of Learned Societies. Structural Notes and Corplis A Bosis for the Preparation of Materials to Teach English as a Foreigil 1. In A.iinpnign. New York: MLA tv1iiteri:iis Ceiirer.Ii~stniii. Cnrroll. B. Brooks. 93-106.

R. English 900. 1968. Development. Linguistic theory. Language and Area Studies in the Arnred Services: Their Future and Significance. pt. 1962. C F. R J. 2nd A. English Teaching Extracts London: Longman. Lado English Series. \V. Mass. 1971. R. Washington. 1930-1 960. Linguistics and language teaching in the United States: 1940-1960. 152-9. Applied Lirtguistics for Language Teachers t\nn Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1970.. W &. Hockett. S.). A Course in Moderrr Lirrguistics New York: Macmillan. 7 books. Mass. 1964. 1966. The Psychologist and the Foreign Language Teacher. S. Reports of Surveys and Studies in the Teachiirg of Modern Foreign Languages. Miiitary training and principles of learning. 1962. The National Interest and Foreigri Languages. h. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. University of Chicago Press.). Chicaso. A review of B. Theories of Leurning 2nd ed. C. C. 1969. A. 1977. C . 82-109. A. Approac. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno. C. D. W. Fries.l. Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language.: Newbury House. (ed. New York: AppleronCentury-Crofts. C. Moulton. New York: Random House. 1957 Linguistics Across G<ltures.: MIT Press Chomsky. English as a Foreign Language: History. \Y' G. Toward a Cognitive Approach to Second Language Acqirisitioii Philadelphia: Center for Curriculum Development. Cambridge. N.C. Gagne. 1 Hilgard. 1961 Foundations for English Teaching Tokyo: Kenkyiishn. G 1961. ~oreign of the Issrres. R.: Departrnent of State. F Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Trendz iii European and Americati Linguistics. Lado. Language 35(1): 26-58. Parker. New York: Modern Language Association. y T. Fries. pp. Linguistics and Larrguage Teaching. Byrne (ed. American Psycl~ologist17(2): 83-91. P. P. 196 1 Language Testing London: Longman. In C. Language Leariring A Psycholinguistic Analysis Jakobovits. 1959. Chomsky. 1958. Lado. 1964. Lugton. Whatmough (eds. English Langunge Services. What is structural drill? lnternational journal of American Linguistiw 29 (2.). 3): 3-15. Matthew. 1947. A Linguistic Guide to Language Learning. New York: Modern Language Teaching Association. Van Bureii (cds. R. 1963. 1966. J. . J. Moulton. Washington: American Council on Education Modern Language Association. Moulton.1 1962. G 1972. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. London: Oxford Univtrsirv Press. and Metltods of Teaching. K. Chomsk~:Selected Readings. Mohrmanti. 44-63). E 1 1975. Fries. F. Reprinted in J. Keprinted in D. L. C. New York: Collier Macmillan. Rivers.l~csC+ methods in language teaching Chomskv. Ann Arbor.S. 1959. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. pp. B. Utreclit: Spectrum. Rowley.). Somnierfelt. Allen and P.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. and J. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor.C. Hockett. Hughes. Lado. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 1945. New York: Regents. Rodgers (1987). Richards. X 1965 Aspects ofthe Theory of Syntax. \V. Darian. University of Michigan Press. The objectives and process of language teaching. The Audiolingual Method.

United States Office of Education. The Audiolingual Method Rivers. E. L. 44-63). Rodgers (1987). Teaching Foreigtt Language Skills. Washington. F. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. 1969.S. Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press. Fundamental Contepts of Language Teaching. W.: U. Governnient Printing Office. The Audiolingual Method. The Language I-aboratory and Modern Lattguage Teaching. Smith.C. of Mass. veiba1 Behavior New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. . New York: Oxford University Press Stern. y T. 1983. J. D. 1Y63 ?%e Language Developmeitt Prograin. Linguistic Science artd the Te~ching English Cambridge. Skinner. Richards. El uso indebido de este ejemplar es responsabilidad del alumno.Este material es proporcionado al alumno con fines educativos. H. H. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1957. B. M. para la crítica y la investigación respetando la reglamentación en materia de derechos de autor. 1981. Este ejemplar no tiene costo alguno. 1956. Oxford: Oxford University Press. H.S.: Harvard University Press Stack.C.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful