This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
OTHER BOOKS BY PROFESSOR LANDAU: Differential and Integral Calculus Elementary Number Theory Grundlagen der Analysis Handbuch
der Lehre von der Verteilung der Primzahlen, 2 Vols. Einftihrung in die Elementare und Analytische Theorie der AIgebraischen Zahlen und der Ideale Darstellung und Begrtindung Einiger Neuerer Ergebnisse der Funktionentheorie Vorlesungen tiber Zahlentheorie, 3 Vols. Elementare Zahlentheorie (Vol. 1, Part 1 of Zahlentheorie)
FOUNDATIONS OF ANALYSIS
'IHE A.H.I'I'Hll'IE'11 t,;
WHOLE, RATIONAL, AND COMPLEX
....
u.t IRRATIONAL NUMBERS
~
/:l
A:JUpp'_~ui~n"
Cf
..
tU
rrI
~ ~X"·DUUfi:S
..
an. tne
'I
Differential
and Integral
Calculus
BY
EDMUND LANDAU
TRANSLATED
BY
F. STEINHARDT
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
rUVT
'A ...... .LJLJIJ.LJ.l'1
~V
A
llTTDT TCTTT~Tf'1 _I_ U U.l...d.u~~~j_' '.7
f"'IAllJl"TlI
~Vl_f~r
1'11'4 ~ '"
A l\..T"T
NEW YORK, N. Y.
THE BY
PRESENT
WORK
IS A T&\NSLATION OF THE
INTO
ENGLISH, BOOK
F. STEINHARDT, GRUNDLAGEN
GERMAN LANGUAGE
DER
ANALYSIS,
BY EDMUND
LANDAU
FIRST EDITION, SECOND EDITION, THIRD EDITION,
1951 1960 1966
COPYRIGHT COPYRIGHT COPYRIGHT
©, 1951, ©, 1960, ©, 1966,
BY CHELSEA BY CHELSEA BY CHELSEA
PUBLISHING PUBLISHING PUBLISHING
COMPANY COMPANY COMPANY
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGUE CARD NUMBER
6015580
PRINTED
IN THE UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA
axioms. "2)" (used for distinguishing cases) are simply eorems.. The first difficultyovercome 1. an cases.. for the real numbers In Chapter (positive. for the complex numbers. no number. sec Ions. chapters. and zero) . ter 4. I speak only of . of "Theorem Li ht Blue" "Theorem Dark Blue" and so on. . definitions.To prevent arguments: A number. and sections) and also "1) ". negative. Ie v . an are more convenien or purposes of reference than if I were to speak. thus. U to "301 " as a matter of fact. and 5. c ap ers. Ions. say. two cases. all the like in the case of axioms. there would be difficulty whatever in introducing the socalled positive integers.
I.] * .<:1"'<:1.~o l~ th~t 0 oJ and "thouing" 1<. .L/. as an exercise in connection with Chapter 1.hemistry) at the tmrversrty tor several semesters already and think that they have learned the differential and integral calculus in College. Landau Vorlesungen iiber Zahlentheorie. and then prove the theorem. . [Trans. 11\ I .L/ I I 1\ A 1111 \\\. son of King Louis XIV. = but I would recommend. ~. nC"'l "l"I. lJel. Professor Landau uses the familiar "du" [thou] throughout this preface. Vol. you haven't actually forgotten them. E. that you make the following definitions: 2= 1 ':t + 1.] t For Delphin use.L .dmund Landau In the original German. and yet they still don't know why X'U=U'X T'O Derl1H.~ 4.'YI1. Forgive me for "theeing" ~on for rrrv iloino. my daughters have been studying \ l_. The Delphin classics were prepared by great French scholars for the use of the Dauphin of France. The multiplication • nULeven tne LneUI'eIIl .:xrrithm ' you.elIlUer 1 "'0. p.L/ 11\ I .VI PREFACE FOR THE STUDENT Please keep In mind everywhere the corresponding portions of your school work. § 4. * One rean~rthroJ i'YI 1. table is not to be found in this book. as is well known (cf. t'hl~ hook '1LQ1J. 4. [Trans. 5.nl"\ 1.!. V).l. T'>. . delphinarum:t for.
and most of my studentsthat even in his first semester the student should learn what the basic facts are. As is well known.fortunately in the majority) who do not share my point of view on While a rigorous and complete exposition of elementary mathematics can not. as mentioned above. were we to adopt a large number of axioms. be expected in the high schools. but only to be almost diametrically opposite to my point o VIew.~. the mathematical courses in colleges and universities should acquaint matics. roe 1 II 0 leagues.l'' ceed with this development. these axioms can correct. but also with its methods of proof. from OUV'. On the other hand. some authors whose writings I have found of help.if one postulates as axioms for real numbers many of the usual rules of arithmetic and the main theorem of this book Theor the consistency of the five Peano axioms (because that can not be ones. of course. the question would immediately occur to the s udent whether some of them could not be proved (a shrewd one would add: or dis rove b me m been known for many decades that all these additional axioms can Vll . Even one who studies mathematics mainly for its applications to physics and to other between nonrigorous and rigorous proof). accepted as axioms.
The larger books which attempt that a bit for the reader to complete. are given t n roof or worse et wi h of this extreme variant of the opposite point of view seem to me ma even be zero. This is a concession to those hearers who want. being quite simple. for operations with numbers. the theorem that a monotonically decreasing bounded sequence of numbers converges to a limit. . so that such matters as the meanvalue theorem of the differential calculus. in my earlier courses I assumed the properties of the integers and of the rational numbers. after all to do differentiation ri ht awa or who do not want to learn (or perhaps not at all). is the foundation of the natural numbers never failed to cover the (Dedekind) theory of real numbers. In the Foundations of Analysis course his first semester. or. But the last three times I preferred to I have divided my course into two simultaneous courses one of which has the title "Grundlagen der Analysis" (Foundations of Analysis). can Now in the entire literature there is no textbook which has the sole and modest aim of laying the foundation. in the above sense. say. tion having a zero derivative in some interval is constant in that interval. Only rarely.viii PREFACE FOR THE TEACHER I will refrain from speaking at length about the fact that often in the development of the real numbers by means of fundamental sequences) is not included in the basic material. however. but their introduction.
Grandjot (now Professor at the University of Santiago) was lecturing on the foundations of analysis and using my notebook as a basis for the lectures. because the standard procedure. I. my lectures. _ Xn and of n= n Xn. the entire following book). too. H r turn mm m wi h h r m r he had found it necessary to add further axioms to Peano's in the course of the development. I. which point. At the definition of x • y for the natural numbers. II. say.PREFACE FOR THE TEACHER IX ep 0 any 0 other pedagogical faction (who therefore does not go through the undations at least the 0 ortunit rovided he considers this book suitable. but nobody rint was furnished The opposition party likes to believe that the student would from some lecture or from the literature. so that everything remains based on Peano's axioms (cf. after one already . Kalmar) I have nothing new to say. And of these honored friends and enemies. At the definition of x + y for the natural numbers. cation of Mr. 3. for some domain of numbers. none would have doubted that everything needed could be found in. Grandjot's axioms can all be proved (as we could have earned from Dedekind). III. of referring his students to a source where the After the first four or five rather abstract pages the reading is quite easy ifas is actually the caseone is acquainted with the results from high school. as x At the definition of ~ +y and x • y. then assistant and dear colleague Privatdozent Dr. believed that.
But from n=l ~ Xn and . with the difference that it was justified. For 'In x • y the same simple type of proof applies. I will speak here only about the case of x + y for natural numbers x. Dedekind's reasoning does follow these lines. On the basis of his five axioms. defined for z < y. Grandjot's objection sounds similar. m are possible only with the Dedekind procedure. n=l IT x. that not even the expert might have noticed this point had I not given above a detailed confession of crime and punishment. Peano defines x + y for fixed x and all y as follows: x+l=x' x + y'=(x + y)'. however.x PREFACE FOR THE TEACHER Since the situations in all three cases are analogous. With the kind help and the proof so similar to the other proofs in the first chapter. y. When excusable. with the properties f(l)=x. so I had to excuse it also. the student just had never heard of the axiom of induction. f(z')=(f(z»' forz<y. in Peano's method because order is introduced only after additionone had the concept "numbers < y" and could speak of the set of y's for which there is an f (z).
the latter for the natural numbers. December 28. say. 1929 . as befits such easy material.and for all. for instance in the proof of Theorems 16 and 17: This sonin holds for ever class of numbers for which the s mbols Such repeated deductive reasonings occurred in connection with since the will then a ypes 0 lor on complex numbers. only if the division leaves no My book is written. only if the minuend is larger than the subtrahend. the former hold for the natural numbers. say. in merciless Berlin. and do the same for the theorems on subtraction and division.
.
. . . .. . . Multiplication .. . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . .. .... ·. .. . 19 26 CHAPTER III §l. .. . . .. . . .. .. . .... .... . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . MUltiplication .. . Definition ·. . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . § 3.. . .. . . .. . Addition r 1 . . . . . . . . . Multiplication 14 FRACTIONS §l... . . .... Addition and Equivalence. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . ... . § 4. . . . . . 3 § 4.. . . . . .. ... . . . . ... . . . . . .. .. . . . Ordering eorem. . . . ... . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .... . . Definition § 3.. . . . . . .. . . .... rdering · . . . .. 70 84 . . . v CHAPTER I § 2.. .... . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Addition .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. . . . . ... . . . . .\GE Preface for the Student. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .TABLE OF CONTENTS P. .. . . .. . 43 45 48 54 CHAPTER IV REAL NUMBERS § 4.
..... § 5.. Sums and Products ...... ........ ..GI"......................... .... Subtraction ........... >l.... o '1 ~ u.1 ......lV. Definition Addition 1\".........I......r 1a v 1\T11 't'YI h '~A........... v Y n 1•• ~ •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 112 126 of 1 Q..U~ Y...1' ..........l .... t..ll'.... Division ..l...........l I"... lIv "......... Incorporation of the Real Numbers into the System .... § 2.......l... u"'v ... ......................L __ ...... +' 92 93 nc tJv § 4.... ..\"T .l\. Complex Conjugates ...... ....... r.............. ~ (''7 101 § 8...... "' ....... s 10.... § 9...... fit..................................... ~ f'\ 't'YI T\ ~AA"......... . Powers .. § 6...........4~ r ........VV .......... ~ a "''' ~ •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ..................xiv T ABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE C:OMPLRX NITMRRRS ~l... 102 106 1 {\Q ...........................1"' .
then either x and yare the same number. small italic letters will stand for natural numbers throughout this book.CHAPTER I NATURAL NUMBERS §l Axioms We assume the following to be given: A set (i. this may be written + ( to be read "equals") . Accordingly. the following are true on purely logical grounds: for every x. en u=« z X=Z. or x and yare not the same number. possessing the propertiescalled axiomsto be listed below. If x IS given and y is given. Before formulating the axioms we make some remarks about the symbols and 'Nhich will be used. . 2 If then 3) If x=x x=y x=y. Unless otherwise specified. this may be written x+y (=f= to be read "is not equal to"). totality) of objects called natural numbers.e.
) Now. Axiom 5 (Axiom of Induction): Let there be given a set IDe of natwlal numbers. called the successor of x.2 1. since othenvise ambiguities might arise.x. which will be denoted by x'. Then IDe contains all the natural numbers. '\¥e will do the same. b = c. etc. we will enclose in parentheses the number whose successor is to be written down. if x=y then Axiom 3: We always have That is. Axiom 4: If xyo That is. x y. that. with the following properties: I) 1 belongs to IDl. we assume that the set of all natural following properties: Axiom 1: 1 is a natural number. c = d. II) If x belongs to IDe then so does x'. xY. which on the face of it means merely that = b. there exists no number whose successor is 1. . xy. That is. our set is not empty. Thus a stateluent such as a= b a = c= d. b contains the additional information a c. numbers has the (Similarly in the later chapters. NATURAL NUMBERS [Axioms 15. In the case of complicated natural numbers x. for any given number there exists either no number or exactly one number whose successor is the given number. . it contains an object called 1 (read "one"). throughout this book. in the case of x + y. Thus. a d. say. Axiom 2: For each x the1'e exists exactly one natu7'al number. d.
(For any such x. (x')' =f= x'. ADDITION 3 Addition Theorem I: If x=f=Y then Proof: . Otherwise. If x =f= 1. by Axiom 4. Let W1 be the set consisting of the number 1 and of all those x for which there exists such a u. then x and hence by Theorem 1. we therefore contains all the natural we have for each x that x x. so that x' belongs to IDe. II) If x belongs to Wl. we would have .) J) 1 belongs to ffil. i. then there exists one (hence. Theorem 2: x' =f= x. x=y.Th. Theorem 3: l' =+ 1. therefore 1 belongs to we. J) By Axiom 1 and Axiom 3. . By Axiom 5.e. by Axiom 4. we have of necessity that Proof: x=f=l by Axiom 3. and hence.13] § 2. numbers. exactly one) u such that . Proof: Let ffi1 be the set of all x for which this holds true.
NATURAL NUMBERS II) If x belongs to 9. (by)' = byl. and by be defined for all at = x. called x + y 1) x + 1 = x' (+ to be read "plus"). A) First we will show that for each fixed x there is at most one possibility of defining x + y for all y in such a way that Proof: x and + 1 = x' y Let o. such that f or every x.11.4 1. and be such that I) hence II hence by Axiom 2. with u denoting the number x. then. . = Cay)' .. therefore ay' then y' (ay)' (by)'. we have x+l there exists a u such that ber.
.J...' hpl.." "" "'" "" ....1 Uoc..... V I::: R) Now we will show that for each x it is actually nossible to T rlofin~ ~.~.. (In exactly T1 +1... ~ .. ."\nh:lin<::! ~.. H) Let x belonz to 9J( so that there exists an x rr'hon tho nll1'Ylho1" W + 11 for all 11.1 IS as required. Hence x' holonos to ~ @ ...."\nO'<::! tn..... I Y . 'W~v t.'Y'.....LV..L ~11 W.. . r.' A r~T. ~.~" .. L..... .LJ.. voL v..UU . J. ..1....1 'I]I \v ...L '" \ .... 1 SInce x 0{.1.~ .. v Let ~Ulbe the set of all x for WhICh thIS IS possible one way.. 1........1 " Y I yO \W . 1.. .O.J. ~J l' ~ '0 . rv r  . t... 1 ~ T we the set of all z for which (x + y) + 1 = (x + 4I..UI hen(>p TT Le'L Z .. to wt..~ ..L 0. ". ..h~t '" X + 1 = x' 1/)' v and T l 11' v (T l f{)r f'VP .. x' T \0{.::I IJJ.. ·n· . = x+lY+z)' "'.L V. 11'rV\h"'.tV y)' = x + y' = x + (y + 1) .. since 1 lX+ 1)'  lX) (x' x' rrh..1 .~'" ~ .. vJ. number x+ for x'.ftSSOCIRU La w or .h~t = x+(u+z).'Vl......e Uta. Hence 1 belongs to we...<' ... nerong an .1 "" \ "".. .. l 11 v f{)r ~ 11 11 in v s nrh ~. + 11' \Y .+.V.1 = H... VI IS the required aHa .. .. lVv ... ~. Fix x and u.. T YY ....lU... .\ . "' . ..l neorem + y' = (x + y')' ffil r>.. "U.. u~ ...x+y)+z)' @ = tX+lY+zJ)'  x+lY+z ). o~ "'..~~~~~ = ((x + y)')' = 1 1 + y).. and denote by the assertion of the theorem holds Proof: 1) +\""n "' . by I) For A».lnen (x+u)+z ~x+y)+z so t..I! .'V " 11. IJU.::1. Y' . rr'l. _l . ':111 .ftuunion): ve t .lVJ.. ~ ~..::10...« _l 1]1 \ \"'" v..V...
holds for all y. we have x' I y x' + y = y + x'. Theorem 7: y =l= x + y. and let ill1 be the set of all x for which the assertion holds. and 1 belongs to me. and let 911 the set of all y for which the asserbe tion holds. NATURAL NUMBERS [Th. . I) We have y + 1 = y'. so that x' belongs to 911.6 I. Therefore the assertion Theorem 8: y' + y) " =l= x + y'. Fix y. then x (x I y)' + v=r u + x. then y'=l= (x so that y' belongs to me. Y=l=z If x then + Y =l= x + z. so that by the construction 1+ y in the proof of Theorem 4. y I x' . II) If x belongs to therefore l+y=y+l 9)(. and furthermore. The assertion therefore holds for all x. By the construction in the proof of Theorem 4. (y I x)' (x I y)'. II) If y belongs to hence me. Proof: Fix x.69] Theorem 6 (Commutative Law of Addition) : yy x Proof: + + x. 1 belongs to 9)(. = y'. .
ich x + y =F x + z. cases 1) and 2) are incompatible. 2) and 3) obtains. or y = 1. . by Theorem 8) such that A) By Theorem 7. Theorem 9: mus 1) For given x and y. exactly one of the following e case: x = y. + y =F x' + z. y hence 1 belongs to we. 1+Y=F1+z.Proof: Consider a fixed y and a fixed z such that y =F z. and let we be the set of all y for which one (hence by A). z. 2) There exists a u (exactly one. we have by Theorem 3 that either x=1=y x=u Hence 1 belongs to = u (case 1» we. B) Let x be fixed. x=y. by Theorem 8) such that 3) There exists a v (exactly one. . x hence x' + Y =F x + z. exactly one) of the cases 1). x = Y + u = (x + v) + u = x + (v + u) = (v + u) + x.
by Theorem 3. (1 + w) = (y + 1) + w = y' + w (case 2) for y') . y' belongs to ill2. hence y'=y+1=x+1 or (case 2) for y) hence If u= 1. + u=w'= 1 + w. Therefore "vve always have one of the cases 1). x=y or (case 3) for y) y y' (case 3) for y') . In any case. = (x + v)' =x + v' (case 3) for Y'). NATURAL NUMBERS [Th. = x + v. then x=y+1=y' u then. 2) and 3). (case 1) for y') .8 1. .l012.
meams (> to be read "is greater Definition 5: ~~'" ""~U.c.. Theorem 9. y.. x> tnan..". IS greater ...... . A ..'l'l'Yla ""~AAA~ x<y u . Theorem 12: If then Proof: 1'''''l'' o. f'""... v..) J' . x=y+u . ORDERING 9 §3 Ordering Definition 2: Il..... O""'l'Yla 'AAA~ Cll1ito hla "" .. ~u : I' U'( T1 u/ny Y'(/Ufyn .l>(/y .. to be read "is less than. ..» x.. '''''A~ /)1 vv. x < y...Def. • .n.clH. "" ....I.f:/ UJ Ml"f:/ cases x=y.'' hlr... 'y. ~J T1' x > y... Proof: ........... Definition 2 and Definition 3. Each of these means that '1J .") x<y . ) Definition 3: If y=x+v I)" / .. ..J 'Y' I '1) ol1~tn .v 'II « ..ffJi) than or equal to.") .. v~"' .... 'W~ tuuue ~ ~.. (""~I" If x=y+u ~ > then to oe rea a ..I rreor'ern '1 ...~_ U'J(..25] § 3.. lu~urelll ~~ then Proof: x>y Each of these means that y < x. Definition 4: x>y x>y or x=y..
. Theorem 17: If x < 11.. « then to be read "is less than or equal to. Theorem 12. w. which are obtained trivially by simply reading the formulas backwards. W}. '11 .. Proof: cneti .y tften y>x.:J' < z.... .10 I... y < z.") Theorem ... " + 'U} v..>: IJ T x2y y<x.. we have y =X 1.. Thus if 'Y ' . then x> z. otherwise...13201 x<y or x=y... y < z... Theorem 15 does it..' . z < y < x. x r \ u r y<z or Tr'7 x then l"root: < u.t.. If x Preliminary Remark: ')" . Z \x ~ I r w  x Theorem 16: X <y. . SInce z hnt. NATURAL NUMBERS rTh. Theorem 15 (Transitivity of Ordering) : x < u. '11 <.. Proof: With suitable v. x· h()thpl" to w ri+o n()wn ~n('h rio+ pvpn statements. . in w h at f()ll()w~ Twill < u. If < z..:J . UbVlOUS11 an equanty sign notes In the nypotnesis . Proof: Theorem 11. z=y+ w. Theorem 14: If x":::::::::. 11 ~ < Z.
+Z Y + z. x+z< y+z. 07' X + z < y + z. or x + z > y + z. . that. or x < y. Obvious if two equality signs hold in the hypothesis. y+ z >x+z. then x +z (y+ 'u) +z (u+y)+z = u+(y+z) x+z> y+z. . y. ORDERING 11 then x <z. While its immediate meaning is a a Theorem 18: Proof: Theorem 19: If < b. + Z < y + z. X=Y y>x. then clearly 3) If then hence. Theorem 16 does it. . (Similarly in the later chapters. C < d. say < c. b < c. +y=X + or x x then x Proof: > y. otherwise. it also implies. x x a < d.) + y > x. b < d. x = y. by 1) . Proof: A notation such as a<b<c<d is justified on the basis of Theorems 15 and 17. according to these theorems. or 1) If + Z = Y + z. respectively.§ 3. Theorem 20: If 01' X x + Z > y + z.
otherwise Theorem 22 does it. 'Theorem 21: If x > y. Proof: y=x+u. NATURAL NUMBERS [Th. in both instances. otherwise from Theorem 21. x= Either or Theorem 25: If x.=u'=u + 1> 1. or x  y. Theorem 22: If x :::> y. or x < y. x+z>y+u. Obvious if two equality signs hold in the hypothesis. hence . x+z>y+u. mutually exclusive and exhaust all possibilities. x+z>y+u.spectively. Proof: By Theorem 19.2127] then Proof: x > y. Te. Follows from Theorem 19 if an equality sign holds in the hypothesis. z:::> U. Proof: Theorem 24: Proof: x>1. z >u or x > y. en y>x+1. Follows from Theorem 19. since the three cases are. u >: 1.12 1. Proof: Theorem 23: If x> y. z > u. z > u. we have x+z>y+z an y+z=z+y>u+y=y+u.
The former we already know.then for we wou ave hence. contradicting the statement above . ORDERING 13 Theorem 26: If then Proof: y < x. + 1 would belong to ffic.§ 3. The latter is established by an indirect argument. and let we be the set of all x does Therefore there is an m in IDlsuch that m + 1 does not belong to we. for otherwise natural number would have to belong to we. thus m bw. one which is less than any other number Theorem 27: Proof: Let 91 be the given set. by Theorem 25. In every nonempty set of natural numbers there is a least one (i. as follows: If m did not belong to 91.e. to 91. Otherwise we would have y>x+1. by Axiom 5.
by + x for every y. by' . +X =b +x = b» so that y' belongs to WI. i.To every pair of numbers x. Hence WI is the set of all natural numbers. then hence a 1. y. x for every x and every y. = ay + x. al == x === hence 1 belongs to WI. we may assign in exactly one way a natural num Theorem 28 and at the same time Definition 6: 1) x· 2) X· 1= x y' =x •y + f or every x. or the number obtained is at most one possibility of defining xy for all y in such a way that X· l=x ay. x • y is called the product of x and y. at = b1 = x.e. X. for every y we have . II) If y belongs to 9)1.
en the x'y = xy x'·1 = x·1+1 + y x+ 1 = x' = xy and x' y' = xy' + y'  (xy + x) + y' + (x + y') = xy + (x + y)' Hence x' belongs to we. xy = yx. 1·y ence 1•y = y. =y so that ·1 belongs to we. tion holds. y • 1 = y. = y' = y + 1 = xy + x. by or the number xy=y x • 1 = 1 = x. x=1. A».6] § 4. hence . MULTIPLICATION 15 x· 1 =x an xy one way.Def. xy' = xy +x or every y. Therefore we contains all x. xy=yx. • 1.
I) x (y + 1) = xy' = xy + x = xy + x • 1. hence x(y+z') = x«(y+z)') = xy + (xz + x) = x(y+z)+x = xy + xe'. The assertion therefore holds for all x. Theorem 30 (Distributive Law) : Preliminar Remark: (y The formula + z) x = yx + zx which results from Theorem 30 and Theorem 29. we have so that x' belongs to 9)(. and similar assertion holds true.  (xy+xz)+x (xy) z = x (yz) .xy + y = yx + y = yx'. By the construction in the proof of Theorem 28. Proof: we be the set of all z for which the Then z + xy=x + xy=x . = xy+xz. Fix x and y. and let assertion holds true.
z > u. > yu. Theorem 34: then x > xz y. or xz yz. = yz. yz xz xz yz. respectivetu. z xz and yz = zy xz > uy = yu. Proof: n 1) If x=y+u. . < yz. Therefore WI contains all natural Theorem 32: numbers. > yu. or x = y. mutually exclusive and exhaust all possibilities. or x < y. > xz. x=y xz 3) / If x<y then y = yz. or x < y.so that z' belongs to WI. both instances. or xz or x then x > y. If = y. > x. If x > y.
otherwise Theorem 35 does it. Theorem 36: If x >y. Follows from Theorem 32 if an equality sign holds in the hypothesis. . Theorem 35: If x > y. z > 'Ii.18 I. z > u. then Proof: > yu. 3539. z > 'it xz or x > y. otherwise from Theorem 34. then xz > yu. NATURAL NUMBERS [Th. Proof: ObVIOUS If two equalIty signs hold in the hypothesIs.
Def.78]
§ 1. DEFINITION
AND EQUIVALENCE
19
CHAPTER
II
FRACTIONS
Definition and Equivalence
Definition 7:
By a fraction
Xl, Xz
Xl XI
(read"
Xl
over x/') is meant the
pair of natural numbers Definition 8:
(in this order).
(rv to be read "equivalent")
if
Theorem 37: Proof: Theorenl 38:
If
rvXI YI
then
Proof:
X1Y2

'YI X2, Xl Yl
hence
Theorem 39:
If
Xl XI
YIXI Yl
'Y2·
Zl
rv,
!It
('V
112
s,
then
Proof:
20
II.
FRACTIONS
[Th. 40 43,
hence We always have (xy)(zu) therefore and so that, by the above, we have
=
x(y(zu»)
= x«yz)u)
= x(u(yz»)
= (xu)(yz)
(xu) (zy);
By Theorems 37 through 39, all fractions fall into classes, in such a way that
Xi
Y2
if and only if
XI
and
YI
belong to the saIne class.
Theorem 40:
X2 X2X
Proof:
Xl
(xXI!)
Def.910]
§ 2. ORDERING
21
§2
Orderinu:
Definition 9:
>X,
XI
YI
Y2
t » to be read "is zreater than") if
..... ... ...n. 1.IenDIUUD ~v.
..
XlY2>Y1X2,
X,
X2
<:;._
'!It
Y2
«
to be read "is less than")
;.(il
if
Yi
<:._
YI ;.(i2·
Theorem
41:
If , ~ are arbttrary, then exactly one of .:1.
___!_
",. , I)J
r.
.fl
Xl Yl rv,
tS
the case.
Proof:
X2
Y2
>,
X2
Xl
'!II
Y2
<X2
Xl
s.
Y2
For our
"" " .... 1 :12
Xl,
HS LIle
.
:11"".,
". 
X2,
u.; Y2'
exactly one of
"" ""1:12 _..
 :ll ....~" ". ""
Y1
..... 1:11
NO
,..
_II,
",.

.:112
.1
l;ct:se.
Theorem
42:
If
Xl _
X'2 
then
Proof:
YI
X,
'!II
u,
<;._
a;
•
If
X1Y2
then
Theorem
> 'Y1X2
u. x.. < a, u..
43:
If
a: '11. ~<~.. '
T.
:II
'II
v>'
then
s.
'II
.,,, >
Xl
To
':IlI
•
L n.~ ~ .O ~~~ ~. we have Preliminary Remark: 1h_:> YII Xl.' :!I f'V~ /f'. U. Proof: By Theorem 43. .~~ D. fl. XI! since f'V~ III 'II U 91. ~ . by Theorem 33. 'T'ha.. Ut:> Xl U1Z2• Theorem 45: If Xl Yl <.1'KACTIUN::) ~. 11. then the same will be true for all pairs of representatives of the two classes. (U1Z2) (YIXI!)' (Y1X2)(ZtU2) = (UIZ2)(XIYII):> Zl so that.J ZI I? "2 fhnM II ' f'V 'II 07.... s. Xi tnen Y2 f'V ZI ZI! f"'.J Yl Ul XII ZI Z. then the same will be true for all pairs of representatives of the two classes.:«. Zl 1:2 . TF XIY2 < Yl X2 then Ylxt:> XIYII' Theorem 44: If Xl 'Y' " :> Yl 072 III ' Xl ~ f"'. l.":1. • ~n ":1. U. Preliminary Remark: . YI! "2 __ U1 ull Thus if a fraction of one class is less than a fraction of another class.0. . "Z Ul Rl :> ZII U1 • u2 Thus if a fraction of one class is greater than a fraction of another class.t::61l:t:: is. :II X Z I?' 11 "Z we then have by Theorem 44 that U1 :>.OFA. Proof: ytu2 = U1YII' Zl XII = Xl Z2' X1Y2:> Y1XI!' 6J.HZl ~66~ X2) Q') = (U1Y2)(X1 Z2)' o:lnrl thO.h"u ''.":1.
~rv~.U1 U2 . Tf 411· XI '!II .. 'r' 2 . X 2  Yt Y2 means ~"":>Jh__ X2 Y2 ()r  XI X2 "J Yl Y2 (~ to be read "greater ~ vennluon . ~M means ~<___:::~'II. YI Ul UI X2 Z2 ~:>~ AJ Z2 u2 • Obvious by Theorem 44 if otherwise. $2 .") TJ.... $1 $2  . by Theorem 42.. "1 U Q Theorem 48: 1J Xl :>}b_ f'V X2 '!Ii . 'r' x_ '11_ X. u.. Xl Zl ('V s. we have Proof: _I > holds in the hypothesis. than or equivalent with.1 . u2 ...RTNC! 23 so that. J_~ : : or Y. "I z.... ('V Yt u.n~t" 111 9.'" Y 2  XI "J Zt $2 X2 Yt "Y2 ".. _ X~ . U $ ('V_I X rvI Y rvI Theorem 47: If XI X• $2 X2 '!I2 U2 then < Yt ....:> X rv then 2 Y2 ... Definition 11: Xl:> ...") X. f'V. rv.2 III 2 32 '" (~ to be read "less than or equivalent with. .. U Obvious by Theorem 45 if otherwise. ZI XI a.v. we have Proof: ('V$0 < holds in the hypothesis... 82_ u ORnF.
..J.24 II.U ..L a..l.L. • ~:v~~v Vl' o . Follows from Theorem 39 if two equivalence signs nUIU In tne nypotnesis ..L.n!':itivit. •• • • A .. otnerwise rrom uneorem DL Proof: ". X.4955] then Proof: Theorem 38 and Theorem 42..v v of Or(lprinv)· Tf then X. e.L V.. If Theorem 49: then Proof: Th.1 neorem t>. . Z2) (Xl Z2) (Yl Y2) & <Ii <: <: (Zl y!).L5. • ".L 'V. Theorem 38 and Theorem 43. u.L uU.l..L.. u. 1J T then • . in the hypothesis. . X ~..: '.l ":tu .'" i:). !iO (Tr~.L~ ~. FRACTIONS [Th.l~ 'V'f U~ v UH::. ~L'VV.l.L.. (Zl X2)(YI Y2)' 2) •• is. Theorem 52: If otherwise from Theorem 50. ...l .. Z Proof: hence (Xl Y2) ts.
r Y2)... Proof: a..:  XII + X. . . XJ+ Xl XII ::> Xl XII' ~~~ ::::..1'1 III r. X Xg + X.J_ r. +y. .. such that <::<. X. XII $2 ""I Xl Z. <::. x2 Xl X2 z. \Xl r Yl) <:: Xu Xl XII' Xl X . • XII Xl  + Xl =. . X.1. + x... \Xl .l'lI ~.§ 2.. . ~r..(.J_ 'z • / 'II 'II 07107" <:.. .' . IJ T A < Yl YII then there exists a t:I ____!_ X2 .. < .1 neorem . + Uo <..L III III 07107:11 <:"" <..... "I"Z r.J_ III I)'! 07'":11 . XII there exists a $1 Z X.. «: Xl <:: . YII) ...:::> XII XII Theorem 54: G' ~ven Xl there exists a . .. Yl .(iltxll.yo III 'I07Z / . YI) Y2 Yl YI ~X. (X. iCll Z2 Proof: Xl X../... ORDERING 25 Theorem 53: Given Xl.yo . '!I.). • ~lI / y" X A• hence IJI "l. u. "::>X' Proof: (XI + Xl) . T. <:: '1. .
. TT '1:'1. \ \""11 ""'I" (XIIZI). ...... = rv is.. a. ' ?.j.1 .L \ I ...v... H... .. & (Y1U2) (X2Z2) t + (U Y2) t \.x.. _P"'..L'I\..!_ rv ~ X . 'HI (..2' 101 'UI  'tAIl I' ~ hence (x Yg) t (Zg u 2) = ts. .(..l:_:•• r '12 .nrl .1~2 r \r \ \91Ml2) \w2 "'1].L: ""'I '" + . Y2U2 I[1. X. _. 1/9 X......W2 rv X WI W r WI! W xx r rv \Wl T ~ W2l W xx rv WI T .. ''<. to I • Theorem 56: If rvX Xl Yl '11... then   rvZ Zl U1  U 'II.. Theorem 57: Proof: T. _l = (U1Z2) (X2Y.H"..).N\A " . r!' I' I'~ tJUU... 92 'II +~ . + 'H2 IW' 1 • X2 'H2 XI . ~A "~AA'" rlll~UI'''V YI It is called the sum of addition of :11 _1 "" and ?_t .. X +X T. ' By Definition 13 and by Theorem 40. IJ'' ".. we have WI X I. J TUC~'tUn ..U.~U n.(.192J . _2 ...vI + ____2_ rv _. (X2 ZI)' r ~1 &1 'MIl '!I2 X2Z. 1 ""2 The class of the sum thus depends only on the classes to which the "summands" belong . _. or the fraction obtained by the IJJ x2 Y2 '" y.) . (ZtU2)(X..Lv. "" . .  T.!."'''\...L .lJy VA Xl s: rnf::.' r "'1.L.v2) \92 . 1..'H2 + '!I... ___. x • Theorem 58 (Co: n r urtativa Law of Addifinn.v"_"_". hence '\ t \ WI . XI!) (Zt u 2).2) (Xt r. U2 + U Y 1 '~"2'" T.n "'. 1' t ~1.. §3 Addition AJ'" n .t>.... L . Preliminary Remark: rrOOI: X1Y2  YI.z..(.~ vv ~ ._.YII) \N'l ... + Zl XI) (Yi U2) C'U2 .. :11 rv J!.> .. 1.) ('HII UI) (Xt + (Zl X2) u2) Z.2 x2 "T . \92M12) \ Z. y... .. . 7.
Proof: XIY'l+Y. Z2 so th!=l.. 1:12 = I X ('1. ("'V 1111." :> Xl Yi' X "" I . X2 (Y2 Z2) (y.. (Xl 82 J!! + ZI .  X (X • "v. r / "" \X. + 16_) + _5_ rv Xl y.XI!+XIY.'r T. 1 Y2 ""2 Y2 ""2 Theorem 61: If :>Xl Y. .~Zl Y2) X. x. Y2 6. + Yl X'j + ~ Y..) • 70/ 2) Y. Z & ..2 + • :> (X '11_) X ~l 'u .J Y. '11.XI! X.. Z. Zl Y2 +. no . Y2 X2 . +B. .. +rv x.. X.) Proof: (Xl XI! '11. + Yl & .. Proof: I Z1 _ . ~Zl Y2)" X2 rv "2/ 'I " \Xl ~Y2 Z2)" .) Z21 r X2 (Y2 Z.. Y.. +. X.) X2 (I}I 2'.De!.... Z2J1 ...1. \XI! I I s. . + '11. Y.. Y1 I Zl z.\ Y2 Z2 X2 Theorem 60: Proof: (X &~~ + z. we have and (Zl x2) Y2 :> (Yl Z2) X2 = (zJ Y2) X2.. '!I... X'j v. :> (Yl .. ADDiTIUN nl"1 """.t (!1! .Y'j f'. s." '11.) z 2072/ / +Z 'I !)! 'j! rv {(x 'I1~)Z+(U rr: / x_)z_)+z 2 '.. Xl XI! 'I'hoorem 59 (Associative Law of Addition) : I I t».) . . \ Y2) Zl ZI!  Xl X2 I I (Yl \ I ' 81 \ Z2 YI! ~t Z. (Ill T.. ....Z .X2 ~Y... '11) (:r.~2 I _\ • X ~YZ) (Xl Z2) Y2  X tzy}  (XZ) y..) Z2) X2 I:t 'I 2/ ("'V . . '!I.:72 (IJI ~ v III ~Y2 Z2J.lt:5J S Xl v./ & . Z2 + {111 I:t ZI y..:7 2 ("'V 'T\i7T 'IT \ Xl Xi + Yl ZI!. + ZI YI!) X2...)""> 70/ ('1J '" '" ('IJ e.z) '" "'/ . X_) & •. then Xl I X..' XI! Y1 :> Xl.(. (X fl.) . rv+..) Z2 XI! Y2 rvto: rv vel rv Xl + '11 (".(YI \Y2 Xl XI! Xl Y2 +Z1.'11 2 :>. If X1Y2 \Wl :12) I A \_ :>Y1X2  then ~lnce ~XY)Z  "'2 \91 w..) + «Yl '¥' + Xl (Zl Y2) x2) rv Xl (Y2 Z2) + ~ (Y..z..
6267] Theorem 62: If or ~. and the third is a consequence of the first. FRACTIONS [Th. the second is contained in Theorenl 56.28 II._ <: YI Xl s. since Theorem 63: If then Xl < Jb__ . Follows from Theorem 62. Z2 Zl Z2 Z2 or Proof: X + _1 Z2 Z <: _1 Y +z Y2 _1 Z2 respectively. X2 Y2 The first part is Theorem 61. we have and . in both instances. Proof: Theorem 64: If then Proof: By Theorem 61. respectively. >_:7 _± __ 1 '11 X2 Z2 _1 Y2 Zl +_ or Xl s. since the three cases. are mutually exclusive and exhaust all possibilities. '01 ±rv+X2 .
by Theorem 60. 2 $1 :>~ z 2 rv U 2 ' Follows from Theorems 56 and 61 if the equivalence sign holds in the hypothesis. Proof: Theorem 67: If  then YI U +rvXl t has a solution "1 . then . otherwise from Theorem 65. The second assertion of Theorem 67 is an immediate consequence of Theorem 63. by Theorem 63. Proof: Theorem 66: If then Follows from Theorem 56 if two equivalence signs hold in the hypothesis.§ 3. for if Proof: . otherwise from Theorem 64.Preliminary Remark: If there does not exist a solution. then. . If VI and W1 are solutions. ADDITION 29 so that Theorem 65: Xl X 2 If :> J!J:_ rv y.
"I (the Ull first assertion of Theorem 67) is proved as follows....l o "ft'>o~n .]'.... IV " \ '." <I'VV 11'0 v..J'V .j"" "..n 'fill.... .'] <NflJ J v .. XIlY2 r"Vr"V...f>fi(vYl nf fh. xt of rr.. rlnNflr...6870. "." V"'VV X." "'. Weare Determine u from and set u given that a.. X. +u '11X  u u Xft'Uft· 7 U then _.. Y...f..Q?Jhfrn. "'. constructed ( \ ......30 II.YIl X2YIl X. M = .. nn.. 'fl e.+~. r. .nd Definition 14: ~ The specific 'V'''V''_'' '1'hDr...forl V:. J Yl ~"'" Y2 VI IJ.~IV> U/Vtl(. x • 11. '11. :> 'II. __!_ X.L 'VLN~ tn the proof YI"2 "'on .j nlYJ XI J Thus if then Y2 r." ..f> fi J YI s: f ho flY'rr.V'" ~J... X. is a solution."'NOntv". " ar: " Iz. YIXIl+U x... SInce tt. IJI r"V ... Y2 + f"'to. "2 Y.J y.Y. _l__ ".."V J' .p...J h. + . s.X2 U 1J. 'U. ~~'.J .1I x..... Y.'... r"V.~l..J+f"'to. u..IV>". frn. Y.II"DIVlI1 'vv ~ . +f"'to.'. x•.... IWI.. x... ...._ VVtlUI' 'V\AI .t". XIlY2 X2Y..1 hili v:.. The existence of a FRACTIONS [Th.0 vu An77.7_1 XII v.J Y. 2 x...
the dot is usually omitted) is meant the fraction X Yl .».Def. Preliminary Remark: Proof: hence rv. MULTIPLICATION 31 §4 Multiplication Definition 15: By Xl.1415] § 4. to be read "times". It is called the product of by mult'ipl'ication of Theorem 68: If Xli Xl and Yl . YtUI Y2 U2 Theorem 69 (Commutative Law of Multiplication) : Proof: Theorem 70 (Associative Lavl of Multiplication) : . or the fraction obtained y Y2 then The class of the product thus depends only on the classes to which the "factors" belong. X1Y2 Xl however. Xli Y1 Yll (. :1:2 Z2 ».
:>y.) Y. (X2 Y2) Z2 + (XI Z.X2 (Y2 Z2) rv (Xl YI) Z. . ZI X2 82 Y2 Z2 Proof: 1) If at Xl ZI X2 Z2 rv Yt z. z. (X2 Z2) Y'J Theorem 72: If X. Z2) + XI (ZI Y2) X2 (Y2 Z2) rv Xl (Yl Z2) + XI (ZI Y2) X2 (Y2 Z2) . FRACTIONS [Th.7175] Proof: Theorem 71 (Distributive Law) : Proof: rv XI (y. Y2 Z2 or Xl Zt <:YI X2 Z2 Zt Y2 Z2 . then 2) If then. by Theorem 68. 'respectively.32 II.
. otherwise from Theorem 74... rei ...f".r +'h. 'rP...u.. n"..I XI s... ........ x2 Z2 Y. VoL..a.r.1 T~ XI e. Y2 hanna ."'...."''''vV. V. v OJ ~"'''''YVII .L ..__:> UI Z2 Y2 Th..... . Zl Y... since the three cases are in both instances mutually exclusive and exhaust all possibilities. .fi'HP. or <:X2 S2 Xl 21 s.JM1P...I Z2 1. U Yl YI Ut so that Y2 Z2 Z2 Y2 ZI 20 U2 Y2 Y2 U2 «..Yl X2 =. ~Q "".. X.. MULTIPLICATION 38 then Yl ...L" :>.I Z2 21 Z2 or Zl rvX2 22 =. Y2 Z2 Zl <:'" YI Zl Xl X2 Y.I.. £ ·v Y2 Follows from Theorem 72. ....... :>Yt X....~" Xl X2 ' h'tT 1\ . 7~· Tf J ~>}h_ then X 2 rv Y 2 .'nTC'I ..LJ ......L v.L v .. Proof: Theorem 74: If Xl ~ v....... PI.. X" ~ YI Ut '/I... rr'hr.... .. rvu 2 Xl X" D_~~~ A .'I'V'I r'7Q .1~U....ll"..... T alence sign holds in the hypothesis. 5. '1/" . . U1 U2 Proof: By Theorem 72. :>Z'J St UI U2 or ~ >.. Y2 $. ... V"...". ~ '" an(J Y 21 2 ~ 2 072 2 1 t rv:>rv.. Y2 ' Zl ZI .......... V'' ... . 21 22 ... 1 .... rr'hr.".lC. ':1... ZII "t U2 then X2 :>.lU ......oJ • . Y2 . we have x PI ~_!__>~ 'r' U /).111 .. Z2 ZI Z. Z" Yl UI 'tI. Yt ZI 22 y'!.. .....» Yl ()'r  Xl X2 c:::Y2 Yl .I. 'V''VA • e..... ...§ 4... U .:! ... Y2 then XI ~ X2 Y1 Y2 ()'r Xt X2 r. y ..
;j4
,.,.
.1.1.
,....
L' !tACTIUN!::;
.~ rr .." L .L 11. IOOV,
.... ~
Th
76·
If
Xl::>
~ ("V
Yt
:12
,
Zl ::>  f'.) U1
N
then
""2
.... 2
<N2
Xl X2
Zl ::>}!_l
Z2
U1
"" Y2 U2
Prn ..f·
.... 1..
.I.
.I..I.I(JU.I. I(J.I..I..I.
Follows from Theorem 6R if twn.enuivalenee.aizna
hold
in the hypothesis; otherwise from Theorem 75.
,.,,.,
•••
rIll.
.L If/O
0'1.
~~ .
•
~lA.",
A
M,."VWVO'''{/~
s,
where
Xl
!l!
UI
Y2 U'2
X' '2
v
WI
W.
Xl
and
YI
JZ
solutions, then
"
'II
are given, has a solution :~. If ,,/ and
"
are
"
v,
V2
rv
w. w2
IS
The second assertion of Theorem 77 consequence of Theorem 73; for if
Proof:
an immediate
YI VI rvthen, by Theorem 73,
y,
'(/2
YI
Y2
WI
Wi
,
V,
f'J
W,
W2
V2
.
IS
The existence of a , (the first assertion of Theorem 77) 'U provea as
.
2
IOllOWS. 1I
we set
Ill.
1
"I'
'".2
41
Qj
,
I
"1'41
2 07 t
,
then '
U Us
IS
a solution, since
U, rv
'II.
1h_
vZ
u1
'II.
"
~
'11.
VZ
rv Xl Y2 ~
rv (Xl Y2)YI
'II
"
a:
'11
;0""
v,"
'11.
La: ;ov.,.,,,'11. 'IJ.) ,
rv
XI (Yl
X
z , ....
Y2) V"'
("V~.
('11 '11.)
X.
"
Def.1619]
§ 5.
RATIONAL
NUMBERS
AND INTEGERS
35
Rational Numbers and Integers
Definition 16: By a rational nU'n'tbe,', we mean the set of all fractions which are equivalent to some fixed fraction. (Such a
set is therefore a class in the sense of § 1.) Capital italic letters will always denote rational numbers, unless otherwise specified.
Definition 17:
(= to be read "equals")
X_y
if the two sets consist of the same frac
tions. Otherwise, (+ to be read "is not equal to").
The following three theorems
Theorem 78: Theorem 79: then Theorem 80: en Defin+tion 18: (> to he read
"IS
are trivial:
If
x=x. x=y
If
x=y,
X
Y=Z,
xs z.
>y
greater than")
112
1,1 for
a fraction
x
_!_
of the set X,
and for a fraction Yl of the set Y (hence for any su:h pair of frac
tions, by Theorem 44) we have that
Definition 19:
x if .. a fraction _1 of the set X, and . for x. for a fraction Y1 of the set Y (hence for any such pair of fractions,
«
to be read "is less than")
by Theorem 45) toe have that
Y.
36
Tb
~w ._
II.
FRACTIONS
[Th.8196,
P'Y'nrdl?l
V
Rl.
Fwy' rtmn)
'v
07
(J/j?,p'YI.
X'
"
Yr
fl'Yl,P
()f
J
X=Y,X>Y,X<Y must be the case.
Proof:
Thpr'~
+l1m» 'v
V~
Theorem 41.
R2·
Tf
X,>Y
.... .. rrOOI:
then
Proof:
,..."
~ueo rern
q.::;,.
.
V
.L
..........L:L
;'
V
•
....
Theorem 83:
If
X<Y Y>X.
Theorem 43. Definition 20:
means
(> to be read "is greater Definition 21:
X>Y 
X> Y or X= Y.
than or equal to.")
X<Y
.a.
'V' <;"_.L
'YJ'
means
U'f
.a. 
'V'
'YJ'
.L •
(s
to be read
"IS
less than or equal to. )
Theorem 84: then
'0,
If
AO
X>Y v< ~"1:U •
• .L""•. Theorem H5:
£
~k
,_,
11
y ~.
L J.J.O;:;VL O;:;J.J.J.
XSY Y>X. 
then
Proof:
Theorem 49.
Theorem 86 (Transi ti vity of Ordering) :
If
X<Y, then X
Proof:
Y<Z,
< Z. < Y,
Y<Z,
Theorem 50.
Theorem 87:
then
P:n .. lf·
X< Y, Y<Z
Thaorar
!11
If
or X
X < Z.
or X X = Y. X>Y X X +Z > Y respective y. Theorem 91: If X X < Y. Proof: Theorem 54. Theorem 89: Proof: Given X. or X < Y. + Z = Y + Z. + 0 e rea p us ) we mean t e class which contains a sum (hence. Law of Addition) : Proof: Theorem 60. Theorem 62.2022] § 5. there exists a Z Theorem 53. z <X. Theorem 95: If then Proof: Theorem 61. rational number obtained from the addition of Y to X. Proof: > or Y. x s:z. Y < Z. RATIONAL NUMBERS AND INTEGERS 37 Theorem 88: If x <Y. X. by Theorem 56. < Z < Y. every such sum) of a fraction from X and a fraction from Y. + Z < Y + Z. or X + Z. Y=Y+X. Theorem 92 (Commutative Law of Addition) : X+ Theorem 93 (Associative Proof: Theorem 59.Def. .
Definition 23: by Theorem 94. This rational number is called the product of X by Y. Proof: Theorem 63. Z > Y. however. Definition 24: By X • Y (. or X Y. FRACTIONS [Th. or the rational number obtained from multiplication of X by Y. Y. then X +Z >Y+ then Proof: Theorem 65. Theorem 98: If X> > U. Proof: Theorem 67. Theorem 102 (Commutative Proof: LavY~of Multiplication) : XY=YX. U. X=> Y. Theorem 101: It then Preliminary Remark: +Z>Y + x> YIU U.to be read "minus") and is called the difference X minus Y.97111.4 => U. Y. every such product) of a fraction from X by a fraction from Y. to be read "times".Y (. . X has exactly one solut~on U. Z=> U. Theorem 69. the dot is usually omitted) we mean the class which contains a product (hence. This U is denoted by X . or X  Y. If X<y there does not exist a solution. Theorem 97: If or X x + Z > Y + Z. . or the number obtained from subtraction of the rational number Y from the rational number X. U. < or X + Z < Y + Z. by Theorem 68. Z Y.38 II. respectively. X Proof: Theorem Theorem 99: If +Z >Y+ > U or X 64. Theorem 100: If  X Proof: Theorem 66. x> then +Z= Y + Z. X => Y.
. If Theorem 105: x> XZ Proof: Y. Z > U. then XZ > YU. Z=X(YZ . respectively. Proof: Theorem 76. or X < Y. or X = Y. respectively. > YZ. X>Y then Proof: Theorem 75. RATIONAL NUMBERS AND INTEGERS 39 Theorem 103 (Associative Law of Multiplication) : (XY Proof: Theorem 70. or X < Y. then XZ> YU. in which X and Yare given. Theorem 106: then Proof: X > Y. If U or X Theorem 109: X> Y. Proof: Theorem 71. or XZ If = YZ. has exactly one solution U. Theorem 72. or XZ < YZ. or X Theorem 73. = Y.Def.2324] § 5.
40
II
FR A.CTIONS
[Th. 1121] 3,
then x Proof: x· x
> y,
or x = y, or x
< y,
respectively,
and vice versa. 1 > y • 1, or x· 1 = y • 1, or x • 1 < y • 1, means the same as
>
y, or x = y, or x
< y,
respectively.
Definition 25: A rational number is called an integer (or a whole number) if the set of fractions which it represents contains a fraction of the form
T.
By Theorem 111, this x is uniquely determined. Conversely, to each x there corresponds exactly one integer. Theorem 112:
('V
x JI
xy
Preliminary Remark: Thus, the sum and the product of two integers are themselves Integers. Proof: 1) By Theorem 57, we have
~+JLrv
1 1 2) By Definition 15, we have
x+y 1·
ITrvT.TrvT·
Theorem ]] 3:
[£
Y
$Y
fEY
natural class of assigned
numbers,
Thp intpgers satisfy the ;fi1Je axzoms nf the provided that the role of 1 is assigned to the
T
and that the role of successor
to the class of . 1 Proof: Let 2' be the set of all integers. 1 _ 1) The class of T belongs to 3.
2) For each integer
,
to the class of
T
is
we have defined a uniquely determined
successor.
Def.2526]
§ 5. RATIONAL NUMBERS
AND INTEGERS
41 1
3) This successor is always different from the class of 1 ' since we always have
4) If the classes of
x'
1
and of
y' 1 coincide, then
X'
= y',
an d th e cI asses
5)
0f
x an d 0f T COlnCIe. Y . 'd 1
Let a set
Wi of integers have the following properties:
I) The class of 1 belongs to II)
W.
~
If the class of 1 belongs to Wl, then so does the class of 1 .
x
Furthermore, denote by Wl the set of all x for which the class x . of [ belongs to WI. Then 1 belongs to WI, and for any x belonging to roc, its successor x' also belongs to IDe. Therefore, every natural number belongs to WI, so that every integer belongs to Wi. Since =, >, <, sum, and product all correspond to the earlier concepts (by Theorems 111 and 112), the integers have all the properties which we have proved, in Chapter 1, attach to the natural numbers. Therefore, we throw out the natural nUJIlbers and replace theIll by the corresponding integers. Since the fractIons also become superfluous, we may, and henceforth we will, speak only of rational numbers whenever any of the foregoing material is involved. (The natural numbers remain, in pairs, over and under the fraction .Iine, in the concept of fraction; the fractions survive as individual elements of the sets which constitute the rational numbers.) Definition 26: The sY'fnbol x (now freed of its previous mean= jng) denotes the integer determ,ined by the cla.ss of ~ .
In our new terminology, we thus have, for instance,
42
II. FRACTIONS
[Th.114118,
SInce
Theorem 114:
If Z is the rational number
corresponding
to
yZ = x.
The U of Theorem 110 is called the quotient of X b Y or the rational number obtained rom division 0 X b Y.
Definition 27:
I t will be denoted by ;
(to be read "X over Y").
rem 114, the rational number !?_ determined by Definitions 26 and
y y
sense) belongs.
fractions as such will from now on no longer occur. ~ will hence
number may be expressed in the form ~ , by Theorem 114 and
y
Theorem 115:
Let X and Y be given. Then there exists a z
such that
Proof:
X
y
is a rational number; by Theorem 89, there exist
v>
By Theorem 111, we have hence, by Theorem 105, v_
X·
3) it does not contain a greatest rational number (i.al nllm. We will also nse the term "lower class" for snch a set. The elements of the two sets will then be called "lower numbers" and "upper numbers. DEFINITION 43 CHAPTER III CUTS §l Definition Definition 28: 1) A set of rational numbers is called a cut if it contains a ratian. a number which is greater than any other number of the set). (=F to be read "is not equal to"). The following three theorems are trivial: Theorem 116: Theorem 117: ~=~. If 'Yj • 'Yj Theorem 118: If then ~= n. except where otherwise specified. and the term "upper class" for the set of all rational numbers which are not contained in the lower class." respectively. Small Greek letters will be used throughout to denote cuts.e. but does not contain all rational numbers. rational number of the set is smaller than every rational number not belonging to the set.27291 § 1. if the sets are identical.ber.Def. Otherwise. =" . Definition 29: (= to be read "is equal to") if every lower number for ~ is a lower 2) every number for 'Yj and every lower number for 'Yj is a lower number In other words.
. the statement of Theorem 120 is of course equivalent to 2) of Definition 28. Follows from 2) of Definition 28. the set also contains all numbers smaller than that number. the set also contains a greater one. CUTS [Th. and if then Xl is a louier num. Proof: Follows from 2) of Definition 28.119123. 2) With every number it contains. Conversely. Thus if we wish to show that a given set of rational numbers is a cut. Theorem 120: If X is a lowe?~ numbe?" fm" c. 3) With every number it contains. If X is an upper number for ~ and if then X.44 Theorem 119: III.ber for c. Proof: . is an upper number for ~. and there is a rational number not belonging to it. we need show only the following: 1) The set is not empty.
. rroot: !. f." '/.... ~ < 'Yj are incompatible by Definition 29 and Definition 31.. f. . I Proof: Each means that there exists a lower number for 17 which is an UDDernumber for c. eo • Ui (. then ~>'Yj if there exists a lower number for ~ which is an uimer number for n Definition 31: I f ~ and n are cuts. ~ > 'A~A_ 'Yj ~_ •• ./ ".t" h'tT n£l~n1t.'Y\t>A1'Y\n~t. uv n .L •. u ~u AI=: §2 Ordering Definition 30: If ~ and n are cuts." . QII ~= n..Vt:/1 . ." ~J _AAAAAVA~AA 90 ~ ~AA"'" <:Inri n£l~n..hlo ./ '/. '/ is the case. n. Proof: Each means that there exists an upper number for which is a lower number for ~.I1"'O _ A _~ 1) ~= 'Yj.n."'~. Theorem 122: If then n ~<n ... 'Yj.. » n..J 011 . 1A VUI(.t J VI Theorem 121: then If ~>'Yj 'YI<:"E . Il/tNllr. If we had !!../! on 'u~.. <..r. '/ .. .VVUt:/1 7 z.. exactly one of f.+.__. <. ~o ."_'''' '<Iv..nn ""V.. !!. .1J/1/ if there exists an upper number for 'I.."' . Theorem 123: For any given ~.. then ~<'Yj (> to be read "is greater than") « l" to be read "is less than") . f"'\~""""~T"'T'" "' ••..
of Ordering): Theorem 126 (Transitivity If then . Then we either have that some lower number for ~ is an upper number for 'YJ. in which case it follows that for 'YJ is an upper number ~< 'YJ. By 2) of Definition 28.") Definition 33: means ~< 'YJ « then Theorem ] 24 : Tf or ~ = 'YJ. then the lower classes do not coincide.124128. which is an upper number for 'YJ.") 'YJ = . Proof: Theorem 121. than or equal to. CUTS [Th. we can have at most one of the three cases. in which case it follows that or we have that some lower number for ~. to be read "is less than or equal to. Definition 32: means (> to be read "is greater ~> 'YJ or ~ = 'YJ. we would then have both X Therefore 2) If < Y and X> Y. and that there also exists an upper number Y for ~ which is a lower number for 'YJ. it would follow that there exists a lower number X for c. Theorem 125: If Proof: Theorem 122.46 III.
Proof: . there also exists an upper number Y for 'YJ which is a lower number for C.3233] § 2. Obvious if two equality signs hold in the hypothesis. 'Yj <C or ~ < 'Yj. otherwise. 'Yj < C. we obtain Proof: $8 that Y is an upper number for ~. ORDERING 47 There exists an upper number X for ~ which is a lower number for 'YJ.Def. Theorem 126 does it. Proof: Theorem 128: If en ~< C. Obvious if the equality sign holds in the hypothesis. Theorem 127 does it. Definition 28) to the cut fj. Therefore Theorem 127: If ~< 'Yj. Applying property 2) of cuts (cf. ~< C. otherwise.
'YJ respectively. X1+Y1 =1= X +Y. for ~ and any upper number Yl for 'YJ. where X is a lower number for ~ and Y is a lower number for 'YJ. . is itself a cut. we have Proof: hence < X1+Yt. by Theorem 105. where X and Yare lower numbers for ~ and Z x +Y <X + Z (X+ Y) X+Y «X+Y). CUTS [Th. z XX+y<Xo1X and Z Yx+y z <Y·1 = Y. consider any upper number X. + Yl does not belong to our set. therefore X.129132. we must show that with any number it contains. II) No number of this set can be written as a sum of an upper number for ~ and an upper number for 'YJ. by Theorem 106. Then X + Y belongs to our set. §3 Addition be cuts. Next. our set also contains all numbers which are less than that number. and we have proved II).1. Let Y. as well as property 1) of cuts for our set. so that.48 III. Then the set of all rational numbers which are representable in the form X + Y. X+ Y < 1. if X and Yare any lower numbers for ~ and for 'YJ respecti vely. Theorem 129: 'YJ I) Let ~ and 1) Consider any lower number X for ~ and any lower number Y for 'YJ. 2) To prove that our set satisfies property 2) of cuts. Then hence.
+ fj = 1} + 1.. X so that there exists in our set a number which is > X + Y. 01" the cut obtained f'ro'ln addit'ion of fj to ~. XA. then there exist a lower number X and an upper number U for the cut such that U Proof: + Y >X + Y. hence by Theorem 115. Theorem 130 (Commutative Law of Addition) : I. and fj. Proof: Every (X + Y) + Z is an X + (Y + Z). The sum of those two rational numbers is the given Z. numbers + nA where n is an integer.. Using the third property of cuts as applied to 1. + fj) + C = I. Definition 34: The cut constructed in Theorem 129 is denoted by I.34] § 3.Def. Proof: Every X + Y is a Y + X. Theorem 132: Given any A. Not all of these are lower numbers. we can find a lower number X for ~. and given a cut. and vice versa. and vice versa. Let X. since 3) Any given number of our set is of the form X + Y where X and Yare lower numbers for ~ and . for if Y is any upper number. ADDITION 49 ~ an fj.e num ers x+ y an X +y are ower num bers for ~ and n respectively. + (fj + O." respectively. then Y > Xl. + fj (+ to be read "plus") and is called the sum of I. . then X. we have for some suitable n that nA>YX" so that Xl + nA is an upper number. and consider all rational X. be some lower number. Theorem 131 (Associative Law of Addition) : (I.
Choose a greater lower number Then we have Y+Z = Y+«(XY)+ U)  (Y+(XY»+ U = X+ U. + n Therefore If en ~ + c > 'Yj + X>Y c. 133140] u= 1. In each case. U =X1 + 'uA =X + A. number for ~. or ~ < n. CUTS [Th. then we set 1 u> X=X 1 1. . or ~ = 'Yj. then we set + (u1) A. Theorem 135: If ~> 'Yj. and can find a lower number X for ~ and an upper number U for ~ such that UX=y· is an upper number for ~ and a lower number for ~ ~+ Theorem 134: 'Yj > ~. X is a lower and U an upper number.50 III.
Theorem 138 does it.> 'Yj. Proof: By Theorem 134. + ~:> 1'J + v. !. + C = or ~ 'Yj. and the third follows from the first since Proof: . mutually exclusive and exhaust all possibilities.. TheorelIl 139: If then . otherwise. 2::: ~:> '11 or ~:> '1j. or !. ~:> v Follows from Theorem 134 if the equality sign holds in the hypothesis. +C 'fj + C. Theorem 137: If ~+ ~:> 'fj + v. I C YJ I C. 'fj + C > ~+ C.§ 3. in both instances. or !. 'Yj. so that Theorem 138: ~+ 6 :> 1J + v. otherwise from Theorem 137. then Proof: . or ~ < respecti1)ely. I C !. Obvious if two equality signs hold in the hypothesis. I C > YJ I C. then Proof: ~. 01~ < YJ + C.. The first part is Theorem 134. + C > 1] + +C< 'fj + C. . since the three cases are. or !. the second is obvious. Proof: Theorem 140: If !. + C. Theorem 136: !. ADDITION 51 !. If C. we have and 1'J + ~ = ~+ 1J If :> v + 1'J = 1J + v. respectively. Follows from Theorem 135. > 'Y}. 'l}.
CUTS en has exactly one solution v. is a lower number for u=X Y 2 belongs to our set. by Theorem 135. > X. 1] + Vl =1= 1J + v2• II) I will show first that the set of all rational numbers of the that such an X . for ~ can constitute such an X each number of this form satisfies Y.Y of the above sort number for . . choose a lower (X3Y)+Y> X3Y (XY)+Y.52 III. 3) If an X . No upper number X.Y. Then IS given. since then u+Y«XY)+Y=X. Preliminary Remark: If then.Y does indeed exist.
and denote it by Y.Y.[Def.Y) + (Y1 + (Y .y. = « ~y Y) + Y1)+ (Y .Y) + Y1 <: X. To prove this. B) Every lower number for ~ is a lower number for v + 'fJ. +(YY1) = (Xy)+(Y1+(YY1»=(XY)+ (x.) Y2Y1 n = X. so that Y is a lower number for v + n0) If the given lower number for ~ is also a lower number for n. or the cut obtained by subtraction of 'fJ from ~. and moreover choose. Y = (Y  Y1) +Y = J (X . Y an upper number for n. it suffices to establish the following two statements: A) Every lower number for v + 'fJ is a lower number for ~. such that X> Y. by Theorem 132. Y = X. so that (X . and X> Y.Y1) = (X .'fJ (.to be read "minus") and is called the difference ~ minus 'fJ. Choose a lower number X for i. Definition 35: The v of Theorem 140 is denoted by ~ .Y) + Y1 is a lower number for ~. Y1 a lower number for 'fJ. Now we have «XY)+Y1) Y> Y1.Y1) = (X . a lower number Y1 for and an upper number Y2 for 'fJ such that Then we have hence Y2 + (Y .Y2) +Y 1. As regards B): 0) Let the given lower number for ~ be at the same time an upper number for 'fJ.Y) + Y = X. YY =XY 1 2. .35] § 3. then it is less than all those rational numbers which were considered in 0) and which turned out to be lower numbers for v + nHence in this case the given number must itself be a lower number for v + 'fJ. ADDITION 'fJ 53 + v =~. As regards A): Every lower number for v + 'fJ is of the form (X Y) + Y1 where X is a lower number for ~.
8 se can e ior« upper number for ~ and an upper number Proof: 1) Consider any lower number number Y for n . and we have proved II) .III. CUTS Th. and let Z<XY. then XY belongs to the en as a pro for nX for ~ and any lower set. uihere ber Y1 for n. 'f} II in the form XY. If X and Yare any lower numbers for ~ and for therefore X1Y1 does not belong to our set. Y a lower number for 'f}. 3) Let there be given any number of the set. 2) Let X be a lower number for ~. or our se . o num er 0 1.141145 4 Multiplication rational numbers which are representable a cut. z= xX thus shows that Z belongs to our set. as we as prope y 0 eu s. it is of the form XY where X and Yare lower numbers for ~ and for Choose a lower number .
07' 'Yj. Definition 86: The cut const'7"ucted in The07'e1n 141 is denoted by ~ • 'Yj (. Y. From follows XY+XIZ<X. so that our set contains a number which is > XY. however the dot is usually omitted) . and C. Theorem 144 (Distributive Law) : I. Y and Z are lower numbers for ~.Y+X2Z = X2(Y+Z)i hence XY + X1Z is a lewer number for ~ ('YJ In. respectively. Proof: ~> n. I. Let X2 stand for the number X in case X ~ Xl and for the number Xl in case X < Xl. ec  or q 1]C. 'Yj.36] § 4. 'Yj. and Z are lower numbers for ~. Theorem 143 (Associative Law of Multiplication) : Proof: Every (XY)Z is an X(YZ). 1) If 01' ec < 1]C.( 'Yj + n. II) Every lower number for ~'Yj + r$Cis of the form where X. or q < ec > 1]C.~. to be read "times". and is called the product of ~ and of ~ by n. . XI. then X2 is a lower number for ~. ~. then we have that XIY> XY. or the cut obtatned from mulh plication nLaw of Multiplication) : Theorem 142 (Commutative Proof: Every XY is a Y X. The number XY + XZ is a lower number for ~'YJ + ~ C. l'espectively. 'Yj.'Yj + Proof: I) Every lower number for ~ (1] X (Y + C) is of the form + Z) = XY + XZ where X.so that X2 (Y + Z) IS a lower number for I. respectively. and C. + 0= 1. and vice versa.Def. MULTIPLICATION 55 for ~. Theorem 145: then If q > 'Yj. (11 and vice versa.
.. ~= then obviously 3) If then gb = 11b· ......146152.. Th 146· c... ~ ~ v...v~..::>"g. If > 1]~.. n . ..~ ~6 < 1]b. """' ~> 1]. rl 1"'I'V''hn"".. ..... otherwise from Theorem 147.~ ~~.. ".. >v ~C or c... CUTS [Th.. S to "I r v...... ''''''' .. ""'''' . hence 2) If ..... or c.. b::>V ~b::> By Theorem 145.... "' ... :::::: 1'}. then Proof: > 1'}v... Theorem 149: If ~~ 1]....... 1l~::>g6. ""' . then we have by Theorem 140 that."nlln .~ 1].l"C'O~'n'" ... respectively..<1] 11::> ~.. ~6::> ~ nv> 1'}........ or c. since the three cases are. nll ...:... IV .v){."'c. ~:::::: u. "' . . with a suitable u....... 1]~.. or ~ = or ~ < 1]....'" .... ... '''' .. IV. h""t'h ...........P"""""".._ £. "'''''''.. ''' .. .. then Proof: ~. Follows 'from Theorem 145.... n. If c... ""'.f..~ < 1]~... nv and so that Theorem 148: ......"' .C'Otn. so that by 1). = llE.56 III."'C'O 't'V'I"f.. Follows from Theorem 145 if an equality sign holds in the hypothesis..14': If then Proof: g::>ll. ~. fl .'V'.6::>llb 1'}6 = 611::> Vll = fl v. lheorem .... "'''' .o~h~l~t~L"J..
the set of all rational numbers < R constitutes a cut. i 1 x = X. s. Theorem 148 does it. < R. then by Theorem 91 there exists an XJ_such that X Definition 37: < x. MULTIPLICATION 57 then Proof: ~c> n». then X X <R. the equation has a solution v. > R. x < R.) Theorem 151: with asterisks ~ • 1* =~. Choose. 1* is the set of all XY '\There X is a lower number for ~ and Every such XY IS < X and thus IS a lower number for ~.37] § 4. otherwise. Theorem 150: For any given rational number R. The cut constructed in Theorem 150 is denoted will stand for cuts. there does exist an X < R. Theorem 152: For any given ~. Proof: ~. The number R itself is not < R. for ~.Y is a lower number for ~ • 1 *. Xl 1. Obvious if two equality signs hold in the hypothesis. Conversely. let there be given a lower number X for ~. * (Thus capital italic letters not for rational numbers.Def. * . Proof: 1) By Theorem 90. a lower number x >X and set Then Yo< so that the number y_ lx.
SInce thus 1 does not belong to our set. so that X 1 X belongs to our set. 3) Let there be given a number i of our set. satisfies hence. then any upper number X for c.58 III. number which does not belong to the There exists a rational set. then X IS an upper for ~. excepting only the least upper number (if such a one exists). then so is X + X. We will show that this set is a cut. and is not the least such. Now if 1 1 X =1= X 1 . for if Xl is any In'. 1 1' U the number U belongs to our set. 1) The set does contain a number. for if X is an upper number for s. number then U<X' 1 hence 1 so that Since U is an upper nurnber for ~. Choose an upper number X <X 1 . and the latter indeed can not be the smallest. CUTS [Th. Xl 1 2) Consider any number X of our set.152] Proof: Consider the set of all numbers X 1 where X may be any upper number for ~. then X is an upper number for ~.ver number for Ii. and is not the least such.
implies D<1. From 1 = 1 tain so the given one. MULTIPLICATION 59 er number for 1 X'X<XX we 0 and is not the least such.§ 4.D) X. let it be denoted by v. We will show that it satisfies. Then we have (1. Our set is therefore a cut. ~v = 1 *. .
existence is proved by Theorem II) If t is the solutionwhose 152 of the equation then the cut v = r 53.60 III. If u Xl X ~' 1 1 X1 ' U here. by Theorem 145. and is called the quotient of ~ by obtained from division of ~ by 'Yj. 153155. for we have. by Theorem 1*~ ~. Xl is a lower number for ~. satisfies the equation in Theorem] 151. where ~ and 'Yj are given. Theorem 153: The equation X 1 is a lower number for v. or the cut .and hence U is a lower number for ~v. 1(to be read "~ over 'Yj"). CUTS [Th. that fJ v 1J (r ~)  (1J r) ~  Definition 38: The v of Theorem 153 is denoted by 'Yj. has exactly one solution v. for if then. Proof: I) There exists at most one solution.
* Proof: I) a) Every lower number for X* + y* is the sum . if X:> Y. or X* < Y*. X* y*.Def. Theorem 154: If x> then X* Y. A cut of the form x* is called an integral cut. since the three cases are.Y*. hence. respectively. or. II) The converse is obvious.X < Y. The number Y is an upper X*:> Y*.Y)* (XY)* ossibilities. th Y:>X.3840 5. then Y is a lower number for X*. by 1). or X = = Y. exclusive and exhaust all (X . in both instances mutuall = = X* . X> Y. > Y*. y*:>x* X*< Y*. RATIONAL CUTS AND INTEGRAL CUTS 61 §5 Definition 39: Definition 40: A cut of the form X* is called a rational cut. or X* Y*.
is a 10 W er number for X* Hence we have (X+ Y)* = X*+ 1'*. 6) Every lower number U for (X + Y) * is < X + Y. 6) Every lower number U for (XY) * is < . X* . such that Then and U< D1<XY Thus the relation represents U as the product of a lower number for X* and a lower number for Y*. (X Y)* = X* Y*. Choose a rational number U1. J + <X Y*. CUTS [Th. it is therefore < X + Y. and of a II) If X>Y then so that by 1). IV) . Hence we have (XY)* = X*Y*.(Y.62 III.eX Y)* +Y*. Now u < 1. by Theorem 91. and is thus a lower number for (X + Y) *. III) a) Every lower number for X*Y* is the product of a rational number < X and of a rational number < Y.156] of a rational number < X and of a rational nurnber < Y. u implies that U as the sum of a rational number rational number < Y. therefore it is < Xl'. Therefore U is a lower number for X* Y*. and so is a lower nUIIlber for (Xl') *. x eX Y)+Y.
... "' . (x*)' =1= 1*.L..""nT 1I. .LV. and if x belongs to im then so does x' Hence every integer belongs to im. TT 9)1* of integral cuts have the following properties: I.LQJ. .Lv... and quotient.. •• ' . then (.L.LV. x X* = y. }• 0 Also..~ .. .Lt::i:jVV. so that every integral cut belongs to im* 0 0 ..1leU uues \ x so 11 .l~ v +\."4!""". Ht":.."' .. 3) We always have Proof: . .v ....J. the cut (x*)' is also in 3*.La. rJ'1\. RATIONAL CUTS AND INTEGRAL CUTS 63 so that by III). y*.SJ.1:')* /  (1}'')* X' y'.. sum. the rational cuts have all the properties which we have proved. in Chapter 2..U !!. .LUoll.lJ'vLO Q. 4) If (X*)' = (y*).::jInce.U .. prOUUCL.".Lu. uirrerence \ wnenever it eXIS1.§ 5.". the integral cuts.. .. in particular.1.LV. ~Ulli:j.v... >.. IIHt:: _.l1UH. <..l .... UJ J.c .Ie rv "ilk ~ T" 1. Let 3* be the set of all integral cuts. ~..1.." lI.\"'"V* \rJ X* Y*' \y)Theorem 156: natural numbers The integral cuts satisfy the five axioms of the if the role of 1 is assigned to 1* and if we set (x*)' = (z") *.."".1I H..LvP. denote by im the set of x for which x* belongs to im* Then 1 belongs to im....Lv.1 . 'UT" t.... . In the domain of rational cuts all correspond to the earlier concepts (by Theorems 154 and 155)..0. i:jV .1 Ut::.. have all the properties that have been established for the integers.LU n~. we obtain x* I X\* (x.. 1". .ln~ +1.. ".llUWi:j we will only have to speak in terms of cuts whenever any of the fore ... J. ~V...J..LV 'Y VIA" "' •• + +\.L.LIAJ.L..".U. 1) 1 * belongs to 3*.'''+··''' .1I.l.I..lJ. 1. " 1I.v .. attach to the rational numbers.' IIUa.. . = 5) Let a set T\ ~.lJ.' I 1 ...L. ?) For every x* in 3*. CYYtIk IIV~'" • ~~} ~~ u: oerung s .. :e (x')* =1= 1*...l 11 a...lVH~i::I •• .la.
Then X. to apply to integral cuts. Then X is a lower number if. This X is then t1 J cut. an upper num er or we have by Theorem 157 that IS 3) If X is an upper number for ~ but is not the least such. 1) For the cut X (our old X*).157161. then there exists a Z such that . * ~T = Theorem 157: Proof: 1*. if. so that be a cut. transferred. we have en is an upper number for X (the old X*). we choose an upper number Xl less than X. is a lower number X Theorem 159: I >~. CUTS [Th.64 III.S an upper num X> 1 . X (the rational num lower number for ~ is <X and every upper number is > X. X ce 1. The rational numbers are those cuts for which there exists a least upper number X.
Then Choose Zl and Z2 by Theorem 159 such that By means of and using y = Z. Then very Z > ~'Yj may be brought into the form Z=XY. and then choose a greater lower number Z for we have y heorem 15 t at 1}. >. for: . RATIONAL CUTS AND INTEGRAL CUTS 65 ber for 'Yj. has exactly one solution.41] § 5. This set constitutes a cut.Def.fJ. en xx < C.
.lI/e "vvould have. YY<: y<X XX<:~o o then XX<:b Choose a Z less than the lesser of the two cuts 1 and Then ~. then If then 2) If X<: 1 and X<: " xx <: X·1 X:>l = X <: ~. > C. then we .66 III. . ex +Z)(X+Z) and X+Z>X = X+(X+Z) Z<: (XX+ZX)+(X+l)Z XX+(X+(X+l))Z<: XX+(bXX) = b. by Theorem ~~>Z>b. 159..X X X+(X+l) Z <: 1. X2. in contradiction to the above. and X :>" 0 xx :> X 1 = X:> bo xx<~.. would satisfy Z = K. Z <: X furthermore we have + EX I 1). XI <: ~. then . This Z. Xl <:. if X denotes the greater of the two numbers Xl and X2.. the cut which we have constructed. CUTS [Tho 162. being a lower number for . that esxx«: x <~. a Z such that then we could choose. = (X+Z) If we denote by now assert that If we had c.
. u «:« < l'u. 111 (.UHl"raU1(..\. among all such representations we choose one. At::::: l.l V ". .J a.. = whose existence is guaranteed Otherwise.. ~~ < Z<~. h~. ._ .y' . then we could choose..J~~ . >..LL\A . ... VoL . Al A2.  xx. Z would be of the form TT "T7" TT _ c.l" .y u<y. Definition 42: Proof: It suffices to show that the solution of ~~ 1'... .4! "\.. Theorem 162: There exists an irrational number...Def..YY ~ .. Since = l' = ~~ x.l"lUIl l"U l"U~ auuv~. yy . = xx = (1'y)y < (1' y)(l' y)..£A. .I.. .1 .. 7. WUU1U lla V~.(v+w)v+(v+w)w  (v v + l' (v 'tV) + w w. V +~ ~~ "LLvLL ~~ • VV v X>~..£A. a Z such that By Theorem 160. . A2 '4! .1.. h"'_~ LHALLL ".. .42] § 5. RATIONAL CUTS AND INTEGRAL CUTS 67 If we had ~~< C. =..~. l"UGl.(vv +wv) + (vw + ww) . we would have ~ by Theorem 161.. V ~~~~J"vo::l . ": yy we have yy < l' (yy) ~At (1'.£12. UvL'. nen y+u  x< l'y ... x IS irrational. "LLv "H V 1 ~ ...". by Theorem 27. . + y. for which u is as small as nossible..~~~~ > r ~.) . by Theorem 159.. .. "LLv ~vo::lo::lvL 1 . Any cut which is not a rational number is called an irrational number. N ow we have that (v+w)(v+w) . 'IJ  'IJ.
+.I.LVU.t U . hence settinz that XX yu  t +t t = (y + u) (y + u) + t t = (y Y + l' (y u» + (u u + t t)  =  \y Y + II u)l U +~)J + lU U + H) (y Y + l' (u u) + «(1'(u t) + u u) + t t) ('IJ'Il+l' (U1J.(1J. 1. U .00 TTT 1.J. VU~. . u<y.J.... u n VJ..t) . v = (yy+1'(uu»+yy t " = 1'(yy)+1'(uu) . .... .L .)) I.. '".. r rrn. l. • . rI.l. = xx+l'(uu)r tt = l' (uu).. • + uu.L U • 1~f) 1~~ .'" . • n~ J.1..J. .J.t) (1L I.. .. ..J...LV. . . ..:I • n+ ...
er (as equal) if and only if ~ and 'YJ are the same number. and which we will call neganumber) we assign a negative number denoted by ~ (to be same numb. t!!. of all pos~t~ve numbers.= ~= H H= .. exactly one of IS the case.. " Thus for any given Sand H. an 0 all negative numbers. H= Z Z= z. Ca ital Greek letters such as S H Z Y will be used throu hout to denote real numbers. e crea e a new num er e positive numbers. similarly. will be called the real numbers... of 0. except where otherwise specified. For real numbers. what we have been calling "rational numbers" " and "positive inteqers" respectively.. ~.. then then t!!. We also create numbers which are distinct rom the ositive numbers as well as distinct from zero.1 Definition numbers". e totaltty consistisu. the concepts of identity and of trivial: Theorem 163: Theorem 164: I t:!=  . .  H.
. Proof: Definition 44. Theorem 167: For any given Sand H. Theorem 166: if if ~ 11  . eorem If S is positive while H is = S+H.. we already concepts ">" and "<".  is the case. then ... in fact.. H negative and or S = 0. for positive tive S. has been used in one of the cases of Definition 45. . Defini'tion 45: If Sand H are not botli positive. means H > S. and for nega ~ ~ 11  I S I is positive. the latter. then . with our old concepts. H negative. H = 0. or S positive.2 .. in case Sand H are positive.. S> H. exactly one of . ~. ve negative. ° or negative.
S' = H. and finally. 7) If E and H are both negative.H. 3) If E = ° E not while H IS < H.  E not >H.'>H and vice versa.4448] § 2.") Z <H S =. 3 > H. ORDERING 71 and finally. Definition 47: means S:>H or S H. 131= IHI.") Theorem 168: If 10"1= ':. for 131>IHI.Def. H 0. by Definition 46. E not> II. then E E not <H. 5) If E = ° E not while H IS < H. Proof: Definition 46. 3 not 3 not Z<:H c H for <. E not = > H. then >H. 3=1=H. 6) If E is negative while H is positive or E+H. S< H or « then to be read "is less than or equal to. by Definition 45.. .71 for I S'I <: IHI . 4) If E 0. negative.. then ':lH . then 3 =!= H.. positive. by Definition 46. (> to be read "is greater Definition 48: than or equal to. 0. 3 not > H. 3 not >H. then and furthermore.
3<0. then 3< Z. then ence then H<O.:t <: Z. Z>O. If <0 ~= . by Definition 45. Z = O. H>O. ~<O. the negative numbers are the numbers which are < O. we have = .. then. . we have 2) If ~>O.Theorem 169: The positive numbers are the numbers which are> 0. Proof: If 1) Let Z>O. Proof: 1) By Definition 45. '. Z 3) By Definition 46. then and we have the earlier Theorem 126.
and the positive number'.Def. IZI>IZI. Thus we now have positive irrational numbers and negative irrational numbers. Z<Z.'0  or E < 0. I E I a rational number. Definition 50: If . othesis· otherwise. otherwise. Theorem 171 E<Z.. ORDERING 73 We also have hence IZI>IHI. "" then E is called irrational in case it is not rational. IEI an integer. for. ca ~s '' '. and negative rational numbers. Definition 51: If en .=YX. the rational number 0. Thus we now have positive rational numbers. .. since wou '.IHI>IZI. + X is always irrational.. or ~< Theorem 172: If then zc z... (Numbers? Yes.. then E is called rational if either '' '.4951] § 2..'0  E < 0.:::. we had an irrational .
. it follows from Definitions 49 and 51. the integer 0. REAL NUMBERS [Th. and negative integers.s rational.74 IV.174175. Thus we now have positive integers. Proof: We already know this in the case of positive numbers. For 0 and for negative numbers. Theorem 174: Enery integer i.
!::! 110 > v..:l o...11l~ly f 1. U~J _. "I $>0... ._. 'tJ ~ ~ v...I~ II r ~~ "... or tne note the followinz : .  n :e \T 'lJ . Theorem 175 (Commutative ..1. _. I.. U~I.!::! T a 't8 cauea tne sum OJ De number obtained by addition. n > v.... A • 111 l."" .. It} ..n.L vu. T7 Law of Addition) : T7 . "().. 1~11111 ". I....I ° .......+" .  IHI...fI " I ....../ {\ v.UUITIV1"l ..  T T 7· fl 10::..11~ C 1.Gl..TflflT . r:'l ....o::. ~....4". 1 ... .. Addition 1 .. 1 1 '''"''''''''. two cases.11~ _1.... '" I~I > 1111. I" .""rln.. £> 1"..'0 .. ~& I if . . .....1 (0 A ''''''' c1 '... . V.../ V we had the concept of E + H as early as Definition 34. Ct...!::! "Co reaa pius..... .. ..r l ....IU~ \ llG1. In this dafmition / ana n . . 1. H _{) ~...... then Theorem 175 is the earlier Theorem 130.. UUI.... . LU~ O::..rl ... .'HO· .ILlI) /' .""""u....... ..... (\ ...... ) ... Proof: If '. . then each side reduces to H· if . 1/  no Tr Ll ~ v.. . ... "'.. l~l<IHI· l:e1= ~ '" v. of H to E. rl v .. H<O...£ u . c .. UUIUU~l .. 1..... . .. if = u.. l..n". "''''''' ... V....... f'" I f 1t'!1 _.... u. 2) This same concept is used in Definition 52. 41...
. ... ~YT'" rv v 1.. 0 ana ~ neor'ern ~.0 rrr'h 17~1 RO If then. n rv ~ <. (3 + H) = .. . g'enera. .... < 0...lUll ·. 11 ~ c.HL 3 .". . oo.3~. > 0...... 4VJ. Theorem 177: .:!.. I = fnlY' v 'i:t 'i:t() 0 I 11 I .J. oo. 1. ~ rreo rern v .rutJ. ~'"' 41..'7{!' TV "R'Ii'.~ p.::::::V.. .. .. '' .. anu .. T'"> .. r. = H+(S)... £\ _.. . Theorem 180: . VJ.uty.1..l: !JIII'f't:) 1I1t:)IY'Qfl Vt:lllllLlUll ·. ./ .:!. flIYul ..J.J. we may assume triat '::>H' .J... . v TT I • I 111\ F.E + (. 131=131..E from Definition 43.. f' ... ~I Wt: 11a ve . "mmus...J.. ) Note that for 3 > 0.. .... "'~"'. 0':> • Theorem 179: r. V'I '' v. '" .1. . . c  + (3)=0.. I) \11.\T NTTMR'Ii'RI.1.". . ~I o.. ('i:t I "I ... ... 'T'o..... .IH and rreuce + ~) .E H+S 3+H = S..... .''J. '" ':lv.. .. J. or a nu ... I'" II 1 ~ I) Uj If 'i:t<:O "">0 then the assertion reduces to the denmtion rtserr. . f' or . vellnlLlons ·... 11 ""'I. '' ? v. ""'oJ VJ. by Theorem 130.. £\ V'I '' . u"". 11 .. 'i:i) ~o Vt:lllllLIUll .. 0 reepectivetu. = 0 H+~.L v.J.. ana ==3... TT \1111 11111 • I TTI\ j 11.. ~nen . ~+(H) ..L.l: .+H. .5 ~ ..! ..". ~ Dy ~... crUOI: Theorem 178: T'"> Vt:lllllLlUIHS f' ·.. 'i:i)... ~o 'i:'i:. crOOI: '" c ruu..... If $>0.U<OV 41. ~~"..o..Lruu... '" oo... Theorem 176: If _..U<V hence Definition 53: ...". . vellllHlUll r» . v. r.. " WlLIlUUL IUSS Ol . ... = 0. f' Vt:llllll..'' . H<U .J.r>N 1_ I J ( to be read..:!. (3) ':l':l. we have the concept . £\ .U< V'' h~? 41.v\AJ.
H~ . ~ . H<O.::. o A ' . = 0. H>3 holds. v. U1" hence 3+(H) 4) If 41. = . _~  r I. = 3+0 = 3 ~ z» v. 3+H = = S+IHI 3  (IHI3).""U.('\ H). 3+H = (131+IHI)' '.L. '}\ " 3>0. ~ tt <. Thus let 1) If 4..Ifl I f T'r ~~ / f Ifll)  T'r ~~.I H I   ('.1I.I~O 7 "~O 3+(H) TF = (3+ H).::.3+ I HI 3<IHI. v: .~~ 11) +  ~ +~  11). V.I I. T '7'7 for..n"..::. 3+H = 3IHI.. ~+(H) Fi) . IIJ.fl).j!' >. T'r\ or hence 3 3+ = IHI. ~+ 11 (H) = .~.1.L I. and (H+3) = H+(3) implies . H = (U+H) = (~+H). H then 3+(H) 3) If then either hence ~.. = IHI3 = (3+H).(3+0) = (3+H). = 0.~.. = U+(H) = Tf then 3<0.<::11 '_. TTl «:= . ~ Q.  I ~ I I. nV\ V~L. at least one of the relations 3>H.. = 0 = (3+H).II.. '.:::11 3>H.
Theorem 181: 131>IHI.. <. 3+H= H+(3) Theorem 182: Z_ H then E Proof: > 0. or E < H. H> 0. we may write _ H in then show that the cases corres ond to the cases respecti vely. Theorem 183: If 3 > H. In Z> 0. = (3H) = (3+(H)) If = 3+((H)) = H3. = H3. or E < H. (3H) 3+(H) = ISIIHI = . or 3 = H.£H. or Z _ H < 0. respectively.. or E = H. or E _ H = 0. SInce _ H as we as number at all. '"'_ for the case with the earlier Definition 35· for in this case we have that 3>0. respectively. and we must _ decomposing the third case into the three subordinate cases . > H.. .. H<O.
1) If $>0.$) = 0 .H < 0. H>O.$) > 0 . respectively. $<0.lSI If Theorem 185: then S+H Proof: 1) Let s>o. (lSI+1)1.54] § 3. or . or $ .(. Then.r + (a + (Ii + tt)) . and the latter to the cases . respectively.Z > . $ . $ = ((1$1+1)1) = 1(1$1+1).8 < .H . Theorem 184: E've1"lJ 7'eal nurnber can be 1'ep1'esented as the difference Proof: of two positiue numbers.H . or 8 = .Def. and vice versa. Proof: By Theorem 182. or . since (<<+P) we have so that the assertion is true.H = 0 .H .H.(.$) <: ° t respectively. ADDITION 79 .H. + (y+<f) = (a+{j) + (<f+r) = ((a+{3)+<f)+r . .H. the former corresponds to the cases S . so that the relations H($) = H+((S)) = H+ $ = $+(H) = $H prove everything.(1' + a) + (fj + d) . or .(. then :e 3) If = 0. or $ .H > 0 .
~2) (~2+ 1J2) + «(.(1J2 1JI) B) If then A) yields 3+H = (H+(3)) = 3 . H>O. ~1  z < 0. + 1J1)' (~l I.) + «1J2 1Jl) + «(~l «(~I + 1Jl) + (1J21Jl)) + «(~l  ~2)+ ~2)+ fit = (~l  ~2) + (~I + 'Ill) ~I) . = «(1J21}1)+(~2. 1'12  "11   H:> 0.1)) C) If s IHI. Z :> 0.(1]I1J..(~.80 IV.'11) H <0. (~! '12). = «(~l = (~I = = + 1J. ~1 + 1J. + 3>IHI.(~2+ 1J2) = (~I . by Theorem 181.186187] 2) Let Then.(1J2 1Jl)) = (~2+ 1Jl) + (~1. H <::::: 0. (H)) 3>0.1 .))) ~I) . REAL NUMBERS [Th.~lI). :e < IHI. then 4) Let 3<0.2) . ~I _.H) (31 = (~2+ 1]~).) .IHI = 3 + H.3 + (. so that 1) yields 3+ H 3) Let hence If then so that . .(1J2 '11))' (~1+ 1J.
§ 3.(1]2+ . the equation H+Y = Z .2) = (~1+ lit)  (~2+ 112)· Theorem 186 (Associative (Z+H)+Z Proof: Law of Addition) : = H Z+(H+Z).rJ2 = (~t + rJl) . S+ H = H+3 = (1]1 + ~1). 6) Let Then. H. we have that S = ~1  ~!P Z = + 1Jl  1J1' Z = ~l.b2) Now Theorem 185 yields (Z + H) + = ((~l 1Jl) .~2· + (~I . by a). By Theorem 184. by 5). ADDITION 81 Then 3) yields E +H = (~I + 'fJl)  (~I +'YJI)· en I' Z+H a) If = H.'fJ2) H + (~l+ 1]2) = ((1]1  YJI) + 1]2) + ~1 = 'fJl + ~t = ~1 + 'TJ" = 1Jl .(~2 + 'TJII)· b) If then then.) Theorem 187: For any given E. then (1]1.(~1 + 'TJ2) = (gl + 1JJ .(~2 + 1]:.
the former relations hold according to whether (3 + Z) . according to whether Proof: By Theorem 182. $+( H+H) 3+0 then 3H H+Y= 3 = 3+(H) = H+3 = H+(H+Y) = (. respectively.H = 0. and so that = H+Y. or (3 + Z) . Theorem 189: If $:>H. REAL NUMBERS [Th.or$=H. and the latter according to whether $ . Z> Y then Proof: 3'+Z> H+Y. Proof: H + (3H) 2) If 1) y= 3H is a solution.H+H)+ Y =O+Y=Y. namely Y = $H. or 3 + Z < H + Z. By Theorem 188.(H + Z) or (3 + Z) .82 IV. . we have 3+Z> H+Z H+Z = Z+H>Y+H $+Z> H+Y. Theorem 188: lVe have =H 3+Z :> H + Z. = 0. since by Theorem 186 we have (3H)+H = = ($+{H))+H = $. 3<H.H < O. or 3 + Z $:>H. or $ .or + Z . The relations (Z+Z)(H+Z) =(3+Z)+(Z+(H)) = 3+(H) =(Z+(Z+(Z))+(3H H) = then prove the assertions of the theorem.(H + Z) :> 0 .188191] has exactly one solution Y.H:> 0. or 3 . respectively.(H + Z) < 0.
I! 1. otherwise.lVl'i 06 Th~lJrt::I11 190· If > ~= H. Z>y then T'1Ii C ruuJ.n. l1UIU~ in the hypothesis.1. . Proof: otherwise Obvious if two equality signs hold in the hypothesis. 00 .. Theorem 190 does it.11 t::4_U(:.l .l1t::U.l. If E>H E Z>Y + Z > H + Y.UU.1· (:.I. . Theorem 191: i. .l.I!. 1 _...11 + Z > H + Y.llty ~1g11 .1. ..U. .1.t::. 1.1.lT.on.. from Theorem 189.h.l ~oo •.s '" n o."I . E ~'UllUVV~ T.1.l. Z>Y or '$>H. .l. m1 .1.
for E < we have. by Definition 55. en SH = ISIIHI or SH = (lSIIHI). from Definition 55. 192200. H is zero. (. for :3 0. to be read "times". Note that the product 2 • H for the case 2> 0. where the first alternative holds if none or both of the numbers 2. §4 Multiplication Definition 55: Z·H= ISIIHI. REAL NUMBERS [Th. or the number obtained from multiplication of S by H. a fact used in Definition 55. H (by Theorem 142). as is also its subdivision into cases. H are negative. Theorem 194 (Commutative Law of Multiplication) : EH == H':: Proof: If Z > 0. = or x«: H < 0. If $ =1= 0. in the other cases. it follow s frOIIl Definition 55. Definition 36). if if:e s «: 0. H =1= 0. the dot is usually omitted. or H ° = 0. 195: Z • 1 = 2. this follo\vs from Theorem 151. Theorem 193: ISHI = ISIIHI. that Theorem S·l Theorem 196: = . and the second if exactly one of these numbers . H > 0.84 IV. however. 0. ti 'lS neva tire: . Proof: For:. Proof: DefinItIon 55.) E • H is called the product of 2 by H. this is Theorem 142.0:e1·1) = ° lSI = S. H > was defined earlier (cf. at least one of the two numbers Z. and only if. since the righthand side of Definition 55 is symmetric in 2. Proof: Definition 55. Theorem 192: We have 2H=0 ° if. > 0.
1) If b) + b = n. MULTIPLICATION 85 Theorem 197: Proof: 1) If one of the numbers e expressions are o E. IS negative.55] § 4. 2) If f} then =~ . (:e)(H) Theorem 198: = Theorem 199 (Associative :en. both sides are> ° if none or two of the one or all three of those numbers Proof: en ( f}  are negative. : Law of Multiplication) sides are 0.Def. by Theorem 144. Z =f= 0. H is zero. so that. E =f= 0. all three of the expressions > have the same ° or < ° according to whether or not exactly one of the num= :eH. then b Theorem 193 both sides have the same absolute value CI:eIIHI) IZI and by Theorem = 131(lHIIZI). H =f= 0. then all three then by Theorem. 196. 193.
"'2' By Theorem 184. we have S(HZ) = S(H+(Z)) = = !H+J(Z) = JH+((:rZ)) :tH:tZ. REAL NUMBERS [Th. S(1J. by Theorem 185.+t1)S(1Jt+b2) = (S1Jl+Sbl)(S'12+S~2)' and hence.86 IV.~2' (1J2 hence. =0= SH+SZ. Theorem 203: Let . 3) Let Then we have by 1) that hence S(H+Z)  (S)(H+Z) (S(H+Z)) «(S)H+( = = (S)H +(S)Z. H +Z = ('11 + ~l)  + b2). S(H+Z) = 2) Let = SH+SZ. by Theorems 200 and 144. by Theorems 185 and 200. S)Z)  (( S)H)+( «(S)Z) SH+SZ. H = 1)1. :Z:> O. ~>H. 201204] 3) If then we have by ]) that Theorem 201 (Distributive Law) : S(H+Z) Proof: 1) Let = SH+SZ. Then S S(H+Z) = O. = (S)H+(S)Z. so that.. Proof: By Theorem 201. we have Z = ~l. Theorem 202: S(HZ) = ZHSZ.
1 y H~ . '$Z<HZ.L uv t . 1 . tltan ~~~~~ ().. The equation where E.. .§ 4.. lor _.. . 202 that Since we have by Theorem = Z(SH) = Z'$ZH (SH)Z = 'SZHZ..L. . or Z < 0 . rrOOl: 1) . or Z = 0. or SZ = HZ. respectively. HYl = S = HY.. . .. . or HY= '$. Proof: hence (SH)Z > 0 . II ..L 'lI~/" MULTIPLICATION 87 J Villi Z > 0.~ it follows that.. .L. we have by Theorem SZ::>HZ. or (SH)Z < 0. .. or Z < 0 . v .. or (3H) Z = 0 .. according to whether Z ::> 0... SInce = HY = H(i S) = (H i)S 2) Let  .L ""'" IS a solution. (\ v v II) 1) Let Then H>O. or respectively.. Z = 0. by Theorem ~2" 192. Theorem 204: 182 that in the above cases... \ 1 urv v\ so that. H are given and where H=t=O. has exactly one solution Y.L u~ . respectively.rnere IS at most one SOlUtIOn..