University Malaysia Sarawak Faculty of Medicine and Health Science Bachelor Degree in Nursing 2010

Course code: MDJ 3293 Research Title: Research proposal Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral contraceptive pills among women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh Name: Jessica Goh Sing Fong Matrix Number: 18624 Course coordinator: Dr. Sidiah John Siop Supervisor: Madam Rose Nanju



Oral contraceptive pills are combined oral contraceptives that suppresses ovulation by the combination action of hormones estrogens and progesterone (MedicineNet, 2009). Nowadays, different type of oral contraceptive pills are available in the market with different trade name such as Marvelon, Mercilon, Loette, Yasmin etc The instructions of taking one pill daily are the same for all types of oral contraceptives in the market.

In a qualitative study by Williamson L.M, Parkes A., Wight D., Petticrew M. and Hart G.J (2009) who did their study on developing country such as africa, thailand, malaysia and indonesia, they found out that 90 percent of abortion related and 20 percent of pregnancy related morbidity and mortality along with 32 percent of maternal deaths could be prevented by the usage of effective contraceptive. Thus, family planning is very important and oral contraceptive pills serves as one of the effective methods to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

Although oral contraceptive pills had proved to be saved and effective, however, a lot of Malaysian women never try it. This could be due to poor knowledge


Wisma Hopoh is located in the centre of the kuching city. instruction and so forth which will leads to misuse and wastage. there are also women who took the oral contraceptive pills. 2009). 93400 Kuching. Apart from that. abortion. but never understand the action. 2010 (TheBorneoPost. Stutong Kuching happened in March. Consequence. Ramlee. Sarawak. throw baby away cases involved young women especially teenager and has become a growing epidemic social issues in Malaysia. contents. Background of the problem Most of the crime such as teenage pregnancy. at Jalan P. for instance. practice and attitude among women tenants of reproductive age towards oral contraceptive pills and I choose my research setting in Wisma Hopoh. one abortion in every five pregnancy (TheStar. I would like to conduct a research which will focus on identifying the level of knowledge. causing them not able to get appropriate education. A few incidents was reported. Besides. 2010). teen pregnant four time since 12 years old (TheStar. the incident of dead baby found in drain in wet market.dissemination both from health educator and mass media. 2009) etc. they will also suffer from social stigma such 3 . Consequences of this problems leads to teenage dropped out from school.

However. Besides. All this 4 . Statement of the problem Despite of Malaysia government policies to encounter social issues such as unintended pregnancy. there were no study designed to understand the level of knowledge. teasing from peers. and when the symptoms prolonged may lead to mental illness such as schizophrenia. However. Oral contraceptives pills were given free in government polyclinic. Thus. abortion and teenage pregnancy. However. All of these social issues leads to economy retardation as female teenage who will turn into women later are the asset of the country. crime like become sexual worker and so forth. there are still tragedy happened elsewhere in Malaysia and some may not be reported. there are still women who either took or doesn't took the pills claimed they have poor knowledge about oral contraceptive pills. preventing pregnancy is very crucial. attitude and practice of women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh regarding oral contraceptive pills. it will also cause this youngster to involve in other social issues such as drug addiction. who will cause them emotional and psychological disturbed. have multiple partners which will leads to sexual transmitted disease (STD).as abandoned by the family.

What is the practice of oral contraceptive pills among women tenants at 5 . our society have the mindset that when government encourage teenager to use oral contraceptive pills. What is the level of understanding of women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh about oral contraceptive pills? 2. However. this as if they encourage youngster to involve themselves in sexual activity as community always tagged oral contraceptive pills with sexually active and married women only. Community nowadays was also not adequately exposing to sexual and reproductive health education as our society is conservative where even parents does not share their sex knowledge to their children. Besides. Research questions This study was designed to answer the following question: 1. contraception decision made with little or no experience may bring lifelong consequences as gap between knowledge and practice regarding contraception remains unanswerable. oral contraceptive pills are one of the family planning methods in controlling number of children by couple. some women still get pregnant even though they are on oral contraceptive pills. due to lack of knowledge and information about the usage of emergency contraceptive pills. Thus.while.

To explore the relationships between Socio demographic data and women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh’s knowledge about knowledge. 4. To determine the practice of oral contraceptive pills among women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh. attitude and practice on oral contraceptive pills. What are the attitudes of women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh about oral contraceptive pills? 4. attitude and practice on oral contraceptive pills? Objectives 1. To assess the level of understanding of women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh about oral contraceptive pills? 2.reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh? 3. Significance of the research 6 . 3. To identify the attitudes of women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh about oral contraceptive pills. What are the relationships between Socio demographic data and women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh’s knowledge about knowledge.

availability. Operational Definition of term Oral contraceptive pills were defined as birth control pills by MedicineNet. and a medicine to reduce women fertility.This research will hope to benefit the health care provider regarding the level of knowledge. In addition. I defined the term “oral contraceptive pills” as one of the family planning method to prevent pregnancy. It will also help to set target group that will benefit the government policy to supply more contraceptive method prefer by women to the community to decrease unneeded wastage as oral contraceptive pills are given free in government polyclinic and hospital. Furthermore. Based on this definition. 2009. this research will also explore women source of information regarding oral contraceptive pills so that publicity of information regarding oral contraceptive pills will be enhance to benefit the society which may lead to unintended pregnancy and abortion prevention. attitude and practice of women in Wisma Hopoh to obtain the baseline data for further evaluation of the oral contraceptive usage. this research can also contribute to compare oral contraceptive pills with other contraceptive method in term of cost. Several issues will be focus in this study such as 7 . and others as oral contraceptive pills are known to be the cheapest compare to other modern contraceptive method. controlling size of the family.

feeling and position regarding oral contraceptive pills in term of their acceptance. reasons why women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh choose oral reproductive pills as the family planning method. content. indication. pharmacology. where to obtain the pills. attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive pills. This knowledge will help women in correctly use oral contraceptive pills to prevent pregnancy. concern about the side effect of oral contraceptive pills. a disposition. contraindication of oral contraceptive pills etc. The practice will include the assessment on experience using oral contraceptive pills. Practice regarding oral contraceptive pills refers to a habit or custom of women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh regardless it is right or wrong about oral contraceptive pills. the side effect. Knowledge regarding emergency contraceptive pills in this research will refers to the fact or state of knowing of women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh. discuss with partner about oral 8 . in term of different area about oral contraceptive pills. Right practice contribute to the effectiveness of the drug while misuse cause wastage and social issues.knowledge. and correct oral contraceptive pills usage. usage. Attitude regarding oral contraceptive pills refers to a manner. benefits.

an orally active progestagen with an activity eight times greater than naturally occurring progesterone (Peter H. These are the criteria of women that will be included in the sampling of this research. majority of Women in Mukalla Yemen (54. 9 .A. have all the years that can conceive a child until the onset of menopause who working for more than 6 months in Wisma Hopoh.. P. Oral contraception was reported predominant among unmarried Canadian women aged between 15 to 17 years old. there are no information regarding when actually family planning include oral contraceptive pills as one of the contraception method. 1998). and women in turky (55. Women tenants at reproductive age in Wisma Hopoh will be define as all women including the supportive staff who already achieve their puberty. most of the married women in Malaysia. Literature review Oral contraceptive was widely used globally after the revolution of oral contraceptive starts on October 15. Attitude can be also categorized as positive or negative which related to the fact of the issues.7%)( Fisher W.contraceptive pills etc.2%). While in Malaysia. 1950 when laboratory of Syntax Mexico City succeeded in producing Norenthindrone.

further proove the widespread of oral contraceptive pill as it registered 72 to 75% of the overall contraceptive usage ever since it was introduced in Malaysia and it is still popular choice of contraception method until today as according to the statistic done by Population Reference Bureau. Population Reference Bureau..B. M. Bayraktar E.. 2006. Fennell J. A. who did their study on acceptability of oral contraceptive pills mentioned that oral contraceptive pills are popular during 1970-an in Malaysia as about 90 percent of all family planning acceptor in Malaysia use the pills.3% of them had pregnancy due to failure of contraceptive. 2007.. Sharman J. Mucuk S.. 2007. Mary E... 2009. they stated that a very high number (59. abortion. S. K. High prevalence of this social issues also 10 . 1990.. and Blanchard K. Ravenholt R. According to a study done by Suneeta Suneeta M..Black A. there are still a lot of unintended pregnancy. 1989.B. In contrast. Higgins J.S.. 2006 ... throw baby cases happened regardless there are so many modern contraceptive method such as oral contraceptive pills availabe at the market..T.T. 2009). Jones R. et al. Sharman J.I.. Anupama B. oral contraceptive pills are still most common used form of reversible birth control method in Malaysia. 2007) However. Anupama B.9%) of women in India had unplanned pregnancy while 43.. in india. oral pills was not popular among the women as only 3.. A study done by Joseph J.. Baser M.K. Another study done by Ismail. Kwa.M.87 % of women were reported practicing it ( Suneeta M.

T Winn. 2005. while police statistics revealed about 100 cases a year (Ang E.. either one of this element if left out will cause pregnancy. However. S. From 2001 to 2004. Adolescent health). 2010). practice and attitude of women towards oral contraceptive pills. A K Imran.reported in Malaysia. Oral contraceptive pills are controversial subject. another recently study mentioned that in a long term. It was reported in 2007 that one baby is abandoned every ten days in Kuala Lumpur (Ang E. 2007. further management can be done to decrease social issues such as teenage pregnancy. practice and attitude are related and influence each other. I Naing. 2007. by identifying the level of knowledge. B N Rusli. Thus. unintended pregnancy and abortions. either in global world or in Malaysia.. 11 .. including heart disease and all cancers. women who used oral contraception had a significantly lower rate of death from any cause. detected a significant association between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer. the Social Welfare Department recorded 315 cases of abandoned babies. S. compared with women who had never taken it (Philip H. A study conducted in Kelantan by B Norsa’adah. Adolescent health). Knowledge. consistent with another local study by Lokman et al.

Sarawak. The sample of this study 12 . Population and sampling Population in Wisma Hopoh was reported 136 tenants and nerly 80 percent of the tenants are female in 2009.Methodology Research design This study will be conducted by using the cross-sectional descriptive quantitative research design where researcher will find out the relationship between the independent variables such as socio-demographic data and dependent variable like knowledge. Ramlee. Female tenants in Wisma Hopoh were selected as the population of study because of social perception about the size of the family was put under women responsibilities. 93400 Kuching. attitude and practice of oral contraceptive pills by women in Wisma Hopoh. This shopping complex was operated since 1980. at Jalan P. Source of information to formulate questions about oral contraceptive pills was base on literature by other researchers. Wisma Hopoh was located opposite to Radio Television Malaysia (RTM) building and Sarawak Red Crescent Society headquarter was located beside Wisma Hopoh. This study was conducted in Wisma Hopoh which is located in the centre of the kuching city.

will be involved as many as I can but a minimum of 50 participants must be obtained. This research does not limit to women marital status. In other word. This is due to the fact that the objectives of this research are to look into women knowledge. Besides. male are excluded and those 13 . the place was also known to have a lot of female tenant misuse the oral contraceptive pills and reported social cases like abortion and teenage pregnancy. practice and attitude regarding oral contraceptive pill. ii) Exclusive criteria Based on the randomly selection sampling method. Wisma Hopoh was chosen as the setting of the research was due to its high consistency of women tenant working in that shopping complex. age. household income and occupation. i) Inclusive criteria Only female tenants at reproductive age that had working in any shop in Wisma Hopoh for more than 6 month will be included as respondent in this study. I would like to look into women experience in using oral contraceptive pills rather than women limitation factor which influence women selection in family planning method.

women who refuse to answer the questionnaire will not be included in this study. marital status. Instruments This research will be conducted by using questionnaire contain 34 questions to determine the relationship between socio demographic feature and knowledge. which related to knowledge of participants will need candidate to choose only the best answer from question 9 to 12. attitude and practice of oral contraceptive pills as the three element are influencing with each other. level of education. Socio demographic characteristic in section one will include age. religion. occupation and monthly household income while there will be 13 questions regarding knowledge of oral contraceptive pills in section 2. race. The reasons why socio demographic feature was consider in this study is because of the literature review that had proved that women's background and family status will influence women's knowledge. working period. attitude and practice of oral contraceptive pills by women in Wisma Hopoh. number of living children. staying either in rural or urban area. 8 questions about attitude in section 3. and 5 questions about practice in section 4. Section 2. The following question in section 2. from question 13 to 21 is a multiple choice question and thus respondent can thick (√) 14 .

the University of Hull. Even if the women have good knowledge about oral contraceptive pills but with poor attitude. question 22 is a multiple choice question whereas question from 23 to 28 which covering the attitude of oral contraceptive pills will require participants to answer “yes” or “no” on the questions. question 29 required candidate to answer “yes” or “no” on question “do you ever take any oral contraceptive pills?”. In section 3. May 1996. Attitudes towards the usage of oral contraceptive pills will be assess as it determine the effectiveness of pregnancy prevention. Score for each question on knowledge and practice will be determine based on the 15 .more than one answer. Women's knowledge will be assess as knowledge is the key point to the correct practice of oral contraceptive pills which can prevent unintended pregnancy. the rest of the question from 30 to 34 is a multiple choice question regarding practice on oral contraceptive pills. Practice of oral contraceptive pills will be assess to determine the correct usage of the pills. unintended pregnancy will still take place. “patients’ knowledge of emergency contraception” by Emergency contraception audit kit. In section 4. All the questions here were adapted from several resources which include “Birth Control pills” from University of Rochester.

attitude questions will be evaluated as positive or negative for related question. 16 . she can contact my phone number or if possible I will be by her side to clarify their doubt. 3. Pilot Study Pilot study will also conduct at Wisma Saberkas. another shopping complex in Kuching. A box will be located at the Wisma Hopoh's manager office and respondent are require to put the answered questionnaire to the box. If participants have any doubt. Self administered questionnaire containing 34 questioned will be distribute to participants. to ensure the validity of the questions to be answered by the participants.most accuracy of the answer given by participants which range from 1 to 5 points for each question. Respondents are given 2 days to answer the questionnaire and they are required to leave their contact number. Women who participate in this study will be informed orally about the research and written consent will be obtained. Data collection A minimum number of 50 women out of the total population in Wisma Hopoh will be randomly selected as evaluation in this study. In addition.

05 or equal will be considered statistically significant for all analysis. However. it does not means that the participant is poor in every section regarding knowledge. Chi square test will be carried out to compare mean difference between independent and dependent variables. attitude and practice about oral contraceptive variables. An alpha level of P less than 0.Before running the pilot test. Besides. attitude and practice when they obtained higher score. participant’s personal data such as name and identification number will not be obtained to ensure anonymity and each questionnaire will be identified by numbers. Microsoft Excel software will also be used in the process of converting the data collected into table. it will be perceived as participants have good knowledge. Regarding the score obtained by participants. graft or figure form. if the score were not satisfactory.0 for Windows version. attitude and 17 . Data analysis Data collected will be analysing by using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 17. The descriptive statistic generated demographic and women knowledge. a sample of questionnaire will be submitted to prior evaluation by reviewer who was the investigator with experience in women health care research and in knowledge and practice survey methodology. While conducting the pilot test.

18 .practice of oral contraceptive method as all the sources are independent. attitude and practice of contraceptive method conducted in Kuching or even in Malaysia. In addition. There will be hardship to distribute the questionnaire as to the respondent as some of them cannot read and understand Malay. practice and attitude of oral contraceptive user of the population in Wisma Hopoh. the questionnaire has to translate to other language in order for them to answer the questionnaire. the women tenants may have to answer the questionnaire during recess time this will cause distress to the respondents as they have only two hour of recess time that is between 12pm to 2pm and this will further cause them refuse to answer the questionnaire. but not in wide scale like Kuching city due to time constriction and resources limitation. Thus. Besides. there are also no previous study on knowledge. making it hard to formulate questionnaire as many questions were adapted from western context that have to be modified to suit the local practice. Limitation Limitation of this study is on the population itself where the result of the research can only reflect on the knowledge.

International Family Planning Perspectives. retrieved on April 8.springerlink. Parkes A. Family planning knowledge and practice among Nigerian women attending an antenatal clinic. Teen pregnant four times since 2007 retrieved on April 8.. 2007. 2010..html Fisher 19 . R. 2007.. 33(2):50– 57 Pg.b. Williamson L. 2005. and Hart G. Vol.. Nwosu B.Reference: Adinma J. 2009. 2010 from http://www. Contraception in Canada: a review of method choices. Number 2. the stalled Revolution of Contraception.T.176(7):953-61 Glasier A. .my/news/story. Canadian Med Assoc. types of birth control. retrieved on January 23.. from http://www.. retrieved on April 8. Wight D. 2010 from http://thestar. 2007.P.epigee.O.theborneopost...A. 2009.reproductive-health-journal. 2010 from http://www. 1998. 2010.asp? file=/2009/10/8/nation/4861519&sec=nation Ng C. Petticrew M. and Buckley C. Palan V.J. Y. Epigee..asp? file=/2009/5/26/nation/3977852&sec=nation Peter H.I. adherence and approaches to counselling.. Ketting E. 2010 from http://www.2007. and Raman A. Tan A.M.. one abortion for every five pregnancies.. 1996.. 2009. characteristics. 2010 from http://thestar. Black Barrett J. Women charged with murdering own baby. Constrained Contraceptive Choice: IUD Prevalence in Uzbekistan. 185-193. 3. says survey retrieved on April 8. Izatun Discrete Dynamic in Nature and Society. “Case studies in Emergency Contraception from six country”. Limits to modern contraceptive use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative research retrieved on February 19. volume 22..

Paper presented at the National Population 2007.Wong Y. 1994. 2010 from http://www. Adolescent health.. 3-5 July 2007.cornerstonemsc. M.pdf Ang E. Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia 20 . Benefits beyond contraception with oral contraceptive pills retrieved on April 8. S.

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