SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING

 Demultiplexing  Trace

header generation <…observers’ data  Spherical divergence correction  Deconvolution before stack  Band pass filter  Trace normalization

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING (contd)
 Velocity

Analysis  Normal Move Out Correction  CMP Stack  Residual statics estimation & application  Dip Move Out Correction  Velocity analysis

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING (contd)
 DMO

stack  Random noise attenuation  Decon after stack  Time Variant Filter  Migration  Scaling

Depth & Time
Shot surface receivers 0 Layer-1 Layer-2 Layer-3 Arrival time

Demultiplexing
 Required

if the Seismic Data is recorded in multiplexed format  Conversion of scan sequential mode to trace sequential mode.  Essentially a Matrix transposition (rows to columns and vice versa)

Multiplexing
Ch-48 Ch-20 Ch-12 Ch-5
SCAN-1,ch-1 SCAN-1,ch-24 SCAN-1,ch-48 SCAN-2,ch-1

Ch-1 Ch-2 Ch-3

Ch-4

SCAN-1

SCAN-2

SCAN-47

SCAN-48

SCAN SEQUENTIAL DATA

Demultiplexing
Amp SCAN-1,ch-1 SCAN-2,ch-1 SCAN-3,ch-1 SCAN-4,ch-1 SC-1200,ch-1 SCAN-1,ch-24 SCAN-2,ch-24 SCAN-3,ch-24 SCAN-4,ch-24 SC-1200,ch-24 SCAN-1,ch-36 SCAN-2,ch-36 SCAN-3,ch-36 SCAN-4,ch-36 SC-1200,ch-36 SCAN-1,ch-48 SCAN-2,ch-48 SCAN-3,ch-48 SCAN-4,ch-48 SC-1200,ch-48

SC-2500,ch-48

SC-2500,ch-24

SC-2500,ch-36

SC-2500,ch-48

ROWS  Scan sequential  Multiplexing COLUMNS  Trace sequential  Demultiplexing

REF LEC TIO NS GRO UND ROL L

REF LEC TIO NS
GROUND ROLL

GRO

REF LEC TIO NS UND ROL L

TYPES OF NOISE
 Coherent

Noise (Ground roll, backscatter, multiples) Methods of reduction : - Multi channel filtration in t-x, f-k, Radon domains - Model based (WEMA,SRME)  Random Noise Methods of reduction : CMP stacking, Predictive decon in f-x domain

NOISE SECTION
First Arrivals

Reflections

Groundroll

First Arrivals

Reflections

Groundroll

Trace Headers Generation
 Generation

of addresses to the traces  Geographical positioning  Facilitates for the unique identification  Sorting with respect to a common group (common shot, common receiver, common midpoint & common offset)

GATHERS OF DIFFERENT TYPES
receivers Shot

Common shot gather

GATHERS OF DIFFERENT TYPES
Shots receiver

Common Receiver gather

GATHERS OF DIFFERENT TYPES
Shots
Mid Point

receiver

Common Mid Point gather

Spherical Divergence Correction
 Seismic

Amplitude decays as a function of time due to spherical spherical spreading and inelastic attenuation.  Compensation is done using a gain function that is inverse of the decay curve.  Objective is to see that nearly same amount of energy is reaching at every layer of the subsurface.

Amplitude

Amplitude decay

Time 

Amplitude

Recovery function

Decay curve Time 

Deconvolution Before Stack
 Earth

acts as a high cut filter. Loss of high frequencies result in loss of resolution.  The High frequencies that are poorly represented in the input can be brought on par with those of better represented.  Achieved through an inverse filter application.

Amplitude

Deconvolution
Amplitude

Input Frequency 

output

Inverse opr

Frequency 

Frequency 

Band Pass Filter
 Generally

deconvolution before stack enhances frequencies. limit the frequencies to the seismic range a band pass filter is conventionally applied (8-70 Hz)

 To

Trace Normalization
 The

amplitude values are scaled by a scalar estimated in the user defined time window to bring them down to observable range. amplitude variation is preserved.

 Relative

Static Corrections
 The

elevation differences among the traces of a cmp gather cause delays.  The Low Velocity Layer(LVL) near the surface also introduces delays in the observed travel times.  The data has to be corrected to a reference surface (Datum) removing these differences.  These corrections are static; they don’t change with time; hence the name ‘Static correction’.  NMO correction is ‘Dynamic’; it is a function of time (To), source to receiver offset, and Velocity.

Static corrections

Surface DATUM LVL

Reflector

Velocity Analysis
 Estimation

of Velocity that yields best alignment of nonzero offset travel time to its zero offset time.  Based on Hyperbolic assumption.  Results in the best stacking of traces of a common mid point gather.

Stack Power as a Function of Velocity And Time

Normal Move Out Correction
 

Non zero offset data is characterized by a travel time increase with increase in offset distance from the source to the reflector. Non zero offset to zero offset conversion is achieved through a correction called as NMO (nomal move out) correction. The NMO equation for a flat layer case is : Ti**2 = To**2 + Xi**2/V**2, where Ti = Travel time at offset distance Xi To = Zero offset travel time V = NMO velocity or stacking velocity at time To.

Ti – To = DT nmo for offset distance Xi. NMO correction is ‘Dynamic’; it is a function of time (To), source to receiver offset, and Velocity.

Offset 

Time

Before NMO Cor.

After NMO Cor.

Stacking
 Each

common mid point gather after normal move out correction is summed together to yield a stacked trace.  Stacking enhances the in-phase components and reduces the random noise.  Stacking yields Zero offset section (in the absence of dipping layers in the subsurface)

Brute STACK

STACK after Dip filtering

Crooked (slalom) Profile & Mid Point distribution

STACK after Crooked Profile adjusting

STACK after Velocity Analysis and NMO

Residual Static Corrections
 Field

static corrections are computed using the velocity of LVL and are based on the ray paths.  Field statics alone, can not correctly account strong near surface velocity irregularities.  Residual static corrections are estimated on the filed statics applied and NMO corrected gathers in a surface consistent approach; that is time shifts are only dependant on the source receiver locations , but not on the ray paths from shots to receivers.  Velocity Analysis and stacking performed after accounting residual static corrections yield improved resolution.

STACK after Residual Statics application

Dip Move Out Correction

NMO ensures non zero offset to zero offset conversion in the absence of dipping layers. In the presence of contrasting dips, the estimated velocity will be :

V* = V/Cosine(Alfa), where V* = dip corrupted velocity, V = actual velocity and Alfa = dip angle (measured wrt horizontal).
 

Ti**2 = To**2 + Xi**2/V**2 – (Xi*Sin (Alfa))**2 /V**2 The term (Xi*Sin (Alfa))**2 /V**2 is the Dip Move Out term. This additional correction promises non zero offset to zero offset conversion.

Dip Move Out & Migration

Pm

Pd Pn

(Brian Russel, 1998)

NMO STACK

DMO STACK

NMO STACK

DMO STACK

Random Noise Attenuation
 Seismic  Random

noise can be either random or coherent.

noise is random. Its estimation is done in Frequency – space (FX) domain. The predictable nature of the Sinusoidal signals offer their removal through a deconvolution. Total field minus the signal field gives the random noise field.

Coherent Noise Attenuation
 Coherent

noise attenuation is achieved through multi channel (TX, FK, Tau-P domain) filters. The characteristics of coherent noise are velocity, frequency, etc. noise is random. Its estimation is done in Frequency – space (FX) domain. The predictable nature of the Sinusoidal signals offer their removal through a deconvolution. Total field minus the signal field gives the random noise field.

 Random

Signal Enhancement
 Coherent

signal can be searched in adjoining traces in a specified narrow range of dips and can be gathered. channel input data facilitates such processes.

 Multi  For

structural interpretations this is permitted, but not always a recommended practice for stratigraphic interpretations.

Deconvolution After Stack
 NMO

correction and Stacking also act as a high cut filter. Loss of high frequencies result in loss of resolution.  The deconvolution employed at the post stack stage is similar to that in the pre – stack stage, but the parameters are such that the decon action is milder.

DECON AFTER STACK

Time Variant Filter
 Earth

consists of sets of layers (strata) that are distinctly characterized by certain band of frequencies.  It is often advantageous to view the seismic section (which is a cross section of the earth) in tune with the characteristic band of frequencies.  Different parts of the seismic section can be subjected different sets of band pass filters in a time variant manner following tests.

TIME VARIANT FILTER

Migration
 When

the subsurface consists of dipping layers, the Zero offset section does not represent the cross section of the earth because the reflected energies are placed at apparent spatial locations.  Moving the reflection energies from the apparent locations to the true locations is achieved through ‘Migration’. The spatial velocity distribution of the velocity is used here for the identification of these true points in the subsurface.  Migration improves the spatial disposition of the reflecting layers and hence achieves ‘Imaging’.

Migration
A P B

P’ True dip

Q’

Q Apparent dip

Migration Equation Tan(app. Dip) = Sin(true dip)

Migration

Syncline (after migration) Bow Tie (before migration)

POST STACK MIGRATION During migration, trace energy is smeared along a surface of all possible reflector positions. This means a given wavelet of certain period (frequency) is placed along a circle of radius equals to the two way time with the observed CMP location as center. Now problem lies in the way these smeared energies are placed on the CMP traces. CMP

MIGRATION & WAVELET DISTORTION

CMP

Energy placed Along the cmp axis

Energy placed Along the radius

MIGRATION & WAVELET DISTORTION Higher the Dip, larger will be wavelet stretch. High frequencies suffer more at higher dips. CMP Dip=90

Dip=45

Dip=0

MIGRATION & SPATIAL ALIASING

CMP

MIGRATION & SPATIAL ALIASING

CMP

MIGRATION & SPATIAL ALIASING

CMP

Fine output sampling unique dips

Fine input sampling unique dips

MIGRATION & SPATIAL ALIASING

CMP

Coarse output sampling Non unique dips

Coarse input sampling Non unique dips

TEMPORAL ALIASING

Fine input sampling Proper restoration

Coarse input sampling Improper restoration Loss of resolution

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