º™··⁄ƒ^|^–›º

The Yoga-Sûtra of Patañjali
Sanskrit-English Translation & Glossary
Chip Hartranft
Table of contents
Sanskrit pronunciation guide Page 3
Sanskrit-English translation 4
Sanskrit-English glossary 71
Bibliography 84
About the author 86
Copyright © 2003
All Rights Reserved
Sanskrit Pronunciation Guide
Sanskrit’s breadth of expression comes in part from using the entire mouth for
pronunciation, and from elongating accented vowels. With an alphabet of 49
letters, it has several different versions of familiar sounds such as ‘n’ and ‘s’, each
issuing from a different part of the mouth. For this reason, diacritical marks are
generally used to indicate how and where a consonant or vowel should be
sounded.
a pronounced like ‘a’ in america
i pronounced like ‘i’ in liter
u pronounced like ‘u’ in dude
e pronounced like ‘e’ in grey
ai, ay pronounced like ‘ai’ in aisle
o pronounced like ‘o’ in over
au pronounced like ‘ow’ in cow
â, î, û, ê, âi, âu prolonged for two beats instead of one
k, kh, g, gh, ò gutturals, arising from the throat
c, ch, j, jh, õ palatals, arising from the back of the palate
ø, øh, è, èh, ñ cerebrals, with tongue touching the roof of the mouth
t, th, d, dh, n dentals, with tongue touching the back of the teeth
p, ph, b, bh, m labials, arising from the lips
c palatal, always pronounced like ‘ch’ in chop
ë cerebral, pronounced like ‘ri’ in rip
å palatal, pronounced like ‘sh’ in shout
æ cerebral, pronounced like ‘sh’ in leash
õ pronounced like ‘ni’ in onion
ä pronounced like ‘n’ in uncle
jõ pronounced like ‘gn’ in igneous
h alone pronounced like ‘h’ in hot
ï a soft echo of the preceding vowel
h after a consonant extra breath after the consonant (in Sanskrit there are
no compound sounds like ‘th’ in thief or ‘ph’ in phone)
The Yoga-Sûtra in Sanskrit-English Translation
–ºŸ⁄∞ºŸª·
Samâdhi-pâdaï
I. Integration
I.1 ת ^|^Ÿ≤‹¤Ÿ–≤º
atha yogânuåâsanam
atha = now
yoga = process of yoking; union
ânuåâsanam = teaching, exposition
Now, the teachings of yoga.
I.2 ^|^⁄·¤∆‡⁄¤⁄≤ª|∞·
yogaå citta-vëtti-nirodhaï
yogaï = process of yoking; union
citta = consciousness
vëtti = patterning, turnings, movements
nirodhaï = stilling, cessation, restriction
Yoga is to still the patterning of consciousness.
I.3 ™ªŸ ª˙œ·‹· —∆ºº‰-∆—ªŸ≤º
tadâ draæøuï svarûpe ‘vasthânam
tadâ = then
draæøuï = seer, witness, pure awareness
svarûpe = own essence, identity
avasthânam = state of abiding
Then, pure awareness can abide in its very nature.
I.4 ∆‡⁄¤–Ÿº-^⁄º™ªº
vëtti-sârûpyam itaratra
vëtti = patterning, turnings, movements
sârûpyam = identification, conformity
itaratra = otherwise
Otherwise, awareness takes itself to be the patterns of consciousness.
I.5 ∆‡¤^· º··™·^· ⁄ªƒœ·Ÿ⁄ªƒœ·Ÿ·
vëttayaï paõcatayyaï kliæøâkliæøâï
vëttayaï = patterning, turnings, movements
paõcatayyaï = fivefold
kliæøa = hurtful
akliæøâï = benign
There are five types of patterns, including both hurtful and benign.
I.6 º˘º≤⁄∆º^^⁄∆+≈º⁄≤ª˙Ÿ—º‡™^·
pramâña-viparyaya-vikalpa-nidrâ-smëtayaï
pramâña = right perception
viparyaya = misperception, error
vikalpa = conceptualization
nidrâ = sleep
smëtayaï = memory, remembering
They are right perception, misperception, conceptualization, deep sleep, and remembering.
I.7 º˘·^’Ÿ≤‹ºŸ≤Ÿ^ºŸ· º˘ºŸªŸ⁄≤
pratyakæânumânâgamâï pramâñâni
pratyakæa = percept, sensory input
anumâna = inference
âgamâï = testimony from a teacher or traditional texts
pramâñâni = accurate perception
Right perception arises from direct observation, inference, or the words of others.
I.8 ⁄∆º^^| ⁄º≠^Ÿ◊Ÿ≤º™ª˙flºº˘⁄™œªº
viparyayo mithyâjõânam atad-r¯upa-pratiæøham
viparyayaï = misperception, error
mithyâ = false
jõânam = knowledge
atad = not that
r¯upa = form
pratiæøham = based on
Misperception is false knowledge, not based on what actually is.
I.9 ¤πª◊Ÿ≤Ÿ≤‹ºŸ™| ∆—™‹¤›≥^| ⁄∆+≈º·
åabda-jõânânupâtî vastu-åûnyo vikalpaï
åabda = verbal, linguistic
jõâna = knowledge
anupâtî = following, relying upon
vastu = object, substance
åûnyaï = empty
vikalpaï = conceptualization
Conceptualization derives from linguistic knowledge, not contact with real things.
I.10 ×∫Ÿ∆ º˘·^^ŸƒΩ∏≤Ÿ ∆‡⁄¤⁄≤ª˙Ÿ
abhâva-pratyayâlambanâ vëttir nidrâ
abhâva = non-existence, non-becoming
pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation
âlambanâ = resting on
vëttiï = patterning
nidrâ = sleep
Deep sleep is a pattern grounded in the perception that nothing exists.
I.11 ×≤‹∫›™⁄∆Œ^Ÿ–Ωº˘º|Œ· —º‡⁄™·
anubhûta-viæayâsampramoæaï smëtiï
anubhûta = experienced
viæaya = object (of experience), phenomenon
asampramoæaï = not allowing to steal away
smëtiï = memory, remembering
Remembering is the retention of experiences.
I.12 ×-^Ÿ–∆ªŸ·^Ÿ-^Ÿ ™⁄≥≤ª|∞·
abhyâsa-vairâgyâbhyâä tan-nirodhaï
abhyâsa = practice, action, method
vairâgyâbhyâä = dispassion, non-reaction, non-attachment
tad = these
nirodhaï = stilling, cessation, restriction
Both practice and non-reaction are required to still the patterning of consciousness.
I.13 ™º ⁄—ª™| ^·≤|--^Ÿ–·
tatra sthitau yatno ‘bhyâsaï
tatra = in that
sthitau = stability, steadiness
yatnaï = sustained effort
abhyâsaï = practice, action, method
Practice is the sustained effort to rest in that stillness.
I.14 – ™‹ ª|¤+Ÿƒ≤ª≥™^–·+ŸªŸ–‰⁄∆™| ª‡·∫›⁄º·
sa tu dîrgha-kâla-nairantarya-satkârâsevito dëèha-bhûmiï
sa = this
tu = and, moreover
dîrgha = long
kâla = time
nairantarya = continuously, uninterruptedly
satkâra = skillfully, in the right way
âsevitaï = cultivated
dëèha = firmly
bhûmiï = rooted, grounded
And this practice becomes firmly rooted when it is cultivated skillfully and continuously for a long
time.
I.15 ª‡œ·Ÿ≤‹·˘⁄∆+⁄∆Œ^⁄∆™‡œª—^ ∆¤|+Ÿª–◊Ÿ ∆ªŸ·^º
dëæøânuåravika-viæaya-vitëæñasya vaåîkâra-saäjõâ vairâgyam
dëæøa = seen, perceptible
anuåravika = heard, learned
viæaya = object (of experience), phenomenon
vitëæñasya = without wanting or attachment
vaåîkâra = mastery, willing something to happen
saäjõâ = comprehension
vairâgyam = dispassion, non-reaction, non-attachment
As for non-reaction, one can recognize that it has been fully achieved when no attachment arises in
regard to anything at all, whether perceived directly or learned.
I.16 ™·ºª º‹·Œ¤^Ÿ™‰^‹ª∆™‡œº^º
tat param puruæa-khyâter guña-vaitëæñyam
tat = this
param = ultimate, highest, purest
puruæa = pure awareness
khyâteï = clear seeing
guña = fundamental qualities of nature
vaitëæñyam = without wanting or attachment
When the ultimate level of non-reaction has been reached, pure awareness can clearly see itself as
independent from the fundamental qualities of nature.
I.17 ⁄∆™+⁄∆·ŸªŸ≤≥ªŸ⁄—º™ŸººŸ≤‹^ºŸ™ –Ωº˘◊Ÿ™·
vitarka-vicârânandâsmitâ-rûpânugamât samprajõâtaï
vitarka = analytical thinking
vicâra = insight, reflection
ânanda = bliss, joy
asmitâ = sense of self, I-am-ness
rûpa = form
anugamât = going with, following, accompanying
samprajõâtaï = cognitive
At first, the stilling process is accompanied by four kinds of cognition: analytical thinking, insight,
bliss, or feeling like a self.
I.18 ⁄∆ªŸºº˘·^^Ÿ-^Ÿ–º›∆· –—+Ÿª¤‰Œ|-≥^·
virâma-pratyayâbhyâsa-pûrvaï saäsk¯ara-åeæo ‘nyaï
virâma = cessation
pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation
abhyâsa = practice, action, method
pûrvaï = earlier
saäsk¯ara = latent impressions
åeæaï = store, residuum
anyaï = other
Later, after one practices steadily to bring all thought to a standstill, these four kinds of cognition fall
away, leaving only a store of latent impressions in the depth memory.
I.19 ∫∆º˘·^^| ⁄∆ª‰“º˘+‚⁄™ƒ^Ÿ≤Ÿº
bhava-pratyayo videha-prakëti-layânâm
bhava = being, becoming
pratyayaï = perception, thought, intention, representation
videha = bodiless
prakëti = nature
layânâm = clasped, merged
Once the body is gone, and these latent impressions are dissolved in nature, they are inclined to be
reborn.
I.20 ·˘ªŸ∆|^—º‡⁄™–ºŸ⁄∞º˘◊Ÿº›∆+ :™ª‰ŒŸº
åraddhâ-vîrya-smëti-samâdhi-prajõâ-pûrvaka itareæâm
åraddhâ = faith
vîrya = energy, vigor
smëti = memory, mindfulness
samâdhi = oneness, integration
prajõâ = wisdom
pûrvaka = preceded by
itareæâm = others
For all others, faith, energy, mindfulness, integration, and wisdom form the path to realization.
I.21 ™|∆˘–∆‰^Ÿ≤ŸºŸ–≥≤·
tîvra-samvegânâm âsannaï
tîvra = extremely
samvegânâm = intense, vehement
âsannaï = near
For those who seek liberation wholeheartedly, realization is near.
I.22 º‡ª‹º·^Ÿ⁄∞ºŸº·∆Ÿ¤™|-⁄º ⁄∆¤‰‰Œ·
mëdu-madhyâdhimâtratvât tato ‘pi viåeæaï
mëdu = mild
madhya = moderate
adhimâtratvât = extreme, intense
tataï = therefore, from these
api = also
viåeæaï = difference, distinction
How near depends on whether the practice is mild, moderate, or intense.
I.23 :·ªº˘⁄ª∞Ÿ≤ŸªŸ
îåvara-prañidhânâd vâ
îåvara = divine ideal of pure awareness
prañidhânât = surrender, dedication, application, alignment
vâ = or
Realization may also come if one is oriented toward the ideal of pure awareness, Isvara.
I.24 ªƒ‰¤+º⁄∆ºŸ+Ÿ¤^ªºªŸº‡œ·· º‹·Œ⁄∆¤‰‰Œ :·ª·
kleåa-karma-vipâkâåayair aparâmëæøaï puruæa-viåeæa îåvaraï
kleåa = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison
karma = action
vipâka = ripening, fruition
âåayaiï = store, residuum
aparâmëæøaï = untouched, unaffected
puruæa = pure awareness
viåeæa = difference, distinction; exemplary, distinct
îåvaraï = divine ideal of pure awareness
Isvara is a distinct, incorruptible form of pure awareness, utterly independent of cause and effect, and
lacking any store of latent impressions.
I.25 ™º ⁄≤ª⁄™¤^ –∆◊·∆∏|·º
tatra niratiåayaä sarvajõatva-bîjam
tatra = there, in that
niratiåayaä = incomparable, unsurpassed
sarva = all
jõatva = knowing
bîjam = seed, source
Its independence makes this awareness an incomparable source of omniscience.
I.26 – º›∆ŒŸº⁄º ^‹·· +Ÿƒ‰≤Ÿ≤∆·¤‰ªŸ™
sa pûrveæâm api guruï kâlenânavacchedât
sa = this, that
pûrveæâm = earlier
api = also
guruï = teacher, mentor
kâlena = by time, temporally
anavacchedât = unbounded, continuous
Existing beyond time, Isvara was also the ideal of the ancients.
I.27 ™—^ ∆Ÿ·+· º˘ª∆·
tasya vâcakaï prañavaï
tasya = of this, that
vâcakaï = signifying, connoting
prañavaï = the syllable pronounced om
Isvara is represented by a sound, om.
I.28 ™-·º—™ªª∫Ÿ∆≤º
taj-japas tad-artha-bhâvanam
tad = that
japaï = repetition, intonation
tad = its, that
artha = meaning, purpose
bhâvanam = realizing, becoming
Through repetition its meaning becomes clear.
I.29 ™™· º˘·^ª·‰™≤Ÿ⁄∞^º|--^≥™ªŸ^Ÿ∫Ÿ∆·
tataï pratyak-cetanâdhigamo ‘pyantarâyâbhâvaå ca
tataï = therefore, from these
pratyak = inward
cetanâ = consciousness
adhigamaï = attainment
api = also
antarâya = obstacle
abhâvaï = disappearance
ca = and
Then, interiorization develops and obstacles fall away.
I.30 …^Ÿ⁄∞—·^Ÿ≤–¤^º˘ºŸªŸƒ—^Ÿ⁄∆ª⁄™∫˘Ÿ⁄≥™ª¤≤Ÿƒπ∞ ∫‹⁄º+·∆Ÿ≤∆⁄—ª™·∆Ÿ⁄≤ ⁄·¤⁄∆’‰ºŸ—™‰-≥™ªŸ^Ÿ·
vyâdhi-styâna-sanåaya-pramâdâlasyâvirati-bhrânti-daråanâlabdha-bhûmikatvânavasthitatvâni citta-
vikæepâs te ‘ntarâyâï
vyâdhi = sickness
styâna = apathy
sanåaya = doubt
pramâda = carelessness
âlasya = laziness
avirati = sexual indulgence
bhrânti = false
daråana = vision, perspective
alabdha = failing to attain
bhûmikatva = developmental stages
anavasthitatvâni = inconstancy, instability
citta = consciousness
vikæepâï = distraction, stirring up
te = these
antarâyâï = obstacles
Sickness, apathy, doubt, carelessness, laziness, hedonism, delusion, lack of progress, and inconstancy
are all distractions which, by stirring up consciousness, act as barriers to stillness.
I.31 ª‹·¬ªŸº≤—^Ÿ-º‰·^·∆·Ÿ–º˘·Ÿ–Ÿ ⁄∆’‰º–“∫‹∆·
duïkha-daurmanasyâògam-ejayatva-åvâsa-praåvâsâ vikæepa-sahabhuvaï
duïkha = distress, pain, suffering
daurmanasya = depression
aògam = limb
ejayatva = trembling
åvâsa = disturbed inhalation
praåvâsâ = disturbed exhalation
vikæepa = distraction, stirring up
sahabhuvaï = accompanying
When they do, one may experience distress, depression, or the inability to maintain steadiness of
posture or breathing.
I.32 ™·º˘⁄™Œ‰‰∞Ÿªº‰+™-∆Ÿ-^Ÿ–·
tat-pratiæedhârtham eka-tattvâbhyâsaï
tad = that, these
pratiæedha = subdue, ward off
artham = meaning, purpose, approach
eka = one
tattva = thusness, elemental quality, principle
abhyâsaï = practice, action, method
One can subdue these distractions by working with any one of the following principles of practice.
I.33 ºº|+·ªŸº‹⁄ª™|º‰’ŸªŸ –‹¬ª·¬º‹≥^Ÿº‹≥^⁄∆Œ^ŸªŸ ∫Ÿ∆≤Ÿ™⁄·¤º˘–Ÿª≤º
maitrî-karuñâ-muditopekæâñâä sukha-duïkha-puñyâpuñya-viæayâñâä bhâvanâtaå citta-prasâdanam
maitrî = friendliness
karuñâ = compassion
mudita = delight
upekæâñâä = equanimity
sukha = happiness
duïkha = distress, pain, suffering
puñya = good, virtuous
apuñya = bad, evil
viæayâñâä = object (of experience)
bhâvanâtaï = radiating, projecting
citta = consciousness
prasâdanam = calming, tranquilizing, clarification
Consciousness settles as one radiates friendliness, compassion, delight, and equanimity toward all
things, whether pleasant or painful, good or bad.
I.34 º˘·¤ª≤⁄∆∞ŸªªŸ-^Ÿ ∆Ÿ º˘Ÿª—^
pracchardana-vidhârañâbhyâm vâ prâñasya
pracchardana = exhalation, expulsion
vidhârañâbhyâm = pause, retention
vâ = or
prâñasya = breath, life force
Or by pausing after breath flows in or out.
I.35 ⁄∆Œ^∆™| ∆Ÿ º˘∆‡⁄¤··º≥≤Ÿ º≤–· ⁄—ª⁄™⁄≤∏≥∞≤|
viæayavatî vâ pravëttir utpannâ manasaï sthiti-nibandhanî
viæaya = object (of experience), phenomenon
vatî = having
vâ = or
pravëttiï = arising of activity
utpannâ = arisen, produced
manasaï = mind
sthiti = stability, steadiness
nibandhanî = holds
Or by steadily observing as new sensations materialize.
I.36 ⁄∆¤|+Ÿ ∆Ÿ -^|⁄™œº™|
viæokâ vâ jyotiæmatî
viæokâ = free of sorrow
vâ = or
jyotiæmatî = luminous
Or when experiencing thoughts that are luminous and free of sorrow.
I.37 ∆|™ªŸ^⁄∆Œ^ ∆Ÿ ⁄·¤º
vîtarâgaviæayam vâ cittam
vîta = free from, without
râga = desire, passion, attachment
viæayam = object (of experience)
vâ = or
cittam = consciousness
Or by focusing on things that do not inspire attachment.
I.38 —∆-≤⁄≤ª˙Ÿ◊Ÿ≤ŸƒΩ∏≤ ∆Ÿ
svapna-nidrâ-jõânâlambanam vâ
svapna = dream
nidrâ = sleep
jõâna = knowledge
âlambanam = resting on
vâ = or
Or by reflecting on insights culled from sleep and dreaming.
I.39 ^ªŸ⁄∫º™·^Ÿ≤ŸªŸ
yathâbhimata-dhyânâd vâ
yathâ = as
abhimata = desired
dhyânât = meditative absorption
vâ = or
Or through meditative absorption in any desired object.
I.40 ºªºŸª‹ºªºº“-∆Ÿ≥™|-—^ ∆¤|+Ÿª·
paramâñu-parama-mahattvânto ‘sya vaæîkâraï
parama = ultimate, highest, purest
añu = minute, infinitesimal
mahattva = greatness, magnitude
antaï = extending from...to
asya = his
vaæîkâraï = mastery
One can become fully absorbed in any object, whether vast or infinitesimal.
I.41 ’|ª∆‡¤‰ª⁄∫·Ÿ™—^‰∆ ºª‰^˘“|™‡^˘“ª^˘Ÿ“|‰Œ‹ ™·—ª™ª··≤™Ÿ –ºŸº⁄¤·
kæîña-vëtter abhijâtasyeva mañer grahîtë-grahaña-grâhyeæu tat-stha-tad-aõjanatâ samâpattiï
kæîña = dwindled, decreased
vëtteï = patterning, turnings, movements
abhijâtasya = faultless, transparent
iva = like
mañeï = jewel
grahîtë = one who grasps, perceiver
grahaña = grasping, perceiving
grâhyeæu = grasped, object of perception
tad = that
stha = abide
tad = that
aõjanatâ = saturation, taking the form of something else
samâpattiï = coalescence, unified contemplation
As the patterning of consciousness subsides, a transparent way of seeing, called coalescence, saturates
consciousness; like a jewel, it reflects equally whatever lies before it - whether subject, object, or act
of perceiving.
I.42 ™º ¤πªŸª◊Ÿ≤⁄∆+≈º· –-|ªŸ –⁄∆™+Ÿ –ºŸº⁄¤·
tatra åabdârtha-jõâna-vikalpaiï saòkîrñâ savitarkâ samâpattiï
tatra = there, in that
åabda = verbal, linguistic
artha = meaning, purpose
jõâna = knowledge
vikalpaiï = conceptualization
saòkîrñâ = intermingled
savitarkâ = thought
samâpattiï = coalescence, unified contemplation
So long as conceptual or linguistic knowledge pervades this transparency, it is called coalescence with
thought.
I.43 —º‡⁄™º⁄ª¤‹ªŸ —∆ºº¤›≥^‰∆ŸªºŸº⁄≤∫Ÿ–Ÿ ⁄≤⁄∆™+Ÿ
smëti-pariåuddhau svarûpa-åûnyevârtha-mâtra-nirbhâsâ nirvitarkâ
smëti = memory, mindfulness
pariåuddhau = wiping clean, purification
svarûpa = own form, identity
åûnya = empty
iva = like
artha = meaning, purpose
mâtra = only
nirbhâsâ = shining
nirvitarkâ = beyond thought
At the next stage, called coalescence beyond thought, objects cease to be colored by memory; now
formless, only their essential nature shines forth.
I.44 º™^∆ –⁄∆·ŸªŸ ⁄≤⁄∆·ŸªŸ · –›·º⁄∆Œ^Ÿ …^Ÿ¤^Ÿ™Ÿ
etayaiva savicârâ nirvicârâ ca sûkæma-viæayâ vyâkhyâtâ
etaya = by this
iva = like, thus
savicârâ = reflecting
nirvicârâ = not reflecting
ca = and
sûkæma = subtle
viæayâ = object (of experience), phenomenon
vyâkhyâtâ = described, explained
In the same way, coalesced contemplation of subtle objects is described as reflective or reflection-free.
I.45 –›·º⁄∆Œ^·∆ ·Ÿ⁄ƒ-º^∆–Ÿ≤º
sûkæma-viæayatvaä câliòga-paryavasânam
sûkæma = subtle
viæayatvaä = the thing itself, thus-ness of an object
ca = and
aliòga = without form
paryavasânam = ending, terminating
Subtle objects can be traced back to their origin in undifferentiated nature.
I.46 ™Ÿ º∆ –∏|·· –ºŸ⁄∞·
tâ eva sabîjaï samâdhiï
tâï = these
eva = only, also
sabîjaï = with seed
samâdhiï = oneness, integration
These four kinds of coalescence - with thought, beyond thought, reflective, reflection-free - are called
integration that bears seeds of latent impressions.
I.47 ⁄≤⁄∆·Ÿª∆¤Ÿªª|‰-·^Ÿ·ºº˘–Ÿª·
nirvicâra-vaiåâradye ‘dhyâtma-prasâdaï
nirvicâra = not reflecting
vaiåâradye = lucidity, purity
adhyâtma = innermost self
prasâdaï = calming, pacification, clarification
In the lucidity of coalesced, reflection-free contemplation, the nature of the self becomes clear.
I.48 ª™Ω∫ªŸ ™º º˘◊Ÿ
ëtambharâ tatra prajõâ
ëtam = truth
bharâ = bearing
tatra = in that
prajõâ = wisdom
The wisdom that arises in that lucidity is unerring.
I.49 ·˘‹™Ÿ≤‹ºŸ≤º˘◊Ÿ-^Ÿº≥^⁄∆Œ^Ÿ ⁄∆¤‰ŒŸª·∆Ÿ™
årutânumâna-prajõâbhyâm anyaviæayâ viåeæârthatvât
åruta = what has been heard, teachings
anumâna = inference
prajõâbhyâm = wisdom
anya = other
viæayâ = object (of experience), phenomenon
viåeæa = difference, distinction
arthatvât = function, role
Unlike insights acquired through inference or teachings, this wisdom has as its object the actual
distinction between pure awareness and consciousness.
I.50 ™-·· –—+Ÿª|-≥^–—+Ÿªº˘⁄™∏≥∞|
taj-jaï saäskâro ‘nya-saäskâra-pratibandhî
tad = that
jaï = born of
saäskâraï = latent impressions
anya = other
saäskâra = latent impressions
pratibandhî = prevents, obstructs
It generates latent impressions that prevent the activation of other impressions.
I.51 ™—^Ÿ⁄º ⁄≤ª|∞‰ –∆⁄≤ª|∞Ÿ⁄≥≤∏|·· –ºŸ⁄∞·
tasyâpi nirodhe sarva-nirodhân nirbîjaï samâdhiï
tasya = of this
api = also
nirodhe = stilling, cessation, restriction
sarva = all
nirodhân = stilling, cessation, restriction
nirbîjaï = seedless
samâdhiï = oneness, integration
When even these cease to arise, and the patterning of consciousness is completely stilled, integration
bears no further seeds.
–Ÿ∞≤ºŸª·
Sâdhana-pâdaï
II. The Path To Realization
II.1 ™º·—∆Ÿ·^Ÿ^‰·ªº˘⁄ª∞Ÿ≤Ÿ⁄≤ ⁄+^Ÿ^|^·
tapaï-svâdhyâyeåvara-prañidhânâni kriyâ-yogaï
tapaï = heat, intensity of discipline, austerity
svâdhyâya = self-study
îåvara = divine ideal of pure awareness
prañidhânâni = dedication, application, alignment
kriyâ = action
yogaï = process of yoking; union
Yogic action has three components - discipline, self-study, and orientation toward the ideal of pure
awareness.
II.2 –ºŸ⁄∞∫∆≤Ÿª· ªƒ‰¤™≤›+ªªŸª-Ÿ
samâdhi-bhâvanârthaï kleåa-tanû-karañârthaå ca
samâdhi = oneness, integration
bhâvanâ = realizing, becoming
arthaï = meaning, purpose
kleåa = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison
tanû = slender, weak
karaña = making
arthaï = meaning, purpose
ca = and
Its purposes are to disarm the causes of suffering and achieve integration.
II.3 ×⁄∆ª|Ÿ⁄—º™ŸªŸ^ª‰ŒŸ⁄∫⁄≤∆‰¤Ÿ· ªƒ‰¤Ÿ·
avidyâsmitâ-râga-dveæâbhiniveåâï kleåâï
avidyâ = lack of wisdom, not seeing things as they are
asmitâ = the sense of ‘I’, egoism
râga = desire, passion, attachment
dveæa = aversion
abhiniveåâï = clinging to life, self-preservation
kleåâï = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison
The causes of suffering are not seeing things as they are, the sense of ‘I’, attachment, aversion, and
clinging to life.
II.4 ×⁄∆ª|Ÿ ’‰ºº‹¤ª‰ŒŸ º˘–‹-™™≤‹⁄∆⁄·¤≤|ªŸªŸªŸº
avidyâ kæetram uttareæâm prasupta-tanu-vicchinnodârâñâm
avidyâ = lack of wisdom, not seeing things as they are
kæetram = field
uttareæâm = other, following
prasupta = dormant
tanu = thin
vicchinna = interrupted, intercepted
udârâñâm = activated, aroused
Not seeing things as they are is the field where the other causes of suffering germinate, whether
dormant, activated, intercepted, or weakened.
II.5 ×⁄≤·^Ÿ¤‹⁄·ª‹·¬Ÿ≤Ÿ·º–‹ ⁄≤·^¤‹⁄·–‹¬Ÿ·º¤^Ÿ⁄™ª⁄∆ª|Ÿ
anityâåuci-duïkhânâtmasu nitya-åuci-sukhâtma-khyâtir avidyâ
anitya = impermanent
aåuci = impure
duïkha = distress, pain, suffering
anâtmasu = not self
nitya = permanent
åuci = pure
sukha = happiness
âtma = self, essence
khyâtiï = seeing
avidyâ = lack of wisdom, not seeing things as they are
Lacking this wisdom, one mistakes that which is impermanent, impure, distressing, or empty of self
for permanence, purity, happiness, and self.
II.6 ª‡·ª¤≤¤ª·^|ª‰+Ÿ·º™‰∆Ÿ⁄—º™Ÿ
dëg-daråana-åaktyor ekâtmatevâsmitâ
dëg = pure awareness, witness, see-er
daråana = vision, perspective
åaktyoï = power
eka = one
âtmatâ = selfhood
iva = as it were, like, thus
asmitâ = the sense of ‘I’, egoism
The sense of ‘I’ ascribes selfhood to pure awareness by identifying it with the senses.
II.7 –‹¬Ÿ≤‹¤^| ªŸ^·
sukhânuåayî râgaï
sukha = happiness, pleasure
anuåayî = following
râgaï = wanting, desire, passion, attachment
Attachment is a residue of pleasant experience.
II.8 ª‹·¬Ÿ≤‹¤^| ª‰Œ·
duïkhânuåayî dveæaï
duïkha = distress, pain, suffering
anuåayî = following
dveæaï = aversion
Aversion is a residue of suffering.
II.9 —∆ª–∆Ÿ“| ⁄∆ª‹Œ|-⁄º ™ªŸº·|-⁄∫⁄≤∆‰¤·
sva-rasa-vâhî viduæo ‘pi tathârûèho ‘bhiniveåaï
sva = own
rasa = taste
vâhî = flowing
viduæaï = sage, wise person
api = also, even
tathâ = thus
rûèhaï = rooted
abhiniveåaï = self-preservation
Clinging to life is instinctive and self-perpetuating, even for the wise.
II.10 ™‰ º˘⁄™º˘–∆“‰^Ÿ· –›·ºŸ·
te pratiprasava-heyâï sûkæmâï
te = these
prati = with regard to, toward, reversing
prasava = flow, motion, creation, inception
heyâï = overcome, overwhelmed
sûkæmâï = subtle
In their subtle form, these causes of suffering are subdued by seeing where they come from.
II.11 ·^Ÿ≤“‰^Ÿ—™ª∆‡¤^·
dhyâna-heyâs tad-vëttayaï
dhyâna = meditative absorption
heyâï = overcome, overwhelmed
tad = its, that, of these
vëttayaï = patterning, turnings, movements
In their gross form, as patterns of consciousness, they are subdued through meditative absorption.
II.12 ªƒ‰¤º›ƒ· +ºŸ¤^| ª‡œ·Ÿª‡œ··≥º∆‰ª≤|^·
kleåa-mûlaï karmâåayo dëæøâdëæøa-janma-vedanîyaï
kleåa = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison
mûlaï = root
karma = action
âåayaï = store, residuum
dëæøa = seen, perceptible
adëæøa = unseen
janma = birth
vedanîyaï = to be experienced
The causes of suffering are the root source of actions; each action deposits latent impressions deep in
the mind, to be activated and experienced later in this birth, or lie hidden awaiting a future one.
II.13 –⁄™ º›ƒ‰ ™⁄ªºŸ+| ·Ÿ·^Ÿ^‹∫|^Ÿ·
sati mûle tad-vipâko jâtyâyur-bhogâï
sati = existing
mûle = root
tad = its, that
vipâkaï = ripening, fruition
jâti = birth, rank
âyuï = span of life
bhogâï = experience, enjoyment
So long as this root source exists, its contents will ripen into a birth, a life, and experience.
II.14 ™‰ ªªº⁄ª™Ÿº∂ƒŸ· º‹º^Ÿº‹º^“‰™‹·∆Ÿ™
te hlâda-paritâpa-phalâï puñyâpuñya-hetutvât
te = they, these
hlâda = delight
paritâpa = anguish
phalâï = fruit
puñya = good, virtuous
apuñya = bad, evil
hetutvât = causality
This life will be marked by delight or anguish, in proportion to those good or bad actions that created
its store of latent impressions.
II.15 º⁄ªªŸº™Ÿº–—+Ÿªª‹·¬^‹ª∆‡⁄¤⁄∆ª|∞Ÿ·· ª‹·¬º‰∆ –∆ ⁄∆∆‰⁄+≤·
pariñâma-tâpa-saäskâra-duïkhair guña-vëtti-virodhâc ca duïkham eva sarvam vivekinaï
pariñâma = transformation
tâpa = anguish
saäskâra = latent impressions
duïkhaiï = distress, pain, suffering
guña = fundamental qualities of nature
vëtti = patterning, turnings, movements
virodhât = conflict, opposition
ca = and
duïkham = distress, pain, suffering
eva = thus
sarvam = all
vivekinaï = a person of discrimination
The wise see suffering in all experience, whether from the anguish of impermanence, or from latent
impressions laden with suffering, or from incessant conflict as the fundamental qualities of nature
vie for ascendancy.
II.16 “‰^ ª‹·¬º≤Ÿ^™º
heyaä duïkham anâgatam
heyaä = overcome, overwhelmed
duïkham = distress, pain, suffering
anâgatam = future
But suffering that has not yet arisen can be prevented.
II.17 ª˙œ·‡ª‡·^^|· –^|^| “‰^“‰™‹·
draæøë-dëåyayoï saäyogo heya-hetuï
draæøë = seer, witness, pure awareness
dëåyayoï = what is seen
saäyogaï = union, coupling
heya = overcome, overwhelmed
hetuï = cause
The preventible cause of all this suffering is the apparent indivisibility of pure awareness and what it
regards.
II.18 º˘+Ÿ¤⁄+^Ÿ⁄—ª⁄™¤|ƒ ∫›™‰⁄≥ª˙^Ÿ·º+ ∫|^Ÿº∆^Ÿª ª‡·^º
prakâåa-kriyâ-sthiti-åîlaä bhûtendriyâtmakaä bhogâpavargârthaä dëåyam
prakâåa = brightness
kriyâ = action
sthiti = stability, steadiness
åîlaä = character
bhûta = element
indriya = sensory apparatus
âtmakaä = self, essence
bhoga = experience, enjoyment
apavarga = emancipation, liberation
arthaä = meaning, purpose, approach
dëåyam = what is seen
What awareness regards, namely the phenomenal world, embodies the qualities of luminosity,
activity, and inertia; it includes oneself, composed of both elements and the senses; and, it is the
ground for both sensual experience and liberation.
II.19 ⁄∆¤‰ŒŸ⁄∆¤‰Œ⁄ƒ-ºŸºŸ⁄ƒ-Ÿ⁄≤ ^‹ªº∆Ÿ⁄ª
viåeæâviåeæa-liògamâtrâliògâni guña-parvâñi
viåeæa = difference, distinction; distinct
aviåeæa = indistinct
liòga = mark, characteristic
mâtra = only
aliògâni = undifferentiated, without marks
guña = fundamental qualities of nature
parvâñi = level, state
All orders of being - undifferentiated, differentiated, indistinct, distinct - are manifestations of the
fundamental qualities of nature.
II.20 ª˙œ·Ÿ ª‡⁄¤ºŸº· ¤‹ª|-⁄º º˘·^^Ÿ≤‹º·^·
draæøâ dëåi-mâtraï åuddho ‘pi pratyayânupaåyaï
draæøâ = pure awareness, witness, see-er
dëåi = seeing
mâtraï = only
åuddhaï = pure
api = also, although
pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation
anupaåyaï = to behold
Pure awareness is just seeing, itself; although pure, it usually appears to operate through the
perceiving mind.
II.21 ™ªª º∆ ª‡·^—^Ÿ·ºŸ
tad-artha eva dëåyasyâtmâ
tad = its, that
artha = meaning, purpose, approach
eva = thus
dëåyasya = of what is seen
âtmâ = self, essence
In essence, the phenomenal world exists to reveal this truth.
II.22 +‚™Ÿª º˘⁄™ ≤—·º-^≤œ· ™ª≥^–Ÿ∞Ÿªª·∆Ÿ™
këtârtham prati naæøam apyanaæøaä tad anya-sâdhârañatvât
këta = done, accomplished
artham = meaning, purpose, approach
prati = with regard to, toward, reversing
naæøam = ceased
api = also
anaæøaä = not ceased
tad = its, that
anya = other
sâdhârañatvât = common experience
Once that happens, the phenomenal world no longer appears as such; it continues to exist as a
common reality for everyone else, though.
II.23 —∆—∆Ÿ⁄º¤ª·^|· —∆ºº|ºƒ⁄π∞“‰™‹· –^|^·
sva-svâmi-åaktyoï svarûpopalabdhi-hetuï saäyogaï
sva = own
svâmi = owner
åaktyoï = power
sva = own
rûpa = form
upalabdhi = acquisition
hetuï = cause, reason
saäyogaï = union, coupling
It is by virtue of the apparent indivisibility of the phenomenal world and pure awareness that the
former seems to possess the latter’s powers.
II.24 ™—^ “‰™‹ª⁄∆ª|Ÿ
tasya hetur avidyâ
tasya = of this, that
hetuï = cause, reason
avidyâ = lack of wisdom, not seeing things as they are
Not seeing things as they are is the cause of this phenomenon.
II.25 ™ª∫Ÿ∆Ÿ™ –^|^Ÿ∫Ÿ∆| “Ÿ≤ ™ªª‡¤‰· +∆≈^º
tad-abhâvât saäyogâbhâvo hânaä tad-dëåeï kaivalyam
tad = its, that
abhâvât = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance
saäyoga = union, association, mingling
abhâvaï = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance
hânaä = cessation
tad = its, that
dëåeï = seeing
kaivalyam = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness
With realization, the appearance of indivisibility vanishes, revealing that awareness is free and
untouched by phenomena.
II.26 ⁄∆∆‰+¤^Ÿ⁄™ª⁄∆-ƒ∆Ÿ “Ÿ≤|ºŸ^·
viveka-khyâtir aviplavâ hânopâyaï
viveka = discrimination
khyâtiï = seeing
aviplavâ = continuous, uninterrupted
hâna = cessation
upâyaï = means
The apparent indivisibility of seeing and the seen can be eradicated by cultivating uninterrupted
discrimination between awareness and what it regards.
II.27 ™—^ –-™∞Ÿ º˘Ÿ≥™∫›⁄º· º˘◊Ÿ
tasya saptadhâ prânta-bhûmiï prajõâ
tasya = of this, that
saptadhâ = sevenfold
prânta = last
bhûmiï = stage, level
prajõa = wisdom
At the ultimate level of discrimination, wisdom extends to all seven aspects of nature.
II.28 ^|^Ÿ-Ÿ≤‹œªŸ≤Ÿª¤‹⁄ª’^‰ ◊Ÿ≤ª|⁄-™ªŸ⁄∆∆‰+¤^Ÿ™‰·
yogâògânuæøhânâd aåuddhi-kæaye jõâna-dîptir âviveka-khyâteï
yoga = process of yoking; union
aòga = limb, component
anuæøhânât = performance, practice
aåuddhi = impurity
kæaye = dwindling, decreasing
jõâna = knowledge
dîptiï = radiance
a = extending to
viveka = discrimination
khyâteï = seeing
When the components of yoga are practiced, impurities dwindle; then, the light of understanding can
shine forth, illuminating the way to discriminative awareness.
II.29 ^º⁄≤^ºŸ–≤º˘ŸªŸ^Ÿºº˘·^Ÿ“Ÿª∞ŸªªŸ·^Ÿ≤–ºŸ∞^|-œ·Ÿ∆-Ÿ⁄≤
yama-niyamâsana-prâñâyâma-pratyâhâra-dhârañâ-dhyâna-samâdhayo ‘æøâv aògâni
yama = external discipline
niyama = internal discipline
âsana = posture
prâñâyâma = breath regulation
pratyâhâra = withdrawal of the senses
dhârañâ = concentration
dhyana = meditative absorption
samâdhayaï = oneness, integration
aæøâu = eight
aògâni = limbs
The eight components of yoga are external discipline, internal discipline, posture, breath regulation,
concentration, meditative absorption, and integration.
II.30 ×⁄“–Ÿ–·^Ÿ—™‰^∏˘“˜·^Ÿº⁄ª^˘“Ÿ ^ºŸ·
ahimsâ-satyâsteya-brahmacaryâparigrahâ yamâï
ahimsâ = not harming
satya = truthfulness, truth
asteya = not stealing
brahmacarya = celibacy, impeccable conduct
aparigrahâ = not being acquisitive
yamâï = external discipline
The five external disciplines are not harming, truthfulness, not stealing, celibacy, and not being
acquisitive.
II.31 º™‰ ·Ÿ⁄™ª‰¤+Ÿƒ–º^Ÿ≤∆⁄·¤≤Ÿ· –Ÿ∆∫ŸºŸ º“Ÿ∆˘™º
ete jâti-deåa-kâla-samayânavacchinnâï sârva-bhaumâ mahâvratam
ete = these
jâti = birth, rank
deåa = place
kâla = time
samaya = circumstance
anavacchinnâï = unlimited, irrespective of
sârva = all
bhaumâ = at a level
mahâ = great
vratam = vow, commitment
These universals, transcending birth, place, era, or circumstance, constitute the great vow of yoga.
II.32 ¤Ÿ·–≥™|Œ™º·—∆Ÿ·^Ÿ^‰·ªº˘⁄ª∞Ÿ≤Ÿ⁄≤ ⁄≤^ºŸ·
åauca-santoæa-tapaï-svâdhyâyeåvara-prañidhânâni niyamâï
åauca = purity
santoæa = contentment
tapaï = heat, intensity of discipline, austerity
svâdhyâya = self-study
îåvara = divine ideal of pure awareness
prañidhânâni = surrender, dedication, application, alignment
niyamâï = internal discipline
The five internal disciplines are bodily purification, contentment, intensity, self-study, and
orientation toward the ideal of pure awareness.
II.33 ⁄∆™+∏Ÿ∞≤‰ º˘⁄™º’∫Ÿ∆≤º
vitarka-bâdhane pratipakæa-bhâvanam
vitarka = analytical thinking, unwholesome thoughts
bâdhane = repelling
pratipakæa = opposite
bhâvanam = realizing, becoming
Unwholesome thoughts can be neutralized by cultivating wholesome ones.
II.34 ⁄∆™+Ÿ ⁄“–Ÿª^· +‚™+Ÿ⁄ª™Ÿ≤‹º|⁄ª™Ÿ ƒ|∫+|∞º|“º›∆+Ÿ º‡ª‹º·^Ÿ⁄∞ºŸºŸ ª‹·¬Ÿ◊Ÿ≤Ÿ≤≥™∂ƒŸ :⁄™ º˘⁄™º’∫Ÿ∆≤º
vitarkâ himsâdayaï këta-kâritânumoditâ lobha-krodha-moha-pûrvakâ mëdu-madhyâdhimâtrâ
duïkhâjõânânanta-phalâ iti pratipakæa-bhâvanam
vitarkâ = analytical thinking, here: negative thoughts
himsâ = harming
âdayaï = et cetera
këta = done, accomplished
kârita = caused to be done, instigated
anumoditâ = approved
lobha = greed
krodha = anger
moha = delusion
pûrvakâ = preceded by
mëdu = mild
madhya = moderate
adhimâtrâ = extreme, intense
duïkha = distress, pain, suffering
âjõâna = ignorance
ananta = endless, boundless
phalâ = fruit
iti = thus
pratipakæa = opposite
bhâvanam = realizing, becoming
We ourselves may act upon unwholesome thoughts, such as wanting to harm someone, or we may
cause or condone them in others; unwholesome thoughts may arise from greed, anger, or delusion;
they may be mild, moderate, or extreme; but they never cease to ripen into ignorance and suffering.
This is why one must cultivate wholesome thoughts.
II.35 ×⁄“–Ÿº˘⁄™œªŸ^Ÿ ™·–⁄≤∞| ∆ª·^Ÿ^·
ahimsâ-pratiæøhâyâà tat-sannidhau vaira-tyâgaï
ahimsâ = not harming
pratiæøhâyâà = based on, grounded in
tat = that, these
sannidhau = presence
vaira = hostility
tyâgaï = abandonment
Being firmly grounded in non-violence creates an atmosphere in which others can let go of their
hostility.
II.36 –·^º˘⁄™œªŸ^Ÿ ⁄+^Ÿ∂ƒŸ·˘^·∆º
satya-pratiæøhâyâä kriyâ-phalâårayatvam
satya = truthfulness, truth
pratiæthâyâä = based on, grounded in
kriyâ = action
phala = fruit
âårayatvam = rest on
For those grounded in truthfulness, every action and its consequences are imbued with truth.
II.37 ×—™‰^º˘⁄™œªŸ^Ÿ –∆ª·≤Ÿ‰º—ªŸ≤º
asteya-pratiæøhâyâä sarva-ratnopasthânam
asteya = not stealing
pratiæthâyâä = based on, grounded in
sarva = all
ratna = jewel
upasthânam = approach, materialize
For those who have no inclination to steal, the truly precious is at hand.
II.38 ∏˘“˜·^º˘⁄™œªŸ^Ÿ ∆|^ƒŸ∫·
brahmacarya-pratiæøhâyâm vîrya-lâbhaï
brahmacarya = celibacy, impeccable conduct
pratiæthâyâä = based on, grounded in
vîrya = energy, vigor
lâbhaï = acquired
The chaste acquire vitality.
II.39 ׺⁄ª^˘“—ª^ ·≥º+ª™Ÿ–Ω∏|∞·
aparigraha-sthairye janma-kathantâ-sambodhaï
aparigraha = not being acquisitive
sthairye = being settled in
janma = birth
kathantâ = understanding why
sambodhaï = insight
Freedom from wanting unlocks the real purpose of existence.
II.40 ¤Ÿ·Ÿ™ —∆Ÿ-·‹^‹-–Ÿ ºªª––^·
åaucât svâòga-jugupsâ parair asansargaï
åaucât = purity
sva = own
aòga = limb, component
jugupsâ = disinclination, detachment
paraiï = other
asansargaï = freedom from contact
With bodily purification, one’s body ceases to be compelling, likewise contact with others.
II.41 –-∆¤‹⁄ª–Ÿº≤—^+Ÿ^˘º‰⁄≥ª˙^·^Ÿ·ºª¤≤^|·^·∆Ÿ⁄≤ ·
sattva-åuddhi-saumanasyaikâgryendriya-jayâtma-daråana-yogyatvâni ca
sattva = clarity, luminosity; a fundamental essence of nature, or guna
åuddhi = purity
saumanasya = gladness
eka = one
agrya = pointed
indriya = sensory apparatus
jaya = mastery
âtma = self, essence
daråana = vision, perspective
yogyatvâni = capability
ca = and
Purification also brings about clarity, happiness, concentration, mastery of the senses, and capacity for
self-awareness.
II.42 –≥™|ŒŸª≤‹¤º· –‹¬ƒŸ∫·
santoæâd anuttamaï sukha-lâbhaï
santoæât = contentment
anuttamaï = unsurpassed
sukha = happiness
lâbhaï = acquired
Contentment brings unsurpassed joy.
II.43 +Ÿ^‰⁄≥ª˙^⁄–⁄ªª¤‹⁄ª’^Ÿ™ ™º–·
kâyendriya-siddhir aåuddhi-kæayât tapasaï
kâya = body
indriya = sensory apparatus
siddhiï = perfection
aåuddhi = impurity
kæayât = dwindling, decreasing
tapasaï = heat, intensity of discipline, austerity
As intense discipline burns up impurities, the body and its senses become supremely refined.
II.44 —∆Ÿ·^Ÿ^Ÿ⁄ªœ·ª‰∆™Ÿ–Ωº˘^|^·
svâdhyâyâd iæøa-devatâ-samprayogaï
svâdhyâyât = self-study
iæøa = desired
devatâ = deity
samprayogaï = contact
Self-study deepens communion with one’s personal deity.
II.45 –ºŸ⁄∞⁄–⁄ªª|·∆ªº˘⁄ª∞Ÿ≤Ÿ™
samâdhi-siddhir îåvara-prañidhânât
samâdhi = oneness, integration
siddhiï = perfection
îåvara = divine ideal of pure awareness
prañidhânât = surrender, dedication, application, alignment
Through orientation toward the ideal of pure awareness, one can achieve integration.
II.46 ⁄—ªª–‹¬ºŸ–≤º
sthira-sukham âsanam
sthira = steady, stable
sukham = happiness
âsanam = posture
The postures of meditation should embody steadiness and ease.
II.47 º˘^·≤¤⁄ª≈^Ÿ≤≥™–ºŸº⁄¤-^Ÿº
prayatna-åaithilyânanta-samâpattibhyâm
prayatna = effort
åaithilya = relaxation
ananta = endless, boundless
samâpattibhyâm = coalescence, unified contemplation
This occurs as all effort relaxes and coalescence arises, revealing that the body and the infinite
universe are indivisible.
II.48 ™™| ª≥ªŸ≤⁄∫¤Ÿ™·
tato dvandvânabhighâtaï
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
dvandva = play of opposites, dualities
anabhighâtaï = insulation, being beyond disturbance
Then, one is no longer disturbed by the play of opposites.
II.49 ™⁄—º≤ –⁄™ ·Ÿ–º˘·Ÿ–^|^⁄™⁄∆·¤‰ª· º˘ŸªŸ^Ÿº·
tasmin sati åvâsa-praåvâsayor gati-vicchedaï prâñâyâmaï
tasmin = in this
sati = existing
åvâsa = inhalation
praåvâsayoï = exhalation
gati = flow
vicchedaï = cessation, interruption
prâñâyâmaï = breath regulation
With effort relaxing, the flow of inhalation and exhalation can be brought to a standstill; this is called
breath regulation.
II.50 ∏Ÿ“|Ÿ-^≥™ª—™Ω∫∆‡⁄¤ª¤+Ÿƒ–-ºŸ⁄∫· º⁄ªª‡œ·| ª|¤–›·º·
bâhyâbhyantara-stambha-vëttir deåa-kâla-saòkhyâbhiï-paridëæøo dîrgha-sûkæmaï
bâhya = external
abhyantara = internal
stambha = stationary
vëttiï = patterning, turnings, movements
deåa = place
kâla = time
saòkhyâbhiï = number
paridëæøaï = observed, measured, scrutinized
dîrgha = long
sûkæmaï = subtle
As the movement patterns of each breath - inhalation, exhalation, lull - are observed as to duration,
number, and area of focus, breath becomes spacious and subtle.
II.51 ∏Ÿ“|Ÿ-^≥™ª⁄∆Œ^Ÿ’‰º| ·™‹ª·
bâhyâbhyantara-viæayâkæepî caturthaï
bâhya = external
abhyantara = internal
viæaya = object (of experience), phenomenon
âkæepî = transcending
caturthaï = fourth
As realization dawns, the distinction between breathing in and out falls away.
II.52 ™™· ’|^™‰ º˘+Ÿ¤Ÿ∆ªªº
tataï kæîyate prakâåâvarañam
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
kæîyate = disappears
prakâåa = brightness
âvarañam = covering, veil, layer
Then the veil lifts from the mind’s luminosity.
II.53 ∞ŸªªŸ–‹ · ^|·^™Ÿ º≤–·
dhârañâsu ca yogyatâ manasaï
dhârañâsu = concentration
ca = and
yogyatâ = capability
manasaï = mind
And the mind’s potential for concentration is realized.
II.54 —∆⁄∆Œ^Ÿ–Ωº˘^|^‰ ⁄·¤—^ —∆ººŸ≤‹+Ÿª :∆‰⁄≥ª˙^ŸªŸ º˘·^Ÿ“Ÿª·
sva-viæayâsamprayoge cittasya svarûpânukâra ivendriyâñâm pratyâhâraï
sva = own
viæaya = object (of experience), phenomenon
asamprayoge = uncoupling
cittasya = consciousness
sva = own
rûpa = form
anukâra = imitation, following suit
iva = like, thus, as it were
indriyâñâm = sensory apparatus
pratyâhâraï = withdrawal of the senses
When consciousness interiorizes by uncoupling from external objects, the senses do likewise; this is
called withdrawal of the senses.
II.55 ™™· ºªºŸ ∆·^™‰⁄≥ª˙˙^ŸªŸº
tataï paramâ vaåyatendriyâñâm
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
paramâ = ultimate, highest, purest
vaåyata = obedience, subservience
indriyâñâm = sensory apparatus
Then the senses reside utterly in the service of realization.
⁄∆∫›⁄™ºŸª·
Vibhûti-pâdaï
III. The Extraordinary Powers
III.1 ª‰¤∏≥∞⁄·¤—^ ∞ŸªªŸ
deåa-bandhaå cittasya dhârañâ
deåa = place
bandhaï = binding
cittasya = consciousness
dhârañâ = concentration
Concentration locks consciousness on a single area.
III.2 ™º º˘·^^+™Ÿ≤™Ÿ ·^Ÿ≤º
tatra pratyayaika-tânatâ dhyânam
tatra = there, in that
pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation
eka = one
tânatâ = extension, stretching
dhyânam = meditative absorption
In meditative absorption, the entire perceptual flow is aligned with that object.
III.3 ™ª‰∆ŸªºŸº⁄≤∫Ÿ– —∆ºº¤›≥^⁄º∆ –ºŸ⁄∞·
tad evârtha-mâtra-nirbhâsaä svarûpa-åûnyam iva samâdhiï
tad = its, that
eva = thus
artha = meaning, purpose, approach
mâtra = only
nirbhâsaä = shining
sva = own
rûpa = form
åûnyam = empty
iva = like, thus, as it were
samâdhiï = oneness, integration
When only the essential nature of the object shines forth, as if formless, integration has arisen.
III.4 º^º‰+º –^º·
trayam ekatra saäyamaï
trayam = these three
ekatra = in one, as one
saäyamaï = constraint, perfect discipline
Concentration, meditative absorption, and integration regarding a single object comprise the perfect
discipline of consciousness.
III.5 ™·^Ÿ™ º˘◊Ÿƒ|+·
taj-jayât prajõâlokaï
tad = that
jayât = mastery
prajõa = wisdom
âlokaï = illumination, flashes of brilliance
Once the perfect discipline of consciousness is mastered, wisdom dawns.
III.6 ™—^ ∫›⁄ºŒ‹ ⁄∆⁄≤^|^·
tasya bhûmiæu viniyogaï
tasya = of this, that
bhûmiæu = stage
viniyogaï = progression, application
Perfect discipline is mastered in stages.
III.7 º^º≥™ª- º›∆-^·
trayam antar-aògam pûrvebhyaï
trayam = these three
antar = inner
aògam = limb, component
pûrvebhyaï = earlier
These three components - concentration, absorption, and integration - are more interiorized than the
preceding five.
III.8 ™ª⁄º ∏⁄“ª- ⁄≤∏|·—^
tad api bahir-aògaä nirbîjasya
tad = its, that
api = also
bahiï = external
aògaä = limb, component
nirbîjasya = seedless
Even these three are external to integration that bears no seeds.
III.9 …^‹·ªŸ≤⁄≤ª|∞–—+Ÿª^|ª⁄∫∫∆º˘Ÿª‹∫Ÿ∆| ⁄≤ª|∞’ª⁄·¤Ÿ≥∆^| ⁄≤ª|∞º⁄ªªŸº·
vyutthâna-nirodha-saäskârayor abhibhava-prâdur-bhâvau nirodha-kæaña-cittânvayo nirodha-pariñâmaï
vyutthâna = emergence
nirodha = stilling, cessation, restriction
saäskârayoï = latent impressions
abhibhava = subjugation, suppression, submergence
prâdur = outside
bhâvau = being, becoming
nirodha = stilling, cessation, restriction
kæaña = moment
citta = consciousness
anvayaï = connected to, permeated
nirodha = stilling, cessation, restriction
pariñâmaï = transformation
The transformation toward total stillness occurs as new latent impressions fostering cessation arise to
prevent the activation of distractive, stored ones, and moments of stillness begin to permeate
consciousness.
III.10 ™—^ º˘¤Ÿ≥™∆Ÿ⁄“™Ÿ –—+ŸªŸ™
tasya praåânta-vâhitâ saäskârât
tasya = of this, that
praåânta = tranquil
vâhitâ = flow, progression
saäskârât = latent impressions
These latent impressions help consciousness flow from one tranquil moment to the next.
III.11 –∆Ÿª™+Ÿ^˘™^|· ’^|ª^| ⁄·¤—^ –ºŸ⁄∞º⁄ªªŸº·
sarvârthataikâgratayoï kæayodayau cittasya samâdhi-pariñâmaï
sarva = all
arthata = regarding the meaning of something
ekâgratayoï = one-pointedness, focus
kæaya = dwindling, decreasing
udayau = arising, appearance
cittasya = consciousness
samâdhi = oneness, integration
pariñâmaï = transformation
Consciousness is transformed toward integration as distractions dwindle, and focus arises.
III.12 ™™· º‹≤· ¤Ÿ≥™|⁄ª™| ™‹≈^º˘·^^| ⁄·¤—^+Ÿ^˘™Ÿº⁄ªªŸº·
tataï punaïåântoditau tulya-pratyayau cittasyaikâgratâ-pariñâmaï
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
punaï = again
åânta = quiescent, subsided
uditau = arisen
tulya = similar, equal
pratyayau = perception, thought, intention, representation
cittasya = consciousness
ekâgratâ = one-pointedness, focus
pariñâmaï = transformation
In other words, consciousness is transformed toward focus as continuity develops between arising and
subsiding perceptions.
III.13 º™‰≤ ∫›™‰⁄≥ª˙^‰Œ‹ ∞ºƒ’ªŸ∆—ªŸº⁄ªªŸºŸ …^Ÿ¤^Ÿ™Ÿ·
etena bhûtendriyeæu dharma-lakæañâvasthâ-pariñâmâ vyâkhyâtâï
etena = by this
bhûta = element
indriyeæu = sensory apparatus
dharma = property, visible form, experiential substance
lakæaña = characteristic, time factors
avasthâ = condition
pariñâmâ = transformation
vyâkhyâtâï = described, explained
Consciousness evolves along the same three lines - form, timespan, and condition - as the elements
and the senses.
III.14 ¤Ÿ≥™|⁄ª™Ÿ…^ºª‰·^∞ºŸ≤‹ºŸ™| ∞º|
å¯antoditâvyapadeåya-dharmânupâtî dharmî
å¯anta = quiescent, subsided
udita = arisen
avyapadeåya = unmanifest
dharma = property, visible form, experiential substance
anupâtî = following, relying upon
dharmî = substrate, substance
The substrate is unchanged, whether before, during, or after it takes a given form.
III.15 +ºŸ≥^·∆ º⁄ªªŸºŸ≥^·∆‰ “‰™‹·
kramânyatvam pariñâmânyatve hetuï
krama = sequence, flow, succession
anyatvam = differentiation, variation
pariñâma = transformation
anyatve = differentiation, variation
hetuï = cause, reason
These transformations appear to unfold the way they do because consciousness is a succession of
distinct patterns.
III.16 º⁄ªªŸºº^–^ºŸª™|™Ÿ≤Ÿ^™◊Ÿ≤º
pariñâma-traya-saäyamâd atîtânâgata-jõânam
pariñâma = transformation
traya = these three
saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline
atîta = past
anâgata = future
jõânam = knowledge
Observing these three axes of change - form, timespan, and condition - with perfect discipline yields
insight into the past and future.
III.17 ¤πªŸªº˘·^^Ÿ≤Ÿ⁄º™ª‰™ªŸ·^Ÿ–Ÿ™ –-ª—™·º˘⁄∆∫Ÿ^–^ºŸ™ –∆∫›™·™◊Ÿ≤º
åabdârtha-pratyayânâm itaretarâdhyâsât saòkaras tat-pravibhâga-saäyamât sarva-bhûta-ruta-jõânam
åabda = verbal, linguistic
artha = meaning, purpose, approach
pratyayânâm = perception, thought, intention, representation
itaretara = one another
adhyâsât = superimposition
saòkaraï = confusion, mixing up
tad = that, these
pravibhâga = distinction
saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline
sarva = all
bhûta = element, being
ruta = language, sound
jõânam = knowledge
Word, meaning, and perception tend to get lumped together, each confused with the others; focusing
on the distinctions between them with perfect discipline yields insight into the language of all
beings.
III.18 –—+Ÿª–Ÿ’Ÿ·+ªªŸ™ º›∆·Ÿ⁄™◊Ÿ≤º
saäskâra-sâkæât-karañât pûrva-jâti-jõânam
saäskâra = latent impressions
sâkæât = direct, through the eye
karañât = making, observing
pûrva = earlier
jâti = birth, rank
jõânam = knowledge
Directly observing latent impressions with perfect discipline yields insight into previous births.
III.19 º˘·^^—^ ºª⁄·¤◊Ÿ≤º
pratyayasya para-citta-jõânam
pratyayasya = perception, thought, intention, representation
para = other
citta = consciousness
jõânam = knowledge
Focusing with perfect discipline on the perceptions of another yields insight into that person’s
consciousness.
III.20 ≤ · ™™ –ŸƒΩ∏≤ ™—^Ÿ⁄∆Œ^|∫›™·∆Ÿ™
na ca tat sâlambanaä tasyâviæayî-bhûtatvât
na = not
ca = and
tat = that, these
sâlambanaä = with support
tasya = of this, that
aviæayî = not present, absent
bhûtatvât = actuality, being
But not insight regarding the object of those perceptions, since the object itself is not actually present
in that person’s consciousness.
III.21 +Ÿ^ºº–^ºŸ™ ™ª^˘“|¤⁄¬—™Ω∫‰ ·’‹·º˘+Ÿ¤Ÿ–Ωº˘^|^‰-≥™∞Ÿ≤º
kâya-rûpa-saäyamât tad-grâhya-åakti-stambhe cakæuï-prakâåâsamprayoge ‘ntardhânam
kâya = body
rûpa = form
saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline
tad = its, that
grâhya = to be received, perceived
åakti = power
stambhe = suspension
cakæuï = eye
prakâåa = brightness
asamprayoge = uncoupling
antardhânam = invisibility, disappearance
When the body’s form is observed with perfect discipline, it becomes invisible: the eye is disengaged
from incoming light, and the power to perceive is suspended.
III.22 º™‰≤ ¤πªŸª|≥™∞Ÿ≤º‹¬º
etena åabdâdyantardhânam uktaä
etena = by this
åabda = sound
adi = others
antardhânam = invisibility, disappearance
uktaä = described, explained
Likewise, through perfect discipline other percepts - sound, smell, taste, touch - can be made to
disappear.
III.23 –|º+º ⁄≤·º+º · +º ™·–^ºŸªºªŸ≥™◊Ÿ≤º⁄ªœ·‰-^| ∆Ÿ
sopakramaä nirupakramaä ca karma tat-saäyamâd aparânta-jõânam ariæøebhyo vâ
sopakramaä = immediately manifest
nirupakramaä = slow to manifest
ca = and
karma = action
tat = that, these
saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline
aparânta = death
jõânam = knowledge
ariæøebhyaï = signs, omens
vâ = or
The effects of action may be immediate or slow in coming; observing one’s actions with perfect
discipline, or studying omens, yields insight into death.
III.24 º·^Ÿ⁄ªŒ‹ ∏ƒŸ⁄≤
maitryâdiæu balâni
maitrî = friendliness
âdiæu = and the others, et cetera
balâni = powers, strengths
Focusing with perfect discipline on friendliness, compassion, delight, and equanimity, one is imbued
with their energies.
III.25 ∏ƒ‰Œ‹ “⁄—™∏ƒŸª|⁄≤
baleæu hasti-balâdîni
baleæu = powers, strengths
hasti = elephant
bala = powers, strengths
âdîni = and the others, et cetera
Focusing with perfect discipline on the powers of an elephant, or other entities, one acquires those
powers.
III.26 º˘∆‡-^Ÿƒ|+≥^Ÿ–Ÿ™ –›·º…^∆⁄“™⁄∆º˘+‚œ·◊Ÿ≤º
pravëttyâloka-nyâsât sûkæma-vyavahita-viprakëæøa-jõânam
pravëtti = arising of activity
âloka = illumination, flashes of brilliance
nyâsât = setting down, focusing
sûkæma = subtle
vyavahita = hidden
viprakëæøa = distant
jõânam = knowledge
Being absorbed in the play of the mind’s luminosity yields insight about the subtle, hidden, and
distant.
III.27 ∫‹∆≤◊Ÿ≤ –›^ –^ºŸ™
bhuvana-jõânaä sûrye saäyamât
bhuvana = world
jõânaä = knowledge
sûrye = on the sun
saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline
Focusing with perfect discipline on the sun yields insight about the universe.
III.28 ·≥ª‰˙ ™ŸªŸ…^›“◊Ÿ≤º
candre târâ-vyûha-jõânam
candre = on the moon
târâ = star
vyûha = arrangement
jõânam = knowledge
Focusing with perfect discipline on the moon yields insight about the stars’ positions.
III.29 ∞˚‹∆‰ ™ª⁄™◊Ÿ≤º
dhruve tad-gati-jõânam
dhruve = polestar
tad = its, that
gati = flow
jõânam = knowledge
Focusing with perfect discipline on the polestar yields insight about their movements.
III.30 ≤Ÿ⁄∫·+ +Ÿ^…^›“◊Ÿ≤º
nâbhi-cakre kâya-vyûha-jõânam
nâbhi = navel
cakre = wheel, energy center
kâya = body
vyûha = arrangement
jõânam = knowledge
Focusing with perfect discipline on the navel energy center yields insight about the organization of
the body.
III.31 +ºª+›º‰ ’›⁄·ººŸ–Ÿ⁄≤∆‡⁄¤·
kañøha-kûpe kæut-pipâsâ-nivëttiï
kañøha = throat
kûpe = pit, well, cavity
kæut = hunger
pipâsâ = thirst
nivëttiï = cessation
Focusing with perfect discipline on the pit of the throat eradicates hunger and thirst.
III.32 +›º≤Ÿ•ºŸ —ª^º
kûrma-nâèyâä sthairyam
kûrma = tortoise
nâèyâä = channel, duct
sthairyam = being settled in
Focusing with perfect discipline on the ‘tortoise channel’, one cultivates steadiness.
III.33 º›∞-^|⁄™⁄Œ ⁄–ªª¤≤º
mûrdha-jyotiæi siddha-daråanam
mûrdha = head, crown
jyotiæi = light
siddha = perfected one
daråanam = vision, perspective
Focusing with perfect discipline on the light in the crown of the head, one acquires the perspective of
the perfected ones.
III.34 º˘Ÿ⁄™∫ŸªŸ –∆º
prâtibhâd vâ sarvam
prâtibhât = spontaneous illumination
vâ = or
sarvam = all
Or, all these accomplishments may be realized in a flash of spontaneous illumination.
III.35 „ª^‰ ⁄·¤–⁄∆™
hëdaye citta-samvit
hëdaye = heart
citta = consciousness
samvit = understanding
Focusing with perfect discipline on the heart, one understands the nature of consciousness.
III.36 –-∆º‹·Œ^|ª·^≥™Ÿ–-|ª^|· º˘·^^Ÿ⁄∆¤‰Œ| ∫|^· ºªŸªŸ™ —∆Ÿª–^ºŸ™ º‹·Œ◊Ÿ≤º
sattva-puruæayor atyantâsaòkîrnayoï pratyayâviåeæo bhogaï parârthât svârtha-saäyamât puruæa-
jõânam
sattva = clarity, luminosity; a fundamental essence of nature, or guna
puruæayoï = pure awareness
atyanta = absolutely
asaòkîrnayoï = unmixed
pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation
aviåeæaï = indistinct
bhogaï = experience, enjoyment
para = other
arthât = function, role
sva = own
artha = meaning, purpose, approach
saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline
puruæa = pure awareness
jõânam = knowledge
Experience consists of perceptions in which the luminous aspect of the phenomenal world is mistaken
for absolutely pure awareness. Focusing with perfect discipline on the different properties of each
yields insight into the nature of pure awareness.
III.37 ™™· º˘Ÿ⁄™∫·˘Ÿ∆ª∆‰ª≤Ÿª¤Ÿ—∆Ÿª∆Ÿ¤Ÿ ·Ÿ^≥™‰
tataï prâtibha-årâvaña-vedanâdaråâsvâda-vârttâ jâyante
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
prâtibha = spontaneous illumination
årâvaña = hearing
vedanâ = feeling
âdaråa = seeing
âsvâda = tasting
vârttâï = smelling
jâyante = occur, are produced
Following this insight, the senses - hearing, feeling, seeing, tasting, smelling - may suddenly be
enhanced.
III.38 ™‰ –ºŸ∞Ÿ∆‹º–^Ÿ …^‹·ªŸ≤‰ ⁄–ª^·
te samâdhâv upasargâ vyutthâne siddhayaï
te = they, these
samâdhâu = oneness, integration
upasargâ = obstacle, impediment
vyutthâne = emergence
siddhayaï = perfection, attainment
These sensory gifts may feel like attainments, but they distract one from integration.
III.39 ∏≥∞+Ÿªª¤⁄ª≈^Ÿ™ º˘·Ÿª–∆‰ª≤Ÿ·· ⁄·¤—^ ºª¤ª|ªŸ∆‰¤·
bandha-kâraña-åaithilyât pracâra-saävedanâc ca cittasya para-åarîrâveåaï
bandha = binding
kâraña = cause, making, perception
åaithilyât = relaxation
pracâra = movement, passage
saävedanât = sensitivity
ca = and
cittasya = consciousness
para = other
åarîra = body
âveåaï = entering
By relaxing one’s attachment to the body, and becoming profoundly sensitive to its currents,
consciousness can enter another’s body.
III.40 +ªŸ≤·^Ÿ-·ƒº-+º·+Ÿ⁄ªœ∆–- +·+Ÿ⁄≥™·
udâna-jayâj jala-paòka-kañøakâdiævasaòga utkrântiå ca
udâna = uppermost region of energy flow, or prana
jayât = mastery
jala = water
paòka = mud
kañøaka = thorn
âdiæu = and the others, et cetera
asaòga = without touching
utkrântiï = rising up
ca = and
By mastering the flow of energy in the head and neck, one can walk through water, mud, thorns, and
other obstacles without touching down, but rather floating over them.
III.41 –ºŸ≤·^Ÿ--∆ƒ≤º
samâna-jayâj jvalanam
samâna = energy flow through the solar plexus
jayât = mastery
jvalanam = radiance
By mastering the flow of energy through the solar plexus, one becomes radiant.
III.42 ·˘|ºŸ+Ÿ¤^|· –Ω∏≥∞–^ºŸ⁄º…^ ·˘|ºº
årotrâkâåayoï sambandha-saäyamâd divyaä årotram
årotra = of hearing
âkâåayoï = space, ether
sambandha = relationship
saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline
divyaä = divine
årotram = faculty of hearing
By focusing with perfect discipline on the way sound travels through the ether, one acquires divine
hearing.
III.43 +Ÿ^Ÿ+Ÿ¤^|· –Ω∏≥∞–^ºŸ≈ƒ¤‹™›ƒ–ºŸº¤‰·Ÿ+Ÿ¤^º≤º
kâyâkâåayoï sambandha-saäyamâl laghu-tûla-samâpatteå câkâåa-gamanam
kâya = body
âkâåayoï = space, ether
sambandha = relationship
saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline
laghu = light
tûla = cotton
samâpatteï = coalescence, unified contemplation
ca= and
âkâåa = space, ether
gamanam = travel
By focusing with perfect discipline on the body’s relationship to the ether, and developing coalesced
contemplation on the lightness of cotton, one can travel through space.
III.44 ∏⁄“ª+⁄≈º™Ÿ ∆‡⁄¤º“Ÿ⁄∆ª‰“Ÿ ™™· º˘+Ÿ¤Ÿ∆ªª’^·
bahir akalpitâ vëttir mahâ-videhâ tataï prakâåâvaraña-kæayaï
bahiï = external
akalpitâ = not feasible, impossible
vëttiï = patterning, turnings, movements
mahâ = great
videhâ = bodiless
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
prakâåa = brightness
âvaraña = covering, veil, layer
kæayaï = disappearance
When consciousness completely disengages from externals - the ‘great disembodiment’ - then the veil
lifts from the mind’s luminosity.
III.45 —ª›ƒ—∆ºº–›·ºŸ≥∆^Ÿª∆-∆–^ºŸª ∫›™·^·
sthûla-svarûpa-sûkæmânvayârthavattva-saäyamâd bhûta-jayaï
sthûla = gross
sva = own
rûpa = form
sûkæma = subtle
anvaya = pervasiveness, relation
artha = meaning, purpose, approach
vattva = function
saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline
bhûta = element, being
jayaï = mastery
By observing the aspects of matter - gross, subtle, intrinsic, relational, purposive - with perfect
discipline, one masters the elements.
III.46 ™™|-⁄ªºŸ⁄ªº˘Ÿª‹∫Ÿ∆· +Ÿ^–Ωº™ ™ªºŸ≤⁄∫¤Ÿ™·
tato ‘ñimâdi-prâdur-bhâvaï kâya-sampat tad-dharmânabhighâtaå ca
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
añima = the power to become minutely small
âdi = others
prâdur = outside
bhâvaï = being, becoming
kâya = body
sampat = perfection
tad = its, that
dharma = property, visible form, experiential substance
anabhighâtaï = insulation, being beyond disturbance
ca = and
Then extraordinary faculties appear, including the power to shrink to the size of an atom, as the body
attains perfection, transcending physical law.
III.47 ººƒŸ∆º^∏ƒ∆·˚–“≤≤·∆Ÿ⁄≤ +Ÿ^–Ωº™
rûpa-lâvañya-bala-vajra-saähananatvâni kâya-sampat
rûpa = form
lâvañya = grace
bala = strength
vajra = diamond
saähananatvâni = durability, firmness
kâya = body
sampat = perfection
This perfection includes beauty, grace, strength, and the durability of a diamond.
III.48 ^˘“ª—∆ººŸ⁄—º™Ÿ≥∆^Ÿª∆-∆–^ºŸ⁄ª⁄≥ª˙^·^·
grahaña-svarûpâsmitânvayârthavattva-saäyamâd indriya-jayaï
grahaña = grasping, perceiving
sva = own
rûpa = form
asmitâ = the sense of ‘I’, egoism
anvaya = pervasiveness, relation
artha = meaning, purpose, approach
vattva = function
saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline
indriya = sensory apparatus
jayaï = mastery
By observing the various aspects of the sense organs - their processes of perception, intrinsic natures,
identification as self, interconnectedness, purposes - with perfect discipline, one masters them.
III.49 ™™| º≤|·⁄∆·∆ ⁄∆+ªª∫Ÿ∆· º˘∞Ÿ≤·^·
tato mano-javitvam vikaraña-bhâvaï pradhâna-jayaå ca
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
manaï = mind
javitvam = quickness
vikaraña = without organs
bhâvaï = condition, state
pradhâna = foundation, matrix
jayaï = mastery
ca = and
Then, free from the constraints of their organs, the senses perceive with the quickness of the mind, no
longer in the sway of the phenomenal world.
III.50 –-∆º‹·ŒŸ≥^™Ÿ¤^Ÿ⁄™ºŸº—^ –∆∫Ÿ∆Ÿ⁄∞œªŸ™‡·∆ –∆◊Ÿ™‡·∆ ·
sattva-puruæânyatâ-khyâti-mâtrasya sarva-bhâvâdhiæøâtëtvaä sarva-jõâtëtvaä ca
sattva = clarity, luminosity; a fundamental essence of nature, or guna
puruæa = pure awareness
anyatâ = difference, distinction
khyâti = seeing
mâtrasya = only, merely
sarva = all
bhâva = condition, state
adhiæøâtëtvaä = supremacy
sarva = all
jõâtëtvaä = omniscience
ca = and
Once one just sees the distinction between pure awareness and the luminous aspect of the
phenomenal world, all conditions are known and mastered.
III.51 ™ªªŸ·^Ÿª⁄º ª|Œ∏|·’^‰ +∆≈^º
tad-vairâgyâd api doæa-bîja-kæaye kaivalyam
tad = its, that
vairâgyât = dispassion, non-reaction, non-attachment
api = also
doæa = imperfection, flaw
bîja = seed, source
kæaye = dwindling, decreasing
kaivalyam = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness
When one is unattached even to this omniscience and mastery, the seeds of suffering wither, and pure
awareness knows it stands alone.
III.52 —ªŸ≥^‹º⁄≤º≥ºª‰ –-—º^Ÿ+ªª º‹≤ª⁄≤œ·º˘–-Ÿ™
sthânyupanimantrañe saòga-smayâkarañam punar-aniæøa-prasaògât
sthâni = exalted, celestial
upanimantrañe = invitation
saòga = contact, attachment
smayâ = pride, beaming
akarañam = without cause
punaï = again, repeated, renewed
aniæøa = undesirable
prasaògât = inclination, recurrence
Even if the exalted beckon, one must avoid attachment and pride, or suffering will recur.
III.53 ’ª™·+º^|· –^ºŸ⁄ª∆‰+· ◊Ÿ≤º
kæaña-tat-kramayoï saäyamâd viveka-jaä jõânam
kæaña = moment
tat = that, these
kramayoï = sequence, flow, succession
saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline
viveka = discrimination
jaä = born
jõânam = knowledge
Focusing with perfect discipline on the succession of moments in time yields insight born of
discrimination.
III.54 ·Ÿ⁄™ƒ’ªª‰¤ª≥^™Ÿ≤∆·¤‰ªŸ™ ™‹≈^^|—™™· º˘⁄™º⁄¤·
jâti-lakæaña-deåair anyatânavacchedât tulyayos tataï pratipattiï
jâti = birth, rank
lakæaña = characteristic, time factors
deåaiï = place
anyatâ = distinction
anavacchedât = unbounded, continuous
tulyayoï = similar, equal
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
pratipattiï = understanding
This insight allows one to tell things apart which, through similarities of origin, feature, or position,
had seemed continuous.
III.55 ™Ÿª+ –∆⁄∆Œ^ –∆ªŸ⁄∆Œ^º+º ·‰⁄™ ⁄∆∆‰+· ◊Ÿ≤º
târakaä sarva-viæayaä sarvathâ-viæayam akramam ceti vivekajaä jõânam
târakaä = transcendent, delivering
sarva = all
viæayaä = object (of experience)
sarvathâ = in all circumstances
viæayam = object (of experience)
akramam = not in sequence, deconstructed
ca = and
iti = thus
viveka = discrimination
jaä = born
jõânam = knowledge
In this way, discriminative insight deconstructs all of the phenomenal world’s objects and conditions,
setting them apart from pure awareness.
III.56 –-∆º‹·Œ^|· ¤‹⁄ª–ŸΩ^‰ +∆≈^º
sattva-puruæayoï åuddhi-sâmye kaivalyam
sattva = clarity, luminosity; a fundamental quality of nature, or guna
puruæayoï = pure awareness
åuddhi = purity
sâmye = equality
kaivalyam = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness
Once the luminosity and transparency of consciousness have become as distilled as pure awareness,
they can reflect the freedom of awareness back to itself.
+∆≈^ºŸª·
Kaivalya-pâdaï
IV. Freedom
IV.1 ·≥ºŸŒ⁄∞º≥º™º·–ºŸ⁄∞·Ÿ· ⁄–ª^·
janmauæadhi-mantra-tapaï-samâdhijâï siddhayaï
janma = birth
auæadhi = herb
mantra = intonation
tapaï = heat, intensity of discipline, austerity
samâdhi = oneness, integration
jâï = born of
siddhayaï = perfection, attainment
The attainments brought about by integration may also arise at birth, through the use of herbs, from
intonations, or through austerity.
IV.2 ·Ÿ·^≥™ªº⁄ªªŸº· º˘+‚·^Ÿº›ªŸ™
jâtyantara-pariñâmaï prakëtyâpûrât
jâti = birth, rank
antara= other
pariñâmaï = transformation
prakëti = nature, phenomenal world
âpûrât = overflow
Being delivered into a new form comes about when natural forces overflow.
IV.3 ⁄≤⁄º¤ºº˘^|·+ º˘+‚™|≤Ÿ ∆ªª∫‰ª—™‹ ™™· ’‰⁄º+∆™
nimittam aprayojakam prakëtînâm varaña-bhedas tu tataï kæetrikavat
nimittam = proximate cause
aprayojakam = not causing
prakëtînâm = nature, phenomenal world
varaña = choosing
bhedaï = division, difference
tu = and, moreover, but
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
kæetrikavat = like a farmer
The transformation into this form or that is not driven by the causes proximate to it, just oriented by
them, the way a farmer diverts a stream for irrigation.
IV.4 ⁄≤ºŸª⁄·¤Ÿ≥^⁄—º™ŸºŸºŸ™
nirmâña-cittânyasmitâ-mâtrât
nirmâña = forming, creating
cittâni = consciousness
asmitâ = the sense of ‘I’, egoism
mâtrât = only
Feeling like a self is the frame that orients consciousness toward individuation.
IV.5 º˘∆‡⁄¤∫‰ª‰ º˘^|·+ ⁄·¤º‰+º≤‰+ŒŸº
pravëtti-bhede prayojakaä cittam ekam anekeæâä
pravëtti = arising of activity
bhede = division
prayojakaä = causing
cittam = consciousness
ekam = one
anekeæâä = many
A succession of consciousnesses, generating a vast array of distinctive perceptions, appear to
consolidate into one individual consciousness.
IV.6 ™º ·^Ÿ≤·º≤Ÿ¤^º
tatra dhyâna-jam anâåayam
tatra = there, in that
dhyâna = meditative absorption
jam = born
anâåayam = not involving the store of latent impressions
Once consciousness is fixed in meditative absorption, it no longer contributes to the store of latent
impressions.
IV.7 +ºŸ¤‹ªƒŸ+‚œª ^|⁄^≤⁄—º⁄∆∞⁄º™ªŒŸº
karmâåuklâkëæñaä yoginas trividham itareæâm
karma = action
aåukla = not white
akëæñaä = not black
yoginaï = yogi
trividham = threefold
itareæâm = others
The actions of a realized yogi transcend good and evil, whereas the actions of others may be good or
evil or both.
IV.8 ™™—™⁄ªºŸ+Ÿ≤‹^‹ªŸ≤Ÿº‰∆Ÿ⁄∫…^⁄¬∆Ÿ–≤Ÿ≤Ÿº
tatas tad-vipâkânuguñânâm evâbhivyaktir vâsanânâm
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
tad = its, that
vipâka = ripening, fruition
anuguñânâm = going with, following, accompanying
eva = thus
abhivyaktiï = manifestation
vâsanânâm = latent properties, traits
Each action comes to fruition by coloring latent impressions according to its quality - good, evil, or
both.
IV.9 ·Ÿ⁄™ª¤+Ÿƒ…^∆⁄“™Ÿ≤Ÿº-^Ÿ≤≥™^ —º‡⁄™–—+Ÿª^|ª‰+ºº·∆Ÿ™
jâti-deåa-kâla vyavahitânâm apyânantaryaä smëti-saäskârayor eka-rûpatvât
jâti = birth, rank
deåa = place
kâla = time
vyavahitânâm = hidden, separated
api = also
ânantaryaä = succession
smëti = memory, mindfulness
saäskârayoï = latent impressions
eka = one
rûpatvât = essential form
Because the depth memory and its latent impressions are of a piece, their dynamic of cause and effect
flows uninterruptedly across the demarcations of birth, place, and time.
IV.10 ™Ÿ–Ÿº≤Ÿ⁄ª·∆ ·Ÿ⁄¤Œ| ⁄≤·^·∆Ÿ™
tâsâm anâditvaä câåiæo nityatvât
tâsâm = of these
anâditvaä = without beginning
ca = and
âåiæaï = primordial will to exist
nityatvât = perpetuity, eternity
They have always existed, because the will to exist is eternal.
IV.11 “‰™‹∂ƒŸ·˘^ŸƒΩ∏≤· –-‡“|™|™·∆Ÿª‰ŒŸº∫Ÿ∆‰ ™ª∫Ÿ∆·
hetu-phalâårayâlambanaiï saògëhîtatvâd eæâm abhâve tad-abhâvaï
hetu = cause, reason
phala = fruit
âåraya = basis, foundation
âlambanaiï = support, object
saògëhîtatvât = connectedness
eæâm = of these
abhâve = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance
tad= its, that
abhâvaï = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance
Since its cause, effect, basis, and object are inseparable, a latent impression disappears when they do.
IV.12 ×™|™Ÿ≤Ÿ^™ —∆ºº™|-—·^·∆∫‰ªŸªºŸªŸº
atîtânâgataä svarûpato ‘styadhva-bhedâd dharmâñâm
atîta = past
anâgataä = future
sva = own
rûpataï = in form
asti = exist
adhva = path, route
bhedât = division, difference
dharmâñâm = properties, visible forms, experiential substances
The past and future are immanent in an object, existing as different sectors in the same flow of
experiential substances.

IV.13 ™‰ …^¬–›·ºŸ ^‹ªŸ·ºŸ≤·
te vyaktasûkæmâ guñâtmânaï
te = they, these
vyakta = manifest
sûkæmâ = subtle
guña = fundamental qualities of nature
âtmânaï = self, essence
The characteristics of these sectors, whether manifest or subtle, are imparted by the fundamental
qualities of nature.
IV.14 º⁄ªªŸº+·∆Ÿª—™‹™-∆º
pariñâmaikatvâd vastu-tattvam
pariñâma = transformation
ekatvât = oneness
vastu = object, substance
tattvam = thusness, elemental quality, principle
Their transformations tend to blur together, imbuing each new object with a quality of substantiality.
IV.15 ∆—™‹–ŸΩ^‰ ⁄·¤∫‰ªŸ¤^|⁄∆∫¬· º≥ªŸ·
vastu-sâmye citta-bhedât tayor vibhaktaï panthâï
vastu = object, substance
sâmye = equality
citta = consciousness
bhedât = division, difference
tayoï = of both
vibhaktaï = separation
panthâï = path
People perceive the same object differently, as each person’s perception follows a separate path from
another’s.
IV.16 ≤ ·+⁄·¤™≥º ∆—™‹ ™ªº˘ºŸª+ ™ªŸ ⁄+ —^Ÿ™
na caika-citta-tantram vastu tad apramâñakaä tadâ kiä syât
na = not
ca = and
eka = one
citta = consciousness
tantram = dependent
vastu = object, substance
tad = that, these
apramâñakaä = unobserved
tadâ = then
kiä = what
syât = could be
But the object is not dependent on either of those perceptions; if it were, what would happen to it
when nobody was looking?
IV.17 ™ª‹ºªŸ^Ÿº‰⁄’·∆Ÿ⁄··¤—^ ∆—™‹ ◊Ÿ™Ÿ◊Ÿ™º
tad-uparâgâpekæitvâc-cittasya vastu jõâtâjõâtam
tad = its, that
uparâga = coloring
apekæitvât = necessity
cittasya = consciousness
vastu = object, substance
jõâta = known
ajõâtam = not known
An object is only known by a consciousness it has colored; otherwise, it is not known.
IV.18 –ªŸ ◊Ÿ™Ÿ⁄·¤∆‡¤^—™·º˘∫|· º‹·Œ—^Ÿº⁄ªªŸ⁄º·∆Ÿ™
sadâ jõâtâå citta-vëttayas tat-prabhoï puruæasyâpariñâmitvât
sadâ = always
jõâtâï = known
citta = consciousness
vëttayaï = patterning, turnings, movements
tad = that, these
prabhoï = superior
puruæasya = pure awareness
apariñâmitvât = immutability
Patterns of consciousness are always known by pure awareness, their ultimate, unchanging witness.
IV.19 ≤ ™™ —∆Ÿ∫Ÿ– ª‡·^·∆Ÿ™
na tat svâbhâsaä dëåyatvât
na = not
tat = that, these
sva = own
âbhâsaä = luminosity
dëåyatvât = seen-ness
Consciousness is seen not by its own light, but by awareness.
IV.20 º+–º^‰ ·|∫^Ÿ≤∆∞Ÿªªº
eka-samaye cobhayânavadhârañam
eka= one
samaye = circumstance
ca = and
ubhaya = both
anavadhârañam = not perceiving
Furthermore, consciousness and its object cannot be perceived at once.
IV.21 ⁄·¤Ÿ≥™ªª‡·^‰ ∫‹⁄ª∏‹ª‰ª⁄™º˘–-· —º‡⁄™–-ª·
cittântara-dëåye buddhi-buddher atiprasaògaï smëti-saòkaraå ca
citta = consciousness
antara = other
dëåye = seen
buddhi = perception, cognition
buddheï = perception, cognition
atiprasaògaï = regress
smëti = memory, mindfulness, depth memory
saòkaraï = confusion, mixing up
ca = and
If consciousness were perceived by itself instead of awareness, the chain of such perceptions would
regress infinitely, imploding memory.
IV.22 ⁄·™‰ªº˘⁄™–¢+ºŸ^Ÿ—™ªŸ+ŸªŸº¤Ÿ —∆∏‹⁄ª–∆‰ª≤º
citer apratisaòkramâyâs tad-âkârâpattau svabuddhi-samvedanam
citeï = pure awareness
apratisaòkramâyâï = immobile, unchanging
tad = its, that
âkâra = shape
âpattau = assumes, occurs
sva = own
buddhi = perception, intelligence
samvedanam = sensitivity
Once it is stilled, though, consciousness mirrors unchanging pure awareness, and can reflect itself
being perceived.
IV.23 ª˙œ·‡ª‡·^|ºª¬ ⁄·¤ –∆Ÿªº
draæøë-dëåyoparaktaä cittaä sarvârtham
draæøë = seer, pure awareness
dëåya = what is seen
uparaktaä = colored
cittaä = consciousness
sarva = all
artham = meaning, purpose, approach, object
Then, consciousness can be colored by both pure awareness and the phenomenal world, thereby
fulfilling all its purposes.
IV.24 ™ª–-º‰^∆Ÿ–≤Ÿ⁄∫⁄·ºº⁄º ºªŸª –“·^+Ÿ⁄ª·∆Ÿ™
tad asaòkhyeya-vâsanâbhiå citram api parârthaä saähatya-kâritvât
tad = that, these
asaòkhyeya = countless
vâsanâbhiï = latent properties, traits
citram = variegated, spotted
api = also
para = other
arthaä = meaning, purpose, approach, object
saähatya = compound
kâritvât = activity
Even when colored by countless latent traits, consciousness, like all compound phenomena, has
another purpose - to serve awareness.
IV.25 ⁄∆¤‰Œª⁄¤≤ ן·º∫Ÿ∆∫Ÿ∆≤Ÿ⁄∆⁄≤∆‡⁄¤·
viåeæa-daråina âtma-bhâva-bhâvanâ-vinivëttiï
viåeæa = difference, distinction; distinct, particular
daråina = one who sees
âtma = self, essence
bhâva = being, becoming
bhâvanâ = realizing, becoming
vinivëttiï = cessation
As soon as one can distinguish between consciousness and awareness, the ongoing construction of the
self ceases.
IV.26 ™ªŸ ⁄∆∆‰+⁄≤Ω≤ +∆≈^º˘Ÿ·∫Ÿª ⁄·¤º
tadâ viveka-nimnaä kaivalya-prâg-bhâraä cittam
tadâ = then
viveka = discrimination
nimnaä = bent, inclined toward
kaivalya = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness
prâg = before
bhâraä = load
cittam = consciousness
Consciousness, now oriented to this distinction, can gravitate toward freedom - the fully integrated
knowledge that pure awareness is independent from nature.
IV.27 ™⁄·∞ª˙Œ‹ º˘·^^Ÿ≥™ªŸ⁄ª –—+Ÿª‰-^·
tac-chidreæu pratyayântarâñi saäskârebhyaï
tad = that, these
chidreæu = gap
pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation
antarâñi = other
saäskârebhyaï = latent impressions
Any gaps in discriminating awareness allow distracting thoughts to emerge from the store of latent
impressions.
IV.28 “Ÿ≤º‰ŒŸ ªƒ‰¤∆ª‹¬º
hânam eæâm kleåavad uktam
hânam = cessation
eæâm = of these
kleåavat = like the causes of suffering
uktam = described, explained
These distractions can be subdued, as the causes of suffering were, by tracing them back to their
origin, or through meditative absorption.
IV.29 º˘–-ºŸ≤‰--^+‹–|ª—^ –∆ªŸ ⁄∆∆‰+¤^Ÿ™‰∞ºº‰¤· –ºŸ⁄∞·
prasaòkhyâne ‘pyakusîdasya sarvathâ viveka-khyater dharma-meghaï samâdhiï
prasaòkhyâne = elevation, summit
api = also
akusîdasya = one without greed
sarvathâ = in all circumstances
viveka = discrimination
khyateï = seeing
dharma = property, visible form, experiential substance
meghaï = cloud, rain showers
samâdhiï = oneness, integration
One who regards even the most exalted states disinterestedly, discriminating continuously between
pure awareness and the phenomenal world, enters the final stage of integration, in which nature is
seen to be a cloud of irreducible experiential substances.
IV.30 ™™·ªƒ‰¤+º⁄≤∆‡⁄¤·
tataï kleåa-karma-nivëttiï
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
kleåa = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison
karma = action
nivëttiï = cessation
This realization extinguishes both the causes of suffering and the cycle of cause and effect.
IV.31 ™ªŸ –∆Ÿ∆ªªºƒŸº‰™—^ ◊Ÿ≤—^Ÿ≤≥·^Ÿ-◊‰^º≈ºº
tadâ sarvâvaraña-malâpetasya jõânasyânantyâj jõeyam alpam
tadâ = then
sarva = all
âvaraña = covering, veil, layer
mala = imperfection
apetasya = removed
jõânasya = knowledge, insight
ânantyât = infinity, the boundless
jõeyam = to be known
alpam = little
Once all the layers and imperfections concealing truth have been washed away, insight is boundless,
with little left to know.
IV.32 ™™·+‚™ŸªŸ≤Ÿ º⁄ªªŸº+º–ºŸ⁄-™^‹ªŸ≤Ÿº
tataïkëtârthânâm pariñâma-krama-samâptir guñânâm
tataï = therefore, from these, from that
këta = done, accomplished
arthânâm = meaning, purpose, approach, object
pariñâma = transformation
krama = sequence, flow, succession
samâptiï = termination
guñânâm = fundamental qualities of nature
Then the seamless flow of reality, its transformations colored by the fundamental qualities, begins to
break down, fulfilling the true mission of consciousness.
IV.33 ’ªº˘⁄™^|^| º⁄ªªŸºŸºªŸ≥™⁄≤^˘Ÿ“|· +º·
kæaña-pratiyogî pariñâmâparânta-nirgrâhyaï kramaï
kæaña = moment
pratiyogî = corresponding
pariñâma = transformation
apara = other
anta = end
nirgrâhyaï = graspable
kramaï = sequence, flow, succession
One can see that the flow is actually a series of discrete events, each corresponding to the merest
instant of time, in which one form becomes another.
IV.34 º‹·ŒŸª¤›≥^Ÿ≤Ÿ ^‹ªŸ≤Ÿ º˘⁄™º˘–∆· +∆≈^ —∆ººº˘⁄™œªŸ ∆Ÿ ⁄·⁄™¤¬⁄ª⁄™
puruæârtha-åûnyânâä guñânâm pratiprasavaï kâivalyaä svarûpa-pratiæøhâ vâ citi-åakter iti
puruæa = pure awareness
artha = meaning, purpose, approach, object
åûnyânâä = empty
guñânâm = fundamental qualities of nature
prati = with regard to, toward, reversing
prasavaï = flow, motion, creation, inception
kâivalyaä = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness
sva = own
rûpa = form
pratiæøhâ = foundation
vâ = or
citi = pure seeing
åakteï = power
iti = that’s all, finis

Freedom is at hand when the fundamental qualities of nature, each of their transformations witnessed
at the moment of its inception, are recognized as irrelevant to pure awareness; it stands alone,
grounded in its very nature, the power of pure seeing.
That is all.
Sanskrit-English glossary
Each of the Sanskrit terms in the Yoga-Sûtra appears below. To make this glossary more accessible to
readers unfamiliar with Sanskrit, terms have been transliterated to the Roman alphabet, rather than
appearing in devanâgarî script, and compiled in Roman alphabetical order. In many cases they have also
been presented with the grammatical endings used by Patañjali, as well as their root forms, which are
often a different part of speech and may have a somewhat different meaning. Parentheses indicate where
each Sanskrit term can be found in the Yoga-Sûtra. To sound out Sanskrit words correctly, see the
Sanskrit Pronunciation Guide on page 3; to compare to Sanskrit rendered in devanâgarî script, see
accompanying link, Sanskrit Alphabet (PDF).
a = extending to
âbhâsaä = luminosity (IV.19)
abhâva = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance (I.10, 29; II.25; IV.11)
abhibhava = subjugation, suppression, submergence (III.9)
abhijâtasya = faultless, transparent (I.41)
abhimata = desired (I.39)
abhiniveåâï = self-preservation (II.3,9)
abhivyaktiï = manifestation (IV.8)
abhyantara = internal (II.50,51)
abhyâsa = practice, action, method (I.12,13,18,32)
âdaråa = seeing (III.38)
âdayaï = et cetera (II.34)
adhigamaï = attainment (I.29)
adhimâtrâ, adhimâtratvât = extreme, intense (I.22)
adhiæøâtëtvaä = supremacy (III.50)
adhva = path, route (IV.12)
adhyâsât = superimposition (III.17)
adhyâtma = innermost self (I.47)
adi = others (III.23,47)
âdiæu, âdîni = and the others, et cetera (III.25,41)
adëæøa = unseen (II.12)
âgamâï = testimony from a teacher or traditional texts (I.7)
agrya = pointed (II.41)
ahaäkâra = ‘I-maker’, source of egoism; the sense that identification is occurring
ahimsâ = not harming (II.30,35)
âjõâna = ignorance (II.34)
ajõâtam = not known (IV.17)
akalpitâ = not feasible, impossible (III.45)
âkâra = shape (IV.22)
akarañam = without cause (III.51)
âkâåayoï = space, ether (III.42,43)
akliæøâï = benign (I.5)
akramam = not in sequence, simultaneous (III.56)
akëæñaä = not black (IV.7)
âkæepî = transcending (II.51)
akusîdasya = one without greed (IV.29)
alabdha = failing to attain (I.30)
âlambanâ = resting on (I.10,38)
âlambanaiï = support, object (IV.11)
âlasya = laziness (I.30)
aliòga, aliògâni = without form (I.45; II.19)
âlokaï = illumination, flashes of brilliance (III.5,26)
alpam = little (IV.31)
anabhighâtaï = insulation, being beyond disturbance (II.48; III.46)
anâditvaä = without beginning (IV.10)
anâgatam = future (II.16; III.16; IV.12)
ânanda = bliss, joy (I.17)
ananta = endless, boundless (II.34,47)
ânantaryaä = succession (IV.9)
ânantyât = infinity, the boundless (IV.31)
anâåayam = not involving the store of latent impressions (IV.6)
anaæøaä = not ceased (II.22)
anâtmasu = not self (II.5)
anavacchedât = unbounded, continuous (I.26; III.54)
anavacchinnâï = unlimited, irrespective of (II.31)
anavadhârañam = not perceiving (IV.20)
anavasthitatvâni = inconstancy, instability (I.30)
anekeæâä = many (IV.5)
aògam, aògâni = limb, component (I.31; III.7,8)
añima = the power to become minutely small (III.47)
aniæøa = undesirable (III.52)
anitya = impermanent (II.5)
aõjanatâ = saturation, taking the form of something else (I.41)
anta = end (IV.33)
antaï = extending from...to (I.40)
antar = inner (III.7)
antara = other (IV.2,21)
antarâya = obstacle (I.29,30)
antardhânam = invisibility, disappearance (III.21)
añu = minute, infinitesimal (I.40)
anubhûta = experienced (I.11)
anugamât = going with, following, accompanying (I.17)
anuguñânâm = going with, following, accompanying (IV.8)
anukâra = imitation, following suit (II.54)
anumâna = inference (I.7,49)
anumoditâ = approved (II.37)
anupaåyaï = to behold (II.20)
anupâtî = following, relying upon (I.9; III.14)
ânuåâsanam = teaching, exposition (I.1)
anuåayî = following (II.7,8)
anuåravika = heard, learned (I.15)
anuæøhânât = performance, practice (II.28)
anuttamaï = unsurpassed (II.42)
anvaya = pervasiveness, relation (III.45,48)
anvayaï = connected to, permeated (III.9)
anyaï = other (I.18,49,50; II.22)
anyatâ = distinction (III.50,54)
anyatvam = differentiation, variation (III.15)
apara = other (IV.33)
aparâmëæøaï = untouched, unaffected (I.24)
aparânta = death (III.23; IV.33)
aparigrahâ = not being acquisitive (II.30,39)
apariñâmitvât = immutability (IV.18)
âpattau = assumes, occurs (IV.22)
apavarga = emancipation, liberation (II.18)
apekæitvât = necessity (IV.17)
apetasya = removed (IV.31)
api = also (I.22,26,29,51; II.9,20,22; III.8,51; IV.9,24,29)
apramâñakaä = unobserved (IV.16)
apratisaòkramâyâï = immobile, unchanging (IV.22)
aprayojakam = not causing (IV.3)
apuñya = bad, evil (I.33; II.14)
âpûrât = overflow (IV.2)
ariæøebhyaï = signs, omens (III.23)
artha = meaning, purpose, approach, object (I.28,32,42,43; II.2,18,21,22; III.3,36; IV.23,24)
arthata = regarding the meaning of something (III.11)
arthatvât = function, role (I.49; III.36)
asaòkîrnayoï = unmixed (III.36)
asampramoæaï = not allowing to steal away (I.11)
asamprayoge = uncoupling (II.54)
asansargaï = freedom from contact (II.40)
âsana = posture (II.29,46)
asaòga = without touching (III.40)
asaòkhyeya = countless (IV.24)
âsannaï = near (I.21)
âåayaï = store, residuum (I.24; II.12)
âsevitaï = cultivated (I.14)
âåiæaï = primordial will to exist (IV.10)
asmitâ = the sense of ‘I’, egoism (I.17; II.3,6; IV.4)
âåraya = basis, foundation (IV.11)
âårayatvam = rest on (II.36)
asteya = not stealing (II.30,37)
aæøâu = eight (II.29)
asti = exist (IV.12)
aåuci = impure (II.5)
aåuddhi = impurity (II.43)
aåukla = not white (IV.7)
âsvâda = tasting (III.37)
asya = his (I.40)
atad = not that (I.8)
atha = now (I.1)
atiprasaògaï = regress (IV.21)
atîta = past (III.16; IV.12)
âtma, âtmakaä, âtmânaï = self, essence (II.5,21,41; IV.25)
âtmatâ = selfhood (II.6; IV.13)
atyanta = absolutely (III.36)
auæadhi = herb (IV.1)
âvarañam = covering, veil, layer (II.52; III.44; IV.31)
avasthâ = condition (III.13)
avasthânam = state of abiding (I.3)
âveåaï = entering (III.39)
avidyâ = lack of wisdom, ignorance of one’s true nature (II.3,4,5,24)
aviplavâ = continuous, uninterrupted (II.26)
avirati = hedonism (I.30)
aviæayî = not present, absent (III.20)
aviåeæa = indistinct (II.19; III.36)
avyapadeåya = unmanifest (III.14)
âyuï = span of life (II.13)
bâdhane = repelling (II.33)
bahiï = external (III.8,44)
bâhya = external (II.50,51)
bala = powers, strengths (III.26,48)
balâni = powers, strengths (III.25)
bandhaï = binding (III.1,39)
bharâ = bearing (I.48)
bhâraä = load (IV.26)
bhaumâ = at a level (II.31)
bhava = being, becoming (I.19)
bhavah = condition, state (III.49,50; IV.25)
bhâvanâ = realizing, becoming (II.2; IV.25)
bhâvanam = realizing, becoming (I.28; II.33,34)
bhâvanâtaï = radiating, projecting (I.33)
bhedaï = division, difference (IV.3,5,12,15)
bhogâï = experience, enjoyment (II.13,18; III.36)
bhrânti = false (I.30)
bhûmiï = rooted, grounded (I.14; III.6); stage (II.27)
bhûmiï = stage, level (II.27)
bhûmikatva = developmental stages (I.30)
bhûta = element, being (II.18; III.13,17,45)
bhûtatvât = actuality, being (III.20)
bhuvana = world (III.27)
bîjam = seed, source (I.25; III.51)
brahmacarya = celibacy, impeccable conduct (II.30,38)
buddhi, buddheï = perception, intelligence (IV.21,22)
ca = and, but (I.29,44,45; II.2,15,41,53; III.20,23,39,40,43,46,49,50,55; IV.10,16,20,21)
cakre = wheel, energy center (III.30)
cakæuï = eye (III.21)
candre = moon (III.28)
caturthaï = fourth (II.51)
cetanâ = consciousness (I.29)
chidreæu = gap (IV.27)
citeï = pure awareness (IV.22,34)
citram = variegated, spotted (IV.24)
citta = consciousness (I.2,30,33,37; II.54; III.1,9,11,12,19,35,39; IV.4,5,15,16,17,18,21,23,26)
daråana = vision, perspective, systematic view, philosophy (I.30; II.6,41; III.33)
daråina = one who sees (IV.25)
daurmanasya = depression (I.31)
deåa = place (II.31,50; III.1,54; IV.9)
devatâ = deity (II.44)
dhârañâ = concentration (II.29,53; III.1)
dharma = property, visible form, constituent substance (III.13,14,46; IV.12,29)
dharmî = substrate, substance (III.14)
dhruve = polestar (III.29)
dhyânât = meditative absorption (I.39; II.11,29; III.2; IV.6)
dîptiï = radiance (II.28)
dîrgha = long (I.14; II.50)
divyaä = divine (III.42)
doæa = imperfection, flaw (III.51)
draæøë = seer, witness, pure awareness (II.17,20; IV.23)
draæøâ, draæøuï = seer, witness, pure awareness (I.3; II.20)
dëèha = firmly (I.14)
dëg = witness, see-er (II.6)
dëåi = seeing (II.20,25)
dëæøa = seen, perceptible (I.15; II.12)
dëåya, dëåyayoï, dëåye = what is seen (II.17,18,21; IV.21,23)
dëåyatvât = seen-ness (IV.19)
duïkha = distress, pain, suffering (I.31,33; II.5,8,15,16,34)
dvandva = play of opposites, dualities (II.48)
dveæa = aversion (II.3,8)
ejayatva = trembling (I.31)
eka = one (I.32; II.6,41; IV.5,9,16,20)
ekâgratayoï, ekâgrya = one-pointedness, focus (II.41; III.11,12)
ekatra = in one, as one (III.4)
ekatvât = oneness (IV.14)
eæâm = of these (IV.11,28)
etaya = by this (I.44)
ete = these (II.31)
etena = by this (III.13)
eva = thus (I.44,46; II.15,21; III.3; IV.8)
gamanam = travel (III.43)
gati = flow (II.49; III.29)
grahaña = grasping, perceiving (I.41; III.48)
grahîtë = one who grasps, perceiver (I.41)
grâhya = to be received, perceived (III.21)
grâhyeæu = grasped, object of perception (I.41)
guña = fundamental quality of nature (I.16; II.15,19; IV.13,32,34)
guruï = teacher, mentor (I.26)
hânaä = cessation (II.25,26; IV.28)
hasti = elephant (III.26)
hetuï = cause, reason (II.17,23,24; III.15; IV.11)
hetutvât = causality (II.14)
heyâï = overcome, overwhelmed (II.10,11,16,17)
himsâ = harming (II.34)
hlâda = delight (II.14)
hëdaye = heart (III.35)
indriya = sensory apparatus (II.18,41,43,54,55; III.13,48)
iæøa = desired (II.44)
îåvara = divine ideal of pure awareness (I.23,24; II.1,32,45)
itaratra = otherwise (I.4)
itareæâm = others (I.20; IV.7)
itaretara = one another (III.17)
iti = thus, that’s all (II.34; III.55,56; IV.34)
iva = like, thus, as it were (I.41,43; II.6,54; III.3)
jaï = born of (I.50; III.53,55; IV.1)
jala = water (III.40)
jam = born (III.54,56; IV.6)
janma = birth (II.12,39; IV.1)
japaï = repetition, intonation (I.28)
jâti = birth, rank (II.13,31; III.18,54; IV.2,9)
javitvam = quickness (III.49)
jaya = mastery (II.41; III.5,40,41,45,48,49)
jâyante = occur, are produced (III.37)
jõatva = knowing (I.25)
jõâna = knowledge, insight (I.8,9,38,42; II.28; III.16,17,18,19,23,26,27,28,29,36,53,55; IV.31)
jõâta = known (IV.17,18)
jõâtëtvaä = omniscience (III.50)
jõeyam= to be known (IV.31)
jugupsâ = disinclination, detachment (II.40)
jvalanam = radiance (III.41)
jyotiæi = light (III.33)
jyotiæmatî = luminous (I.36)
kaivalyam = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness (II.25; III.51,56; IV.26,34)
kâla = time (I.14; II.31,50; IV.9)
kâlena = by time, temporally (I.26)
kañøaka = thorn (III.40)
kañøha = throat (III.31)
karañât = making, observing (III.18)
karaña = cause, making, perception (II.2; III.39,40)
kârita = caused to be done, instigated (II.34)
kâritvât = activity (IV.24)
karma = action (I.24; II.12; III.23; IV.7,30)
karuñâ = compassion (I.33)
kathantâ = understanding why (II.39)
kâya = body (II.43; III.21,30,43,46,47)
khyâteï, khyâtiï = seeing (I.16; II.5,26,28 ; III.51; IV.29)
kiä = what (IV.16)
kleåa = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison (I.24; II.2,3,12,13; IV.30)
kleåavat = like the causes of suffering (IV.28)
kliæøa = hurtful (I.5)
krama = sequence, flow, succession (III.15,53; IV.32,33)
kriyâ = action (II.1,36; II.18)
krodha = anger (II.34)
këta = done, accomplished (II.22; IV.32)
kæaña = moment (II.9,52; IV.33)
kæayaï = disappearance (II.43; III.11,45
kæaye, kæayât = dwindling, decreasing (II.28, 43; III.52)
kæetram = field (II.4)
kæetrikavat = like a farmer (IV.3)
kæîña = dwindled, decreased (I.41)
kæîyate = disappears (II.52)
kæut = hunger (III.31)
kûpe = pit, well, cavity (III.31)
kûrma = tortoise (III.32)
lâbhaï = acquired (II.38,42)
laghu = light (III.43)
lakæaña = characteristic, time factors (III.13,54)
lâvañya = grace (III.46)
layânâm = clasped, merged (I.19)
liòga = mark, characteristic (II.19)
lobha = greed (II.34)
madhya = moderate (I.22; II.34)
mahâ = great (II.31; III.45)
mahattva = greatness, magnitude (I.40)
maitrî = friendliness (I.33; III.24)
mala = imperfection (IV.31)
manaï, manasaï = mind (I.35; II.53)
mañeï = jewel (I.41)
mantra = intonation (IV.1)
mâtra = only (I.43; II.20; III.3,50; IV.4)
meghaï = cloud, rain showers (IV.29)
mithyâ = false (I.8)
moha = delusion (II.34)
mëdu = mild (I.22; II.34)
mudita = delight (I.33)
mûlaï = root (II.12,13)
mûrdha = head, crown (III.33)
na = not (III.20; IV.16,19)
nâbhi = navel (III.30)
nâèyâä = channel, duct (III.32)
nairantarya = continuously, uninterruptedly (I.14)
naæøam = ceased (II.22)
nibandhanî = holds (I.35)
nidrâ = sleep (I.6,10,38)
nimittam = proximate cause (IV.3)
nimnaä = bent, inclined toward (IV.26)
niratiåayaä = incomparable, unsurpassed (I.25)
nirbhâsâ = shining (I.43; III.3)
nirbîjaï = seedless (I.51; III.8)
nirgrâhyaï = graspable (IV.33)
nirmâña = forming, creating (IV.4)
nirodhaï = stilling, cessation, restriction (I.2,12,51; III.9)
nirupakramaä = slow to manifest (III.23)
nirvicârâ = not reflecting (I.44,47)
nirvitarkâ = beyond thought (I.43)
nitya = permanent (II.5)
nityatvât = perpetuity, eternity (IV.10)
nivëttiï = cessation (III.31; IV.30)
niyama = internal discipline (II.29,32)
nyâsât = setting down, focusing (III.26)
paõcatayyaï = fivefold (I.5)
paòka = mud (III.40)
panthâï = path (IV.15)
para, paraiï = other (II.40; III.19,37,40; IV.24)
paramâ = ultimate, highest, purest (I.40; II.55)
paridëæøaï = observed, measured, scrutinized (II.50)
pariñâma = transformation (II.15; III.9,11,12,13,15,16; IV.2,14,32,33)
pariåuddhau = wiping clean, purification (I.43)
paritâpa = anguish (II.14)
parvâñi = level, state (II.19)
paryavasânam = ending, terminating (I.45)
phalâï = fruit (II.14,34,36; IV.11)
pipâsâ = thirst (III.31)
prabhoï = superior (IV.18)
pracâra = movement, passage (III.39)
pracchardana = exhalation, expulsion (I.34)
pradhâna = foundation, matrix (III.49)
prâdur = outside (III.9,47)
prâg = before (IV.26)
prajõâ = wisdom (I.20,48,49; II.27; III.5)
prakâåa = brightness (II.18,52; III.21,44)
prakëti = nature, phenomenal world (I.19; IV.2,3)
pramâda = carelessness (I.30)
pramâña = right perception (I.6,7)
prâñasya = breath, life force (I.34)
prañavaï = the syllable pronounced om (I.27)
prâñâyâma = breath regulation (II.29,49)
prañidhânât = surrender, dedication (I.23; II.1,32,45)
prânta = last (II.27)
prasâdaï, prasâdanam = calming, tranquilizing, clarification (I.33,47)
prasaòkhyâne = elevation, summit (IV.29)
prasaògât = inclination, recurrence (III.52)
praåânta = tranquil (III.10)
prasava = flow, motion, creation, inception (II.10; IV.34)
prasupta = dormant (II.4)
praåvâsâ = exhalation (I.31; II.49)
prati = with regard to, toward, reversing (II.22)
pratibandhî = prevents, obstructs (I.50)
prâtibhât = spontaneous illumination (III.34,37)
pratipakæa = opposite (II.33,34)
pratipattiï = understanding (III.54)
pratiæedha = subdue, ward off (I.32)
pratiæøhâ = foundation (IV.34)
pratiæøham, pratiæøhâyâà = based on, grounded in (I.8; II.35; IV.34)
pratiyogî = corresponding (IV.33)
pratyâhâra = withdrawal of the senses (II.29,54)
pratyak = inward (I.29)
pratyakæa = percept, sensory input (I.7)
pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation (I.10,18,19; II.20; III.2,12,17,19,36; IV.27)
pravibhâga = distinction (III.17)
pravëttiï = arising of activity (I.35; III.26; IV.5)
prayatna = effort (II.47)
prayojakaä = causing (IV.5)
punaï = again (III.12,52)
puñya = good, virtuous (I.33; II.14)
puruæa = pure awareness (I.16,24; III.36,50,56; IV.18,34)
pûrvaï, pûrvebhyaï = earlier (I.18,26; III.7,18)
pûrvaka = preceded by (I.20; II.34)
râga = wanting, desire, passion, attachment (I.37; II.3,7)
rasa = taste (II.9)
ratna = jewel (II.37)
ëtam = truth (I.48)
rûèhaï = rooted (II.9)
r¯upa = form (I.8,17; II.23,54; III.3,21,47; IV.34)
rûpataï = in form (IV.12)
rûpatvât = essential form (IV.9)
ruta = language, sound (III.17)
sa = this, that (I.14,26)
åabda = verbal, linguistic (I.9,42; III.17)
sabîjaï = with seed (I.46)
sadâ = always (IV.18)
sadhana = path to realization (II.heading)
sâdhârañatvât = common experience (II.22)
sahabhuvaï = accompanying (I.31)
åaithilya = relaxation (II.47; III.40)
sâkæât = direct, through the eye (III.18)
åakteï, åaktyoï = power (II.6,23; IV.21,34)
sâlambanaä = with support (III.20)
samâdhi = oneness, integration (I.20,46,51; II.2,29,45; III.3,11,38; IV.1,29)
samâna = energy flow through the solar plexus (III.41)
samâpattiï = coalescence, unified contemplation (I.41,42; II.47; III.43)
samâptiï = termination (IV.32)
samaya = circumstance (II.31; IV.20)
sambandha = relationship (III.42,43)
sambodhaï = insight (II.39)
saähananatvâni = durability, firmness (III.47)
saähatya = compound (IV.24)
saäjõâ = comprehension (I.15)
sâàkhya = one of the six perspectives, or daråanas, of Indian thought
sampat = perfection (III.46,47)
samprajõâtaï = cognitive (I.17)
samprayogaï = contact (II.44)
saäsk¯ara = latent impressions (I.18,50; II.15; III.9,10,18; IV.9,27)
saävedanât = sensitivity (III.39; IV.22)
samvegânâm = intense, vehement (I.21)
samvit = understanding (III.35)
saäyamaï = constraint, perfect discipline (III.4,16,17,21,22,27,36,42,43,45,48,53)
sâmye = equality (III.56; IV.15)
saäyogaï = coupling, union, association, mingling (II.17,23,25)
saòga = contact, attachment (III.52)
saògëhîtatvât = connectedness (IV.11)
saòkaraï = confusion, mixing up (III.17; IV.21)
saòkhyâbhiï = number (II.50)
saòkîrñâ = intermingled (I.42)
sannidhau = presence (II.35)
sanåaya = doubt (I.30)
åânta = quiescent, subsided (III.12,14)
santoæa = contentment (II.32,42)
saptadhâ = sevenfold (II.27)
åarîra = body (III.39)
sârûpyam = identification, conformity (I.4)
sarva = all (I.25,51; II.15,31,37; III.11,17,34,50,55; IV.23)
sarvathâ = in all circumstances (III.55; IV.29)
sati = existing (II.13,49)
satkâra = skillfully, in the right way (I.14)
sattva = clarity, luminosity; a fundamental essence of nature, or guna (II.41; III.36,50,56)
satya = truthfulness, truth (II.30,36)
åauca = purity (II.32,40)
saumanasya = gladness (II.41)
savicârâ = reflecting (I.44)
savitarkâ = thought (I.42)
åeæaï = store, residuum (I.18)
siddha = perfected one (III.33)
siddhiï = perfection, attainment (II.43,45; III.38; IV.1)
åîlaä = character (II.18)
smayâ = pride, beaming (III.52)
smëti, smëtayaï = memory, remembering; depth memory; mindfulness (I.6,11,20,43; IV.9,21)
sopakramaä = immediately manifest (III.22)
åraddhâ = faith (I.20)
årâvaña = hearing (III.37)
årotra = of hearing (III.42)
årotram = faculty of hearing (III.42)
åruta = what has been heard, teachings (I.49)
stambha = stationary (II.50)
stambhe = suspension (III.21)
stha = abide (I.41)
sthairye = being settled in (II.39; III.32)
sthâni = exalted, celestial (III.52)
sthira = steady, stable (II.46)
sthiti, sthitau = stability, steadiness (I.13,35; II.18)
sthûla = gross (III.45)
styâna = apathy (I.30)
åuci = pure (II.5)
åuddhaï = pure (II.20)
åuddhi = purity (II.41; III.56)
sukha = happiness (I.33; II.5,7,42,46)
sûkæma = subtle (I.44,45; II.10,50; III.26,45; IV.13)
åûnyaï = empty (I.9,43; III.3; IV.34)
sûrye = sun (III.27)
sûtra = thread; condensed mnemonic verse
sva = own (II.9,23,40,50; III.36; IV.19,22)
svâdhyâya = self-study (II.1,32,44)
svâmi = owner (II.23)
svapna = dream (I.38)
svarûpe = own form, identity (I.3,43; II.23,54; III.3,45,48; IV.34)
åvâsa = inhalation (I.31; II.49)
syât = could be (IV.16)
tad = its, that (I.12,16,28,32,41,50; II.11,21,22,25,35; III.3,5,18,20,21,23,29,46,51,53; IV.8,11,16,17,19,22,24,27
tadâ = then (I.3; IV.16,26,31)
tâï = these (I.46)
tânatâ = extension, stretching (III.2)
tanmâtra = subtle primary experience of sound, form, odor, flavor, or feeling
tantram = dependent (IV.16)
tanû = slender, weak (II.2,4)
tâpa = anguish (II.15)
tapaï = heat, intensity of discipline, austerity, austerity (II.1,32,43; IV.1)
târâ = star (III.28)
târakaä = transcendent, delivering (III.55)
tâsâm = of these (IV.10)
tasmin = in this (II.49)
tasya = of this, that (I.27,51; II.24,27; III.6,10,20)
tat = that, these (I.16,32,41; II.35; III.17,20,24, 54; IV.16,18,19,24)
tataï = therefore, from these, from that (I.22,29; II.48,52,55; III.12,38,45,47,50,55; IV.3,8,30,32)
tathâ = thus (II.19)
tatra = there, in that (I.13,25,42,48; III.2; IV.6)
tattva = thusness, elemental quality, principle (I.32; IV.14)
tayoï = of both (IV.15)
te = they, these (I.30; II10,14; III.38; IV.13)
tîvra = extremely (I.21)
trayam = these three (III.4,7,16)
trividham = threefold (IV.7)
tu = and, moreover, but (I.14; IV.3)
tûla = cotton (III.42)
tulya = similar, equal (III.12,54)
tyâgaï = abandonment (II.35)
ubhaya = both (IV.20)
udâna = uppermost region of energy flow, or prana (III.40)
udârâñâm = activated, aroused (II.4)
udayau = arising, appearance (III.11)
uditau = arisen (III.12,14)
uktaä = described, explained (III.22; IV.28)
upalabdhi = acquisition (II.23)
upanimantrañe = invitation (III.52)
uparâga = coloring (IV.17)
uparaktaä = colored (IV.23)
upasargâ = obstacle, impediment (III.38)
upasthânam = approach, materialize (II.37)
upâyaï = means (II.26)
upeksanam = equanimity (I.33)
utkrântiï = rising up (III.40)
uttareæâm = other, following (II.4)
utpannâ = arisen, produced (I.35)
vâ = or (I.23,34,35,36,37,38,39; III.23,34; IV.34)
vâcakaï = signifying, connoting (I.27)
vâhî = flowing (II.9)
vâhitâ = flow, progression (III.10)
vaira = hostility (II.35)
vairâgyaï = dispassion, non-reaction, non-attachment (I.12,15; III.51)
vaiåâradye = lucidity, purity (I.47)
vaitëæñyam = without wanting or attachment (I.16)
vajra = diamond (III.47)
varaña = choosing (IV.3)
vârttâï = smelling (III.37)
vâsanânâm = latent properties, traits (IV.8,24)
vaåîkâra = mastery, willing something to happen (I.15,40)
vastu = object, substance (I.9; IV.14,15,16,17)
vaåyata = obedience, subservience (II.55)
vat = like (IV.3,28)
vatî = having (I.35)
vattva = function (III.45,48)
vedanâ = feeling (III.37)
vedanîyaï = to be experienced (II.12)
vibhaktaï = separation (IV.15)
vibhûti = extraordinary powers (III)
vicâra = insight, reflection (I.17)
vicchedaï = cessation, interruption (II.49)
vicchinna = interrupted, intercepted (II.4)
videha = bodiless (I.19; III.44)
vidhârañâbhyâm = pause, retention (I.34)
viduæaï = sage, wise person (II.9)
vikalpa = conceptualization (I.6,9,42)
vikaraña = without organs (III.49)
vikæepâï = distraction, stirring up (I.30,31)
vinivëttiï = cessation (IV.25)
viniyogaï = progression, application (III.6)
vipâka = ripening, fruition (I.24; II.13; IV.8)
viparyaya = misperception, error (I.6,8)
viprakëæøa = distant (III.26)
virâma = cessation (I.18)
virodhât = conflict, opposition (II.15)
vîrya = energy, vigor (I.20; II.38)
viæaya = object (of experience) (I.11,15,33,37,44,49; II.54; III.55)
viæayatvaä = the thing itself, thus-ness of an object (I.45)
viåeæaï = distinction; distinct, particular (I.22,24,49; II.19; IV.25)
viæokâ = free of sorrow (I.36)
vîta = free from, without (I.37)
vitarka = analytical thinking; unwholesome thoughts (I.17; II.33,34)
vitëæñasya = without wanting or attachment (I.15)
viveka = discrimination (II.26,28; III.53,55; IV.26,29)
vivekinaï = a person of discrimination (II.15)
vratam = vow, commitment (II.31)
vëtti = patternings, turnings, movements (I.2,4,5,10,41; II.11,15,50; III.44; IV.18)
vyâdhi = sickness (I.30)
vyâkhyâtâ = described, explained (I.44; III.13)
vyakta = manifest (IV.13)
vyavahita = hidden, separated (III.26; IV.9)
vyûha = arrangement (III.28,30)
vyutthâna = emergence (III.9,38)
yama = external discipline (I.13)
yathâ = as (I.39)
yatnaï = sustained effort (I.13)
yoga = yoking, union (I.1,2; II.1,28)
yoginaï = yogi (IV.7)
yogyatâ, yogyatvâni = capability (II.41)
Selected Bibliography
Deutsch, Eliot. Advaita Vedanta: a philosophical reconstruction. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1969
Eliade, Mircea. Patañjali And Yoga. New York: Schocken, 1975
Eliade, Mircea. Yoga: Immortality And Freedom. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1958/69
Feuerstein, Georg. The Yoga Tradition. Prescott,AZ: Hohm Press, 1998
Iyengar, B. K. S. Light On Yoga New York: Schocken, 1966
MacDonnell, Arthur. A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1924/91
Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy, vol.2. Delhi: Oxford India Press, 1923/97
Radhakrishnan, S. & Moore, C. A Source Book In Indian Philosophy. Princeton,NJ: Princeton University
Press, 1973
Rahula, Walpola. What The Buddha Taught. New York: Grove Press, 1959/74
Tandon, S.N. A Re-appraisal of Patañjali’s Yoga-Sutras in the Light of the Buddha’s Teaching. Igatpuri:
Vipassana Research Institute, 1995
Whicher, Ian. The Integrity Of The Yoga Daråana. Albany,NY: SUNY Press, 1998
Translations
Arya, Pandit Usharbudh. Yoga Sûtras Of Patañjali, vol.1. Honesdale,PA: Himalayan Institute, 1986 YB
Bouanchaud, Bernard. The Essence Of Yoga: reflections on the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. Portland,OR: Rudra
Press, 1997
Desikachar, T.K.V. The Heart Of Yoga. Rochester,VT: Inner Traditions ,1995
Feuerstein, Georg. The Yoga-Sûtra Of Patañjali. Rochester,VT: Inner Traditions, 1989
Hariharananda Aranya, Swami. Yoga Philosophy Of Patañjali. Albany,NY: SUNY Press, 1983 YB
Houston, Vyaas. The Yoga Sûtra Workbook . Warwick,NY: American Sanskrit Institute, 1995
Iyengar, B.K.S. Light On The Yoga Sûtras Of Patañjali. New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Miller, Barbara Stoler. Yoga: Discipline Of Freedom. New York: Bantam, 1996
Prabhavananda, S. & Isherwood, C. How To Know God: the yoga aphorisms of Patañjali. New York New
American Library ,1953
Prasada, Rama. Patañjali’s Yoga Sûtras. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1988 YB,TV
Satchidananda, Swami. The Yoga Sûtras Of Patañjali. Yogaville,VA: Integral Yoga, 1978/90
Shearer, Alistair. Effortless Being: the yoga sûtras of Patañjali. London: Unwin ,1982
Shyam, Swami. Patañjali Yog Darshan. Canada: Be All Publications, 1980
Stiles, Mukunda. Yoga Sûtras Of Patañjali. Pune: International Academy Of Ayurveda, 1998
Taimni, I.K. The Science Of Yoga. Madras: Theosophical Publishing House, 1961
Vivekananda, Swami. Raja-Yoga. New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, 1956
YB = includes the Yoga-Bhâsya, a 5th century commentary on the Yoga-Sûtra, by Vyâsa
TV = includes the Tattva-Vaiåâradî, a 9th century gloss on the Yoga-Sûtra and Yoga-Bhâsya, by Vâcaspati
Mîåra
Sanskrit Resources Online
Capeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/indologie/tamil/cap_search.html
Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/indologie/tamil/mwd_search.html
Directory of Sanskrit Resources
http://www.classicyoga.org/directory/sanskrit-directory.html
About the author
Chip Hartranft’s work bridges the traditions of yoga and buddhist meditation. He is the founding
director of The Arlington Center, dedicated to the integration of yoga and dharma practice, and has taught
a blend of movement and stillness to students in the Boston area since 1978. A student of yoga chiefly in
the Krishnamacharya traditions, Chip has also practiced insight meditation (vipassanâ) for many years.
He leads annual retreats in the US and abroad, blending yoga movement, breathwork, and mindfulness.
More information, including how to contact Chip Hartranft and The Arlington Center, can be found at
www.arlingtoncenter.org

Table of contents
Sanskrit pronunciation guide Sanskrit-English translation Sanskrit-English glossary Bibliography About the author Page 3 4 71 84 86

Copyright © 2003 All Rights Reserved

Sanskrit Pronunciation Guide
Sanskrit’s breadth of expression comes in part from using the entire mouth for pronunciation, and from elongating accented vowels. With an alphabet of 49 letters, it has several different versions of familiar sounds such as ‘n’ and ‘s’, each issuing from a different part of the mouth. For this reason, diacritical marks are generally used to indicate how and where a consonant or vowel should be sounded.

a i u e ai, ay o au â, î, û, ê, âi, âu k, kh, g, gh, ò c, ch, j, jh, õ ø, øh, è, èh, ñ t, th, d, dh, n p, ph, b, bh, m c ë å æ õ ä jõ h alone ï h after a consonant

pronounced like ‘a’ in america pronounced like ‘i’ in liter pronounced like ‘u’ in dude pronounced like ‘e’ in grey pronounced like ‘ai’ in aisle pronounced like ‘o’ in over pronounced like ‘ow’ in cow prolonged for two beats instead of one gutturals, arising from the throat palatals, arising from the back of the palate cerebrals, with tongue touching the roof of the mouth dentals, with tongue touching the back of the teeth labials, arising from the lips palatal, always pronounced like ‘ch’ in chop cerebral, pronounced like ‘ri’ in rip palatal, pronounced like ‘sh’ in shout cerebral, pronounced like ‘sh’ in leash pronounced like ‘ni’ in onion pronounced like ‘n’ in uncle pronounced like ‘gn’ in igneous pronounced like ‘h’ in hot a soft echo of the preceding vowel extra breath after the consonant (in Sanskrit there are no compound sounds like ‘th’ in thief or ‘ph’ in phone)

The Yoga-Sûtra in Sanskrit-English Translation
–ºŸ⁄∞¥ŸÆÅ
Samâdhi-pâdaï
I. Integration
I.1

atha yogânuåâsanam atha = now yoga = process of yoking; union ânuåâsanam = teaching, exposition
Now, the teachings of yoga.

Ǩ æËíŸ≤‹ÀŸ–≤ºÎ

I.2

yogaå citta-vëtti-nirodhaï yogaï = process of yoking; union citta = consciousness vëtti = patterning, turnings, movements nirodhaï = stilling, cessation, restriction
Yoga is to still the patterning of consciousness.

æËí⁄Ã%∆‡⁄%⁄≤¿Ë∞Å

I.3

tadâ draæøuï svarûpe ‘vasthânam tadâ = then draæøuï = seer, witness, pure awareness svarûpe = own essence, identity avasthânam = state of abiding
Then, pure awareness can abide in its very nature.

™ÆŸ Æ˙œ¢‹Å —∆¬¥‰É∆—¨Ÿ≤ºÎ

I.4

∆‡⁄%–Ÿ¬µæ⁄º™¿&

vëtti-sârûpyam itaratra vëtti = patterning, turnings, movements sârûpyam = identification, conformity itaratra = otherwise
Otherwise, awareness takes itself to be the patterns of consciousness.

conceptualization. or the words of others. sensory input anumâna = inference âgamâï = testimony from a teacher or traditional texts pramâñâni = accurate perception Right perception arises from direct observation. turnings. and remembering. ¥˘º≤⁄∆¥æ@æ⁄∆é≈¥⁄≤Æ˙Ÿ—º‡™æÅ I. including both hurtful and benign. ¥°ò™øæÅ ⁄胜¢Ÿ⁄胜¢ŸÅ I. inference. deep sleep. ¥˘´æ’Ÿ≤‹ºŸ≤ŸíºŸÅ ¥˘ºŸ®Ÿ⁄≤ I.5 ∆‡%æÅ vëttayaï paõcatayyaï kliæøâkliæøâï vëttayaï = patterning. misperception. error mithyâ = false jõânam = knowledge atad = not that r¯upa = form pratiæøham = based on Misperception is false knowledge. . remembering They are right perception.7 pratyakæânumânâgamâï pramâñâni pratyakæa = percept.6 pramâña-viparyaya-vikalpa-nidrâ-smëtayaï pramâña = right perception viparyaya = misperception.8 ⁄∆¥æ@æË ⁄º≠æŸ◊Ÿ≤º™Æ˙fl¥¥˘⁄™œ§ºÎ viparyayo mithyâjõânam atad-r¯upa-pratiæøham viparyayaï = misperception.I. error vikalpa = conceptualization nidrâ = sleep smëtayaï = memory. not based on what actually is. movements paõcatayyaï = fivefold kliæøa = hurtful akliæøâï = benign There are five types of patterns.

thought. remembering Remembering is the retention of experiences.I. action.10 Ç∫Ÿ∆ ¥˘´æ柃Ω∏≤Ÿ ∆‡⁄%⁄≤@Æ˙Ÿ abhâva-pratyayâlambanâ vëttir nidrâ abhâva = non-existence. phenomenon asampramoæaï = not allowing to steal away smëtiï = memory. non-becoming pratyaya = perception. ÀπÆ◊Ÿ≤Ÿ≤‹¥Ÿ™¤ ∆—™‹À›≥æË ⁄∆é≈¥Å I.11 Ç≤‹∫›™⁄∆ŒæŸ–Ω¥˘ºËŒÅ —º‡⁄™Å anubhûta-viæayâsampramoæaï smëtiï anubhûta = experienced viæaya = object (of experience). not contact with real things. cessation. representation âlambanâ = resting on vëttiï = patterning nidrâ = sleep Deep sleep is a pattern grounded in the perception that nothing exists. non-attachment tad = these nirodhaï = stilling. substance åûnyaï = empty vikalpaï = conceptualization Conceptualization derives from linguistic knowledge. linguistic jõâna = knowledge anupâtî = following. I. relying upon vastu = object. method vairâgyâbhyâä = dispassion. Ǫ柖∆Ê¿Ÿì柪æŸÄ ™⁄≥≤¿Ë∞Å . non-reaction.9 åabda-jõânânupâtî vastu-åûnyo vikalpaï åabda = verbal. I. intention.12 abhyâsa-vairâgyâbhyâä tan-nirodhaï abhyâsa = practice. restriction Both practice and non-reaction are required to still the patterning of consciousness.

one can recognize that it has been fully achieved when no attachment arises in regard to anything at all. action. steadiness yatnaï = sustained effort abhyâsaï = practice.14 sa tu dîrgha-kâla-nairantarya-satkârâsevito dëèha-bhûmiï sa = this tu = and. grounded And this practice becomes firmly rooted when it is cultivated skillfully and continuously for a long time. – ™‹ Ƥî@韃≤Ê¿≥™æ@–´éŸ¿Ÿ–‰⁄∆™Ë ؇ß∫›⁄ºÅ I. willing something to happen saäjõâ = comprehension vairâgyam = dispassion. in the right way âsevitaï = cultivated dëèha = firmly bhûmiï = rooted. uninterruptedly satkâra = skillfully. phenomenon vitëæñasya = without wanting or attachment vaåîkâra = mastery. perceptible anuåravika = heard. . whether perceived directly or learned. method Practice is the sustained effort to rest in that stillness.I. non-reaction. ™& ⁄—¨™È æ´≤Ëɪ柖ŠI. moreover dîrgha = long kâla = time nairantarya = continuously.13 tatra sthitau yatno ‘bhyâsaï tatra = in that sthitau = stability. non-attachment As for non-reaction. learned viæaya = object (of experience).15 ؇œ¢Ÿ≤‹Ã˘⁄∆é⁄∆Œæ⁄∆™‡œ®—æ ∆À¤éŸ¿–~◊Ÿ ∆Ê¿ŸìæºÎ dëæøânuåravika-viæaya-vitëæñasya vaåîkâra-saäjõâ vairâgyam dëæøa = seen.

bliss. I-am-ness rûpa = form anugamât = going with. leaving only a store of latent impressions in the depth memory. these four kinds of cognition fall away.18 virâma-pratyayâbhyâsa-pûrvaï saäsk¯ara-åeæo ‘nyaï virâma = cessation pratyaya = perception.17 vitarka-vicârânandâsmitâ-rûpânugamât samprajõâtaï vitarka = analytical thinking vicâra = insight. thought. ™´¥¿Ä ¥‹¡Œë柙‰í@‹®∆Ê™‡œ©æºÎ I. pure awareness can clearly see itself as independent from the fundamental qualities of nature. residuum anyaï = other Later. the stilling process is accompanied by four kinds of cognition: analytical thinking. representation abhyâsa = practice.I. joy asmitâ = sense of self. ⁄∆™éõ⁄∆òŸ¿Ÿ≤≥ÆŸ⁄—º™Ÿ¬¥Ÿ≤‹íºŸ™Î –Ω¥˘◊Ÿ™Å I.16 tat param puruæa-khyâter guña-vaitëæñyam tat = this param = ultimate. accompanying samprajõâtaï = cognitive At first. intention. purest puruæa = pure awareness khyâteï = clear seeing guña = fundamental qualities of nature vaitëæñyam = without wanting or attachment When the ultimate level of non-reaction has been reached. ⁄∆¿Ÿº¥˘´æ柪柖¥›∆@Å –~—響À‰ŒËÉ≥æÅ . method pûrvaï = earlier saäsk¯ara = latent impressions åeæaï = store. insight. following. or feeling like a self. reflection ânanda = bliss. after one practices steadily to bring all thought to a standstill. highest. action.

mindfulness samâdhi = oneness. merged Once the body is gone.21 tîvra-samvegânâm âsannaï tîvra = extremely samvegânâm = intense. thought.19 bhava-pratyayo videha-prakëti-layânâm bhava = being. mindfulness. they are inclined to be reborn. and wisdom form the path to realization. integration prajõâ = wisdom pûrvaka = preceded by itareæâm = others For all others.I. intention. vigor smëti = memory.20 Ã˘ØÛŸ∆¤æ@—º‡⁄™–ºŸ⁄∞¥˘◊Ÿ¥›∆@é Ñ™¿‰ŒŸºÎ åraddhâ-vîrya-smëti-samâdhi-prajõâ-pûrvaka itareæâm åraddhâ = faith vîrya = energy. I. ™¤∆˘–~∆‰íŸ≤ŸºŸ–≥≤Å . integration. faith. energy. vehement âsannaï = near For those who seek liberation wholeheartedly. becoming pratyayaï = perception. ∫∆¥˘´ææË ⁄∆Ɖ“¥˘é‚⁄™ƒæŸ≤ŸºÎ I. representation videha = bodiless prakëti = nature layânâm = clasped. and these latent impressions are dissolved in nature. realization is near.

fruition âåayaiï = store. distinction. dedication. distinct îåvaraï = divine ideal of pure awareness Isvara is a distinct. º‡Æ‹º±æŸ⁄∞ºŸ&´∆Ÿ%™ËÉ⁄¥ ⁄∆À‰‰ŒÅ I. affliction. moderate. from these api = also viåeæaï = difference. alignment vâ = or Realization may also come if one is oriented toward the ideal of pure awareness. distinction How near depends on whether the practice is mild. residuum aparâmëæøaï = untouched. or intense. unaffected puruæa = pure awareness viåeæa = difference.22 mëdu-madhyâdhimâtratvât tato ‘pi viåeæaï mëdu = mild madhya = moderate adhimâtratvât = extreme.I. Isvara. I. hindrance.24 kleåa-karma-vipâkâåayair aparâmëæøaï puruæa-viåeæa îåvaraï kleåa = cause of suffering. application. incorruptible form of pure awareness. poison karma = action vipâka = ripening. 胉Àéº@⁄∆¥ŸéŸÀæÊ¿¥¿Ÿº‡œ¢Å ¥‹¡Œ⁄∆À‰‰Œ Öø¿Å . intense tataï = therefore. exemplary. corruption. utterly independent of cause and effect. and lacking any store of latent impressions.23 Öø¿¥˘⁄®∞Ÿ≤ŸØ¸Ÿ îåvara-prañidhânâd vâ îåvara = divine ideal of pure awareness prañidhânât = surrender.

28 taj-japas tad-artha-bhâvanam tad = that japaï = repetition. unsurpassed sarva = all jõatva = knowing bîjam = seed.I. ™ùú¥—™Æ¨@∫Ÿ∆≤ºÎ . purpose bhâvanam = realizing. I.25 tatra niratiåayaä sarvajõatva-bîjam tatra = there. source Its independence makes this awareness an incomparable source of omniscience. Isvara was also the ideal of the ancients. mentor kâlena = by time. connoting prañavaï = the syllable pronounced om Isvara is represented by a sound. temporally anavacchedât = unbounded. continuous Existing beyond time. intonation tad = its. that vâcakaï = signifying. ™& ⁄≤¿⁄™Àæ~ –∆@◊´∆∏¤úºÎ I. – ¥›∆Â@ŒŸº⁄¥ 틡Š韃‰≤Ÿ≤∆ôö‰ÆŸ™Î I. in that niratiåayaä = incomparable. becoming Through repetition its meaning becomes clear. om.27 ™—æ ∆ŸòéÅ ¥˘®∆Å tasya vâcakaï prañavaï tasya = of this. that artha = meaning. that pûrveæâm = earlier api = also guruï = teacher.26 sa pûrveæâm api guruï kâlenânavacchedât sa = this.

apathy. perspective alabdha = failing to attain bhûmikatva = developmental stages anavasthitatvâni = inconstancy. interiorization develops and obstacles fall away. and inconstancy are all distractions which. delusion. instability citta = consciousness vikæepâï = distraction. ™™Å ¥˘´æèò‰™≤Ÿ⁄∞íºËɵæ≥™¿ŸæŸ∫Ÿ∆à I. from these pratyak = inward cetanâ = consciousness adhigamaï = attainment api = also antarâya = obstacle abhâvaï = disappearance ca = and Then. hedonism. laziness.30 vyâdhi-styâna-sanåaya-pramâdâlasyâvirati-bhrânti-daråanâlabdha-bhûmikatvânavasthitatvâni cittavikæepâs te ‘ntarâyâï vyâdhi = sickness styâna = apathy sanåaya = doubt pramâda = carelessness âlasya = laziness avirati = sexual indulgence bhrânti = false daråana = vision. lack of progress. doubt. carelessness. act as barriers to stillness. stirring up te = these antarâyâï = obstacles Sickness.I. …æŸ⁄∞—´æŸ≤–~Àæ¥˘ºŸÆŸƒ—æŸ⁄∆¿⁄™∫˘Ÿ⁄≥™ÆÀ@≤Ÿƒπ∞ ∫‹⁄ºé´∆Ÿ≤∆⁄—¨™´∆Ÿ⁄≤ ⁄ò%⁄∆’‰¥Ÿ—™‰É≥™¿ŸæŸÅ . by stirring up consciousness.29 tataï pratyak-cetanâdhigamo ‘pyantarâyâbhâvaå ca tataï = therefore.

I. suffering daurmanasya = depression aògam = limb ejayatva = trembling åvâsa = disturbed inhalation praåvâsâ = disturbed exhalation vikæepa = distraction. depression.32 ™´¥˘⁄™Œ‰‰∞Ÿ¨@º‰é™^∆ŸªæŸ–Å tat-pratiæedhârtham eka-tattvâbhyâsaï tad = that. one may experience distress. action. . method One can subdue these distractions by working with any one of the following principles of practice. elemental quality. pain. ward off artham = meaning. purpose.31 duïkha-daurmanasyâògam-ejayatva-åvâsa-praåvâsâ vikæepa-sahabhuvaï duïkha = distress. stirring up sahabhuvaï = accompanying When they do. Æ‹ÅêƟʺ@≤—æŸóÓº‰úæ´∆øŸ–¥˘Ã¸Ÿ–Ÿ ⁄∆’‰¥–“∫‹∆Å I. or the inability to maintain steadiness of posture or breathing. principle abhyâsaï = practice. approach eka = one tattva = thusness. these pratiæedha = subdue.

clarification Consciousness settles as one radiates friendliness.35 ⁄∆Œæ∆™¤ ∆Ÿ ¥˘∆‡⁄%¡´¥≥≤Ÿ º≤–Å ⁄—¨⁄™⁄≤∏≥∞≤¤ viæayavatî vâ pravëttir utpannâ manasaï sthiti-nibandhanî viæaya = object (of experience). life force Or by pausing after breath flows in or out. good or bad. expulsion vidhârañâbhyâm = pause. suffering puñya = good. compassion.33 maitrî-karuñâ-muditopekæâñâä sukha-duïkha-puñyâpuñya-viæayâñâä bhâvanâtaå citta-prasâdanam maitrî = friendliness karuñâ = compassion mudita = delight upekæâñâä = equanimity sukha = happiness duïkha = distress. steadiness nibandhanî = holds Or by steadily observing as new sensations materialize. ºÊ&¤é¡®Ÿº‹⁄ƙ˥‰’Ÿ®ŸÄ –‹êÆÅꥋ≥查‹≥æ⁄∆ŒæŸ®Ÿ~ ∫Ÿ∆≤Ÿ™⁄Ã%¥˘–ŸÆ≤ºÎ I. and equanimity toward all things. produced manasaï = mind sthiti = stability. phenomenon vatî = having vâ = or pravëttiï = arising of activity utpannâ = arisen. whether pleasant or painful. retention vâ = or prâñasya = breath. evil viæayâñâä = object (of experience) bhâvanâtaï = radiating.34 pracchardana-vidhârañâbhyâm vâ prâñasya pracchardana = exhalation. tranquilizing. virtuous apuñya = bad.I. ¥˘ôöÆ@≤⁄∆∞Ÿ¿®ŸªæŸÄ ∆Ÿ ¥˘Ÿ®—æ I. pain. . projecting citta = consciousness prasâdanam = calming. delight.

I. I.39 樟⁄∫º™±æŸ≤ŸØ¸Ÿ yathâbhimata-dhyânâd vâ yathâ = as abhimata = desired dhyânât = meditative absorption vâ = or Or through meditative absorption in any desired object.36 viæokâ vâ jyotiæmatî ⁄∆ÀËéŸ ∆Ÿ ùæË⁄™œº™¤ viæokâ = free of sorrow vâ = or jyotiæmatî = luminous Or when experiencing thoughts that are luminous and free of sorrow. without râga = desire.I. .38 —∆µ≤⁄≤Æ˙Ÿ◊Ÿ≤ŸƒΩ∏≤Ä ∆Ÿ svapna-nidrâ-jõânâlambanam vâ svapna = dream nidrâ = sleep jõâna = knowledge âlambanam = resting on vâ = or Or by reflecting on insights culled from sleep and dreaming.37 ∆¤™¿Ÿí⁄∆ŒæÄ ∆Ÿ ⁄ò%ºÎ vîtarâgaviæayam vâ cittam vîta = free from. I. attachment viæayam = object (of experience) vâ = or cittam = consciousness Or by focusing on things that do not inspire attachment. passion.

perceiver grahaña = grasping.I.. . called coalescence.41 ’¤®∆‡%‰¿⁄∫úŸ™—æ‰∆ º®‰í˘@“¤™‡í˘“®í˘Ÿ“¯‰Œ‹ ™´—¨™Æ°ú≤™Ÿ –ºŸ¥⁄%Å kæîña-vëtter abhijâtasyeva mañer grahîtë-grahaña-grâhyeæu tat-stha-tad-aõjanatâ samâpattiï kæîña = dwindled. magnitude antaï = extending from. purest añu = minute. it reflects equally whatever lies before it . turnings. movements abhijâtasya = faultless. whether vast or infinitesimal.to asya = his vaæîkâraï = mastery One can become fully absorbed in any object.whether subject. transparent iva = like mañeï = jewel grahîtë = one who grasps. or act of perceiving. infinitesimal mahattva = greatness. taking the form of something else samâpattiï = coalescence. like a jewel. a transparent way of seeing. saturates consciousness. ¥¿ºŸ®‹¥¿ºº“^∆Ÿ≥™ËÉ—æ ∆À¤éŸ¿Å I.. object of perception tad = that stha = abide tad = that aõjanatâ = saturation. highest.40 paramâñu-parama-mahattvânto ‘sya vaæîkâraï parama = ultimate. object. unified contemplation As the patterning of consciousness subsides. perceiving grâhyeæu = grasped. decreased vëtteï = patterning.

called coalescence beyond thought. purpose mâtra = only nirbhâsâ = shining nirvitarkâ = beyond thought At the next stage. now formless. purification svarûpa = own form. only their essential nature shines forth.I. in that åabda = verbal. .43 —º‡⁄™¥⁄¿À‹ØÛŸÊ —∆¬¥À›≥æ‰∆Ÿ¨@ºŸ&⁄≤∫Ÿ@–Ÿ ⁄≤⁄∆@™éŸ@ smëti-pariåuddhau svarûpa-åûnyevârtha-mâtra-nirbhâsâ nirvitarkâ smëti = memory. mindfulness pariåuddhau = wiping clean.42 tatra åabdârtha-jõâna-vikalpaiï saòkîrñâ savitarkâ samâpattiï tatra = there. it is called coalescence with thought. linguistic artha = meaning. purpose jõâna = knowledge vikalpaiï = conceptualization saòkîrñâ = intermingled savitarkâ = thought samâpattiï = coalescence. unified contemplation So long as conceptual or linguistic knowledge pervades this transparency. objects cease to be colored by memory. ™& ÀπÆŸ¨@◊Ÿ≤⁄∆é≈¥ÊÅ –óϤ®Ÿ@ –⁄∆™éŸ@ –ºŸ¥⁄%Å I. identity åûnya = empty iva = like artha = meaning.

I. also sabîjaï = with seed samâdhiï = oneness. phenomenon vyâkhyâtâ = described. terminating Subtle objects can be traced back to their origin in undifferentiated nature. ä™æÊ∆ –⁄∆òŸ¿Ÿ ⁄≤⁄∆@òŸ¿Ÿ ò –›÷º⁄∆ŒæŸ …æŸë柙Ÿ I.44 etayaiva savicârâ nirvicârâ ca sûkæma-viæayâ vyâkhyâtâ etaya = by this iva = like. integration These four kinds of coalescence . thus-ness of an object ca = and aliòga = without form paryavasânam = ending. reflective. explained In the same way.45 sûkæma-viæayatvaä câliòga-paryavasânam sûkæma = subtle viæayatvaä = the thing itself.are called integration that bears seeds of latent impressions. coalesced contemplation of subtle objects is described as reflective or reflection-free. –›÷º⁄∆Œæ´∆Ä òŸ⁄ƒóÓ¥æ@∆–Ÿ≤ºÎ I.46 tâ eva sabîjaï samâdhiï tâï = these eva = only. beyond thought. reflection-free . thus savicârâ = reflecting nirvicârâ = not reflecting ca = and sûkæma = subtle viæayâ = object (of experience). ™Ÿ ä∆ –∏¤úÅ –ºŸ⁄∞Å .with thought.

48 ëtambharâ tatra prajõâ ëtam = truth bharâ = bearing tatra = in that prajõâ = wisdom The wisdom that arises in that lucidity is unerring. teachings anumâna = inference prajõâbhyâm = wisdom anya = other viæayâ = object (of experience).49 Ã˘‹™Ÿ≤‹ºŸ≤¥˘◊ŸªæŸº≥æ⁄∆ŒæŸ ⁄∆À‰ŒŸ¨@´∆Ÿ™Î årutânumâna-prajõâbhyâm anyaviæayâ viåeæârthatvât åruta = what has been heard. the nature of the self becomes clear. phenomenon viåeæa = difference. à™Ω∫¿Ÿ ™& ¥˘◊Ÿ I. reflection-free contemplation. this wisdom has as its object the actual distinction between pure awareness and consciousness. role Unlike insights acquired through inference or teachings.I.47 nirvicâra-vaiåâradye ‘dhyâtma-prasâdaï nirvicâra = not reflecting vaiåâradye = lucidity. clarification In the lucidity of coalesced. . ⁄≤⁄∆@òŸ¿∆ÊÀŸ¿Ø¯‰É±æŸ´º¥˘–ŸÆÅ I. pacification. distinction arthatvât = function. purity adhyâtma = innermost self prasâdaï = calming.

.51 ™—æŸ⁄¥ ⁄≤¿Ë∞‰ –∆@⁄≤¿Ë∞Ÿ⁄≥≤∏¤@úÅ –ºŸ⁄∞Å tasyâpi nirodhe sarva-nirodhân nirbîjaï samâdhiï tasya = of this api = also nirodhe = stilling.I. restriction sarva = all nirodhân = stilling. cessation. obstructs It generates latent impressions that prevent the activation of other impressions. and the patterning of consciousness is completely stilled.50 taj-jaï saäskâro ‘nya-saäskâra-pratibandhî tad = that jaï = born of saäskâraï = latent impressions anya = other saäskâra = latent impressions pratibandhî = prevents. cessation. ™ùúÅ –~—響ËÉ≥æ–~—響¥˘⁄™∏≥∞¤ I. integration When even these cease to arise. restriction nirbîjaï = seedless samâdhiï = oneness. integration bears no further seeds.

hindrance. affliction. attachment. weak karaña = making arthaï = meaning. poison tanû = slender.–Ÿ∞≤¥ŸÆÅ Sâdhana-pâdaï II. attachment dveæa = aversion abhiniveåâï = clinging to life. corruption. the sense of ‘I’. –ºŸ⁄∞∫∆≤Ÿ¨@Š胉À™≤›é¿®Ÿ¨@XŸ II. not seeing things as they are asmitâ = the sense of ‘I’. corruption. and orientation toward the ideal of pure awareness.2 ™¥Å—∆Ÿ±æŸæ‰Ã¸¿¥˘⁄®∞Ÿ≤Ÿ⁄≤ ⁄$æŸæËíÅ samâdhi-bhâvanârthaï kleåa-tanû-karañârthaå ca samâdhi = oneness. purpose kleåa = cause of suffering. passion. self-study. affliction. alignment kriyâ = action yogaï = process of yoking. II.discipline. becoming arthaï = meaning. hindrance. aversion.3 avidyâsmitâ-râga-dveæâbhiniveåâï kleåâï avidyâ = lack of wisdom. self-preservation kleåâï = cause of suffering. poison The causes of suffering are not seeing things as they are. Ç⁄∆دŸ⁄—º™Ÿ¿Ÿíظ‰ŒŸ⁄∫⁄≤∆‰ÀŸÅ 胉ÀŸÅ . The Path To Realization II. application. and clinging to life. egoism râga = desire. purpose ca = and Its purposes are to disarm the causes of suffering and achieve integration. austerity svâdhyâya = self-study îåvara = divine ideal of pure awareness prañidhânâni = dedication. intensity of discipline.1 tapaï-svâdhyâyeåvara-prañidhânâni kriyâ-yogaï tapaï = heat. union Yogic action has three components . integration bhâvanâ = realizing.

Ç⁄∆دŸ ’‰&º‹%¿‰ŒŸÄ ¥˘–‹µ™™≤‹⁄∆⁄ôö≤ÙËÆŸ¿Ÿ®ŸºÎ II.4 avidyâ kæetram uttareæâm prasupta-tanu-vicchinnodârâñâm avidyâ = lack of wisdom. like. ؇ìÆÀ@≤Àè´æË¿‰éŸ´º™‰∆Ÿ⁄—º™Ÿ . purity. not seeing things as they are Lacking this wisdom. one mistakes that which is impermanent. impure. happiness. whether dormant. distressing. aroused Not seeing things as they are is the field where the other causes of suffering germinate. intercepted. witness. essence khyâtiï = seeing avidyâ = lack of wisdom.II. pain.5 anityâåuci-duïkhânâtmasu nitya-åuci-sukhâtma-khyâtir avidyâ anitya = impermanent aåuci = impure duïkha = distress. Ç⁄≤´æŸÀ‹⁄òÆ‹ÅêŸ≤Ÿ´º–‹ ⁄≤´æÀ‹⁄ò–‹êŸ´ºëæŸ⁄™¿⁄∆دŸ II.6 dëg-daråana-åaktyor ekâtmatevâsmitâ dëg = pure awareness. following prasupta = dormant tanu = thin vicchinna = interrupted. or empty of self for permanence. not seeing things as they are kæetram = field uttareæâm = other. or weakened. activated. and self. perspective åaktyoï = power eka = one âtmatâ = selfhood iva = as it were. thus asmitâ = the sense of ‘I’. egoism The sense of ‘I’ ascribes selfhood to pure awareness by identifying it with the senses. suffering anâtmasu = not self nitya = permanent åuci = pure sukha = happiness âtma = self. intercepted udârâñâm = activated. see-er daråana = vision.

passion. II. inception heyâï = overcome. ™‰ ¥˘⁄™¥˘–∆“‰æŸÅ –›÷ºŸÅ . overwhelmed sûkæmâï = subtle In their subtle form. these causes of suffering are subdued by seeing where they come from. pleasure anuåayî = following râgaï = wanting. suffering anuåayî = following dveæaï = aversion Aversion is a residue of suffering. desire. wise person api = also. –‹êŸ≤‹Àæ¤ ¿ŸíÅ II. toward.II.7 sukhânuåayî râgaï sukha = happiness.8 Æ‹ÅêŸ≤‹Àæ¤ Ø¸‰ŒÅ duïkhânuåayî dveæaï duïkha = distress.10 te pratiprasava-heyâï sûkæmâï te = these prati = with regard to. creation. reversing prasava = flow. motion. attachment Attachment is a residue of pleasant experience.9 sva-rasa-vâhî viduæo ‘pi tathârûèho ‘bhiniveåaï sva = own rasa = taste vâhî = flowing viduæaï = sage. even for the wise. even tathâ = thus rûèhaï = rooted abhiniveåaï = self-preservation Clinging to life is instinctive and self-perpetuating. —∆¿–∆Ÿ“¤ ⁄∆Æ‹ŒËÉ⁄¥ ™¨Ÿ¬ßËÉ⁄∫⁄≤∆‰ÀÅ II. pain.

–⁄™ º›ƒ‰ ™⁄ظ¥ŸéË úŸ´æŸæ‹∫Ë@íŸÅ . fruition jâti = birth. II. that.11 dhyâna-heyâs tad-vëttayaï dhyâna = meditative absorption heyâï = overcome. perceptible adëæøa = unseen janma = birth vedanîyaï = to be experienced The causes of suffering are the root source of actions. hindrance. enjoyment So long as this root source exists. movements In their gross form.12 kleåa-mûlaï karmâåayo dëæøâdëæøa-janma-vedanîyaï kleåa = cause of suffering. overwhelmed tad = its. each action deposits latent impressions deep in the mind. that vipâkaï = ripening. corruption. or lie hidden awaiting a future one. residuum dëæøa = seen. a life. of these vëttayaï = patterning. as patterns of consciousness. ±æŸ≤“‰æŸ—™ÆÍ∆‡%æÅ II. they are subdued through meditative absorption. its contents will ripen into a birth. poison mûlaï = root karma = action âåayaï = store. to be activated and experienced later in this birth.II. and experience.13 胉Àº›ƒÅ 麟@ÀæË Ø‡œ¢ŸØ‡œ¢ú≥º∆‰Æ≤¤æÅ sati mûle tad-vipâko jâtyâyur-bhogâï sati = existing mûle = root tad = its. turnings. rank âyuï = span of life bhogâï = experience. affliction.

II.14

te hlâda-paritâpa-phalâï puñyâpuñya-hetutvât te = they, these hlâda = delight paritâpa = anguish phalâï = fruit puñya = good, virtuous apuñya = bad, evil hetutvât = causality
This life will be marked by delight or anguish, in proportion to those good or bad actions that created its store of latent impressions.

™‰ jÆ¥⁄¿™Ÿ¥∂ƒŸÅ ¥‹©æŸ¥‹©æ“‰™‹´∆Ÿ™Î

II.15

pariñâma-tâpa-saäskâra-duïkhair guña-vëtti-virodhâc ca duïkham eva sarvam vivekinaï pariñâma = transformation tâpa = anguish saäskâra = latent impressions duïkhaiï = distress, pain, suffering guña = fundamental qualities of nature vëtti = patterning, turnings, movements virodhât = conflict, opposition ca = and duïkham = distress, pain, suffering eva = thus sarvam = all vivekinaï = a person of discrimination
The wise see suffering in all experience, whether from the anguish of impermanence, or from latent impressions laden with suffering, or from incessant conflict as the fundamental qualities of nature vie for ascendancy.

¥⁄¿®Ÿº™Ÿ¥–~—響ƋÅêÊí‹@®∆‡⁄%⁄∆¿Ë∞Ÿôò Æ‹Å꺉∆ –∆@Ä ⁄∆∆‰⁄é≤Å

II.16

heyaä duïkham anâgatam heyaä = overcome, overwhelmed duïkham = distress, pain, suffering anâgatam = future
But suffering that has not yet arisen can be prevented.

“‰æÄ Æ‹Åêº≤Ÿí™ºÎ

II.17

draæøë-dëåyayoï saäyogo heya-hetuï draæøë = seer, witness, pure awareness dëåyayoï = what is seen saäyogaï = union, coupling heya = overcome, overwhelmed hetuï = cause
The preventible cause of all this suffering is the apparent indivisibility of pure awareness and what it regards. II.18

Æ˙œ¢‡Ø‡ÕææËÅ –ÄæËíË “‰æ“‰™‹Å

prakâåa-kriyâ-sthiti-åîlaä bhûtendriyâtmakaä bhogâpavargârthaä dëåyam prakâåa = brightness kriyâ = action sthiti = stability, steadiness åîlaä = character bhûta = element indriya = sensory apparatus âtmakaä = self, essence bhoga = experience, enjoyment apavarga = emancipation, liberation arthaä = meaning, purpose, approach dëåyam = what is seen
What awareness regards, namely the phenomenal world, embodies the qualities of luminosity, activity, and inertia; it includes oneself, composed of both elements and the senses; and, it is the ground for both sensual experience and liberation.

¥˘éŸÀ⁄$æŸ⁄—¨⁄™À¤ƒÄ ∫›™‰⁄≥Æ˙柴ºé~~ ∫Ëퟥ∆íŸ@¨@Ä Ø‡ÕæºÎ

II.19

viåeæâviåeæa-liògamâtrâliògâni guña-parvâñi viåeæa = difference, distinction; distinct aviåeæa = indistinct liòga = mark, characteristic mâtra = only aliògâni = undifferentiated, without marks guña = fundamental qualities of nature parvâñi = level, state
All orders of being - undifferentiated, differentiated, indistinct, distinct - are manifestations of the fundamental qualities of nature.

⁄∆À‰ŒŸ⁄∆À‰Œ⁄ƒóÓºŸ&Ÿ⁄ƒóÓŸ⁄≤ í‹®¥∆Ÿ@⁄®

II.20

draæøâ dëåi-mâtraï åuddho ‘pi pratyayânupaåyaï draæøâ = pure awareness, witness, see-er dëåi = seeing mâtraï = only åuddhaï = pure api = also, although pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation anupaåyaï = to behold
Pure awareness is just seeing, itself; although pure, it usually appears to operate through the perceiving mind.

Æ˙œ¢Ÿ ؇⁄ÀºŸ&Å À‹ØÛËÉ⁄¥ ¥˘´ææŸ≤‹¥ÕæÅ

II.21

tad-artha eva dëåyasyâtmâ tad = its, that artha = meaning, purpose, approach eva = thus dëåyasya = of what is seen âtmâ = self, essence
In essence, the phenomenal world exists to reveal this truth.

™Æ¨@ ä∆ ؇Õæ—柴ºŸ

II.22

këtârtham prati naæøam apyanaæøaä tad anya-sâdhârañatvât këta = done, accomplished artham = meaning, purpose, approach prati = with regard to, toward, reversing naæøam = ceased api = also anaæøaä = not ceased tad = its, that anya = other sâdhârañatvât = common experience
Once that happens, the phenomenal world no longer appears as such; it continues to exist as a common reality for everyone else, though.

é‚™Ÿ¨@Ä ¥˘⁄™ ≤—¢ºµæ≤œ¢Ä ™Æ≥æ–Ÿ∞Ÿ¿®´∆Ÿ™Î

II.23

sva-svâmi-åaktyoï svarûpopalabdhi-hetuï saäyogaï sva = own svâmi = owner åaktyoï = power sva = own rûpa = form upalabdhi = acquisition hetuï = cause, reason saäyogaï = union, coupling
It is by virtue of the apparent indivisibility of the phenomenal world and pure awareness that the former seems to possess the latter’s powers.

—∆—∆Ÿ⁄ºÀè´æËÅ —∆¬¥Ë¥ƒ⁄π∞“‰™‹Å –~æËíÅ

II.24

™—æ “‰™‹¿⁄∆دŸ

tasya hetur avidyâ tasya = of this, that hetuï = cause, reason avidyâ = lack of wisdom, not seeing things as they are
Not seeing things as they are is the cause of this phenomenon. II.25

™Æ∫Ÿ∆Ÿ™Î –~æËíŸ∫Ÿ∆Ë “Ÿ≤Ä ™ÆÍ؇À‰Å éÁ∆≈æºÎ

tad-abhâvât saäyogâbhâvo hânaä tad-dëåeï kaivalyam tad = its, that abhâvât = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance saäyoga = union, association, mingling abhâvaï = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance hânaä = cessation tad = its, that dëåeï = seeing kaivalyam = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness
With realization, the appearance of indivisibility vanishes, revealing that awareness is free and untouched by phenomena.

the light of understanding can shine forth. level prajõa = wisdom At the ultimate level of discrimination.28 æËíŸóÓŸ≤‹œ§Ÿ≤ŸÆÀ‹⁄ØÛ’æ‰ ◊Ÿ≤Ƥ⁄µ™¿Ÿ⁄∆∆‰éë柙‰Å yogâògânuæøhânâd aåuddhi-kæaye jõâna-dîptir âviveka-khyâteï yoga = process of yoking. that saptadhâ = sevenfold prânta = last bhûmiï = stage. practice aåuddhi = impurity kæaye = dwindling. decreasing jõâna = knowledge dîptiï = radiance a = extending to viveka = discrimination khyâteï = seeing When the components of yoga are practiced. illuminating the way to discriminative awareness. then.26 viveka-khyâtir aviplavâ hânopâyaï viveka = discrimination khyâtiï = seeing aviplavâ = continuous. union aòga = limb. uninterrupted hâna = cessation upâyaï = means The apparent indivisibility of seeing and the seen can be eradicated by cultivating uninterrupted discrimination between awareness and what it regards. impurities dwindle. component anuæøhânât = performance. . II.27 ™—æ –µ™∞Ÿ ¥˘Ÿ≥™∫›⁄ºÅ ¥˘◊Ÿ tasya saptadhâ prânta-bhûmiï prajõâ tasya = of this. ⁄∆∆‰éëæŸ⁄™¿⁄∆µƒ∆Ÿ “Ÿ≤Ë¥ŸæÅ II.II. wisdom extends to all seven aspects of nature.

29 yama-niyamâsana-prâñâyâma-pratyâhâra-dhârañâ-dhyâna-samâdhayo ‘æøâv aògâni yama = external discipline niyama = internal discipline âsana = posture prâñâyâma = breath regulation pratyâhâra = withdrawal of the senses dhârañâ = concentration dhyana = meditative absorption samâdhayaï = oneness. meditative absorption.II. and integration. celibacy. internal discipline. Ç⁄“Ä–Ÿ–´æŸ—™‰æ∏˘“˜òæŸ@¥⁄¿í˘“Ÿ 溟Š. impeccable conduct aparigrahâ = not being acquisitive yamâï = external discipline The five external disciplines are not harming. and not being acquisitive. breath regulation. æº⁄≤溟–≤¥˘Ÿ®ŸæŸº¥˘´æŸ“Ÿ¿∞Ÿ¿®Ÿ±æŸ≤–ºŸ∞æËÉœ¢Ÿ∆óÓŸ⁄≤ II. posture. truth asteya = not stealing brahmacarya = celibacy. concentration. truthfulness.30 ahimsâ-satyâsteya-brahmacaryâparigrahâ yamâï ahimsâ = not harming satya = truthfulness. not stealing. integration aæøâu = eight aògâni = limbs The eight components of yoga are external discipline.

constitute the great vow of yoga. intensity of discipline. commitment These universals.32 åauca-santoæa-tapaï-svâdhyâyeåvara-prañidhânâni niyamâï åauca = purity santoæa = contentment tapaï = heat. place. transcending birth. rank deåa = place kâla = time samaya = circumstance anavacchinnâï = unlimited. self-study.II. alignment niyamâï = internal discipline The five internal disciplines are bodily purification. irrespective of sârva = all bhaumâ = at a level mahâ = great vratam = vow. or circumstance. contentment. and orientation toward the ideal of pure awareness. era. ⁄∆™éõ∏Ÿ∞≤‰ ¥˘⁄™¥’∫Ÿ∆≤ºÎ .33 vitarka-bâdhane pratipakæa-bhâvanam vitarka = analytical thinking.31 ete jâti-deåa-kâla-samayânavacchinnâï sârva-bhaumâ mahâvratam ete = these jâti = birth. intensity. austerity svâdhyâya = self-study îåvara = divine ideal of pure awareness prañidhânâni = surrender. application. 䙉 úŸ⁄™Æ‰À韃–ºæŸ≤∆⁄ôö≤ÙŸÅ –Ÿ∆@∫ŸÊºŸ º“Ÿ∆˘™ºÎ II. unwholesome thoughts bâdhane = repelling pratipakæa = opposite bhâvanam = realizing. ÀŸÊò–≥™ËŒ™¥Å—∆Ÿ±æŸæ‰Ã¸¿¥˘⁄®∞Ÿ≤Ÿ⁄≤ ⁄≤溟ŠII. dedication. becoming Unwholesome thoughts can be neutralized by cultivating wholesome ones.

such as wanting to harm someone. moderate.34 vitarkâ himsâdayaï këta-kâritânumoditâ lobha-krodha-moha-pûrvakâ mëdu-madhyâdhimâtrâ duïkhâjõânânanta-phalâ iti pratipakæa-bhâvanam vitarkâ = analytical thinking. II.II. accomplished kârita = caused to be done. . pain. anger. or we may cause or condone them in others.35 Ç⁄“Ä–Ÿ¥˘⁄™œ§ŸæŸÄ ™´–⁄≤Ù∞È ∆Ê¿´æŸíÅ ahimsâ-pratiæøhâyâà tat-sannidhau vaira-tyâgaï ahimsâ = not harming pratiæøhâyâà = based on. unwholesome thoughts may arise from greed. This is why one must cultivate wholesome thoughts. instigated anumoditâ = approved lobha = greed krodha = anger moha = delusion pûrvakâ = preceded by mëdu = mild madhya = moderate adhimâtrâ = extreme. grounded in tat = that. here: negative thoughts himsâ = harming âdayaï = et cetera këta = done. boundless phalâ = fruit iti = thus pratipakæa = opposite bhâvanam = realizing. but they never cease to ripen into ignorance and suffering. becoming ⁄∆™éŸ@ ⁄“Ä–ŸÆæÅ é‚™éŸ⁄¿™Ÿ≤‹ºË⁄Æ™Ÿ ƒË∫$Ë∞ºË“¥›∆@éŸ º‡Æ‹º±æŸ⁄∞ºŸ&Ÿ Æ‹ÅêŸ◊Ÿ≤Ÿ≤≥™∂ƒŸ Ñ⁄™ ¥˘⁄™¥’∫Ÿ∆≤ºÎ We ourselves may act upon unwholesome thoughts. these sannidhau = presence vaira = hostility tyâgaï = abandonment Being firmly grounded in non-violence creates an atmosphere in which others can let go of their hostility. intense duïkha = distress. suffering âjõâna = ignorance ananta = endless. they may be mild. or extreme. or delusion.

grounded in sarva = all ratna = jewel upasthânam = approach. materialize For those who have no inclination to steal.37 asteya-pratiæøhâyâä sarva-ratnopasthânam asteya = not stealing pratiæthâyâä = based on. truth pratiæthâyâä = based on. impeccable conduct pratiæthâyâä = based on. every action and its consequences are imbued with truth. ∏˘“˜òæ@¥˘⁄™œ§ŸæŸÄ ∆¤æ@ƒŸ∫Å II.39 aparigraha-sthairye janma-kathantâ-sambodhaï aparigraha = not being acquisitive sthairye = being settled in janma = birth kathantâ = understanding why sambodhaï = insight Freedom from wanting unlocks the real purpose of existence.36 satya-pratiæøhâyâä kriyâ-phalâårayatvam satya = truthfulness. the truly precious is at hand. Ç¥⁄¿í˘“—¨Êæ@ ú≥ºé¨Ä™Ÿ–Ω∏Ë∞Å . vigor lâbhaï = acquired The chaste acquire vitality. grounded in kriyâ = action phala = fruit âårayatvam = rest on For those grounded in truthfulness.II. Ç—™‰æ¥˘⁄™œ§ŸæŸÄ –∆@¿´≤Ÿ‰¥—¨Ÿ≤ºÎ II. –´æ¥˘⁄™œ§ŸæŸÄ ⁄$æŸ∂ƒŸÃ˘æ´∆ºÎ II.38 brahmacarya-pratiæøhâyâm vîrya-lâbhaï brahmacarya = celibacy. grounded in vîrya = energy.

mastery of the senses. or guna åuddhi = purity saumanasya = gladness eka = one agrya = pointed indriya = sensory apparatus jaya = mastery âtma = self. luminosity. one’s body ceases to be compelling. essence daråana = vision. perspective yogyatvâni = capability ca = and Purification also brings about clarity. a fundamental essence of nature.42 santoæâd anuttamaï sukha-lâbhaï santoæât = contentment anuttamaï = unsurpassed sukha = happiness lâbhaï = acquired Contentment brings unsurpassed joy. ÀŸÊòŸ™Î —∆ŸóÓú‹í‹µ–Ÿ ¥¿Ê¿–~–í@Å II.40 åaucât svâòga-jugupsâ parair asansargaï åaucât = purity sva = own aòga = limb.II. –≥™ËŒŸÆ≤‹%ºÅ –‹êƒŸ∫Å . happiness. II. and capacity for self-awareness. concentration. component jugupsâ = disinclination.41 –^∆À‹⁄ØÛ–ŸÊº≤—æÊéŸí˘Ò‰⁄≥Æ˙æú柴ºÆÀ@≤æËìæ´∆Ÿ⁄≤ ò sattva-åuddhi-saumanasyaikâgryendriya-jayâtma-daråana-yogyatvâni ca sattva = clarity. likewise contact with others. detachment paraiï = other asansargaï = freedom from contact With bodily purification.

dedication. alignment Through orientation toward the ideal of pure awareness. the body and its senses become supremely refined. intensity of discipline. integration siddhiï = perfection îåvara = divine ideal of pure awareness prañidhânât = surrender. –ºŸ⁄∞⁄–⁄ØÛ¿¤Õ∆¿¥˘⁄®∞Ÿ≤Ÿ™Î II. ⁄—¨¿–‹êºŸ–≤ºÎ .45 samâdhi-siddhir îåvara-prañidhânât samâdhi = oneness. one can achieve integration. application. austerity As intense discipline burns up impurities.44 —∆Ÿ±æŸæŸ⁄Æœ¢Æ‰∆™Ÿ–Ω¥˘æËíÅ svâdhyâyâd iæøa-devatâ-samprayogaï svâdhyâyât = self-study iæøa = desired devatâ = deity samprayogaï = contact Self-study deepens communion with one’s personal deity.43 kâyendriya-siddhir aåuddhi-kæayât tapasaï kâya = body indriya = sensory apparatus siddhiï = perfection aåuddhi = impurity kæayât = dwindling. II. stable sukham = happiness âsanam = posture The postures of meditation should embody steadiness and ease. éŸæ‰⁄≥Æ˙æ⁄–⁄ØÛ¿À‹⁄Øے柙Π™¥–Å II.II.46 sthira-sukham âsanam sthira = steady. decreasing tapasaï = heat.

dualities anabhighâtaï = insulation. from these. unified contemplation This occurs as all effort relaxes and coalescence arises.II. this is called breath regulation. . interruption prâñâyâmaï = breath regulation With effort relaxing. from that dvandva = play of opposites. ™™Ë ظ≥ظŸ≤⁄∫ŠII.48 tato dvandvânabhighâtaï tataï = therefore. ¥˘æ´≤ÀÊ⁄¨≈æŸ≤≥™–ºŸ¥⁄%ªæŸºÎ II. the flow of inhalation and exhalation can be brought to a standstill. being beyond disturbance Then. one is no longer disturbed by the play of opposites.49 ™⁄—º≤Î –⁄™ øŸ–¥˘Ã¸Ÿ–æËí@⁄™⁄∆ôö‰ÆÅ ¥˘Ÿ®ŸæŸºÅ tasmin sati åvâsa-praåvâsayor gati-vicchedaï prâñâyâmaï tasmin = in this sati = existing åvâsa = inhalation praåvâsayoï = exhalation gati = flow vicchedaï = cessation.47 prayatna-åaithilyânanta-samâpattibhyâm prayatna = effort åaithilya = relaxation ananta = endless. boundless samâpattibhyâm = coalescence. revealing that the body and the infinite universe are indivisible.

II.50 bâhyâbhyantara-stambha-vëttir deåa-kâla-saòkhyâbhiï-paridëæøo dîrgha-sûkæmaï bâhya = external abhyantara = internal stambha = stationary vëttiï = patterning. from these. breath becomes spacious and subtle. lull . ∏Ÿ“¯Ÿªæ≥™¿—™Ω∫∆‡⁄%ÆÂ@À韃–óÌÒŸ⁄∫Å ¥⁄¿Ø‡œ¢Ë Ƥî@–›÷ºÅ II. scrutinized dîrgha = long sûkæmaï = subtle As the movement patterns of each breath . layer Then the veil lifts from the mind’s luminosity. exhalation. ™™Å ’¤æ™‰ ¥˘éŸÀŸ∆¿®ºÎ . veil. number.inhalation. from that kæîyate = disappears prakâåa = brightness âvarañam = covering.51 bâhyâbhyantara-viæayâkæepî caturthaï bâhya = external abhyantara = internal viæaya = object (of experience).are observed as to duration. the distinction between breathing in and out falls away.52 tataï kæîyate prakâåâvarañam tataï = therefore. ∏Ÿ“¯Ÿªæ≥™¿⁄∆ŒæŸ’‰¥¤ ò™‹¨@Å II. turnings. phenomenon âkæepî = transcending caturthaï = fourth As realization dawns. and area of focus. movements deåa = place kâla = time saòkhyâbhiï = number paridëæøaï = observed. measured.

the senses do likewise. highest. ™™Å ¥¿ºŸ ∆Õ晉⁄≥Æ˙˙柮ŸºÎ . purest vaåyata = obedience.55 tataï paramâ vaåyatendriyâñâm tataï = therefore.II. —∆⁄∆ŒæŸ–Ω¥˘æËí‰ ⁄ò%—æ —∆¬¥Ÿ≤‹éŸ¿ Ñ∆‰⁄≥Æ˙柮ŸÄ ¥˘´æŸ“Ÿ¿Å II. phenomenon asamprayoge = uncoupling cittasya = consciousness sva = own rûpa = form anukâra = imitation. as it were indriyâñâm = sensory apparatus pratyâhâraï = withdrawal of the senses When consciousness interiorizes by uncoupling from external objects. following suit iva = like. subservience indriyâñâm = sensory apparatus Then the senses reside utterly in the service of realization. thus. from these. ∞Ÿ¿®Ÿ–‹ ò æËì晟 º≤–Å II.53 dhârañâsu ca yogyatâ manasaï dhârañâsu = concentration ca = and yogyatâ = capability manasaï = mind And the mind’s potential for concentration is realized. this is called withdrawal of the senses. from that paramâ = ultimate.54 sva-viæayâsamprayoge cittasya svarûpânukâra ivendriyâñâm pratyâhâraï sva = own viæaya = object (of experience).

in that pratyaya = perception. the entire perceptual flow is aligned with that object. The Extraordinary Powers III. approach mâtra = only nirbhâsaä = shining sva = own rûpa = form åûnyam = empty iva = like. as it were samâdhiï = oneness. representation eka = one tânatâ = extension.2 tatra pratyayaika-tânatâ dhyânam tatra = there. as if formless. integration When only the essential nature of the object shines forth. integration has arisen. that eva = thus artha = meaning.⁄∆∫›⁄™¥ŸÆÅ Vibhûti-pâdaï III. intention.3 tad evârtha-mâtra-nirbhâsaä svarûpa-åûnyam iva samâdhiï tad = its. ™Æ‰∆Ÿ¨@ºŸ&⁄≤∫@Ÿ–Ä —∆¬¥À›≥æ⁄º∆ –ºŸ⁄∞Å . stretching dhyânam = meditative absorption In meditative absorption.1 deåa-bandhaå cittasya dhârañâ deåa = place bandhaï = binding cittasya = consciousness dhârañâ = concentration Concentration locks consciousness on a single area. ƉÀ∏≥∞⁄Ã%—æ ∞Ÿ¿®Ÿ III. thus. ™& ¥˘´ææÊ陟≤™Ÿ ±æŸ≤ºÎ III. thought. purpose.

perfect discipline Concentration.5 taj-jayât prajõâlokaï tad = that jayât = mastery prajõa = wisdom âlokaï = illumination. as one saäyamaï = constraint. and integration regarding a single object comprise the perfect discipline of consciousness. III. flashes of brilliance Once the perfect discipline of consciousness is mastered. component pûrvebhyaï = earlier These three components . application Perfect discipline is mastered in stages.6 ™—æ ∫›⁄ºŒ‹ ⁄∆⁄≤æËíÅ tasya bhûmiæu viniyogaï tasya = of this. that bhûmiæu = stage viniyogaï = progression. wisdom dawns.7 trayam antar-aògam pûrvebhyaï trayam = these three antar = inner aògam = limb.III.4 trayam ekatra saäyamaï trayam = these three ekatra = in one. meditative absorption. &æº≥™¿óÓÄ ¥›∆Â@ªæÅ . and integration .are more interiorized than the preceding five. &溉é& –ÄæºÅ III. absorption.concentration. ™úÚ柙Π¥˘◊ŸƒËéÅ III.

permeated nirodha = stilling.10 tasya praåânta-vâhitâ saäskârât tasya = of this. restriction pariñâmaï = transformation The transformation toward total stillness occurs as new latent impressions fostering cessation arise to prevent the activation of distractive. and moments of stillness begin to permeate consciousness. stored ones. that praåânta = tranquil vâhitâ = flow.9 vyutthâna-nirodha-saäskârayor abhibhava-prâdur-bhâvau nirodha-kæaña-cittânvayo nirodha-pariñâmaï vyutthâna = emergence nirodha = stilling. restriction saäskârayoï = latent impressions abhibhava = subjugation. suppression. restriction kæaña = moment citta = consciousness anvayaï = connected to. cessation. ™—æ ¥˘ÀŸ≥™∆Ÿ⁄“™Ÿ –ė響Ÿ™Î .III. ™Æ⁄¥ ∏⁄“¿óÓ ⁄≤∏¤@ú—æ III. cessation. progression saäskârât = latent impressions These latent impressions help consciousness flow from one tranquil moment to the next. cessation.8 tad api bahir-aògaä nirbîjasya tad = its. component nirbîjasya = seedless Even these three are external to integration that bears no seeds. becoming nirodha = stilling. submergence prâdur = outside bhâvau = being. that api = also bahiï = external aògaä = limb. …æ‹´¨Ÿ≤⁄≤¿Ë∞–ė響æË¿⁄∫∫∆¥˘ŸÆ‹∫Ÿ@∆È ⁄≤¿Ë∞’®⁄ò%Ÿ≥∆æË ⁄≤¿Ë∞¥⁄¿®ŸºÅ III.

from these. integration pariñâmaï = transformation Consciousness is transformed toward integration as distractions dwindle. focus pariñâmaï = transformation In other words. focus kæaya = dwindling. and focus arises. –∆Ÿ@¨@™ÊéŸí˘™æËÅ ’æËÆæÈ ⁄ò%—æ –ºŸ⁄∞¥⁄¿®ŸºÅ III. appearance cittasya = consciousness samâdhi = oneness. thought.12 tataï punaïåântoditau tulya-pratyayau cittasyaikâgratâ-pariñâmaï tataï = therefore. ™™Å ¥‹≤Å ÀŸ≥™Ë⁄Æ™È ™‹≈æ¥˘´ææÈ ⁄ò%—æÊéŸí˘™Ÿ¥⁄¿®ŸºÅ . subsided uditau = arisen tulya = similar. equal pratyayau = perception.11 sarvârthataikâgratayoï kæayodayau cittasya samâdhi-pariñâmaï sarva = all arthata = regarding the meaning of something ekâgratayoï = one-pointedness. intention. consciousness is transformed toward focus as continuity develops between arising and subsiding perceptions.III. decreasing udayau = arising. from that punaï = again åânta = quiescent. representation cittasya = consciousness ekâgratâ = one-pointedness.

substance The substrate is unchanged. 䙉≤ ∫›™‰⁄≥Æ˙扌‹ ∞º@ƒ’®Ÿ∆—¨Ÿ¥⁄¿®ŸºŸ …æŸë柙ŸÅ III. experiential substance anupâtî = following. explained Consciousness evolves along the same three lines . during.III. whether before. or after it takes a given form.15 kramânyatvam pariñâmânyatve hetuï krama = sequence.as the elements and the senses. variation pariñâma = transformation anyatve = differentiation. timespan.14 ÀŸ≥™Ë⁄Æ™Ÿ…æ¥Æ‰Õæ∞ºŸ@≤‹¥Ÿ™¤ ∞º¤@ å¯antoditâvyapadeåya-dharmânupâtî dharmî å¯anta = quiescent.form. relying upon dharmî = substrate. time factors avasthâ = condition pariñâmâ = transformation vyâkhyâtâï = described. visible form. visible form. reason These transformations appear to unfold the way they do because consciousness is a succession of distinct patterns. flow. succession anyatvam = differentiation. variation hetuï = cause. $ºŸ≥æ´∆Ä ¥⁄¿®ŸºŸ≥æ´∆‰ “‰™‹Å . experiential substance lakæaña = characteristic. III. subsided udita = arisen avyapadeåya = unmanifest dharma = property. and condition .13 etena bhûtendriyeæu dharma-lakæañâvasthâ-pariñâmâ vyâkhyâtâï etena = by this bhûta = element indriyeæu = sensory apparatus dharma = property.

perfect discipline sarva = all bhûta = element. perfect discipline atîta = past anâgata = future jõânam = knowledge Observing these three axes of change . these pravibhâga = distinction saäyamât = constraint. thought. representation itaretara = one another adhyâsât = superimposition saòkaraï = confusion. and perception tend to get lumped together. intention. purpose. and condition .III.17 åabdârtha-pratyayânâm itaretarâdhyâsât saòkaras tat-pravibhâga-saäyamât sarva-bhûta-ruta-jõânam åabda = verbal.with perfect discipline yields insight into the past and future. approach pratyayânâm = perception.form. meaning. timespan. focusing on the distinctions between them with perfect discipline yields insight into the language of all beings. each confused with the others. mixing up tad = that. linguistic artha = meaning. sound jõânam = knowledge Word.16 pariñâma-traya-saäyamâd atîtânâgata-jõânam pariñâma = transformation traya = these three saäyamât = constraint. ÀπÆŸ¨@¥˘´ææŸ≤Ÿ⁄º™¿‰™¿Ÿ±æŸ–Ÿ™Î –óÏ¿—™´¥˘⁄∆∫Ÿí–Ä溟™Î –∆@∫›™¡™◊Ÿ≤ºÎ . ¥⁄¿®Ÿº&æ–Ä溟ƙ¤™Ÿ≤Ÿí™◊Ÿ≤ºÎ III. being ruta = language.

absent bhûtatvât = actuality. . –ė響–Ÿ’Ÿ´é¿®Ÿ™Î ¥›∆@úŸ⁄™◊Ÿ≤ºÎ III. these sâlambanaä = with support tasya = of this. since the object itself is not actually present in that person’s consciousness. through the eye karañât = making. being But not insight regarding the object of those perceptions.18 saäskâra-sâkæât-karañât pûrva-jâti-jõânam saäskâra = latent impressions sâkæât = direct. observing pûrva = earlier jâti = birth. representation para = other citta = consciousness jõânam = knowledge Focusing with perfect discipline on the perceptions of another yields insight into that person’s consciousness. rank jõânam = knowledge Directly observing latent impressions with perfect discipline yields insight into previous births. thought.20 ≤ ò ™™Î –ŸƒΩ∏≤Ä ™—æŸ⁄∆Œæ¤∫›™´∆Ÿ™Î na ca tat sâlambanaä tasyâviæayî-bhûtatvât na = not ca = and tat = that. III. intention.19 ¥˘´ææ—æ ¥¿⁄ò%◊Ÿ≤ºÎ pratyayasya para-citta-jõânam pratyayasya = perception. that aviæayî = not present.III.

perfect discipline tad = its. smell. . through perfect discipline other percepts .can be made to disappear. touch .21 kâya-rûpa-saäyamât tad-grâhya-åakti-stambhe cakæuï-prakâåâsamprayoge ‘ntardhânam kâya = body rûpa = form saäyamât = constraint.22 䙉≤ ÀπƟد≥™∞Ÿ@≤º‹#ºÎ etena åabdâdyantardhânam uktaä etena = by this åabda = sound adi = others antardhânam = invisibility. éŸæ¬¥–Ä溟™Î ™ÆÍí˘“¯À⁄#—™Ω∫‰ ò’‹Å¥˘éŸÀŸ–Ω¥˘æËí‰É≥™∞Ÿ@≤ºÎ III.sound. and the power to perceive is suspended. that grâhya = to be received. perceived åakti = power stambhe = suspension cakæuï = eye prakâåa = brightness asamprayoge = uncoupling antardhânam = invisibility. it becomes invisible: the eye is disengaged from incoming light. disappearance uktaä = described.III. disappearance When the body’s form is observed with perfect discipline. taste. explained Likewise.

observing one’s actions with perfect discipline. III.24 maitryâdiæu balâni ºÊ_æŸ⁄ÆŒ‹ ∏ƒŸ⁄≤ maitrî = friendliness âdiæu = and the others. .25 baleæu hasti-balâdîni ∏ƒ‰Œ‹ “⁄—™∏ƒŸÆ¤⁄≤ baleæu = powers. strengths hasti = elephant bala = powers. strengths âdîni = and the others. delight. et cetera Focusing with perfect discipline on the powers of an elephant. yields insight into death. strengths Focusing with perfect discipline on friendliness.III. one acquires those powers. these saäyamât = constraint. compassion. one is imbued with their energies. perfect discipline aparânta = death jõânam = knowledge ariæøebhyaï = signs. et cetera balâni = powers. or other entities. or studying omens. omens vâ = or The effects of action may be immediate or slow in coming. and equanimity.23 sopakramaä nirupakramaä ca karma tat-saäyamâd aparânta-jõânam ariæøebhyo vâ sopakramaä = immediately manifest nirupakramaä = slow to manifest ca = and karma = action tat = that. –Ë¥$ºÄ ⁄≤¡¥$ºÄ ò éº@ ™´–Ä溟ƥ¿Ÿ≥™◊Ÿ≤º⁄¿œ¢‰ªæË ∆Ÿ III.

∞˚‹∆‰ ™ØÓ⁄™◊Ÿ≤ºÎ . ∫‹∆≤◊Ÿ≤Ä –›æÂ@ –Ä溟™Î III.III.28 ò≥Ɖ˙ ™Ÿ¿Ÿ…曓◊Ÿ≤ºÎ candre târâ-vyûha-jõânam candre = on the moon târâ = star vyûha = arrangement jõânam = knowledge Focusing with perfect discipline on the moon yields insight about the stars’ positions. hidden. focusing sûkæma = subtle vyavahita = hidden viprakëæøa = distant jõânam = knowledge Being absorbed in the play of the mind’s luminosity yields insight about the subtle. III. and distant. flashes of brilliance nyâsât = setting down.27 ¥˘∆‡^柃Ëé≥柖Ÿ™Î –›÷º…æ∆⁄“™⁄∆¥˘é‚œ¢◊Ÿ≤ºÎ bhuvana-jõânaä sûrye saäyamât bhuvana = world jõânaä = knowledge sûrye = on the sun saäyamât = constraint.26 pravëttyâloka-nyâsât sûkæma-vyavahita-viprakëæøa-jõânam pravëtti = arising of activity âloka = illumination. perfect discipline Focusing with perfect discipline on the sun yields insight about the universe.29 dhruve tad-gati-jõânam dhruve = polestar tad = its. that gati = flow jõânam = knowledge Focusing with perfect discipline on the polestar yields insight about their movements. III.

crown jyotiæi = light siddha = perfected one daråanam = vision.30 nâbhi-cakre kâya-vyûha-jõânam nâbhi = navel cakre = wheel.III. well. perspective Focusing with perfect discipline on the light in the crown of the head.32 雺@≤Ÿ•ÒŸÄ —¨Êæ@ºÎ kûrma-nâèyâä sthairyam kûrma = tortoise nâèyâä = channel. cavity kæut = hunger pipâsâ = thirst nivëttiï = cessation Focusing with perfect discipline on the pit of the throat eradicates hunger and thirst. III. III. º›∞@ùæË⁄™⁄Œ ⁄–ØÛÆÀ@≤ºÎ . one cultivates steadiness. ≤Ÿ⁄∫ò$ éŸæ…曓◊Ÿ≤ºÎ III. energy center kâya = body vyûha = arrangement jõânam = knowledge Focusing with perfect discipline on the navel energy center yields insight about the organization of the body. one acquires the perspective of the perfected ones. duct sthairyam = being settled in Focusing with perfect discipline on the ‘tortoise channel’.31 驧雥‰ ’›⁄´¥¥Ÿ–Ÿ⁄≤∆‡⁄%Å kañøha-kûpe kæut-pipâsâ-nivëttiï kañøha = throat kûpe = pit.33 mûrdha-jyotiæi siddha-daråanam mûrdha = head.

role sva = own artha = meaning. intention. a fundamental essence of nature.34 prâtibhâd vâ sarvam prâtibhât = spontaneous illumination vâ = or sarvam = all Or. luminosity. all these accomplishments may be realized in a flash of spontaneous illumination. purpose. ¥˘Ÿ⁄™∫ŸØ¸Ÿ –∆@ºÎ III. approach saäyamât = constraint.36 sattva-puruæayor atyantâsaòkîrnayoï pratyayâviåeæo bhogaï parârthât svârtha-saäyamât puruæajõânam sattva = clarity. Focusing with perfect discipline on the different properties of each yields insight into the nature of pure awareness.35 „Ææ‰ ⁄ò%–~⁄∆™Î hëdaye citta-samvit hëdaye = heart citta = consciousness samvit = understanding Focusing with perfect discipline on the heart. thought. representation aviåeæaï = indistinct bhogaï = experience. –^∆¥‹¡ŒæË¿´æ≥™Ÿ–óϤ®@æËÅ ¥˘´ææŸ⁄∆À‰ŒË ∫ËíÅ ¥¿Ÿ¨Ÿ@™Î —∆Ÿ¨@–Ä溟™Î ¥‹¡Œ◊Ÿ≤ºÎ . one understands the nature of consciousness. enjoyment para = other arthât = function. or guna puruæayoï = pure awareness atyanta = absolutely asaòkîrnayoï = unmixed pratyaya = perception.III. III. perfect discipline puruæa = pure awareness jõânam = knowledge Experience consists of perceptions in which the luminous aspect of the phenomenal world is mistaken for absolutely pure awareness.

38 ™‰ –ºŸ∞Ÿ∆‹¥–íŸ@ …æ‹´¨Ÿ≤‰ ⁄–ØÛæÅ te samâdhâv upasargâ vyutthâne siddhayaï te = they.37 tataï prâtibha-årâvaña-vedanâdaråâsvâda-vârttâ jâyante tataï = therefore. are produced Following this insight. integration upasargâ = obstacle. III.may suddenly be enhanced. these samâdhâu = oneness. from these. perception åaithilyât = relaxation pracâra = movement. but they distract one from integration. impediment vyutthâne = emergence siddhayaï = perfection.39 ∏≥∞響®ÀÊ⁄¨≈柙Π¥˘òŸ¿–Ä∆‰Æ≤Ÿôò ⁄ò%—æ ¥¿À¿¤¿Ÿ∆‰ÀÅ bandha-kâraña-åaithilyât pracâra-saävedanâc ca cittasya para-åarîrâveåaï bandha = binding kâraña = cause. ™™Å ¥˘Ÿ⁄™∫Ã˘Ÿ∆®∆‰Æ≤ŸÆÀŸ@—∆ŸÆ∆Ÿ%Ÿ@ úŸæ≥™‰ III. . feeling. from that prâtibha = spontaneous illumination årâvaña = hearing vedanâ = feeling âdaråa = seeing âsvâda = tasting vârttâï = smelling jâyante = occur. smelling . the senses . and becoming profoundly sensitive to its currents. attainment These sensory gifts may feel like attainments.III. tasting. seeing. passage saävedanât = sensitivity ca = and cittasya = consciousness para = other åarîra = body âveåaï = entering By relaxing one’s attachment to the body. making.hearing. consciousness can enter another’s body.

thorns. ÜÆŸ≤úæŸùúƒ¥óÏé©¢éŸ⁄Æœ∆–óÓ Ü´$Ÿ⁄≥™Ã III. –ºŸ≤úæŸùù∆ƒ≤ºÎ III. perfect discipline divyaä = divine årotram = faculty of hearing By focusing with perfect discipline on the way sound travels through the ether.III. mud.40 udâna-jayâj jala-paòka-kañøakâdiævasaòga utkrântiå ca udâna = uppermost region of energy flow. and other obstacles without touching down. one acquires divine hearing. but rather floating over them. Ã˘Ë&ŸéŸÀæËÅ –Ω∏≥∞–Ä溟⁄¶…æÄ Ã˘Ë&ºÎ . one becomes radiant. one can walk through water. et cetera asaòga = without touching utkrântiï = rising up ca = and By mastering the flow of energy in the head and neck.42 årotrâkâåayoï sambandha-saäyamâd divyaä årotram årotra = of hearing âkâåayoï = space. or prana jayât = mastery jala = water paòka = mud kañøaka = thorn âdiæu = and the others.41 samâna-jayâj jvalanam samâna = energy flow through the solar plexus jayât = mastery jvalanam = radiance By mastering the flow of energy through the solar plexus. ether sambandha = relationship saäyamât = constraint.

movements mahâ = great videhâ = bodiless tataï = therefore. ∏⁄“¿é⁄≈¥™Ÿ ∆‡⁄%º@“Ÿ⁄∆Ɖ“Ÿ ™™Å ¥˘éŸÀŸ∆¿®’æÅ .44 bahir akalpitâ vëttir mahâ-videhâ tataï prakâåâvaraña-kæayaï bahiï = external akalpitâ = not feasible. one can travel through space. turnings. layer kæayaï = disappearance When consciousness completely disengages from externals . and developing coalesced contemplation on the lightness of cotton. ether gamanam = travel By focusing with perfect discipline on the body’s relationship to the ether.then the veil lifts from the mind’s luminosity. from these. unified contemplation ca= and âkâåa = space.the ‘great disembodiment’ .43 kâyâkâåayoï sambandha-saäyamâl laghu-tûla-samâpatteå câkâåa-gamanam kâya = body âkâåayoï = space. veil.III. éŸæŸéŸÀæËÅ –Ω∏≥∞–Ä溟≈ƒî‹™›ƒ–ºŸ¥%‰ÃŸéŸÀíº≤ºÎ III. impossible vëttiï = patterning. ether sambandha = relationship saäyamât = constraint. perfect discipline laghu = light tûla = cotton samâpatteï = coalescence. from that prakâåa = brightness âvaraña = covering.

that dharma = property. being beyond disturbance ca = and Then extraordinary faculties appear. perfect discipline bhûta = element. relational. one masters the elements. relation artha = meaning. approach vattva = function saäyamât = constraint.gross. ™™ËÉ⁄®ºŸ⁄Æ¥˘ŸÆ‹∫Ÿ@∆Å éŸæ–Ω¥™Î ™ØÛºŸ@≤⁄∫à .with perfect discipline. being jayaï = mastery By observing the aspects of matter . experiential substance anabhighâtaï = insulation. purposive . visible form. including the power to shrink to the size of an atom.III. transcending physical law. intrinsic.45 sthûla-svarûpa-sûkæmânvayârthavattva-saäyamâd bhûta-jayaï sthûla = gross sva = own rûpa = form sûkæma = subtle anvaya = pervasiveness. purpose. —¨›ƒ—∆¬¥–›÷ºŸ≥∆柨@∆^∆–Ä溟ÆÍ ∫›™úæÅ III.46 tato ‘ñimâdi-prâdur-bhâvaï kâya-sampat tad-dharmânabhighâtaå ca tataï = therefore. subtle. becoming kâya = body sampat = perfection tad = its. from that añima = the power to become minutely small âdi = others prâdur = outside bhâvaï = being. as the body attains perfection. from these.

III.their processes of perception. purpose. purposes . and the durability of a diamond. from that manaï = mind javitvam = quickness vikaraña = without organs bhâvaï = condition.50 sattva-puruæânyatâ-khyâti-mâtrasya sarva-bhâvâdhiæøâtëtvaä sarva-jõâtëtvaä ca –^∆¥‹¡ŒŸ≥晟ëæŸ⁄™ºŸ&—æ –∆@∫Ÿ∆Ÿ⁄∞œ§Ÿ™‡´∆Ä –∆@◊Ÿ™‡´∆Ä ò . free from the constraints of their organs. state pradhâna = foundation. no longer in the sway of the phenomenal world. interconnectedness.47 rûpa-lâvañya-bala-vajra-saähananatvâni kâya-sampat rûpa = form lâvañya = grace bala = strength vajra = diamond saähananatvâni = durability. approach vattva = function saäyamât = constraint. intrinsic natures. relation artha = meaning. firmness kâya = body sampat = perfection This perfection includes beauty. III. one masters them.49 ™™Ë º≤Ëú⁄∆´∆Ä ⁄∆é¿®∫Ÿ∆Å ¥˘∞Ÿ≤úæà tato mano-javitvam vikaraña-bhâvaï pradhâna-jayaå ca tataï = therefore. perceiving sva = own rûpa = form asmitâ = the sense of ‘I’. matrix jayaï = mastery ca = and Then. grace. identification as self. from these. perfect discipline indriya = sensory apparatus jayaï = mastery By observing the various aspects of the sense organs . egoism anvaya = pervasiveness.48 ¬¥ƒŸ∆©æ∏ƒ∆ú˚–Ä“≤≤´∆Ÿ⁄≤ éŸæ–Ω¥™Î í˘“®—∆¬¥Ÿ⁄—º™Ÿ≥∆柨@∆^∆–Ä溟⁄Æ⁄≥Æ˙æúæÅ grahaña-svarûpâsmitânvayârthavattva-saäyamâd indriya-jayaï grahaña = grasping. III.III. the senses perceive with the quickness of the mind. strength.with perfect discipline.

isolation of pure awareness When one is unattached even to this omniscience and mastery. a fundamental essence of nature. and pure awareness knows it stands alone. non-reaction. decreasing kaivalyam = emancipation. merely sarva = all bhâva = condition. the seeds of suffering wither. state adhiæøâtëtvaä = supremacy sarva = all jõâtëtvaä = omniscience ca = and Once one just sees the distinction between pure awareness and the luminous aspect of the phenomenal world. flaw bîja = seed.sattva = clarity. source kæaye = dwindling. distinction khyâti = seeing mâtrasya = only. that vairâgyât = dispassion. or guna puruæa = pure awareness anyatâ = difference. non-attachment api = also doæa = imperfection.51 ™Ø¸Ê¿ŸìæŸÆ⁄¥ ÆËŒ∏¤ú’æ‰ éÁ∆≈æºÎ tad-vairâgyâd api doæa-bîja-kæaye kaivalyam tad = its. III. . luminosity. all conditions are known and mastered.

III. attachment smayâ = pride. feature. from these. perfect discipline viveka = discrimination jaä = born jõânam = knowledge Focusing with perfect discipline on the succession of moments in time yields insight born of discrimination. —¨Ÿ≥æ‹¥⁄≤º≥&®‰ –óÓ—ºæŸé¿®Ä ¥‹≤¿⁄≤œ¢¥˘–óÓŸ™Î III. equal tataï = therefore. or position. úŸ⁄™ƒ’®Æ‰ÀÊ¿≥晟≤∆ôö‰ÆŸ™Î ™‹≈ææË—™™Å ¥˘⁄™¥⁄%Å . rank lakæaña = characteristic. one must avoid attachment and pride. continuous tulyayoï = similar. celestial upanimantrañe = invitation saòga = contact. succession saäyamât = constraint.54 jâti-lakæaña-deåair anyatânavacchedât tulyayos tataï pratipattiï jâti = birth. recurrence Even if the exalted beckon.52 sthânyupanimantrañe saòga-smayâkarañam punar-aniæøa-prasaògât sthâni = exalted. these kramayoï = sequence. through similarities of origin. ’®™´$ºæËÅ –Ä溟⁄ظ∆‰éúÄ ◊Ÿ≤ºÎ III. from that pratipattiï = understanding This insight allows one to tell things apart which. repeated. renewed aniæøa = undesirable prasaògât = inclination. or suffering will recur. had seemed continuous. time factors deåaiï = place anyatâ = distinction anavacchedât = unbounded.53 kæaña-tat-kramayoï saäyamâd viveka-jaä jõânam kæaña = moment tat = that. beaming akarañam = without cause punaï = again. flow.

III.55 târakaä sarva-viæayaä sarvathâ-viæayam akramam ceti vivekajaä jõânam târakaä = transcendent. ™Ÿ¿é~ –∆@⁄∆ŒæÄ –∆@¨Ÿ⁄∆Œæº$ºÄ ò‰⁄™ ⁄∆∆‰éúÄ ◊Ÿ≤ºÎ III. delivering sarva = all viæayaä = object (of experience) sarvathâ = in all circumstances viæayam = object (of experience) akramam = not in sequence. setting them apart from pure awareness.56 –^∆¥‹¡ŒæËÅ À‹⁄ØÛ–ŸΩæ‰ éÁ∆≈æºÎ sattva-puruæayoï åuddhi-sâmye kaivalyam sattva = clarity. a fundamental quality of nature. isolation of pure awareness Once the luminosity and transparency of consciousness have become as distilled as pure awareness. deconstructed ca = and iti = thus viveka = discrimination jaä = born jõânam = knowledge In this way. or guna puruæayoï = pure awareness åuddhi = purity sâmye = equality kaivalyam = emancipation. they can reflect the freedom of awareness back to itself. . luminosity. discriminative insight deconstructs all of the phenomenal world’s objects and conditions.

Freedom IV.1 janmauæadhi-mantra-tapaï-samâdhijâï siddhayaï janma = birth auæadhi = herb mantra = intonation tapaï = heat. IV. intensity of discipline. difference tu = and. from that kæetrikavat = like a farmer The transformation into this form or that is not driven by the causes proximate to it. the way a farmer diverts a stream for irrigation. rank antara= other pariñâmaï = transformation prakëti = nature.2 ú≥ºŸÊŒ⁄∞º≥&™¥Å–ºŸ⁄∞úŸÅ ⁄–ØÛæÅ úŸ´æ≥™¿¥⁄¿®ŸºÅ ¥˘é‚´æŸ¥›¿Ÿ™Î jâtyantara-pariñâmaï prakëtyâpûrât jâti = birth.éÁ∆≈楟ÆÅ Kaivalya-pâdaï IV. phenomenal world varaña = choosing bhedaï = division. from these. through the use of herbs. just oriented by them. austerity samâdhi = oneness. moreover. from intonations. integration jâï = born of siddhayaï = perfection. phenomenal world âpûrât = overflow Being delivered into a new form comes about when natural forces overflow. . but tataï = therefore. attainment The attainments brought about by integration may also arise at birth.3 ⁄≤⁄º%º¥˘æËúé~ ¥˘é‚™¤≤ŸÄ ∆¿®∫‰Æ—™‹ ™™Å ’‰⁄&é∆™Î nimittam aprayojakam prakëtînâm varaña-bhedas tu tataï kæetrikavat nimittam = proximate cause aprayojakam = not causing prakëtînâm = nature. or through austerity. IV.

generating a vast array of distinctive perceptions.5 pravëtti-bhede prayojakaä cittam ekam anekeæâä pravëtti = arising of activity bhede = division prayojakaä = causing cittam = consciousness ekam = one anekeæâä = many A succession of consciousnesses. in that dhyâna = meditative absorption jam = born anâåayam = not involving the store of latent impressions Once consciousness is fixed in meditative absorption. . it no longer contributes to the store of latent impressions. appear to consolidate into one individual consciousness.IV. ⁄≤ºŸ@®⁄ò%Ÿ≥æ⁄—º™ŸºŸ&Ÿ™Î IV. ¥˘∆‡⁄%∫‰Æ‰ ¥˘æËúé~ ⁄ò%º‰éº≤‰éÂŒŸºÎ IV.4 nirmâña-cittânyasmitâ-mâtrât nirmâña = forming. creating cittâni = consciousness asmitâ = the sense of ‘I’.6 ™& ±æŸ≤úº≤ŸÀæºÎ tatra dhyâna-jam anâåayam tatra = there. egoism mâtrât = only Feeling like a self is the frame that orients consciousness toward individuation.

separated api = also ânantaryaä = succession smëti = memory. ™™—™⁄ظ¥ŸéŸ≤‹í‹®Ÿ≤Ÿº‰∆Ÿ⁄∫…æ⁄#∆Ÿ@–≤Ÿ≤ŸºÎ IV.8 tatas tad-vipâkânuguñânâm evâbhivyaktir vâsanânâm tataï = therefore.good. from that tad = its. accompanying eva = thus abhivyaktiï = manifestation vâsanânâm = latent properties. from these. traits Each action comes to fruition by coloring latent impressions according to its quality .IV. place. whereas the actions of others may be good or evil or both. rank deåa = place kâla = time vyavahitânâm = hidden. 麟@À‹èƒŸé‚œ®Ä æË⁄í≤⁄—&⁄∆∞⁄º™¿ÂŒŸºÎ IV. evil. that vipâka = ripening.9 jâti-deåa-kâla vyavahitânâm apyânantaryaä smëti-saäskârayor eka-rûpatvât jâti = birth. fruition anuguñânâm = going with. úŸ⁄™ÆÂÀ韃…æ∆⁄“™Ÿ≤ŸºµæŸ≤≥™æ@Ä —º‡⁄™–ė響æË¿‰é¬¥´∆Ÿ™Î . mindfulness saäskârayoï = latent impressions eka = one rûpatvât = essential form Because the depth memory and its latent impressions are of a piece. and time.7 karmâåuklâkëæñaä yoginas trividham itareæâm karma = action aåukla = not white akëæñaä = not black yoginaï = yogi trividham = threefold itareæâm = others The actions of a realized yogi transcend good and evil. their dynamic of cause and effect flows uninterruptedly across the demarcations of birth. or both. following.

“‰™‹∂ƒŸÃ˘æŸƒΩ∏≤ÊÅ –óÓ‡“¤™¤™´∆ŸÆ‰ŒŸº∫Ÿ∆‰ ™Æ∫Ÿ∆Å IV. difference dharmâñâm = properties.10 tâsâm anâditvaä câåiæo nityatvât tâsâm = of these anâditvaä = without beginning ca = and âåiæaï = primordial will to exist nityatvât = perpetuity. non-becoming. because the will to exist is eternal.12 Ç™¤™Ÿ≤Ÿí™Ä —∆¬¥™ËÉ—´æ±∆∫‰ÆŸØÛºŸ@®ŸºÎ atîtânâgataä svarûpato ‘styadhva-bhedâd dharmâñâm atîta = past anâgataä = future sva = own rûpataï = in form asti = exist adhva = path. experiential substances The past and future are immanent in an object. and object are inseparable. disappearance tad= its. IV. route bhedât = division.11 hetu-phalâårayâlambanaiï saògëhîtatvâd eæâm abhâve tad-abhâvaï hetu = cause. visible forms. existing as different sectors in the same flow of experiential substances. effect. foundation âlambanaiï = support. a latent impression disappears when they do. reason phala = fruit âåraya = basis. . basis.IV. disappearance Since its cause. non-becoming. object saògëhîtatvât = connectedness eæâm = of these abhâve = non-existence. eternity ™Ÿ–Ÿº≤Ÿ⁄Æ´∆Ä òŸ⁄ÀŒË ⁄≤´æ´∆Ÿ™Î They have always existed. that abhâvaï = non-existence.

13 te vyaktasûkæmâ guñâtmânaï te = they.IV. whether manifest or subtle. as each person’s perception follows a separate path from another’s. imbuing each new object with a quality of substantiality. substance tattvam = thusness. principle Their transformations tend to blur together. these vyakta = manifest sûkæmâ = subtle guña = fundamental qualities of nature âtmânaï = self. ∆—™‹–ŸΩæ‰ ⁄ò%∫‰ÆŸ%æË⁄∆@∫#Å ¥≥¨ŸÅ . IV. elemental quality. are imparted by the fundamental qualities of nature. difference tayoï = of both vibhaktaï = separation panthâï = path People perceive the same object differently.14 ¥⁄¿®ŸºÊé´∆ŸØ¸—™‹™^∆ºÎ pariñâmaikatvâd vastu-tattvam pariñâma = transformation ekatvât = oneness vastu = object. ™‰ …æ#–›÷ºŸ í‹®Ÿ´ºŸ≤Å IV.15 vastu-sâmye citta-bhedât tayor vibhaktaï panthâï vastu = object. essence The characteristics of these sectors. substance sâmye = equality citta = consciousness bhedât = division.

these apramâñakaä = unobserved tadâ = then kiä = what syât = could be But the object is not dependent on either of those perceptions. movements tad = that. substance tad = that. it is not known. turnings. if it were. their ultimate. IV. otherwise.17 ™Æ‹¥¿ŸíŸ¥‰⁄’´∆Ÿ⁄ôò%—æ ∆—™‹ ◊Ÿ™Ÿ◊Ÿ™ºÎ tad-uparâgâpekæitvâc-cittasya vastu jõâtâjõâtam tad = its. substance jõâta = known ajõâtam = not known An object is only known by a consciousness it has colored. that uparâga = coloring apekæitvât = necessity cittasya = consciousness vastu = object.18 sadâ jõâtâå citta-vëttayas tat-prabhoï puruæasyâpariñâmitvât sadâ = always jõâtâï = known citta = consciousness vëttayaï = patterning.IV. –ÆŸ ◊Ÿ™Ÿ⁄Ã%∆‡%æ—™´¥˘∫ËÅ ¥‹¡Œ—查⁄¿®Ÿ⁄º´∆Ÿ™Î . what would happen to it when nobody was looking? ≤ òÊé⁄ò%™≥&Ä ∆—™‹ ™Æ¥˘ºŸ®é~ ™ÆŸ ⁄éÄ —柙ΠIV. these prabhoï = superior puruæasya = pure awareness apariñâmitvât = immutability Patterns of consciousness are always known by pure awareness. unchanging witness.16 na caika-citta-tantram vastu tad apramâñakaä tadâ kiä syât na = not ca = and eka = one citta = consciousness tantram = dependent vastu = object.

cognition atiprasaògaï = regress smëti = memory. cognition buddheï = perception.20 eka-samaye cobhayânavadhârañam eka= one samaye = circumstance ca = and ubhaya = both anavadhârañam = not perceiving Furthermore. consciousness and its object cannot be perceived at once. the chain of such perceptions would regress infinitely. depth memory saòkaraï = confusion. imploding memory. mixing up ca = and If consciousness were perceived by itself instead of awareness. äé–ºæ‰ òË∫æŸ≤∆∞Ÿ¿®ºÎ IV. ⁄ò%Ÿ≥™¿Ø‡Õæ‰ ∫‹⁄ØÛ∏‹ØÛ‰¿⁄™¥˘–óÓÅ —º‡⁄™–óÏ¿Ã . mindfulness. but by awareness. these sva = own âbhâsaä = luminosity dëåyatvât = seen-ness Consciousness is seen not by its own light.IV.19 na tat svâbhâsaä dëåyatvât na = not tat = that. ≤ ™™Î —∆Ÿ∫Ÿ–Ä Ø‡Õæ´∆Ÿ™Î IV.21 cittântara-dëåye buddhi-buddher atiprasaògaï smëti-saòkaraå ca citta = consciousness antara = other dëåye = seen buddhi = perception.

like all compound phenomena. object Then. though. thereby fulfilling all its purposes.22 citer apratisaòkramâyâs tad-âkârâpattau svabuddhi-samvedanam citeï = pure awareness apratisaòkramâyâï = immobile. these asaòkhyeya = countless vâsanâbhiï = latent properties. that âkâra = shape âpattau = assumes. consciousness. ™Æ–óÌÒ‰æ∆Ÿ–≤Ÿ⁄∫⁄Ã&º⁄¥ ¥¿Ÿ¨@Ä –Ä“´æéŸ⁄¿´∆Ÿ™Î .to serve awareness. occurs sva = own buddhi = perception. object saähatya = compound kâritvât = activity Even when colored by countless latent traits. and can reflect itself being perceived.24 tad asaòkhyeya-vâsanâbhiå citram api parârthaä saähatya-kâritvât tad = that. purpose.23 Æ˙œ¢‡Ø‡ÕæË¥¿#~ ⁄ò%Ä –∆Ÿ@¨@ºÎ draæøë-dëåyoparaktaä cittaä sarvârtham draæøë = seer. consciousness can be colored by both pure awareness and the phenomenal world. spotted api = also para = other arthaä = meaning. consciousness mirrors unchanging pure awareness. approach. IV. unchanging tad = its. ⁄ò™‰¿¥˘⁄™–ñÎ$ºŸæŸ—™ÆŸéŸ¿Ÿ¥%ŸÊ —∆∏‹⁄ØÛ–Ä∆‰Æ≤ºÎ IV. traits citram = variegated. approach. purpose. intelligence samvedanam = sensitivity Once it is stilled.IV. pure awareness dëåya = what is seen uparaktaä = colored cittaä = consciousness sarva = all artham = meaning. has another purpose .

essence bhâva = being. ⁄∆À‰ŒÆ⁄À@≤ ÇŸ´º∫Ÿ∆∫Ÿ∆≤Ÿ⁄∆⁄≤∆‡⁄%Å IV. distinction.IV. can gravitate toward freedom . particular daråina = one who sees âtma = self. becoming vinivëttiï = cessation As soon as one can distinguish between consciousness and awareness. ™⁄ô∞Æ˙ÂŒ‹ ¥˘´ææŸ≥™¿Ÿ⁄® –ė響‰ªæÅ . isolation of pure awareness prâg = before bhâraä = load cittam = consciousness Consciousness. becoming bhâvanâ = realizing.the fully integrated knowledge that pure awareness is independent from nature.26 tadâ viveka-nimnaä kaivalya-prâg-bhâraä cittam tadâ = then viveka = discrimination nimnaä = bent. intention. distinct. the ongoing construction of the self ceases. inclined toward kaivalya = emancipation.25 viåeæa-daråina âtma-bhâva-bhâvanâ-vinivëttiï viåeæa = difference. thought. these chidreæu = gap pratyaya = perception. now oriented to this distinction.27 tac-chidreæu pratyayântarâñi saäskârebhyaï tad = that. representation antarâñi = other saäskârebhyaï = latent impressions Any gaps in discriminating awareness allow distracting thoughts to emerge from the store of latent impressions. ™ÆŸ ⁄∆∆‰é⁄≤Ω≤Ä éÁ∆≈æ¥˘Ÿì∫Ÿ¿~ ⁄ò%ºÎ IV.

corruption. or through meditative absorption. in which nature is seen to be a cloud of irreducible experiential substances.30 tataï kleåa-karma-nivëttiï tataï = therefore. visible form. from that kleåa = cause of suffering. rain showers samâdhiï = oneness. explained These distractions can be subdued. discriminating continuously between pure awareness and the phenomenal world. experiential substance meghaï = cloud. poison karma = action nivëttiï = cessation This realization extinguishes both the causes of suffering and the cycle of cause and effect. enters the final stage of integration.28 hânam eæâm kleåavad uktam hânam = cessation eæâm = of these kleåavat = like the causes of suffering uktam = described. by tracing them back to their origin. as the causes of suffering were. summit api = also akusîdasya = one without greed sarvathâ = in all circumstances viveka = discrimination khyateï = seeing dharma = property. affliction. integration One who regards even the most exalted states disinterestedly. ¥˘–óÌÒŸ≤‰Éµæé‹–¤Æ—æ –∆@¨Ÿ ⁄∆∆‰éë柙‰∞@º@º‰îÅ –ºŸ⁄∞Å IV. “Ÿ≤º‰ŒŸÄ 胉À∆Æ‹#ºÎ IV.29 prasaòkhyâne ‘pyakusîdasya sarvathâ viveka-khyater dharma-meghaï samâdhiï prasaòkhyâne = elevation. hindrance. ™™Å胉Àéº@⁄≤∆‡⁄%Å .IV. from these.

from that këta = done. succession samâptiï = termination guñânâm = fundamental qualities of nature Then the seamless flow of reality.31 tadâ sarvâvaraña-malâpetasya jõânasyânantyâj jõeyam alpam tadâ = then sarva = all âvaraña = covering. insight is boundless. in which one form becomes another. purpose. object pariñâma = transformation krama = sequence. ™™Åé‚™Ÿ¨Ÿ@≤ŸÄ ¥⁄¿®Ÿº$º–ºŸ⁄µ™í‹@®Ÿ≤ŸºÎ IV. the boundless jõeyam = to be known alpam = little Once all the layers and imperfections concealing truth have been washed away. flow. its transformations colored by the fundamental qualities. flow.32 tataïkëtârthânâm pariñâma-krama-samâptir guñânâm tataï = therefore.IV. layer mala = imperfection apetasya = removed jõânasya = knowledge. insight ânantyât = infinity. fulfilling the true mission of consciousness.33 kæaña-pratiyogî pariñâmâparânta-nirgrâhyaï kramaï kæaña = moment pratiyogî = corresponding pariñâma = transformation apara = other anta = end nirgrâhyaï = graspable kramaï = sequence. begins to break down. succession One can see that the flow is actually a series of discrete events. veil. ™ÆŸ –∆Ÿ@∆¿®ºƒŸ¥‰™—æ ◊Ÿ≤—æŸ≤≥´æŸù◊‰æº≈¥ºÎ IV. accomplished arthânâm = meaning. from these. each corresponding to the merest instant of time. ’®¥˘⁄™æËí¤ ¥⁄¿®ŸºŸ¥¿Ÿ≥™⁄≤í˘Ÿ@“¯Å $ºÅ . with little left to know. approach.

are recognized as irrelevant to pure awareness. creation. reversing prasavaï = flow.IV. grounded in its very nature. finis ¥‹¡ŒŸ¨@À›≥æŸ≤ŸÄ í‹®Ÿ≤ŸÄ ¥˘⁄™¥˘–∆Å éÁ∆≈æÄ —∆¬¥¥˘⁄™œ§Ÿ ∆Ÿ ⁄ò⁄™À#Â⁄¿⁄™ Freedom is at hand when the fundamental qualities of nature. purpose. the power of pure seeing. approach. toward. isolation of pure awareness sva = own rûpa = form pratiæøhâ = foundation vâ = or citi = pure seeing åakteï = power iti = that’s all. That is all. . object åûnyânâä = empty guñânâm = fundamental qualities of nature prati = with regard to. each of their transformations witnessed at the moment of its inception.34 puruæârtha-åûnyânâä guñânâm pratiprasavaï kâivalyaä svarûpa-pratiæøhâ vâ citi-åakter iti puruæa = pure awareness artha = meaning. inception kâivalyaä = emancipation. motion. it stands alone.

56) akëæñaä = not black (IV. a = extending to âbhâsaä = luminosity (IV.10. intense (I.45) âkâra = shape (IV. the sense that identification is occurring ahimsâ = not harming (II. ether (III.23. 29.25. Sanskrit Alphabet (PDF). source of egoism.3. transparent (I.11) abhibhava = subjugation.41) ahaäkâra = ‘I-maker’. et cetera (III. submergence (III.Sanskrit-English glossary Each of the Sanskrit terms in the Yoga-Sûtra appears below.34) adhigamaï = attainment (I. see the Sanskrit Pronunciation Guide on page 3. suppression.19) abhâva = non-existence.9) abhijâtasya = faultless. which are often a different part of speech and may have a somewhat different meaning.13.17) adhyâtma = innermost self (I.41) abhimata = desired (I.30.38) âdayaï = et cetera (II. as well as their root forms.18. to compare to Sanskrit rendered in devanâgarî script.7) âkæepî = transcending (II.5) akramam = not in sequence. terms have been transliterated to the Roman alphabet.50) adhva = path.12. disappearance (I.47) âdiæu. II.51) âkâåayoï = space. IV. adhimâtratvât = extreme. To sound out Sanskrit words correctly.8) abhyantara = internal (II.9) abhivyaktiï = manifestation (IV.22) akarañam = without cause (III.12) âgamâï = testimony from a teacher or traditional texts (I.43) akliæøâï = benign (I.35) âjõâna = ignorance (II. and compiled in Roman alphabetical order. method (I. In many cases they have also been presented with the grammatical endings used by Patañjali.7) agrya = pointed (II.17) akalpitâ = not feasible.51) abhyâsa = practice. Parentheses indicate where each Sanskrit term can be found in the Yoga-Sûtra. rather than appearing in devanâgarî script.47) adi = others (III. simultaneous (III.32) âdaråa = seeing (III.39) abhiniveåâï = self-preservation (II. impossible (III.34) ajõâtam = not known (IV.25.50.29) adhimâtrâ. route (IV.12) adhyâsât = superimposition (III.42. action.29) . To make this glossary more accessible to readers unfamiliar with Sanskrit.22) adhiæøâtëtvaä = supremacy (III.51) akusîdasya = one without greed (IV. see accompanying link.41) adëæøa = unseen (II. âdîni = and the others. non-becoming.

exposition (I.41) anta = end (IV.1) anuåayî = following (II. III. taking the form of something else (I.47) aniæøa = undesirable (III.22) anâtmasu = not self (II.9.14) ânuåâsanam = teaching.31) anabhighâtaï = insulation.48) anvayaï = connected to.. instability (I.7.19) âlokaï = illumination.11) anugamât = going with.30) antardhânam = invisibility. III.7) antara = other (IV.33) antaï = extending from. component (I. following suit (II.8) anuåravika = heard.to (I.54) .52) anitya = impermanent (II.31) anâåayam = not involving the store of latent impressions (IV.5.21) añu = minute.49.26.47) ânantaryaä = succession (IV.38) âlambanaiï = support.alabdha = failing to attain (I.5) aògam.6) anaæøaä = not ceased (II. IV.18.20) anupâtî = following.21) antarâya = obstacle (I.31) anavadhârañam = not perceiving (IV. III. II.50.30) anekeæâä = many (IV.17) ananta = endless.9) anyaï = other (I.20) anavasthitatvâni = inconstancy. following. the boundless (IV.46) anâditvaä = without beginning (IV.54) anumâna = inference (I.16. infinitesimal (I.30) aliòga. object (IV.45.50. III.26) alpam = little (IV. learned (I.31. disappearance (III..7.7.8) anukâra = imitation.2. following. II. practice (II. flashes of brilliance (III.12) ânanda = bliss.10.9) ânantyât = infinity.42) anvaya = pervasiveness. accompanying (I. joy (I.5) aõjanatâ = saturation. relying upon (I.49) anumoditâ = approved (II. III.28) anuttamaï = unsurpassed (II. irrespective of (II. permeated (III.11) âlasya = laziness (I. relation (III.15) anuæøhânât = performance.48. aliògâni = without form (I.8) añima = the power to become minutely small (III. aògâni = limb.40) antar = inner (III.16. accompanying (IV.5) anavacchedât = unbounded. being beyond disturbance (II.29.17) anuguñânâm = going with.22) anyatâ = distinction (III. boundless (II.34.54) anavacchinnâï = unlimited.10) anâgatam = future (II. continuous (I.40) anubhûta = experienced (I.37) anupaåyaï = to behold (II.30) âlambanâ = resting on (I.45.

33) aparâmëæøaï = untouched.43.33) aparigrahâ = not being acquisitive (II.7) âsvâda = tasting (III.23) artha = meaning. egoism (I.17) apetasya = removed (IV.9. II.2.8. unchanging (IV.11) âårayatvam = rest on (II. essence (II. foundation (IV.8) atha = now (I.22) aprayojakam = not causing (IV.3.32.20.25) âtmatâ = selfhood (II.17.37) asya = his (I.51.29) apramâñakaä = unobserved (IV.36.36) auæadhi = herb (IV. II. IV.6.29.10) asmitâ = the sense of ‘I’. II.16.9.24. III.3.24) aparânta = death (III. object (I. variation (III.23.24) arthata = regarding the meaning of something (III.29) asti = exist (IV.12) âtma.22.31) api = also (I.15) apara = other (IV.18) âpattau = assumes. âtmânaï = self.21) âåayaï = store.21) atîta = past (III. IV.14) âåiæaï = primordial will to exist (IV.36) asteya = not stealing (II.anyatvam = differentiation.40) âsana = posture (II.11) asamprayoge = uncoupling (II.46) asaòga = without touching (III.13) atyanta = absolutely (III. III.44.11) arthatvât = function. unaffected (I. layer (II.12) aåuci = impure (II.1) atiprasaògaï = regress (IV.18.29.33.21. IV. III. residuum (I.22) apavarga = emancipation. purpose.39) apariñâmitvât = immutability (IV. liberation (II. evil (I.30. IV.49.41.18) apekæitvât = necessity (IV.6.37) aæøâu = eight (II. occurs (IV.31) .14) âpûrât = overflow (IV. role (I. IV.28. omens (III.5) aåuddhi = impurity (II. IV.22.51.36) asampramoæaï = not allowing to steal away (I.24) âsannaï = near (I.30.42.40) atad = not that (I.12) âsevitaï = cultivated (I.52.2) ariæøebhyaï = signs. III.24. II.40) asaòkhyeya = countless (IV.54) asansargaï = freedom from contact (II.22.1) âvarañam = covering. IV.26. II.3) apuñya = bad. âtmakaä. veil. approach. IV.23.43) aåukla = not white (IV.4) âåraya = basis.36) asaòkîrnayoï = unmixed (III.21.5.16) apratisaòkramâyâï = immobile.

6).22.22) ca = and. perspective.46. stage (II. III.50. intelligence (IV.13) avasthânam = state of abiding (I. enjoyment (II.4.4. II.24) aviplavâ = continuous.27) bîjam = seed.30.15.16.21) candre = moon (III.45) bhûtatvât = actuality.25) daurmanasya = depression (I. II.51) bala = powers.51) cetanâ = consciousness (I.26) daråana = vision.3.17.39.12.23.49. philosophy (I.15) bhogâï = experience. energy center (III. becoming (I.41.5.51) brahmacarya = celibacy.5.25) bandhaï = binding (III. III.44) .30.2.33) bahiï = external (III.49.13.14.28) caturthaï = fourth (II. III.50.3) âveåaï = entering (III. III.39) bharâ = bearing (I. III.20.23. state (III.5.16.26) avirati = hedonism (I.11.31) deåa = place (II. being (II.3.avasthâ = condition (III. III.9) devatâ = deity (II. ignorance of one’s true nature (II.1. III. absent (III. uninterrupted (II. difference (IV.27) bhûmikatva = developmental stages (I.38) buddhi.30) bhûta = element.39) avidyâ = lack of wisdom. IV.29. becoming (I.18.48) balâni = powers. III.43. II.30) bhûmiï = rooted.39.36) bhrânti = false (I.30) cakæuï = eye (III. but (I. strengths (III.21) cakre = wheel.33) daråina = one who sees (IV. II.33) bhedaï = division.2.26.40.18.36) avyapadeåya = unmanifest (III. projecting (I.18. strengths (III. IV.35.21.34) citram = variegated.25) bhâvanam = realizing.15.13) bâdhane = repelling (II. systematic view.6.26) bhaumâ = at a level (II.28.24) citta = consciousness (I. IV.55.19.9.17.44) bâhya = external (II.20.50.37. III.41.48) bhâraä = load (IV. level (II. source (I.50.19.27) citeï = pure awareness (IV.30) aviæayî = not present.20) bhuvana = world (III.20) aviåeæa = indistinct (II.45.12.8. spotted (IV.44. IV. impeccable conduct (II.1.53.1.27) bhûmiï = stage.19) bhavah = condition. grounded (I.21.33.54.31) bhava = being.25. becoming (II.54. IV.34) bhâvanâtaï = radiating.14) âyuï = span of life (II.13. buddheï = perception.31.2.33.10.29) chidreæu = gap (IV.25) bhâvanâ = realizing. being (III.30.

28) etaya = by this (I.17.29) dharmî = substrate. IV.1.29. IV.28) dîrgha = long (I.17.20.5. IV. IV. witness.6) dîptiï = radiance (II.31) eka = one (I. II.18.21.15.2. IV. dualities (II. pure awareness (I. draæøuï = seer.4) itareæâm = others (I. II. dëåye = what is seen (II.14) dhruve = polestar (III. pure awareness (II.15.41. IV.44) ete = these (II.12) dëåya.21.13) eva = thus (I.33.43.11.7) .13.14.53.31) etena = by this (III.11) hetutvât = causality (II.20) dëèha = firmly (I.3.1) dharma = property. II.32.25.13.16.11.54.3.13.17.46.10.28) hasti = elephant (III. III. reason (II. focus (II.26.43) gati = flow (II.12.23) dëåyatvât = seen-ness (IV. pain. suffering (I.3. II.14. perceptible (I.8.46.42) doæa = imperfection.21.41.29) dhyânât = meditative absorption (I. perceiver (I. III. witness.32.41) grâhya = to be received.35) indriya = sensory apparatus (II.17) himsâ = harming (II.41. substance (III.16.19) duïkha = distress.32. III. III.14) dëg = witness. II.6) dëåi = seeing (II.45) itaratra = otherwise (I.51) draæøë = seer.12) ekatra = in one.29.19.26) hânaä = cessation (II. II. II. see-er (II.44) îåvara = divine ideal of pure awareness (I. II.11.6. overwhelmed (II.15.14) hëdaye = heart (III. ekâgrya = one-pointedness.20) ekâgratayoï. perceived (III.20. as one (III.16.8) ejayatva = trembling (I.44. perceiving (I. visible form.23.14) eæâm = of these (IV. II.41.21) grâhyeæu = grasped. mentor (I.29) grahaña = grasping.34) guruï = teacher.18.25) dëæøa = seen. dëåyayoï.11.41) guña = fundamental quality of nature (I.24.24.34) dvandva = play of opposites.15.48) grahîtë = one who grasps. III.26) hetuï = cause.15.8) gamanam = travel (III. IV. flaw (III. IV.5.16.23.20.48) dveæa = aversion (II. IV.49. IV.55.31. constituent substance (III.39. III.4) ekatvât = oneness (IV. object of perception (I.50) divyaä = divine (III.23) draæøâ.34) hlâda = delight (II.14) heyâï = overcome.dhârañâ = concentration (II.48) iæøa = desired (II.9. III. III.

1.52) kæut = hunger (III.5. kæayât = dwindling. IV. IV.43.12.3.3) jaï = born of (I.13.40) kañøha = throat (III.28. as it were (I.34) iva = like.49) jâyante = occur. III.39) kâya = body (II.25) jõâna = knowledge. intonation (I.38. poison (I. instigated (II. isolation of pure awareness (II.6) janma = birth (II. perception (II.30) karuñâ = compassion (I. III.54. III. III.1) jala = water (III.43.17.34.50. insight (I.56.30) kleåavat = like the causes of suffering (IV.52.31) .31) karañât = making.40) jvalanam = radiance (III. III. IV.5) krama = sequence. IV. hindrance.9) kâlena = by time. IV.40) kârita = caused to be done.28) jâti = birth.40) jam = born (III.26.28 .51.34) kâritvât = activity (IV.41.8.51. are produced (III.5.33) kæayaï = disappearance (II.31) jõâta = known (IV.41.45.12. 43.9.27.29) kiä = what (IV.32) kæaña = moment (II.33) kathantâ = understanding why (II.50.11.36) kaivalyam = emancipation.34) këta = done. II.56. IV.53. succession (III.52) kæetram = field (II.54.34) kâla = time (I.43.42.33) kriyâ = action (II.30.37) jõatva = knowing (I.55.6.3) kæîña = dwindled. affliction. II. III.26.18) karaña = cause.9) javitvam = quickness (III.18.18) jõâtëtvaä = omniscience (III. that’s all (II.24) karma = action (I.4) kæetrikavat = like a farmer (IV. IV. III.16.26) kañøaka = thorn (III. IV.2. III.54.24.40.28.13.19. II.17) iti = thus.46. III.22. khyâtiï = seeing (I.16.41) kæîyate = disappears (II. temporally (I.7.2. making. IV.17.itaretara = one another (III. III. II. III. II.47) khyâteï.28.23. II.31) jugupsâ = disinclination.18.14.25.31.53. decreasing (II. observing (III.12.55. IV.32. III.49) jaya = mastery (II. IV.45 kæaye. IV. detachment (II.2.39.28) kliæøa = hurtful (I.1) japaï = repetition.41. IV.56.48.31.33) jyotiæmatî = luminous (I.53. decreased (I. accomplished (II.9.36.15.29.16) kleåa = cause of suffering.18) krodha = anger (II.36.43.50) jõeyam= to be known (IV.55.39.26. rank (II. III.24. II. flow. IV. thus. corruption.23.41) jyotiæi = light (III.21.

33.19) nâbhi = navel (III.1) mâtra = only (I. IV. eternity (IV.5) paòka = mud (III. III.8) nirgrâhyaï = graspable (IV.19) lobha = greed (II.30) niyama = internal discipline (II.13.35) nidrâ = sleep (I. II.33) nirmâña = forming.43.51.15) .20.4) meghaï = cloud.43) lakæaña = characteristic. III.35.32) nyâsât = setting down. restriction (I.3. inclined toward (IV.43.54) lâvañya = grace (III.9) nirupakramaä = slow to manifest (III.19) liòga = mark. III.40) panthâï = path (IV.16.25) nirbhâsâ = shining (I.10) nivëttiï = cessation (III.32) nairantarya = continuously.13) mûrdha = head. rain showers (IV.14) naæøam = ceased (II.8) moha = delusion (II.29. II. III.12.33) na = not (III.2. creating (IV.kûpe = pit.42) laghu = light (III.44.34) mëdu = mild (I.43) nitya = permanent (II.4) nirodhaï = stilling.31) manaï.31. unsurpassed (I.46) layânâm = clasped.29) mithyâ = false (I.41) mantra = intonation (IV. IV. well. focusing (III. II.3) nirbîjaï = seedless (I. cessation.23) nirvicârâ = not reflecting (I.53) mañeï = jewel (I. cavity (III.51.33) mûlaï = root (II.34) mahâ = great (II.3) nimnaä = bent.40) maitrî = friendliness (I.30) nâèyâä = channel. duct (III.31.10.31) kûrma = tortoise (III.6.26) paõcatayyaï = fivefold (I. II.38) nimittam = proximate cause (IV. III.22. time factors (III.24) mala = imperfection (IV.34) madhya = moderate (I. IV.32) lâbhaï = acquired (II. manasaï = mind (I.5) nityatvât = perpetuity.26) niratiåayaä = incomparable. characteristic (II.22.45) mahattva = greatness.34) mudita = delight (I. crown (III.22) nibandhanî = holds (I.47) nirvitarkâ = beyond thought (I.12.38. III. magnitude (I. uninterruptedly (I. merged (I.20.50.

passage (III.37) pratipakæa = opposite (II.32.27.39) pracchardana = exhalation.26.27) prasâdaï.9.43) paritâpa = anguish (II.19.55) paridëæøaï = observed. intention.1.45) phalâï = fruit (II. summit (IV. motion.37.16.15. II.8. IV.45) prânta = last (II. dedication (I.7) prâñasya = breath.10. prasâdanam = calming.14) parvâñi = level. phenomenal world (I.49) prati = with regard to.2.4) praåvâsâ = exhalation (I.29) prasaògât = inclination. thought.3) pramâda = carelessness (I.32) pratiæøhâ = foundation (IV. purest (I. III.36.54) pratyak = inward (I. reversing (II. II.34) pratiyogî = corresponding (IV.49. grounded in (I.20.14.40. highest.52.12. scrutinized (II.26) prajõâ = wisdom (I.11) pipâsâ = thirst (III.17) pravëttiï = arising of activity (I.35. III.5) punaï = again (III. recurrence (III.49) prâdur = outside (III.47) prasaòkhyâne = elevation. IV.34) pratipattiï = understanding (III.27) pravibhâga = distinction (III.40. III. expulsion (I.19.14.33. IV.10) prasava = flow.9.15.12. paraiï = other (II.19.18. IV.35. creation. II. terminating (I. obstructs (I.31.31) prabhoï = superior (IV.29.34.22) pratibandhî = prevents.11.33) pratyâhâra = withdrawal of the senses (II.50) prâtibhât = spontaneous illumination (III. measured.18) pracâra = movement.24) paramâ = ultimate.34) prasupta = dormant (II.34) prañavaï = the syllable pronounced om (I.34. IV. IV.30) pramâña = right perception (I.33. II. II.21.6. pratiæøhâyâà = based on. matrix (III.54) pratiæedha = subdue.36.2. representation (I. IV.29) pratyakæa = percept.34) pratiæøham. clarification (I. sensory input (I.5) prakâåa = brightness (II.13.33) pariåuddhau = wiping clean.50) pariñâma = transformation (II. III.27) prâñâyâma = breath regulation (II.18.19. II. tranquilizing.32.48.34) pradhâna = foundation.para. ward off (I.7) pratyaya = perception.47) prayojakaä = causing (IV.19) paryavasânam = ending.10. life force (I.49) prañidhânât = surrender. state (II. IV.12. III.5) prayatna = effort (II.47) prâg = before (IV.20.52) praåânta = tranquil (III. purification (I. III.2.29. toward.40. inception (II.17.23.44) prakëti = nature.52) .

II.9. that (I.46.34) pûrvaï. IV. IV.34) sâlambanaä = with support (III.21) samvit = understanding (III.17. III.18.22) samvegânâm = intense. IV.8. IV.14) puruæa = pure awareness (I.11) saòkaraï = confusion.23. desire.20) sambandha = relationship (III.52) saògëhîtatvât = connectedness (IV.24) saäjõâ = comprehension (I.39. II.50.41.40) sâkæât = direct. III.42.47) saähatya = compound (IV. III. IV. II.44) saäsk¯ara = latent impressions (I.47. firmness (III.9.9) ratna = jewel (II.53) sâmye = equality (III. mingling (II.32) samaya = circumstance (II.4.9) r¯upa = form (I.43.17.7.17) sa = this.37) ëtam = truth (I.36. IV. II.42. attachment (I. III.34) rûpataï = in form (IV. III. IV. vehement (I.15) saäyogaï = coupling. III.33.2.16.17) sabîjaï = with seed (I.heading) sâdhârañatvât = common experience (II.35) saäyamaï = constraint.21.7) rasa = taste (II.9.41) samâpattiï = coalescence.3. IV.26) åabda = verbal.47.51.15.23.6.48. II.22.15) sâàkhya = one of the six perspectives.20.48) rûèhaï = rooted (II.puñya = good.22) sahabhuvaï = accompanying (I.45.43) sambodhaï = insight (II.18.18) sadhana = path to realization (II.9) ruta = language. åaktyoï = power (II.25) saòga = contact.36. attachment (III.42.31. integration (I. III.43) samâptiï = termination (IV.47.39) saähananatvâni = durability. union.42.21.56. association.18) pûrvaka = preceded by (I.24.50) saòkîrñâ = intermingled (I.47) samprajõâtaï = cognitive (I. linguistic (I. mixing up (III.45.46. unified contemplation (I. passion.3.21) saòkhyâbhiï = number (II.12) rûpatvât = essential form (IV.37.3.26. II.29) samâna = energy flow through the solar plexus (III.27.31) åaithilya = relaxation (II. sound (III. perfect discipline (III. IV.46) sadâ = always (IV.18. virtuous (I.27) saävedanât = sensitivity (III.23. III.56.16.17) samprayogaï = contact (II. or daråanas.42) sannidhau = presence (II.17.17. of Indian thought sampat = perfection (III.35) .21.14.18.11. pûrvebhyaï = earlier (I.20.38. through the eye (III.34) râga = wanting.50.29.18) åakteï.20) samâdhi = oneness.1.10. II.54.

5.55.45.13) åûnyaï = empty (I.34) åvâsa = inhalation (I.42. II. IV.37) årotra = of hearing (III.21) sopakramaä = immediately manifest (III.50.44) svâmi = owner (II.45.43.18) sthûla = gross (III. II.9.38) svarûpe = own form. remembering.11.30) åânta = quiescent.1) åîlaä = character (II.22) svâdhyâya = self-study (II.32.27) åarîra = body (III.34) sûrye = sun (III.9.30.14) sattva = clarity. IV.55.23.32) sthâni = exalted.33) siddhiï = perfection.20) åuddhi = purity (II.9.3.19.54.11. III.15.43. a fundamental essence of nature.13. III. mindfulness (I.10.3. IV.51. IV.36.22) åraddhâ = faith (I. truth (II.39.49) stambha = stationary (II.18) smayâ = pride.25. identity (I.41) sthairye = being settled in (II. IV.45. subsided (III.14) santoæa = contentment (II. smëtayaï = memory.18) siddha = perfected one (III. steadiness (I. III. attainment (II.41.49) . III.32.42) årotram = faculty of hearing (III.37. III.46) sûkæma = subtle (I.39) sârûpyam = identification. II. beaming (III.23) sarvathâ = in all circumstances (III. or guna (II.3.48.31.42) åeæaï = store.49) satkâra = skillfully. depth memory.43. II. IV.13. IV.38.46) sthiti.26.32.36.27) sûtra = thread. celestial (III.43.36) åauca = purity (II. sthitau = stability.30) åuci = pure (II.44) savitarkâ = thought (I.4) sarva = all (I.20.1.5) åuddhaï = pure (II.41) savicârâ = reflecting (I.50. stable (II.40) saumanasya = gladness (II. IV.12.50.50) stambhe = suspension (III.52) smëti.56) sukha = happiness (I. in the right way (I.6.45. III.42) åruta = what has been heard. residuum (I.41.56) satya = truthfulness.40.52) sthira = steady.35.17.44. II.45) styâna = apathy (I. teachings (I.34. III.29) sati = existing (II. III. condensed mnemonic verse sva = own (II.21) stha = abide (I.42) saptadhâ = sevenfold (II. luminosity.50. III. conformity (I.23.20) årâvaña = hearing (III.31.23) svapna = dream (I.33. II.7.sanåaya = doubt (I.

27.35. but (I. III.26) upeksanam = equanimity (I. principle (I. from these.37.46) tânatâ = extension.5. austerity.25. flavor.12.23) upanimantrañe = invitation (III.35) .11. appearance (III. III.42) tulya = similar.12.14) tayoï = of both (IV.10) tasmin = in this (II.49) tasya = of this.20.55) tâsâm = of these (IV.4) utpannâ = arisen.10) vaira = hostility (II.2.34.16.48. in that (I.20) tat = that.1.19.34) vâcakaï = signifying.25.2.23. II.34. that (I. 54. IV.24) tataï = therefore.17.27.32) tathâ = thus (II.11. IV.20) udâna = uppermost region of energy flow. from that (I.16.20.55. explained (III.36.46. produced (I.32. these (I.24.14) uktaä = described. III. connoting (I. weak (II.16. these (I.16) tanû = slender. moreover.23.4) tâpa = anguish (II.35.7) tu = and.21) trayam = these three (III.24.16.28) târakaä = transcendent.22.12.40) uttareæâm = other. odor.35) ubhaya = both (IV.1) târâ = star (III.13) tîvra = extremely (I.23.26. II.30. IV. IV.52) uparâga = coloring (IV.41.syât = could be (IV. IV. III.50.16) trividham = threefold (IV.32.28) upalabdhi = acquisition (II.30.24.16.54) tyâgaï = abandonment (II. II.17) uparaktaä = colored (IV. equal (III. II10.6) tattva = thusness. materialize (II.29.19.11) uditau = arisen (III. III.22.27 tadâ = then (I.21.12.27) vâhî = flowing (II. IV.55.32.52.4) udayau = arising.38.37) upâyaï = means (II.13.43.42.15) tapaï = heat.10. or prana (III.40) udârâñâm = activated.51. II.19) tatra = there. IV. delivering (III.38) upasthânam = approach.32.35.35) vâ = or (I.51. IV. aroused (II.22. stretching (III.39. following (II. III.16) tad = its.41.18.3) tûla = cotton (III. impediment (III.17. form.31) tâï = these (I.9) vâhitâ = flow.3.48.47.22. IV. IV. elemental quality.50.7.33) utkrântiï = rising up (III. progression (III. IV.15) te = they. intensity of discipline. austerity (II. that (I.18.28.14. III.3.8.2) tanmâtra = subtle primary experience of sound.21. or feeling tantram = dependent (IV.38.38.53.4.8.23) upasargâ = obstacle.14.6.29.3.45.

explained (I.13.26.29) vivekinaï = a person of discrimination (II.30) vyutthâna = emergence (III.15.49.44.15) vibhûti = extraordinary powers (III) vicâra = insight.15) viveka = discrimination (II.19.4) videha = bodiless (I. interruption (II.37. intercepted (II.37) vâsanânâm = latent properties.35) vattva = function (III.34) viduæaï = sage. IV.37) vitarka = analytical thinking.5.40) vastu = object.24.24) vaåîkâra = mastery. II.30.44) vidhârañâbhyâm = pause.55) viæayatvaä = the thing itself. II.8) viparyaya = misperception.28) vatî = having (I. commitment (II.22.16) vajra = diamond (III.42) vikaraña = without organs (III.15.14.47) vaitëæñyam = without wanting or attachment (I.4. stirring up (I.51) vaiåâradye = lucidity. II.44. III. III. particular (I. III.47) varaña = choosing (IV. distinct.8.9.18) vyâdhi = sickness (I. purity (I.28. IV.10. II.15. without (I. separated (III. II. III. thus-ness of an object (I.6) vipâka = ripening.vairâgyaï = dispassion.53. vigor (I. movements (I.26) virâma = cessation (I.18) virodhât = conflict.55) vat = like (IV.48) vedanâ = feeling (III. wise person (II. turnings.54.45) viåeæaï = distinction. willing something to happen (I. IV.44.33.2.13) vyakta = manifest (IV. subservience (II.9) vikalpa = conceptualization (I.38) viæaya = object (of experience) (I. IV.49.41.37) vedanîyaï = to be experienced (II. substance (I. unwholesome thoughts (I. IV. reflection (I.26. II.3.45.20.15) vîrya = energy. retention (I.11.6.15. IV.31) vëtti = patternings.13) vyavahita = hidden.38) .49) vikæepâï = distraction. non-attachment (I.12) vibhaktaï = separation (IV.33.16.9.19.17) vaåyata = obedience. III. III.3) vârttâï = smelling (III. fruition (I.15.15) vratam = vow.30) vyâkhyâtâ = described.25) viniyogaï = progression. opposition (II.55. application (III.6.25) viæokâ = free of sorrow (I.49) vicchinna = interrupted.17.9) vyûha = arrangement (III.11.12.34) vitëæñasya = without wanting or attachment (I.24. error (I.26.8) viprakëæøa = distant (III. traits (IV.17) vicchedaï = cessation. non-reaction.28.36) vîta = free from.50.31) vinivëttiï = cessation (IV.9.

1. union (I.13) yoga = yoking. II.28) yoginaï = yogi (IV.yama = external discipline (I.39) yatnaï = sustained effort (I.41) .13) yathâ = as (I.2.7) yogyatâ.1. yogyatvâni = capability (II.

S. Princeton. Light On The Yoga Sûtras Of Patañjali. Georg. The Heart Of Yoga. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.K. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. The Yoga Sûtra Workbook . The Essence Of Yoga: reflections on the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. 1993 Miller. 1997 Desikachar. T.1995 Feuerstein. A Source Book In Indian Philosophy. S. NJ: Princeton University Press. Swami.Selected Bibliography Deutsch. S. S. & Isherwood. The Integrity Of The Yoga Daråana. Yoga: Discipline Of Freedom.NY: SUNY Press. A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. C.N. B. 1983 YB Houston. 1998 Iyengar.AZ: Hohm Press.NY: American Sanskrit Institute. vol. The Yoga Sûtras Of Patañjali. 1975 Eliade. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1989 Hariharananda Aranya. Albany. Princeton. Yogaville. C. Light On Yoga New York: Schocken. Swami. Albany. 1998 Translations Arya. Delhi: Oxford India Press. 1995 Iyengar. The Yoga-Sûtra Of Patañjali.2. 1996 Prabhavananda.PA: Himalayan Institute.TV Satchidananda. 1969 Eliade. 1966 MacDonnell. Alistair. Arthur. vol.VT: Inner Traditions . Honesdale. & Moore. Yoga: Immortality And Freedom. Advaita Vedanta: a philosophical reconstruction. S. Rama. Pandit Usharbudh. Prescott. Ian.OR: Rudra Press. Yoga Philosophy Of Patañjali. Rochester. Warwick. Portland. 1986 YB Bouanchaud. 1924/91 Radhakrishnan. New York: Bantam. New York: HarperCollins. Georg. Mircea. New York: Schocken.NY: SUNY Press. K. 1959/74 Tandon.NJ: Princeton University Press. 1923/97 Radhakrishnan. London: Unwin . What The Buddha Taught. S.V. Yoga Sûtras Of Patañjali. The Yoga Tradition. 1995 Whicher.1953 Prasada.K. Walpola. New York: Grove Press. 1973 Rahula.1982 .VT: Inner Traditions. Rochester. Effortless Being: the yoga sûtras of Patañjali. New York New American Library .VA: Integral Yoga. Patañjali’s Yoga Sûtras. Mircea. Eliot. 1958/69 Feuerstein. Bernard. Patañjali And Yoga. 1978/90 Shearer. Barbara Stoler. Indian Philosophy. Vyaas. B.1. How To Know God: the yoga aphorisms of Patañjali. Igatpuri: Vipassana Research Institute. 1988 YB. A Re-appraisal of Patañjali’s Yoga-Sutras in the Light of the Buddha’s Teaching.

Madras: Theosophical Publishing House. I. a 5th century commentary on the Yoga-Sûtra.classicyoga. Swami.html .html Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary http://www.uni-koeln. Pune: International Academy Of Ayurveda. 1998 Taimni. The Science Of Yoga.de/phil-fak/indologie/tamil/cap_search. by Vyâsa TV = includes the Tattva-Vaiåâradî. Patañjali Yog Darshan. Raja-Yoga. Canada: Be All Publications.Shyam. 1961 Vivekananda. a 9th century gloss on the Yoga-Sûtra and Yoga-Bhâsya.de/phil-fak/indologie/tamil/mwd_search.K. New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center. by Vâcaspati Mîåra Sanskrit Resources Online Capeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary http://www.html Directory of Sanskrit Resources http://www. Swami. 1956 YB = includes the Yoga-Bhâsya.uni-koeln. Mukunda. Yoga Sûtras Of Patañjali. 1980 Stiles.org/directory/sanskrit-directory.

breathwork. dedicated to the integration of yoga and dharma practice. He is the founding director of The Arlington Center.About the author Chip Hartranft’s work bridges the traditions of yoga and buddhist meditation. A student of yoga chiefly in the Krishnamacharya traditions. Chip has also practiced insight meditation (vipassanâ) for many years. and mindfulness. More information. He leads annual retreats in the US and abroad. can be found at www. blending yoga movement.arlingtoncenter. including how to contact Chip Hartranft and The Arlington Center. and has taught a blend of movement and stillness to students in the Boston area since 1978.org .

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