This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ASSIGNMENT – 1: THE TASKS AND STRATEGIES OF DIFFERENT CAREER CYCLES
The significance of understanding the career concept and development on the part of both the managers and the employees has been gaining prominence. Global competition and changes in economic conditions are causing many organisations of all sizes to restructure. Experts tend to agree that self-management by all employees in an organisation is the new human resources reality for the coming years. These changes mean that organisations today must be more aware than ever before of how best to utilise the talents of employees at all levels of the company. Capable people must be available to fill the new, bigger, and technologically more sophisticated jobs of the modern organisation. Moreover, the contemporary concern for developing the full potential of all employees through job opportunities that provide responsibility, advancement, and challenging work reinforces such efforts. Even organisations facing a stable or a contracting future recognise that a key to performance is the development of human resources. The environment in which an organisation survives undergoes changes, causing a change to the organisation and its employees. For example, a recently hired manager has different needs and aspirations from a mid-career or preretirement manager. All of us move through a fairly uniform pattern of phases during our careers. The different phases produce different opportunities and stresses that affect job performance. Effective managers comprehend these implications and facilitate the efforts of employees who wish to confront and deal with their career and life needs. Development of career is the individual responsibilities of managers and employees. Yet individual employees often lack the ability and the information needed to develop systematically their own career plans in ways that can work to their benefit and to the benefit of the organisation – although there is a growing interest in providing individuals with this kind of information.
John M. motivation. Individuals. knowledge. Match my interests. and experiences will be needed to meet these challenges? What staffing levels will be required? Does the organisation have the strength necessary to meet the critical challenges? ISSUES: Are employees developing themselves in a way that links personal effectiveness and satisfaction with the achievement of the organisation’s strategic objectives? INDIVIDUAL NEEDS How do I find career opportunities within the organisation that will do the following? Use my strength. Every employee must be sensitive to the career cycle and the role that different influences can play at different points. Every person’s career goes through a series of stages. Likewise. and organisational opportunities will just happen. Each of these stages may or may not be influenced by attitudes. Careers do not just happen in isolation from environmental and personal factors. The diagram below shows the linkage between organisational needs with individual needs. the nature of the task. motivation. organisations. organisations should not guess at or assume some set of career needs. Human Resource Management (New York: McGrawHill/Irwin). preferences. CAREER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM: LINKING ORGANISATIONAL NEEDS WITH INDIVIDUAL NEEDS ORGANISATIONAL NEEDS What are the organisation’s major strategic issues over the next two to three years? What are the most critical needs and challenges that the organisation will face over the next two to three years? What critical skills. Match my values. economic conditions. and so forth. Provide challenges. Match my personal style. Employees must have a clear picture of the opportunities available now and anticipated in the future. (2001). Address my developmental needs.It is unwise to think that an adequate matching of individual needs and abilities. 2 . Source: Ivancevich. and experts in areas such as HRM all must take responsibility for things they can control. employees should not have to guess how career development occurs in the organisation.
The organisation must identify its needs and opportunities and. that a career consists of both attitudes and behaviour. through counselling. 1 Greenhaus. provide the necessary career information and training to its employees. continual success. prestige. decisions. it must be understood that a person’s non-work life and roles play a significant part in a career. and acquiring more status. The popular meaning is probably reflected in the idea of moving upward in one’s chosen line of work – making more money. the individual and the organisation must assume an equal share of responsibility for it. Yet. through workforce planning. Family needs and spending time off the job with loved ones are becoming topics that individuals are discussing and considering more completely. consequently.. even though the concept is clearly work-related. how a person reacts to a career may be modified. recognise what training and development are required for a particular career path. Although career is an individual responsibility. job positions. A concise definition of a career that emphasises its importance is offered by Greenhaus: A career is the pattern of work-related experiences (e.0 THE CONCEPT OF CAREER The concept of career has many meanings.2.g. and that it is an ongoing sequence of workrelated activities. having more responsibility. the concept of career can apply to other life pursuits. and Godshalk 2000. job duties. a growing number of people who are in managerial and professional careers seem less obsessed with advancement. and. and subjective interpretations about work-related events) and activities over the span of the person’s work life1. and a continually increasing salary. Callanan. and power. This definition emphasises that the term career does not imply success or failure except in the judgement of the individual. The individual must identify his or her aspirations and abilities and. The values of society change over time. 3 . If career management is to be successful. Although typically restricted to lines of work that involve gainful employment. organisation must discharge its responsibility to guide and provide the individual with opportunities for development of career. Today.
Eventually. but not everyone has a occupational career. but also some differences. Growth. Turning early occupational fantasies into workable realities.0 THE STAGES AND TASKS OF CAREER CYCLE Most working people prepare for their occupation by undergoing some form of organised education in high school. Locate reliable sources of information about occupations and work roles. 5. but the chances are that they will move to other jobs in the same organisation or in othewr organisations.3. Get maximum information from testing and counselling. trade school. Develop and discover one’s own abilities and talents. Specific Tasks 1. but most working people go through all of these stages. aspirants. in how the stages and the tasks play themselves out. Assessing the realistic constraints based on socioeconomic level and other family circumstances. fantasy. and tasks of the career cycle are shown in the table below. 4. The stages. People in professions or who are selfemployed will have some similarities. Obtaining the appropriate education or training. Developing the basic habits and skills needed in the world of work. Develop and discover one’s own needs and interests. One of the most important differences between the career cycle and the biosocial cycle is that everyone has a life. They then take a first job. 4. and 4 . Stages and Tasks of the Career Cycle Stages 1. 3. The duration of each stage varies among individuals. or college. 3. 2. Developing a basis for making realistic vocational choices. vocational school. The emphasis is on those stages and tasks which are particularly relevant to careers in the organisations. exploration Age 0-21 Roles Students. 6. Find realistic role models from which to learn about occupations. Develop and discover one’s own values. issues. 5. because both are linked to age and cultural norms (Shein 1978). over the course of their career. motives. 2. applicant General Issues to be Confronted 1. they settle into a position in which they remain until retirement. The stages and tasks of the career cycle are closely related to those of the biosocial cycle. Studies of career stages have found that needs and expectations change as the individual moves through the stages.
Learn how to look for a job. 3. 2. 6. manager 5 . Developing one’s longrange career plan in terms of ambitions. 4. becoming visible. hobbies. 1. moving toward being a generalist and/or toward management. Make a sound educational decisions. including that for the work of others as well as one’s own. Choosing a speciality and deciding how committed to become to it vs. Becoming a member of an organisation or occupation – passage through first major inclusion boundary. Entering the labour market . Gain a measure of independence. and school activities in order to develop a realistic self-image. Negotiating a viable formal and psychological contract to ensure that own needs and those of employer will be met. tenured member. Full membership. Find opportunities for selftests in sports. which can be the basis of a career. talents. trant en- 1. and values as basis for decision of how specialised to become. how to apply.Stages Age Roles General Issues to be Confronted Specific Tasks ambitions. Accepting higher levels of responsibility. 5. and work concerns. How to negotiate a job interview. Entry into world of work 16-25 Recruit. midcareer 25 Full member. 5. Perform well enough in school to keep career options as wide open as possible 9. Work through one’s relationships with mentors and prepare to become a mentor to others. 2. 4. 4. lifew member. Pass selection and screening tests. 2. 6. Carefully assess own motives. self. 8. 2. 3. Becoming a productive person in the occupation. Carefully assess organisational and occupational opportunities as basis for making valid decisions about next steps. 3. Remaining technically competent and continuing to learn in one’s chosen area of specialisation (or management). 2. Develop one’s own standards of performance and confidence in one’s own decisions. 3. targets against which 3. 1. supervisor. Learn how to assess information about a job and an organisation. 1. 7. type of progress sought.getting a first job. Achieve an appropriate accommodation among family. Make a realistic and valid first-job choice. Establishing a clear identity in the organisation.
How to deal with the competitiveness and aggression of younger persons “on the way up”. but General manager. How to develop interpersonal and group skills if needed. 2. good contributor. 3. How to disengage from being primarily concerned with self to becoming more responsible for organisational 5B. How to deal with mid-life crisis and the empty-nest problem at home. How to remain competent or how substitute wisdom experience for technical skills. office. individual contributor or member of management. in- 1. Specific Tasks 7. Assessing one’s career ambitions against more general aspects of mid-life transition – one’s dreams and hopes vs. and values. etc. direct. realities. Major reassessment of one’s progress relative to one’s ambitions forcing decisions to level off. guide. 2. Work out mentoring relationships with others. 4. Deal with feelings of failure if performance is poor. tenure is denied. Become aware of one’s career anchor – one’s talents. 7. How to interpret for senior leadership roles. 4. Using one’s skills and talents for the long-range 6 . or forge ahead to new and higher challenges. 5A. Assepting reduced influence and challenge if decision is to level off and seek growth outside of career or work. technically to learn to based on immediate 4. or challenge is lost. 3. 1. change careers. 1. Late career in leadership role. 2. 2. 6. 3. or deadwood. 5. 5. How to learn to make effective decisions in a political environment. Assess realistically the implications for one’s future of one’s career anchor. Make specific choices about accepting the present or working for whatever future is visualised. How to develop supervisory and managerial skills if needed. Deciding how important work and one’s career are to be in one’s total life. Work out new accommodations with family around the specific choices made. 5.Stages Age Roles General Issues to be Confronted to measure progress. learning to influence. motives. Meeting one’s own needs to become a mentor to others. 4. 1. Becoming a mentor. senior partner. Mid-career crisis 35-45 1. Deepening of skills if decision is to pursue a technical or functional career. Broadening of interests and skills based on experience. and be responsible for others. 1. 4. May be achieved at early age. Taking on more areas of responsibility if decision is to pursue general management role. Late career in nonleadership role 40 to retirement Key member. 3.
Therefore. 2. etc. 3. 6. Learn to handle high-level political situations both inside and at the organisation / environment boundary. senior staff General Issues to be Confronted welfare of the organisation. Edgar H. long-range time horizons. How to find new sources of satisfaction in hobbies. Understanding these stages and their associated characteristics and tasks should be the first building block for effective career persuasion. 2. (1978). 3. Career Dynamics: Matching Individual and Organisational Needs (Philippines: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Learning to accept reduced levels of power.0 CONCLUSIONS The most effective way for analysing and discussing careers is to look at them as made up of stages. family. 5. Assess total career and prepare for retirement. especially spouse. prospects. 4. different people start decline at different ages Source: Shein. How to handle secrets and resources responsibly. 1. Learn how to balance continued high commitment to career with needs of family. responsibility. Decline and disengagement 40 until retirement. social and community activities. 1. Learning to accept and develop new roles based on declining competence and motivation. and realistic appraisal of the role of the organisation in society.Stages Age would still be thought of as “late” in career Roles ternal entrepreneur. 3. 2.). tasks. and strategies for different stages. An individual has different plans. pert-time work. 7 . Specific Tasks welfare. and centrality. Each stage has its own unique characteristics. 2. Although there are scope for overlapping. 4. Learn how to live more closely with spouse. Selecting and developing key subordinates. Learning to manage a life that is less dominated by work. it is expected that an individual has a clear demarcation of the tasks and strategies of these stages. Developing broad perspective. Learn how to handle high levels of responsibility and power without becoming paralysed or emotionally upset. 3. 4. Learning how to sell ideas if in individual contributor or internal entrepreneur role. 5. it is important for us to understand the implications of career stages and tasks – as an employee or as a manager. Learning to investigate the efforts of others and to influence broadly rather than making day-to-day decisions or supervising closely. Inc.
Human Resource Management. and James B. Jeffrey H. 2000. and Stephen P. Avenues of Americas. NJ: Prentice-Hall. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Upper Saddle River. Human Resource Management. Edgar H. Robbins.. Greenhaus. 301 Commerce Street. Career Management. Godshalk. Gerard A. Fort Worth. Career Dynamics: Matching Individual and Organisational Needs. 1998. Ivancevich. Chennai. USA: The Harcourt Press. Basic Business Communication. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Lesikar. TX 76102. Suite 3700. Flatley. Callanan. Raymond V. 8 . 1978. 2005. Personnel/Human Resource Management.. Shein. Shaw. Fisher. Philippines: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Shoenfeldt. John M.BIBLIOGRAPHY Books DeCenzo. and Veronica M. Cynthia D. Inc. Avenues of Americas. 2001. David A. Lyle F. and Marie E. Texas. 1997. India: All India Publishers & Distributors.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.