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WHEN DOES OLD AGE BEGIN?
DEFINITION OF AGING
Old and aging depends on the age and experience of the speaker. Chronological age - number of years lived Physiologic age - age by body function Functional age - ability to contribute to society
Young-Old - (ages 65 - 74) Middle-Old - (ages 75 - 84) Old-Old - (age 85 and older)
FRAIL ELDERLY Characteristics: Poor mental and physical health Low socioeconomic status Predominantly female Possibly isolated living conditions More and longer hospital stays. and More money spent on health care and drugs .
PHYSICAL THEORIES OF AGING What causes the body to age? .
Happens again.PROGRAM THEORY Cells replicate a specific number of times and then die. and again in lab experiments. .
or indirectly . DNA not read correctly Results in transcription and translation malfunction Results in aging/illness/ cancer directly.ERROR THEORY The structure of DNA is altered as people age Due to alterations.
CELLULAR THEORY Normal wear and tear causes cells to function improperly .
FREE RADICAL THEORY Lipids in cell membranes are exposed to radiation or free radicals Cell membrane ruptures and cell dies In test tubes this actually occurs .
as opposed to adipose tissue results in greater health .lives longer Assumption: Lean mass.NUTRITIONAL MODEL THEORY If animal fed 50-60% less than it eats on its own .
collagen in body ages also.COLLAGEN THEORY OF AGING As we age. Causes hypertension and other organ malfunctions .
mutate and secretions viewed as foreign by body Solicits immune response Shuts cell down Cause biological errors and entire organ malfunctions .secrete normal proteins As cells age .MUTATING AUTO-IMMUNE THEORY Cells have normal functions .
NEURO-AGING THEORY All cells undergo nervous system degeneration Results in changes in hormonal release Leads to decline in cell function .
NONE OF THESE THEORIES TOTALLY ACCEPTED Scientists hypothesize it might be combination of several or all .
PHYSIOLOGICAL AGING OF THE HUMAN BODY BY SYSTEMS .
SKIN. NAILS Loss of subcutaneous fat Thinning of skin Decreased collagen Nails brittle and flake Mucous membranes drier Less sweat glands Temperature regulation difficult Hair pigment decreases Hair thins . HAIR.
EYES AND VISION Eyelids baggy and wrinkled Eyes deeper in sockets Conjunctiva thinner and yellow Quantity of tears decreases Iris fades Pupils smaller. let in less light Night and depth vision less ³Floaters´ can appear Lens enlarges .
Lens becomes less transparent Can actually become clouded Results in cataracts .EYES AND VISION CONT.
Accommodation decreases Results in presbyopia Impaired color vision. also especially greens and blues Because cones degenerate .EYES AND VISION CONT.
Predisposed to glaucoma Increased pressure in eye Decreased absorption of intraocular fluid Can result in blindness .EYES AND VISION CONT.
Macular degeneration becoming more frequent This is the patch of retina where lens focuses light Ultimately results in blindness Reason for current increase in this condition unknown .EYES AND VISION CONT.
EARS AND HEARING LOSS Irreversible. most adults have trouble hearing above 4000Hz Normal speech 500-2000Hz . sensorineural loss with age Men more affected than women Called presbycusis Loss occurs in higher range of sound By 60 years.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Lungs become more rigid Pulmonary function decreases Number and size of alveoli decreases Vital capacity declines Reduction in respiratory fluid Bony changes in chest cavity .
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Heart smaller and less elastic with age By age 70 cardiac output reduced 70% Heart valves become sclerotic Heart muscle more irritable More arrhythmias Arteries more rigid Veins dilate .
GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM Reduced GI secretions Reduced GI motility Decreased weight of liver Reduced regenerative capacity of liver Liver metabolizes less efficiently .
RENAL SYSTEM After 40 renal function decreases By 90 lose 50% of function Filtration and reabsorption reduced Size and number of nephrons decrease Bladder muscles weaken Less able to clear drugs from system Smaller kidneys and bladder .
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Male: Reduced testosterone level Testes atrophy and soften Decrease in sperm production Seminal fluid decreases and more viscous Erections take more time Refractory period after ejaculation may lengthen to days .
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Female: Declining estrogen and progesterone levels Ovulation ceases Introitus constricts and loses elasticity Vagina atrophies shorter and drier Uterus shrinks Breasts pendulous and lose elasticity .
NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM Neurons of central and peripheral nervous system degenerate Nerve transmission slows Hypothalamus less effective in regulating body temperature Reduced REM sleep. decreased deep sleep After 50% lose 1% of neurons each year .
MUSCULOSCELETAL SYSTEM Adipose tissue increases with age Lean body mass decreases Bone mineral content diminished Decrease in height from narrow vertebral spaces Less resilient connective tissue Synovial fluid more viscous May have exaggerated curvature of spine .
decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit .IMMUNE SYSTEM Decline in immune function Trouble differentiating between self and non-self more auto-immune problems Decreases antibody response Fatty marrow replaced red marrow Vitamin B12 absorption might decrease .
progesterone .ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Decreased ability to tolerate stress . aldosterone.best seen in glucose metabolism Estrogen levels decrease in women Other hormonal decreases include testosterone. cortisol.