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# How to Determine the Sag in Transmission Lines

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DougL This article was created by a professional writer and edited by experienced copy editors, both qualified members of the Demand Media Studios community. All articles go through an editorial process that includes subject matter guidelines, plagiarism review, fact-checking, and other steps in effort to provide reliable information. By DougL, eHow Contributor updated: February 09, 2011

Transmission lines must have some sag to them. Transmission lines do not connect between their supporting towers in a straight line. The shape formed by a line strung between two supports is called a catenary. If there is too much tension, the sag will be too little and the line can snap. However, if there is too much sag, it will increase the amount of conductor used, increasing the cost more than is necessary. The more space there is between transmission towers, the more the transmission line will sag. Difficulty: Moderate

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125 meters. o 5 Solve the equation for y. the sag for a cable with a weight equal to 1 kilogram per meter tensioned to 10. Substitute L/2 for x since the center between the towers is the low spot to get y = w/(2T) x (L/2)².000 = 3.Measure the horizontal distance between the tower attachment points. This is signified by the letter w. This yields y = wx²/(2T).000/80. and wx is the weight that acts at a horizontal distance x/2 from the attachment point. represented by the letter T. which simplifies to y = wL²/8T. y is the vertical distance between the attachment point and the lowest point in the parabola. o 2 Determine the weight per unit length of the conductor. This will be denoted by the letter L.000 kg between towers 500 meters apart would have a sag equal to (1)(500²)/(8)(10. For example. o 4 Substitute these values into the equation T x y = (wx)(x/2) where T is the tension.000) = 250. o 3 Find the tension in the line. .

temperature. If the sag is too large. it may cause a short circuit between the line and objects below it or a short circuit between lines in extremely windy conditions. & k factor . If the tension applied on a line is beyond its limit.Transmission & Distribution (Overhead) Line Sag & Tension Software ETAP Transmission & Distribution Line Sag and Tension Analysis module is an important tool to perform sag and tension calculation for transmission and distribution lines to ensure adequate operating condition for the lines. the line conductor could be damaged. and the transmission capacity and life span of the line will be reduced. temperature Handle multiple overhead line spans between dead-end structures Allow transmission line spans with unequal length Allow spans on different horizontal levels Include effects of wind. Sag & Tension Analysis Software Key Features y y y y y Calculate line sag and tension vs.