P. 1
EU - ESCO in EUROPE 2007

EU - ESCO in EUROPE 2007

|Views: 441|Likes:
Published by Janis Erglis

More info:

Published by: Janis Erglis on Mar 28, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/28/2011

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.1 Methodology
  • 1.2 ESCOs in the EU until 2005
  • 2 THE EU ESCO MARKET: STATE OF ART AS OF 2006-2007
  • 2.1 EU-15 Member States
  • 2.1.1 Mediterranean countries
  • Spain
  • Portugal
  • Greece
  • 2.1.2 The UK and Ireland
  • United Kingdom
  • Ireland
  • 2.1.3 Central Europe
  • France
  • Germany
  • Austria
  • 2.1.4 Benelux countries
  • Belgium
  • The Netherlands
  • Luxemburg
  • 2.1.5 Nordic countries
  • Finland
  • Sweden
  • Denmark
  • 2.2 New EU Member States 2004
  • 2.2.1 Baltic Countries
  • Lithuania
  • Latvia
  • Estonia
  • 2.2.2 New Member States in Central Europe
  • Hungary
  • Czech Republic
  • Slovakia
  • Poland
  • Slovenia
  • 2.2.3 Mediterranean New EU Member States
  • Malta
  • Cyprus
  • 2.3 New EU Member States 2007
  • Romania
  • Bulgaria
  • 2.4 Candidate Countries
  • Croatia
  • Turkey
  • 2.5 Other European countries
  • 2.5.1 Other Western Europe
  • Switzerland
  • Norway
  • 2.5.2 Other Eastern Europe
  • Commonwealth of Independent States
  • Non-EU South-East Europe
  • 3 CONCLUSIONS
  • 3.1 Changes compared to the beginning of the millennium
  • 3.2 Common barriers
  • 3.3 Success factors
  • 3.4 New countries
  • 4 REFERENCES
  • 5 PERSONAL COMMUNICATION AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

EUR 22927 EN - 2007

Latest Development of Energy Service
Companies across Europe
- A European ESCO Update -
Authors: Paolo Bertoldi, Benigna Boza-Kiss, Silvia Rezessy
Institute for Environment and Sustainability
The mission of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability is to provide scientific-technical support to the
European Union's policies for the protection and sustainable development of the European and global
environment.

















European Commission
Joint Research Centre
Institute Environment and Sustainability

Contact information
Address: TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (VA), Italy
E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@ec.europa.eu
Tel.: +39 0332 78 9299
Fax: +39 0332 78 9992

http://www.jrc.ec.europa.eu
http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/energyefficiency/


Legal Notice
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is
responsible for the use which might be made of this publication.


A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet.
It can be accessed through the Europa server
http://europa.eu/


JRC 37574


EUR 22927 EN
ISBN 978-92-79-06965-9
ISSN 1018-5593
DOI 10.2788/19481

Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities


© European Communities, 2007

Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged


Printed in Italy
PREFACE
The present report is an update of the “Energy Service Companies in Europe – Status
Report 2005” (the European ESCO Status Report), which was published by the European
Commission DG Joint Research Center in 2005. The European ESCO Status Report gave
an overview of the ESCO concept and key definitions, the development of the energy
service companies market across Europe, and a concise synopsis of the state-of-the-art in
the European Union Member States and the Candidate Countries in 2004. The European
ESCO Status Report is available at http://energyefficiency.jrc.cec.eu.int/pdf/
ESCO%20report%20final%20revised%20v2.pdf.

The aim of the present report (referred to herein as ESCO Update Report) is to update
and expand the scope of the European ESCO Status Report, and in particular to
investigate the specific situation in every country in more detail. To this end, the authors
sketch the current status of national markets, and identify changes that have occurred
during recent years, and especially since 2004. In addition, the reasons behind the
changes (whether for better or worse) are investigated. Specific barriers are identified and
potential interventions to increase energy efficiency investments and to exploit energy
saving potentials through ESCOs across Europe are discussed.

The primary scope of the report is the enlarged European Union (EU-27), however
special attention has been given to examining the ESCO markets in countries that have
usually been ignored by research, and thus the report is the first of its kind to scrutinize
almost every country in Europe. ESCO markets in Europe have been found to be at
diverse stages of development. Certain countries (Germany, Italy) have large numbers of
ESCOs, while in others only a few energy service companies have been established so far
(Latvia, Romania, Denmark), or none at all (Albania, Serbia). In addition, some countries
have a rather decreasing market (Hungary), while in others the ESCO industry is still just
getting established (Estonia, Greece, Belarus) or is expanding (Italy, France). There are
also countries where the first ESCOs are being set up during the preparation of the report
(Greece, Macedonia).

This complexity indicates that the field is very turbid and rapidly changing and new
information is arising day-by-day. With this report we hope to be able to catch an
important moment of the development of the national markets.


This document does not represent the point of view of the European Commission. The
interpretation and opinions contained in it are solely those of the authors.
2




3

1 Introduction _______________________________________________________5
1.1 Methodology ________________________________________________________ 7
1.2 ESCOs in the EU until 2005____________________________________________ 8
2 The EU ESCO market: state of art as of 2006-2007 _______________________11
2.1 EU-15 Member States________________________________________________ 12
2.1.1 Mediterranean countries ____________________________________________________ 12
Spain________________________________________________________________________ 12
Portugal _____________________________________________________________________ 14
Italy_________________________________________________________________________ 16
Greece_______________________________________________________________________ 19
2.1.2 The UK and Ireland _______________________________________________________ 20
United Kingdom_______________________________________________________________ 20
Ireland_______________________________________________________________________ 23
2.1.3 Central Europe ___________________________________________________________ 25
France_______________________________________________________________________ 25
Germany_____________________________________________________________________ 28
Austria ______________________________________________________________________ 32
2.1.4 Benelux countries _________________________________________________________ 34
Belgium _____________________________________________________________________ 34
The Netherlands _______________________________________________________________ 35
Luxemburg ___________________________________________________________________ 36
2.1.5 Nordic countries __________________________________________________________ 37
Finland ______________________________________________________________________ 37
Sweden ______________________________________________________________________ 39
Denmark_____________________________________________________________________ 40
2.2 New EU Member States 2004__________________________________________ 41
2.2.1 Baltic Countries __________________________________________________________ 41
Lithuania_____________________________________________________________________ 41
Latvia _______________________________________________________________________ 42
Estonia ______________________________________________________________________ 43
2.2.2 New Member States in Central Europe ________________________________________ 45
Hungary _____________________________________________________________________ 45
Czech Republic _______________________________________________________________ 48
Slovakia _____________________________________________________________________ 51
Poland_______________________________________________________________________ 52
Slovenia _____________________________________________________________________ 54
2.2.3 Mediterranean New EU Member States________________________________________ 55
Malta________________________________________________________________________ 55
Cyprus ______________________________________________________________________ 55
2.3 New EU Member States 2007__________________________________________ 56
Romania _____________________________________________________________________ 56
Bulgaria _____________________________________________________________________ 58
2.4 Candidate Countries _________________________________________________ 59
Croatia ______________________________________________________________________ 59
Turkey ______________________________________________________________________ 60
2.5 Other European countries ____________________________________________ 61
2.5.1 Other Western Europe _____________________________________________________ 61
Switzerland___________________________________________________________________ 61
4
Norway______________________________________________________________________ 62
2.5.2 Other Eastern Europe ______________________________________________________ 63
Commonwealth of Independent States______________________________________________ 63
Non-EU South-East Europe ______________________________________________________ 71
3 Conclusions_______________________________________________________79
3.1 Changes compared to the beginning of the millennium ____________________ 79
3.2 Common barriers ___________________________________________________ 85
3.3 Success factors ______________________________________________________ 87
3.4 New countries ______________________________________________________ 90
4 References________________________________________________________91
5 Personal Communication and Acknowledgements _______________________101
6 List of abbreviations _______________________________________________106

5
1 INTRODUCTION
Energy service companies (ESCOs) and energy performance contracting (EPC) are
common tools to enhance the sustainable use of energy through promoting energy
efficiency and renewable energy sources. ESCOs and EPC help to overcome financial
constraints to investments and pay off initial costs through the energy cost savings
coming from the reduced energy demand. ESCOs provide an opportunity to curb
increasing energy demand and control CO
2
emissions while exploiting market benefits
for customers by decreasing the energy costs of their clients and making profit for
themselves. While ESCOs have been operational on a large scale since the late 1980s-
early 1990s, the energy service market in the European Union (and in Europe) is far from
utilizing its full potential, even in countries with a particularly developed ESCO sector.

The rationale behind this project was to update and expand the European ESCO Status
Report 2005 published by the European Commission DG Joint Research Center, and to
complete the picture of current ESCO developments in European countries. The Status
Report was primarily focused on the introduction of the ESCO industry in general and it
presented a short overview of the ESCO markets of EU Member States and Candidate
Countries at that time, focusing in detail on selected noteworthy markets. With the
present report, the authors hope to provide to professionals, policy makers and other
interested parties a supplement and update to the European ESCO Status Report 2005,
with a spotlight on the peculiarities and special features of the ESCO industry in each and
every one of the 27 EU Member States, the Candidate Countries (Croatia and Turkey)
and other European countries (Norway, Switzerland, Non-EU South-East Europe and the
Commonwealth of Independent States). An overview of altogether 40 countries is given
in the report. This extensive geographical coverage is unique.

The authors found that information was often hard to access; therefore in case of certain
countries the descriptions are less detailed than in others. It has also been found many
times that comparison of ESCO markets is limited by the fact that the notion of “Energy
Service Company” is understood differently from one country to another, and sometimes
used differently by experts even in the same country. This indicates the importance of
common definitions that capture the diversity of energy service market developments in
different countries.

The problem with definitions has been highlighted at many forums and by numerous
experts and business actors. The authors therefore welcome the Directive 2006/32/EC of
the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on Energy End-use
Efficiency and Energy Services (Energy Services Directive). The European Commission
has been promoting EPC, ESCOs and TPF, through a number of direct and indirect
Recommendations and Directives
1
. Nevertheless, the Energy Services Directive is a
crucial step. Besides the basic role and vital function, it may customize the ESCO related
terminology. Therefore, in this report, the following terms are used according to the
Directive:

1
For instance: Directive 93/76/EC, Directive 2002/91/EC, or Directive 2005/32/EC. For reviews see, for
instance, Bertoldi et al (2003) and http://ec.europa.eu/energy/demand/legislation/end_use_en.htm.
6
⇒ "energy service company" (ESCO): a natural or legal person that delivers energy
services and/or other energy efficiency improvement measures in a user’s facility or
premises, and accepts some degree of financial risk in so doing. The payment for the
services delivered is based (either wholly or in part) on the achievement of energy
efficiency improvements and on the meeting of the other agreed performance criteria;
⇒ "energy performance contracting": a contractual arrangement between the
beneficiary and the provider (normally an ESCO) of an energy efficiency
improvement measure, where investments in that measure are paid for in relation to a
contractually agreed level of energy efficiency improvement;
⇒ "third-party financing": a contractual arrangement involving a third party — in
addition to the energy supplier and the beneficiary of the energy efficiency
improvement measure — that provides the capital for that measure and charges the
beneficiary a fee equivalent to a part of the energy savings achieved as a result of the
energy efficiency improvement measure. That third party may or may not be an
ESCO.

In addition, and in line with the European ESCO Status Report 2005, the following terms
also need to be defined for the purpose of the present report:
⇒ In contrast to an ESCO, "Energy Service Provider Companies" (ESPCs) are
natural or legal persons that provide a service for a fixed fee or as added value to the
supply of equipment or energy. Often the full cost of energy services is recovered in
the fee, and the ESPC does not assume any (technical or financial) risk in case of
underperformance. ESPCs are paid a fee for their advice/service rather than being
paid based on the results of their recommendations (WEEA 1999). Principally,
projects implemented by ESPCs are related to primary energy conversion equipment
(boilers, CHPs). In such projects the ESPC is unlikely to guarantee a reduction in the
delivered energy consumption because it may have no control or on-going
responsibility over the efficiency of secondary conversion equipment (such as
radiators, motors, drives) and over the demand for final energy services (such as
space heating, motive power and light) (Sorrell 2005); and
⇒ in contrast to EPC, "Delivery Contracting" (DC, also known as Supply Contracting
or Energy Supply Contracting) is focused on the supply of a set of energy services
(such as heating, lighting, motive power, etc.) mainly via outsourcing the energy
supply. Chauffage, one of the most common contract types in Europe besides EPC, is
a form of Delivery Contracting. In a chauffage arrangement the fee for the services is
normally calculated based on the client’s existing energy bill minus a certain level of
(monetary) savings. Alternatively, the customer may pay a rate, for instance, per
square meter (EC DG JRC 2005). The ESCO (or ESPC) may also take over the
purchase of fuel and electricity.
⇒ The terms EPC and ESCO are not widespread in the UK (Sorrell pers.com.) and
Ireland, and instead ESCO-type work is referred to as Contract Energy
Management (CEM), which means “the managing of some aspects of a client’s
energy use under a contract that transfers some of the risk from the client to the
contractor (usually based on providing agreed ‘service’ levels)” (ESTA cited in
Sorrell 2005).

7
For further terms and definitions used in the current report (related to financial schemes,
contract models and project elements), please refer to the European ESCO Status Report
2005
2
.

The rest of this report is organised as follows. Section 1.1 describes the methodology
used for the preparation of the present report. Section 1.2 reviews some basic results of
the European ESCO Status Report 2005 on ESCOs in Europe and supplements them with
further information about the overall European ESCO market. The main body of this
report is Section 2, which presents the findings of the research carried out in 2006-2007.
Every European country is presented in detail drawing up the story of ESCO market
development, focusing on the timeframe 2004-2007, which is the period since the
compilation of the European ESCO Status Report 2005. The final part, Section 3 makes a
summary of data and information on the individual ESCO markets, and a list of common
and most important barriers and success factors.

1.1 Methodology
The principal methodology of the research was based on stakeholder interviews and
large-scale surveying of ESCOs, international and national ESCO experts and experts in
related fields, academia, and financial institutions. Using the snow-ball technique,
interviewees were asked for further contacts who were then also contacted. The
questionnaire was based on the survey used in 2004-2005 for the European ESCO Status
Report 2005, and emailed to potential informants. Detailed interviews were conducted
personally and by the phone. The information thus gathered was placed in context and
extended by document search, and thorough literature review. The list of interviews that
were used for the compilation of the country reviews is indicated at the end of the report.

The field research on the EU-27 countries and new Candidate Countries was carried out
mainly between June-October 2006, and during December 2006 on non-EU South-East
Europe (SEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Around 100
informative answers were received and interviews done. This indicates that in general at
least 1, but in some cases 3-5 expert opinions are integrated for a single country report.
Country reports have been verified by experts and company representatives. While the
survey can be considered as very successful with a large amount of new information
gathered, the authors encountered difficulties in collecting sufficiently detailed
information in some countries, and results may therefore be biased. To overcome this
handicap, literature, reports, governmental archives, and project documents were
consulted to verify the information gathered. In spite of the extensive efforts of the
authors to produce a correct overview of the situation, any comments, constructive
critique or feedback is appreciated in order to be able to improve the information
presented herein.


2
Available at http://energyefficiency.jrc.cec.eu.int/pdf/ESCO%20report%20final%20revised%20v2.pdf.
8
1.2 ESCOs in the EU until 2005
The first companies offering services in the energy field and applying the ESCO concept
appeared in Europe as long ago as the 1800s. The cradle of these so called “operators” or
“managers” was France (Dupont and Adnot 2004). The concept moved to North America
and boomed during the 20
th
century (EC DG JRC 2005).

EPC, energy services and companies offering integrated energy efficiency solutions
started to spread throughout Europe in the 1980s again. A few success stories emerged.
Germany is referred to as the largest and most advanced market, with France and the UK,
Spain and Italy following close behind (Vine 2005, Bertoldi et al. 2006b). At the same
time, ESCO markets kicked-off in Central and Eastern Europe, too (Urge-Vorsatz et al.
2004). In addition, there were countries where the ESCO industry emerged in a very short
period at the onset of the 21
st
century. Austria and the Czech Republic became the new
success stories by 2005. On the other hand, there were also some negative examples,
where EPC failed and thrust back further ESCO development due to a lack of trust: this
happened in Sweden, Slovakia, and Estonia (Forsberg et al. forthcoming, SEA 2003).
Finally, a group of countries could be characterized by low level ESCO activity in 2005
due to the internal and external factors that had prevented development until then. This
group should be further sub-divided into two. In Denmark, the Netherlands, and
Lithuania energy efficiency has been a priority, but tools other than ESCOs have
delivered it, indicating that ESCOs are only one of the possible set of tools to bring
energy efficiency improvements. On the other hand Greece, Poland, Portugal, Ireland,
Malta and Cyprus, and Romania and Bulgaria have been examples where large potential
for energy savings exist, but still little or no energy efficiency activity has been
undertaken by 2005.

The European market potential has been estimated to be at least 5-10 billion EUR per
annum and 25 billion EUR in the long term in 2000 (Bertoldi et al. 2006b, Geissler
2005). Investing in energy efficiency with the help of ESCOs is in principle a particularly
profitable business in any European country; however, actual profitability depends on
many factors and can be curbed by a wide array of barriers. ESCOs are profit oriented
businesses and should not be expected to intervene in areas that are too risky or do not
offer profit.

The majority of projects developed by Energy Service Companies in Europe have been
undertaken in the public sector (CRES 2005b), where the model of Public-Private-
Partnership (PPP)
3
is one of the most effective tools to boost energy efficiency (Geissler
et al. 2006). The most common technologies so far have been co-generation, public
lighting, heating and cooling, ventilation and energy management systems (CRES
2005b).


3
A Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) is a partnership between the public and private sector for the purpose
of delivering a project or service, which was traditionally provided by the public sector. The PPP concept
recognises that both the public sector and the private sector have certain advantages, relative to the other, in
the performance of specific tasks.
9
The European ESCO Status Report 2005 listed 9 major barriers in Europe:
- Low awareness, lack of information and/or trust and scepticism on the clients’
side;
- Limited understanding of energy efficiency opportunities, EPC and TPF;
- Small project size and high transaction costs, which discourage ESCO business;
- High perceived technical and business risk;
- Legal and regulatory frameworks not compatible with energy efficiency
investments, for instance non-supportive procurement rules;
- Limited understanding of measurement and verification protocols for assuring
performance guarantees;
- Administrative hurdles, such as complicated procedures, high transaction costs,
split incentives, and aversion to opt-out energy management tasks;
- Lack of motivation because energy costs are only a small fraction of total costs;
- Limited governmental support for EPC.

In order to overcome some or all of the above hurdles, the authors of the European ESCO
Status Report suggested certain soft actions, including:
- Increasing dissemination of information about ESCO services and projects;
- Launching an accreditation system for ESCOs (proving the quality and reliability
of services);
- Developing financing sources;
- Standardized saving measurement and verification;
- Ensuring that governments take the lead with measures in public buildings;
- Developing a Europe-wide TPF network.

The above barriers and enablers are explained (including details and examples) in the
European ESCO Status Report 2005, in which additional literature can be found. The
present ESCO Update Report looks at these and other barriers and success factors
specific for every European country. Apart from country specific assessment, the
conclusion of the present report provides a snapshot about the existence or withdrawal of
the above common barriers and/or emergence of new ones.

10
11
2 THE EU ESCO MARKET: STATE OF ART AS OF 2006-2007
The present report builds on the national level because this approach was perceived to be
most convenient and most informative. It is essential to look at the European Union as a
complex but open, thus permeable market. Policy and decision makers need to know the
specific situation and specific problems of their respective countries, even though there
are numerous multinational companies (MNC) that are present in the ESCO activities of
more than one country. The overall assessment of the market on the EU level is a
Herculean task outside the scope of the present work. It is not possible to obtain or
estimate reliable data on number of market players and size of the ESCO market in the
EU. What is essential is to gain an understanding of the commonalities and shared
problems that exist among countries. The present report summarises these and discusses
issues of general importance to the extent that the national analyses allow.
Table 1. Summary of basic data of the EU-27 ESCO market
Number of ESCOs The total number is unknown.
Number of ESCOs range from 0 to
50 per country (0-1000 ESPCs)
Type of ESCOs both public and private, many multi-
national companies, most of which
have heating and building control
equipment retailer origin
ESCO association Exists: EFIEES
4

Size of the market (data from 2000
and for EU15)
€5-10 Bln/year
Change in recent years Increased, diversified, ESCOs enter
into new national markets
Most popular technologies CHP, street lighting, heating


The next part of the ESCO Update Report introduces a detailed description and analysis
of national ESCO markets. The country overviews have similar structures to help the
reader navigate through the information, but are separate documents and function as
complete reports. Occasional reference to other countries is made, however, in order to
reveal commonalities and differences, and because one country’s market is often strongly
related to others’.
After setting the local context and providing information on the roots of Energy Service
Companies, energy efficiency and saving in general, the country overviews start with
basic data on the national ESCO market where available, including the number and type
of ESCOs, most important clients and preferred technologies and investment areas. In
general, the size of the ESCO market was very rarely known. Where figures exist, they
are often from 3-10 years ago, which are not suitable for the purposes of this report. The
potential of the EPC markets were more often found or estimated by experts and other
interviewees contacted for this report. The most common financing mechanism and
contract types are given, too.

4
European Federation of Intelligent Energy Efficiency Services; http://www.efiees.org/.
12
Furthermore, the most important barriers and success factors are presented, with an
indication of what needs to be done in order to successfully overcome the obstacles and
enhance the ESCO markets. Finally, trends and the expected future of the ESCO industry
are shown wherever available.
The results and some important basic data are summarized in tabular format at the end of
each country report.
The order in which countries are presented does not indicate any prioritization or level of
importance, but should be considered as a pure list of countries. The report first reviews
countries of the EU15, followed by the countries that joined the European Union in 2004
(EU10) and that joined in 2007 (EU2). These reviews are complemented by overviews on
countries that are not EU Member States (Norway, Switzerland, Croatia and Turkey, and
the European part of CIS and Non-EU SEE).

2.1 EU-15 Member States
2.1.1 Mediterranean countries
Spain
The Spanish ESCO industry is rather complex, with various types of companies operating
successfully. The market is composed of local private and public ESCOs, as well as large
multinational companies (mainly French origin). For several years 10-15 main private
companies were actively involved in energy services. Indeed as of 2006-2007 there is a
steep growth in interest in building energy efficiency in Spain and ESCO activity has
been growing. The underling reasons probably include the introduction of energy
performance certificates for new buildings and the publication of the Technical Code of
Buildings, which implements the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
(Directive 2002/91/EC). An estimation of the market size or the market potential of the
ESCO industry does not exist.
The energy service market is diversified and enlarged by the participation of “public
ESCOs”
5
: Many regional and local energy agencies, as well as the Institute for
Diversification and Energy Saving (IDAE, the national energy agency) act as ESCOs.
However, in some provinces ESCOs have not been established yet and EPC technologies
are still little known or unknown (OPET
6
2004a).
The Spanish ESCO Association, AMI
7
, has 13 members, and aims to promote the EPC
and the ESCO market in Spain, and to increase dissemination of information about EPC.
AMI is a member of the EU ESCO Association, EFIEES.
The industrial sector has been increasingly interested in co-(tri)-generation investments
recently and these technologies now account for the major share of the ESCO market.

5
Public ESCOs exist in a few EU and other European countries (for instance, in Spain, Germany, Italy,
Austria, Ukraine). Generally, but not always, these are energy agencies, which implement EPC in certain
types of projects especially with social importance and large demonstration effects. Public ESCOs usually
accept higher risk and/or smaller profitability than private companies thus opening an investment area that
otherwise would be left untouched.
6
European Network for the Promotion of Energy Technologies in the Building Sector
7
Asociación Espanola de Empresas de Mantenimiento Integral de Edificios, Infraestructuras e Industrias;
Spanish Association of Enterprises of Complex Maintenance of Buildings, Infrastructures and Industries;
http://www.ami-asociacion.es/
13
New financing lines have been opened for new plants in the tertiary sector through ICO-
IDEA
8
and in some Autonomous Communities
9
. Incentives and bonuses for high
efficiency co-generation have been demonstrated in projects in the residential and
commercial sectors, too (CogenChallenge 2006c).
The public buildings sector receives the most ESCO attention, especially in some
provinces. In the building sector, the most important investment areas are solar thermal
applications. The Plan of Promotion of Renewable Energies envisaged an installed
surface of 4,800,000 m
2
for solar thermal power by 2010, which assumes a particularly
rapid increase from the existing 700,000 m
2
in 2004 (ST-ESCO 2006b). This presupposes
a boom in solar thermal installation of over 700,000 m
2
/year, opening a large potential
market segment for ESCOs. Background factors, such as local experience, European
trends, high solar potential in Spain, parallel policies including the Action Plans of
Energy Efficiency and Savings and Renewable Energies and the Technical Code of
Buildings, support this goal.
Municipal bylaws regarding solar energy have become popular after IDAE published a
model of Municipal Ordinance on Solar Energy for Thermal Uses in 2001 (MURE-
Odyssee 2006b). By 2004, 18 municipalities had introduced such an ordinance. The laws
encourage higher uptake of sustainable energy solutions (often through ESCOs) in the
municipal sector and/or building sector. According to these laws, for instance, all new
buildings and buildings under refurbishment are obliged to use solar energy to supply
60% of their hot water requirements (Pujol 2004, Martinez 2004).
The most popular contract model in Spain is the shared savings and the BOOT model
10
.
Often the ESCO provides the necessary financial resources itself or acts as a mediator
between the client and the financial institution. The French-type Chauffage contract is
also used. IDEA has introduced model contracts available online which supports both the
ESCOs and the clients with a reference document to use.
Specific barriers to ESCOs are found in all sectors in Spain. ESCO activity in the public
sector is limited due to regulations that are not supportive of EPC, for instance,
amortization accounting does not allow projects of the appropriate length. Public sector
investment is limited by barriers such as split incentives
11
(IDAE n.d.). Changing the
relevant regulation may increase the motivation to invest in longer term projects in the
public sector. A major step forward would be if a standard Measurement and Verification
Protocol was implemented and commonly used, which could reduce the perceived risk of
errors in monitoring savings and build trust of financial organizations and clients, and
which would be of real value to help properly evaluate the effectiveness of projects.
Governmental involvement in ESCO development is apparent at several levels. As
described above, the ESCO sector is partially composed of local, regional and national
energy agencies. Furthermore, in 2003 the Spanish government approved the Energy
Efficiency and Saving Action Plan as well as the Renewable Energies Action Plan for the
period 2004-2012, both of which include the support of energy service-based

8
Instituto de Crédito Oficial (ICO) is a State-owned corporate entity attached to the Ministry of Economy
and Finance through the Secretariat of State for the Economy. It has the status of the State's Financial
Agency of Spain; www.ico.es.
9
There are seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades autónomas), which incorporate 50
provinces.
10
For definitions please see the European ESCO Status Report 2005 (EC DG JRC 2005).
11
For an explanation see the conclusions in section 3.
14
improvements in energy use. The Energy Efficiency and Saving Action Plan stresses that
energy audits will be supported by the central budget to up to 75% of the total costs of the
276 prioritized energy audits (Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio and IDAE
2005a,b).
Table 2. Summary of basic data of the Spanish ESCO market
Number of ESCOs Over 10 private companies, a few
public ESCOs and a larger number
of small ESCO-like companies
Type of ESCOs both public and private, including 1-
2 multi-national companies
ESCO association Exists: AMI
Size of the market not known
Change in recent years increased
Most popular technologies co-generation, street lighting, solar-
thermal applications

Portugal
ESCO business activity in Portugal is dominated by 7-8 medium and large ventures and
moving upwards only slowly. A few of these companies are large multinational ESCOs
or daughter companies of the previously monopolistic electricity utility, EDP
12
. The
number of larger ESCOs and the size of the market have hardly changed for several years
(de Almeida et al. 2000, EC DG JRC 2005), however new companies do appear, and
others leave the market or change their core business. There are also small ESCO-like
consulting companies that are oriented towards auditing, preparation of plans for
rationalization of energy, retrofitting energy efficient equipment, and similar ESCO
services, as a result of old
13
and new
14
obligations associated with the rationalization of
energy use.
In spite of the past stagnation of the market, the ESCO concept is recently gaining
popularity. The importance of ESCOs is growing as attention is increasingly given to
energy savings obligations. ESCO development is also supported by the complete
electricity market opening in September 2006. It is expected that competition will induce
the introduction of more added value services, especially in case of cogeneration.
Although exact numbers are not available on the size and potential of the market, ESCOs
in Portugal are only targeting a fraction of the market saving potential. Even some typical
“low-hanging” ESCO projects, such as municipal street lighting projects, have not yet
been fully exploited. It is estimated that ca. 30% of municipal energy costs could be
saved economically with a short pay back time (Estrela 2004).

12
Electricidade de Portugal Group, the Portugal electricity business group, dealing with generation,
transmission and distribution of electricity, as well as with services.
13
Regulation of Energy Consumption Management (RGCE) of 1982 obliges private companies, industrial
sites and public buildings that use over 1000 toe/year, or those that have high energy consuming equipment
installed to undertake energy audits and prepare energy consumption rationalization plans that they have to
fulfil.
14
For instance, National Action Plan 2004, and building energy certificates.
15
ESCO customers are primarily large and medium sized industries and large tertiary
buildings (shopping centers, hospitals, hotels). Most attention is given to CHP due to its
simplicity, low risk and short pay-back time, combined with financial incentives (such as
high feed-in tariffs) that are given to co-generation. Activity in relation to renewables
(wind-energy) has started to emerge during the last few years. Multinational ESCOs also
often implement heating and cooling solutions as part of facility management. The most
popular contractual schemes are the shared savings model and Chauffage contracts.
The legal framework in Portugal has been supportive of energy efficiency and renewable
energies, but not of ESCOs in particular. The CHP sector, which represented 12.2% of
total national electricity production as of 2003, has benefited the most (COGENchallenge
2006b). In particular, the high feed-in tariffs for co-generation guaranteed for 15 years
have served as an important incentive.
In parallel with the positive environment for the development of ESCOs, some significant
barriers remain. Local and international financing institutions are eager to get involved in
ESCO-type projects, and large ESCOs can also afford to finance projects from their own
equity. Financing of ESCO projects through TPF is sometimes in competition with
certain governmental support schemes and programs
15
to some extent, instead of
complementing them.
In spite of the successful examples of TPF and EPC, financial barriers still exist. Return
rates are considered insufficient by ESCOs for many potential projects, especially if
compared to supply side investments. Transaction costs are regarded as too high, thus
companies still go for projects that they consider more profitable than demand side
intervention. In public building projects accounting rules may override the goal of
rationalization of energy use. As in many other countries, running costs and investment
costs are separated in the public sector budgets, and saving on operations does not
compensate for the costs incurred in the investment budget. Split incentive is also a
typical barrier in Portugal.
Tradition and slow uptake of new business solutions have also been reported as a
hindrance to the ESCO concept’s diffusion. Energy suppliers have long seen themselves
as providers of energy per se and not of energy services (de Almeida et al. 2000). This
situation is however changing and large suppliers are starting to offer energy services.
Building trust via disseminating information and best practices among potential clients is
one of the most important factors that could facilitate the ESCO sector. As of today, the
ESCOs active in Portugal deal only with customers who initiate the ESCO project
themselves, while active marketing has been disregarded. Perceived uncertainty of profits
of energy services seems to be another critical obstacle to ESCO investments. The EPC
concept should be integrated into the legal framework: for instance, standard procedures
for the planning, implementation and monitoring of a project can be beneficial,
documents and guidelines can be developed, demonstration projects are needed, as well
as targeted information dissemination by a neutral stakeholder. Direct financial incentives
should be used as a support only. Finally, the potential role of the public sector in

15
Examples: The E4 (Energy Efficiency and Endogenous Energies) program ran until the end of 2006 and
provided financial support for new projects. The MAPE program encourages energy efficiency and
promotes new energy sources in all sectors but the domestic sector, through grants and zero interest rate
loans. The SIME support scheme also provides both grants and zero-interest rate loans for improving the
competitiveness of a company, for instance through energy rationalization.
16
Portugal is enormous. It is the owner of most service sector buildings, whose energy
optimization could serve as an important initiator and multiplier. It would demonstrate
the feasibility of ESCOs on a large scale and in front of a large audience. In addition, it
would be able to give a basic impulse for the industry, and would set a good example for
other building owners.
Table 3. Summary of basic data of the Portuguese ESCO market
Number of ESCOs ca. 7-8 + many small ESCO-type
companies
Type of ESCOs Private (local and 1-2 multinational)
and some subsidiaries of EDP
ESCO Association No
Size of the market not known
Change in recent years Stable, but probable increase
Most popular technologies CHP, wind, HVAC

Italy
The Italian energy service industry has been active for over 20 years. In the past the
ESCO market was stable, but not particularly large. The sector has changed in the last 2-3
years, when it was boosted as a result of governmental policies and as a consequence of
market liberalization. While the number of ESCOs was put at 15 in 2003 (Capozza 2003),
the number of registered ESCOs at the Autorità per l'Energia Elettrica e il Gas (AEEG)
16

was over 160 in 2005. However, ESCO experts claim that in spite of the spectacular
registration-rate, the number of companies really offering ESCO services is not more than
a few dozen companies, although the ESCO market has been increasing recently. The
market is still dominated by large ESCOs, but small companies also have some ESCO
services. Indeed, as of 2006, the number of authorized companies reduced to around 80
due to stricter requirements. Market size estimations vary in a wide range. Some experts
estimate it to be ca. 60 million EUR, based on the average annual turnover of the
companies associated with ASSOESCo
17
, an ESCO association. This estimation is rather
conservative because members of the association are small ventures. Others estimate the
micro-CHP market, where ESCOs are active, to be about 300-500 million EUR, but there
are experts who put this at only 160 million EUR.
In the early 1980s, the first ESPCs provided heat service to the public sector under
Chauffage-type of contracts and sometimes using TPF. Cogeneration plants were
commonly set up in hospitals (de Renzio 2003, EC DG JRC 2005). Cogeneration in
hospitals has been regarded as one of the most important targets of ESCO investment
ever since, because of the high saving potentials due to cooling (OPET 2004b). In 2006
only, 80 MW of CHP were installed in Italy through ESCOs, which required about 95
million EUR investment.
Italian ESCOs have developed from diverse origins (Capozza 2003), such as “ad hoc”
independent companies, equipment suppliers, fuel and/or electricity suppliers, public
energy agencies, PPP and joint ventures, and from ESCOs of French origin. The recent

16
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas (AEEG).
17
Associanziaone Nazionale Societi Servizi Energetici, founded in July of 2005.
17
increase is due to the entrance of individual professionals and small specialized
enterprises.
By tradition, ESCOs operate in the public sector. Other sectors have moved into focus
recently, such as the commercial sector and industry (Ceresi 2005). The residential sector
is also getting attention, where boiler upgrading, heat control measures, and small district
heating installation for newly built dwellings and some small co-generation installations
are being carried out by ESCOs.
Public ESCOs
18
are known in Italy, though they are rare. The PICO concept
19
was
introduced in the form of case studies in the PICOLight project during 2004-2005. The
participating authorities created a revolving fund to finance further energy saving
measures from current savings (Irrek et al. 2005).
Technologies mostly covered by ESCO projects are public lighting, combustion control,
heating boiler upgrade, co-generation and power factor mitigation. A common problem is
that complex renovation projects, which would be economically more feasible, are rarely
possible.
The current growth of the ESCO industry can be attributed to a complex set of legislative
actions, changing market environment and international pressure.
One of the most important changes in the regulatory background is the obligation for gas
and electricity distribution utilities to reach end-use energy saving targets (Bertoldi et al
2006a). By the end of the first period of the obligations (2005-2009), electricity and gas
savings are expected to represent ca. 2% of total consumption (AEEG 2004), as a result
of the so called twin EE Decrees of 2001 (de Renzio 2003). A saving goal of 156,000 toe
was set for large distributors for 2005 (AEEG 2004). Trading is encouraged in order to
reduce costs of energy conservation measures, while penalties for non-compliance have
been envisaged, too (de Renzio 2003). This setting increases the market potential
available for ESCOs.
Accreditation of ESCOs by AEEG started in November 2004. Accredited ESCOs are
eligible for Energy Efficiency Certificates (White Certificates)
20
. Energy saving measures
implemented by ESCOs must be certified by the Market Operator, which issues
certificates at the request of the regulator AEEG after verification
21
. White Certificates
acquired by ESCOs can be sold to distributors, who can cover their end-use energy
conservation obligations as described above (AEEG 2005). Some ESCOs attribute much
of the increase of the ESCO market to the introduction of the White Certificate scheme in
January 2005. The energy efficiency policy mix that has been advantageous for the EPC
market is complemented by the adoption of new building codes.
The Italian ESCOs often provide the financing themselves (Bertoldi et al 2006a).
Commercial banks are still scarce and over-cautious about financing ESCO-projects (EC
DG JRC 2005) and ESCOs have reported that only projects with especially beneficial
parameters pass the banking criteria.

18
For definition, see Spain on page 12.
19
Public Internal Performance Contracting, for further information please see the German country report on
page 28 or recent literature, such as Irrek et al. 2006.
20
Distributors and their subsidiaries or associated companies are also eligible for White Certificates if they
carry out energy conservation measures for the benefit of end-users.
21
Most importantly against the Ministerial Decrees of 20 July 2004.
18
ESCOs still highlight important barriers and problems that they and the EPC concept
have to face. One of the most significant obstacles is the demise of credibility of the
participants of the ESCO market. On the one hand, as already described above, hundreds
of companies have been claiming to be an ESCO because the accreditation was based on
self-evaluation until recently, even if they have not been offering ESCO services. On the
other hand, ESCOs do not trust clients because some industries and commercial clients
may disappear during the contractual period (due to bankruptcy, translocation, change of
activity, etc.). This situation is coupled with some uncertainty about the future legal
environment. Moreover, the private sector is sceptical about the ESCO concept, and is
suspicious about their own benefit from such an ESCO deal.
A major drawback to ESCOs in the public sector is that public sector regulations are not
suitable for EPC. Tender procurements are traditionally price-based (based on initial
investment cost) and energy performance (lifecycle costs) does not form the primary
decision basis, which would be important for an ESCO project. Chauffage-type contracts
are preferred. In this case, however, no energy saving guarantee per se is given and the
savings are not monitored, although savings are normally realized.
The lack of interest from FIs should be overcome. So far, ESCOs have mostly
implemented projects using their financial bases, but this limits the size of the ESCO
market strongly. Banks should be informed, and encouraged to participate in third-party-
financing.
An innovative suggestion has been drawn up by an Italian branch of an international
ESCO: to carry out a successful energy saving measure in a bank building. Since the
central issue of their project was mutual trust and good understanding between the client
and the contractor, they suggest that every working relationship be built up through a
small-scale project, such as a GreenLight Programme
22
, which could serve as an
introduction to further common business (Dietrich et al. 2004).
ESCOs in Italy have a representative association, AGESI
23
(formerly called
ASSOCALOR), which embraces 30 companies and covers 90% of the ESCO offerings
for the public sector (AGESI n.d.). The objectives of the Association are information
dissemination, seeking and promoting technologies, and development of standards and
means for successful integrated services. Another smaller association, the ASSOESCo,
represents 23 small sized ESCOs.

22
GreenLight is a voluntary pollution prevention initiative of the European Commission to reduce lighting
energy use in the commercial sector. Further information: http://www.eu-greenlight.org/. A parallel
programme of the European Commission is the GreenBuilding Programme: http://www.eu-
greenbuilding.org/
23
Associazione Imprese di Facility Management ed Energia; Association of Facility Management and
Energy Services Companies.
19
Table 4. Summary of basic data of the Italian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs a few dozen
Type of ESCOs mainly private, many of which are
multinational companies
ESCO association AGESI, ASSOESCo
Size of the market 95M EUR investment by ESCOs for
CHP only in 2006
Change in recent years Increasing
Most popular technologies CHP, public lighting, control

Greece
The EPC market in Greece has not moved forward in recent years, and as of 2006 it was
still in its infancy. While the existence of a large energy conservation potential,
principally in the services and the industrial sectors (CRES 2005a), the ESCO activity is
still negligible (Aidonis and Markogiannakis 2006), and ESCO business in Greece has
been restricted only to a few pilot EPC projects so far (CRES 2005a). Energy
performance contracting has not deployed yet either in the public, or the private sector.
Three companies attempted to act as ESCOs in the past (Aidonis and Markogiannakis
2006).
The sporadic EPC projects have been concerned with renewable energy technologies
(mainly solar thermal systems and small hydro investments). Some upgrades have been
done in lighting systems and in air conditioning. The ESCO-type projects in the past were
commissioned by the government and concerned governmental buildings.
The lack of ESCO business is blamed on the absence of a positive legal and institutional
environment for the initiation and viability of ESCO operation. This includes the lack of
clear, straightforward and supportive procurement procedures, and the absence of
contractual and administrative guidance for the selection, control and repayment of
energy services.
At the same time, end-use energy management is often weak, and little attention has been
given to energy consumption and to possible savings. On-site expert personnel and the
top management are usually disconnected, thus information about energy use matters
does not reach the decision makers (CRES 2005a).
The remaining monopoly of the Public Power Corporation
24
is one of the important
obstacles to the development of the ESCO sector, because the utility is not motivated to
offer alternative services. Licenses for power generation from alternative sources have
been issued since 2006, which is expected to boost ESCOs active in renewables and
CHP. Nevertheless, the licensing procedure is not sufficiently streamlined and thus time-
consuming, which is hampering fast and large-scale uptake of RES power generation. In
2005, only 3.4% of the total electricity generation was produced in CHP units
(COGENchallenge 2005a). At the same time, support schemes have been introduced for
CHP and RES, such as investment subsidies, leasing schemes, tax reductions and feed-in
tariffs.

24
Demotiki Epiheirisi Ilektrismou in Greek.
20
Moreover, considerable interest in financing energy efficiency and ESCO projects is
present on the side of commercial banks, and similar institutions, such as insurance
companies (Aidonis and Markoginnakis 2006). However, specific financial schemes, and
procedures have not been developed due to the not yet active system (Aidonis and
Markogiannakis 2006).
The government has already acknowledged this contradictory situation, and has
recognized the opportunities offered by EPC, therefore capacity building has been started,
pilot actions have been initiated, and legal formulas (such as a law on TPF) have been
drawn up.
Legislative changes have taken place that are expected to foster ESCO activity. Law 3389
on Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) should help the public sector to overcome one of
the long-standing barriers. Until recently it was prohibited to employ a private body to
operate and manage the building energy services infrastructure of public establishments.
The new law allows multi-year concession contracting for the installation, operation and
maintenance of energy efficient equipment in buildings.
The finalization and adoption of a relevant legal framework and ending the monopoly of
utilities are finally expected to contribute to the successful launch of energy service
companies. These might be formed as subsidiaries of multinational companies, utility
based ESCOs, small specialized companies, and also as public ESCOs.
Table 5. Summary of basic data of the Greek ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 0-3, sporadic TPF
Type of ESCOs only projects
ESCO association No
Size of the market Negligible
Change in recent years Starting
Most popular technologies solar thermal, small hydro

2.1.2 The UK and Ireland
United Kingdom
In the UK energy service contracting dates back to 1984, when the first energy
management company was established as the subsidiary of a large oil company. A
number of engineering companies soon followed suit by offering financial and other
value-added services (Sorrell 2005). There are currently around 20-24 significant ESCO
market players in the United Kingdom active in the non-domestic sector. There is also
some, though limited, activity in the domestic sector, mainly regarding district heating
25

(Sorrell 2005). There have been no new entrants lately, and the last few years could be
described as a period of mergers and consolidation.
The UK has been seen as one of the most important ESCO leaders in Europe (for instance
EC DG JRC 2005). However, between 2000 and 2004 a serious stagnation of investment
was experienced partially due to the demise of CHP. The slow down of the market was
also the result of the implementation of new electricity trading arrangements in 2002,

25
District Heating and insulation is however done very effectively through Warm Front (earlier Home
Energy Efficiency Scheme), which is a grant-funded programme for tackling fuel poverty.
21
with falling electricity prices, accompanied by rising gas prices. Many indigenous ESCO
companies withdrew from the market, and the companies that remained were
predominantly French, Danish or Swedish in origin (Bertoldi et al. 2006a). In the last 2
years reasonable growth in investment has occurred again as climate change and energy
prices have become an issue for many organisations.
The annual turnover in the non-domestic sector is estimated by ESTA
26
to be around 860-
940 million EUR compared to ca. 700 million EUR in 2001 (Sorrell 2005). This
translates to an annual investment in energy efficient plant and systems of about 145
million EUR. According to calculations, ESCOs have captured circa 5% of the market
potential so far (Sorrell 2005).
Traditionally the industrial sector represented the largest part of the clientele using heat
supply contracts (chauffage). The balance is now much more evenly spread across the
industrial and the commercial sectors, though still a little biased towards the private
clients (Sorrell 2005). Growth of the ESCO market is the highest in the commercial
sector, then in the public sector, and slowest in industry; the residential sector still
accounts for a negligible part of ESCO activity.
The commercial sector is characterized by managing agents and other intermediaries who
are starting to realise the need to be proactive in securing better energy performance. This
has been significant in igniting the spread of ESCO investments in this sector. On the
other hand, ESCO work in the industrial sector has been slowing down a little as a result
of a lack of long-term security. It is hard (if not impossible) to guarantee that the site will
be still working under comparable conditions (size, production) until the end of an ESCO
contract, because manufacturing is often transferred abroad.
As of 2006, the main building services elements that are commonly implemented are
lighting, lighting control, HVAC plant replacement, decentralised boilers and controls.
More recently CHP is on the move, regaining position. The UK CHP market features
both large-scale (for instance hospitals) and smaller-scale co-generation (such as leisure
centres with pools). Automatic Monitoring and Targeting (aM&T) have been on the rise,
too, lately, as an answer to the need for better measurement and management. In the
public sector attention has been moving to biomass investments through ESCOs.
The general contracting scheme is called Contract Energy Management (CEM). The
definitions usually found in Europe (and used in our reports) are not commonly used in
the UK. CEM is very similar to a Chauffage contract, i.e. under a CEM an ESCO is
managing some aspects of a client’s energy use under a contract that transfers some of the
(financial) risk from the client to the contractor (usually based on providing agreed
‘service’ levels) (ESTA cited in Sorrell 2005). The main element of CEM is that a
significant percentage of the financial risk is transferred from the client to the ESCO that
takes over responsibility for the management of energy (Sorrell 2005). CEM does not
inherently include project financing, although in most cases it is also on offer.
There are no general model contracts like in Germany. There is an established practice of
measuring performance against agreed Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), or using
contracts with an open book approach, where all costs and profits are stated openly for all
stakeholders. Generally, contracts allow the ESCO to take the risk on consumption, but
for the client to take the main risk on the energy price.

26
Energy Services and Technology Association
22
Certain obstacles to energy conservation are successfully being eliminated in the United
Kingdom. The UK Government’s willingness to lead Climate Change policies
internationally (Hinnells 2006) has definitely been beneficial for the ESCO sector. The
Energy Performance Certificates (according to the Energy performance of Buildings
Directive 2002/91/EC), are regarded as among the most important measures that have
been introduced in recent years and have helped the ESCOs significantly. Nevertheless,
criticism is also pronounced. According to some experts, policies are sometimes
interpreted in a rather weak manner and are delayed. This can lead to a lack of clear
requirements for end users and a situation where the urgency of issues is not evident. In
particular, the transposition of building regulations has been judged by some experts as
not completely successful because requirements should have been stricter.
The most significant issue hindering the development of ESCO projects is the length of
time and effort it takes to bring a project to fruition. For significant projects this is
typically 2-3 years. As a result, contractors tend to be particularly careful and selective,
and they engage in negotiations with potential customers only when the project is highly
likely to be realized and offers sufficiently large saving potentials to be able to pay for the
initiation costs later. Whilst there is a level of bureaucracy in the public sector that adds
to this problem, the key issue is the lack of awareness and reluctance to believe the ESCO
concept. Local authorities should replicate successful experience more. As stated before,
the lack of long-term site security is a major barrier in the case of the industrial sector.
Experts do not see any major regulatory or legal barriers specifically regarding ESCOs
and CEM, nor problems with financing. Financing good energy saving projects (with
pay-back times below 3 years) is not a problem. ESCOs in the UK have good financial
back-up. They have the financial capability themselves or through established banking
routes to provide funding of up to five times the current market (an investment of 700M
EUR) (Aldridge pers.com.).
Programs such as the Energy Efficiency Commitment (EEC) should be further promoted
and supplemented with similar initiatives in the non-residential sector. The EEC is
running between 2002 and 2011, in 3-year cycles. The first EEC (2002-2004) obliged all
gas and electricity suppliers with 15,000 or more domestic customers to encourage and/or
assist customers to take energy-efficiency measures in their homes, thus fulfilling “fuel-
standardized energy benefits”. During the EEC-1 86.8 TWh total delivered savings was
achieved. In the next phase (2005-2008), only utilities with over 50,000 customers need
to fulfil obligations, but a higher total value must be reached. The target is 130 TWh.
Suppliers may assist their own customers or any domestic consumer in the UK.
Local authorities have plunged into creating ESCOs themselves. According to experts,
however, in many cases this is unnecessary because the current market is capable of
tackling more activity than at present.
23
Table 6. Summary of basic data of the British ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 20-24
Type of ESCOs Public and private, mainly French,
Danish and Swedish origin survive
ESCO association Exists: ESTA
Size of the market €860-940 M (annual turnover)
Change in recent years After few years downward trend,
increasing
Most popular technologies lighting, lighting control, HVAC
plant replacement, decentralised
boilers and controls, CHP

Ireland
The Irish energy services industry is still in its infancy (ENVIROS 2005). The ESCO
sector, as of 2007, is still underdeveloped. As a start an overview study that assessed the
potential for energy service companies in the country as a means to catch energy
efficiency improvement opportunities was commissioned by Sustainable Energy Ireland
(SEI) (ENVIROS 2005).
In 2005, 11 companies were identified that could be classified as energy service providers
(ESPCs), and two multinational companies were found to offer guarantee on their
services in the form of EPC (ENVIROS 2005). The most typical (but still rare)
motivation for potential clients is to outsource energy management to a specialized
company, with or without the actual ESCO service and concept (Scott 2004). The most
prevalent contract model in Ireland is the BOOT model (ENVIROS 2005). On the other
hand, Irish ESPC companies do not often use EPC contracts, but prefer to work for a
fixed service fee, and thus face little risk. This is not primarily due to the reluctance on
the part of ESCOs to engage in financing, but rather the disinterest of the clients.
Irish ESCO-type companies can be categorized in three groups:
1. companies offering facility management, which comprises the management of the
client’s water and energy use, cleaning etc.,
2. companies offering contract energy management (CEM),
3. companies constructing and operating CHP.
The two latter categories take upon themselves the financial arrangements of the
investments and the provision of the technical services for the energy management, too
(Scott 2004).
Today the estimate for the potential ESCO industry market size is between 50-110
million EUR/year until 2020 (ENVIROS 2005). This calculation takes into account the
20% reduction potential of energy use in the EU, but considers hidden and missing costs,
whereby reducing the potential. The authors of the report “Assessment of the Potential for
ESCOs in Ireland” have applied various calculation methods in order to confirm the
accuracy and came to a similar results
27
(ENVIROS 2005).

27
Calculation 1.: By leveraging the UK government CO2 abatement cost models, the carbon marginal
abatement cost (MAC) curves were created for energy efficiency technologies. At 20% market capture rate
the ESCO market potential was 26-35 million EUR; Calculation 2.: Derivating from the EU ESCO market
24
A strong disincentive for ESCOs until recently was a result of forecasting errors of the
electricity need in the 1970s, and the following excessive extension of electricity
generation capacity (Gerald 2003). However, by the 2000s, this excess capacity eroded
(Gerald 2003), opening a market niche for energy efficiency. In parallel, electricity
market liberalization was completed in 2005 (Scott 2004) and gas market liberalisation
will follow soon. On the one hand, with liberalization, the market has seen a decrease in
energy price, which is not favourable for ESCO investments. On the other hand, with
restructuring, efficient cogenerated electricity is favoured at the market, which is
important for the development of ESCOs (Scott 2004), because CHP is one of the most
attractive areas for ESCO involvement in Ireland (COGENchallenge 2006a, Scott 2004).
In addition, investment funds at the Irish Energy Center
28
under the Energy Efficiency
Investment Support Scheme were established (Scott 2004), and the government
earmarked 5 million EUR for CHP and district heating programs (COGENchallenge
2006a).
The most important sector for ESCOs in Ireland is probably the industrial sector,
however no appropriate survey exists and conclusions can only be approximated from
case studies presented in different research documentation (Scott 2004, ENVIROS 2005).
The companies that are (at least somewhat) involved in ESCO-type activities have
reported that industry accounts for 50-80 % of their business, commercial sector for 10-
30 % and the public sector for 10-20 % (Scott 2004). The ESCOs estimate that they
usually achieve 10-20% savings, however exact data are not available because of the lack
of baseline and lack of ex post monitoring.
The main barriers listed by informants to the survey carried out by ENVIROS (2005)
include the lack of governmental regulations and targets, and a reluctance to outsource
energy services partially because of concerns about redundancies in staff, and reluctance
from potential ESCOs to take the risk of guaranteeing savings. Furthermore, most of the
potential customers are not aware of the ESCO concept. While the EPC concept is well
known by companies that have the capacity to become ESCOs, lack of appropriate
expertise at banks, high transaction costs and the lengthy contractual arrangements still
pose an obstacle to higher uptake of this market. These barriers need to be addressed as
part of any program that aims at strengthening ESCOs.
Table 7. Summary of basic data of the Irish ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 2
Type of ESCOs Multinational companies
ESCO association No
Size of the market €50-110M/year until 2020
Change in recent years The market is getting off the ground
Most popular technologies Industrial processes, CHP


potential, using GDP comparison, the market potential was between 50 and 100 million EUR; Calculation
3.: Derivating from the EU ESCO market potential, using energy expenditure comparison, the market
potential was between 90 and 180 million EUR; and Calculation 4.: Checking against the market size based
on 20% of Irish energy use, which is the commonly quoted energy efficiency improvement figure to be
attained in the EU by 2020. This resulted in a market potential of 30-90 million EUR.
28
today, Sustainable Energy Ireland
25
2.1.3 Central Europe
France
Energy services (public lighting, gas and electricity distribution, district heating) in the
form of outsourcing public services in France dates back into the 19
th
century (Dupont
and Adnot 2004). The success of these and other “delegated management” services
(waste and water management, transport, telecommunication) financially strengthened
the private companies involved in these businesses, thus creating the basis of the French
ESCO model (Dupont and Adnot 2004). The French ESCO model developed through 6
lines
29
. Traditionally, the “contract of operation” model dominated the French ESCO
market. It needs to be emphasised that the French market cannot be fully associated with
the definitions usually applied elsewhere in Europe
30
. Originally it was based on the
combined operation and maintenance contract of HVAC systems and differentiated four
basic elements (ADEME 2006, Dupont and Adnot 2004):
• P1: purchasing of fuel;
• P2: daily operation;
• P3: complete and complex maintenance; and
• P4: funding for new (energy efficient) equipment
It was necessary to separate the 4 items in the public sector in order to be able to contract
separate companies for the different tasks, to apply different VAT rates, and to be able to
keep the elements separately in the bookkeeping, in keeping with the law (Dupont and
Adnot 2004). For HVAC system operations, the so called “Chauffage contract” is a
contract which includes operation without explicitly committing to carrying out energy
efficiency investment. Under a Chauffage contract, the contractor ensures optimal
operation of an already existing system and must provide an agreed comfort level (for
instance temperature, humidity) at a lower cost for the client if conditions remain
unchanged. The contractor can increase its profits by investing in more energy saving
equipment or by procuring cheaper fuel, thus reducing the costs. These types of contracts
in France are usually long-term and include the obligation to diagnose problems and
identify needs for improvement in the system, and to carry out the investment. However,
funding new energy efficiency equipment in the structure outlined in the bullet points
above is not allowed in the public sector “as a rule with exception” (ADEME 2006,
Dupont and Adnot 2004).
Clients in the private sector applied the above contract-type, but also started to be more
flexible. The first formalized contract including TPF was signed in 1983. This was
primarily designed for financing energy saving investments in order to overcome clients’
aversion to high perceived risk of improvements that in reality were cost-effective, but
not acknowledged as such by the clients (Dupont and Adnot 2004). This model did not
particularly spread in France due to the strength of the traditional “contract of operation”
model. In addition, ESCOs in France are large companies that have the financial means to
finance projects if necessary, thus the role of banks is limited.

29
For a comprehensive overview on the development of the French ESCO sector, please see the European
ESCO Status Report 2005 (EC DG JRC 2005), Dupont and Adnot (2004), and ADEME (2003).
30
For details and exact description and definitions of the different types of ESCO contracts, please see the
European ESCO Status Report 2005 (EC DG JRC 2005).
26
As of 2006, 60% of the ESCO projects are financed by ESCOs themselves, 30% of the
projects utilize TPF, while 10% of the projects are paid for by the clients. Grants and
subsidies are available from the regional bodies of ADEME
31
. Furthermore, ADEME, in
cooperation with the French development bank, created a Crediting System in Favour of
Energy Management (FOGIME), which is a guarantee fund for loans for investments in
sustainable energy and renewables in the private sector.
The French operators have ‘exported’ the Chauffage contract model to several other
European countries, including Belgium, Italy, Spain, the UK, and Central-Eastern
Europe.
The terms ”energy service” and “energy service company”, common in Europe, appeared
only after the late 1990s thanks to the liberalization of energy markets and due to the
development of the European Directive on Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy
Services and the subsequent debates (ADEME 2006).
Due to the historical developments described above, traditionally clients of ESCOs were
from the tertiary sector, and later from industry. As of 2006, experts report increasing
focus on industrial and residential projects, while the public sector is still the primary
client of facility management contracts.
Although the total number of companies offering Chauffage or EPC contracts is around
100, the French market is characterized by strong concentration of actors, with only three
large ESCOs dominating the market. These companies are subsidiaries of main energy
utilities, though working independently from them (ADEME 2006). Earlier they were
referred to as “expolitant de chauffage” while they are more often called now SS2E or
SSEE companies, meaning Energy Efficiency Service Companies.
Recently, new actors have been entering the market. The new actors have different roots,
such as big installers who provide financing in addition to traditional HVAC services;
(mainly multinational) equipment suppliers provide the EPC services found in other
European countries, and local consultancies (ADEME 2006). Primary projects
implemented by ESCOs are still HVAC system operations, public lighting, compressed
air production and building, and CHP and facility management. French ESCOs mostly
provide complex solutions, in contrast to ESCOs in other European countries.
Most of the ESCOs belong to an association, La Fédération Française des Entreprises
Gestionnaires de services aux Equipements, à l'Energie et à l'Environnement (FG3E)
32
,
which has around 500 members. The annual turnover of the ESCO market is estimated by
the ESCO association, FG3E, to be 3 billion EUR.
In spite of the long history, wide-scale activity, and significant development of the French
ESCOs and the ESCO sector, there are a number of key barriers specific for different
sectors. One of the most important legislative restrictions that impedes complex ESCO
activity in the public sector was already mentioned above. Operation and particularly
purchase of equipment in the public sector is not allowed to be designated to private
entities, only in the scope of very special and formal public-private-partnership (PPP)
agreements. It has long been claimed by ESCOs and the FG3E that the engagement of the
private sector to provide complex solutions for the public sphere would be beneficial and

31
Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie; the French Environment and Energy
Management Agency ; http://www2.ademe.fr.
32
French Federation of Companies Providing Services to Facilities, Energy and the Environment; for
further information: www.fg3e.fr.
27
innovative solutions could appear as a result. Therefore the Government Order of 17 July
2004 on PPP has been greeted with high expectations of improving the situation. The
Order creates the possibility to draw up PPP contracts where a concession scheme is not
available and where traditional procurement contracts (marchés publics) cannot be
implemented because of the legal restriction to have separate contracts for each phase of
the design, construction and operation of a project. The new Order also allows the public
sector to pay the private company’s remuneration periodically during the project, and
allows that payment is based on performance indicators previously set out in the contract
(instead of being purely revenue based). In order to further increase the effectiveness of
the new regulation, public accounting rules should also be revised and the separation of
operation and investment budgets should be possible to overcome in case of ESCO
projects, where it is very important that the savings in operation budgets could be used
for investing in efficient equipment. In parallel, public procurement rules should be
revised to allow for the inclusion of criteria on the effectiveness of the proposed energy
efficiency measures.
The public sector should be required by law to improve its energy performance in order
to increase energy savings significantly on the one hand, and to serve as a demonstration
to the other sectors on the other hand. This should be defined as a mandatory requirement
postulated by legislation.
The private sector normally pays primary attention to its core business. It has been found
in France that without fiscal incentives, private companies and households do not engage
in energy saving measures. The price of energy is still not high enough to encourage
savings in these sectors (ADEME 2006). The promotion of energy efficiency and ESCOs
as a tool for that purpose should be emphasized. Furthermore, the social housing sector
(and in general, rented houses) need special treatment to overcome split incentives. It is
proposed by the FG3E association that fiscal incentives (tax exemption, subsidies) could
be useful to overcome this significant barrier.
A White Certificate system has just been introduced in France in 2006
33
, and is expected
to enhance energy efficiency services in the private sector, together with the recently
rising energy prices, and accelerate the ESCO market. Therefore, recent legal
developments are expected to further boost the French ESCO industry, which is still one
of the most successful examples in Europe, although based on the peculiar, but long-
established French ESCO model.

33
Law number 2005-781 of 13 July 2005.
28
Table 8. Summary of basic data of the French ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 100, out of which 3 dominate the
market
Type of ESCOs The large ESCOs are subsidiaries of
utilities, which extend their activity
to many other European countries +
large international equipment
installers and suppliers + local
consultancies
ESCO association Exists: FG3E
Size of the market Turnover is €3 Bln/year
Change in recent years Increased, diversified, extending
more and more to other countries
Most popular technologies HVAC, street lighting, compressed
air production systems, control
systems, building management

Germany
The German ESCO market is often celebrated as the most established energy service
industry in the European Union (Seefeldt 2003). It is among the oldest ESCO markets in
Europe, emerging in the early 1990s (Vine 2005), and has experienced a constant
expansion ever since. In spite of the early start, the continued increase in activity and the
overall success of the German ESCOs, significant market possibilities still exist.
The overall number of ESCOs and ESCO-like companies is still estimated to be around
500 (Brand and Geissler 2003, EC DG JRC 2005). The majority of these companies offer
energy supply contracting (particularly heat delivery services) and operations contracting.
The number of companies offering services through Energy Performance Contracting is
only a fraction of the total figure, around 50, and ESCOs with more than one reference
EPC project are in the range of 20. Small and large local companies, including former
municipal utilities and multinational companies, are active on the market. Furthermore,
the four largest energy companies all have daughter companies carrying out various
contracting activities, of which one is particularly active in the Energy Performance
Contracting business.
There are two associations helping the ESCO sector via a range of activities. The newly
established ESCO Forum represents the larger ESCOs
34
. The ESCO Forum is a recent
merger of the former Bundesverband Privatwirtschaftlicher Energie-Contracting-
Unternehmen e.V. (PECU)
35
and the Contracting Forum of the German Electrical and
Electronic Manufacturers' Association (Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und
Elektronikindustrie e.V. - ZVEI)
36
. The ESCO Forum has 26 members (as of 6 February
2007). On the other hand, the Verband für Wärmelieferung (VfW)
37
is an association of

34
http://www.zvei.de/index.php?id=3708&0=&type=1
35
www.pecu.de
36
www.zvei.de
37
Association for Heat Supply, www.vfw.de.
29
mostly smaller heat delivery service suppliers. VfW has 230 members, of which 197 have
contracting projects (data from 2005).
The total number of running ESCO contracts is estimated at 50,000. Flauger (2005) refers
to market researchers estimating a total potential of 1.3 million projects in Germany.
In 2005, the total turnover of the members of VfW amounted to 1.04 billion EUR
(including energy revenues). New investment amounted to 510 million EUR. 83% of the
contracting activity was energy supply contracting (with 8,000 MW
th
connected rating in
total), 8% EPC, 5% management of technical equipment, and 4% pure third-party
financing (E.ON 2006). According to other sources, the share of EPC in the market is
around 15-20% (Geissler et al. 2006).
The EPC market in Germany has had a total investment value of 750 million EUR by
2006 (Geissler et al. 2006). The market potential is estimated to be about 2 billion EUR
in the public sector alone (including energy turnover), which corresponds to an annual
potential of "350 million EUR monetary savings volume from energy savings", according
to Berliner Energieagentur GmbH (BerliNews 2005). The most common contract model
is the guaranteed savings scheme, where both the customer and the ESCO benefit from
the savings immediately from the first year. Excess savings are shared between the client
and the ESCO following a previously agreed percentage.
The average pay-back time of ESCO projects is 5-15 years, with the municipal sector
tending to longer projects because trust has been developed to a larger extent and
outsourcing has become more common, whilst industry is still averse to long-term
contracts, thus shorter contracts dominate, and the pay-back times are also shorter, around
3 years. Average savings of EPC contracts in Germany are in the range of 10 to 38% for
0.2 – 2,000 MWh/EPC contracts respectively (Kristof 2002).
In the beginning of the nineties, only a limited number of EPC projects were initiated, no
standard documents were available, and doubts about the trustworthiness of ESCOs, their
reliability and the correct value of contracts hindered the sector in Germany.
The establishment of the Energy Saving Partnership (ESP) in 1995 in Berlin is considered
an important step in establishing the energy efficiency market in the public sector in
Germany (Geissler et al. 2006). Under the ESP scheme buildings are bundled into pools
in order to decrease transaction costs. 21 pools had been contracted by ESCOs by 2006,
encompassing over 1300 buildings altogether. A notable number of EPC projects have
been realised in Hessen, North-Rhine-Westfalia, and Bavaria, however there are less or
no activities in other regions, such as Lower Saxony and in the Eastern Länder.
In the meantime, an additional scheme, called “Energy Saving Partnership Plus” (Figure
1.) is being set up, in order to embrace building and construction measures, including for
instance heat insulation, and window replacement. This scheme is based on the existing
one and expands its application by also including work on the building shell, instead of
the typical focus on energy system improvements (equipment and control engineering).
This comprehensive approach is expected to attract new customers from different sectors,
such as industry, hospitals, offices, and in housing (Berliner Energieagentur GmbH
2006).
30

Figure 1. Energy Saving Partnership Plus scheme (based on Berliner Energieagentur GmbH 2006)

According to some experts the share of pure EPC is actually decreasing in Germany, but
the integration of demand-side energy efficiency measures into supply-side oriented
contracting is gaining importance. The provision of energy supply services is successful
with private sector buildings. The ESCO market is projected to be further boosted by the
expected expansion of co-generation.
The successful ESCO industry in Germany is the consequence of a mixture of favourable
conditions, but it is mainly the result of local political support and individual drivers.
A large number of municipal projects, many of which are supported by the energy
agencies, have a strong demonstration effect and act as multipliers among other sectors,
most notably the commercial sector. Besides the large private ESCO sector, Germany is
the homeland of the so-called “Intracting model” or Public Internal Performance
Commitments (PICO) (Energie-Cités 2002, 2004). In the PICO model one department in
the administration acts as a unit similar to an ESCO in function for another department.
The ESCO department organizes, finances and implements energy efficiency
improvements mostly through a fund made up of municipal money, and using existing
know-how. This allows larger cost savings and less profitable projects, which would be
ignored by a private ESCO (Irrek et al. 2005). However, these projects lack the energy
savings guarantee, because there are no sanction mechanisms within a single organization
(even though PICO includes saving targets). This can result in lower effectiveness of the
investments. Nevertheless, this scheme increases activity for energy savings.
Furthermore, the development of energy prices since the liberalization of the electricity
market is considered to be one of the most important triggers for the German ESCO
31
sector. As a result of liberalization, energy prices dropped significantly between 1999 and
2001, but at the same time energy taxes increased, and in the period 2002-2006 energy
prices have almost doubled. Some ESCOs consider the energy taxes as one of the most
effective political measures for energy efficiency.
Another vital step for the evolution of the ESCO industry was the establishment of
standard procedures and documents such as model contracts, an energy performance
retrofitting model and a standard procurement procedure as well as contracting guidelines
by the federal states of Hessen and Berlin (Seefeldt 2003). Today, there are
approximately 7 different model contracts.
The German government supports investments aiming at sustainable energy use and
energy conservation through various financial and technical mechanisms, including
research and development programs, loan/funding schemes, and incentive programs for
renewable energy. Additionally non-governmental programs also exist (such as credit
programs by eco-banks, for instance kWf, or boiler replacement by utilities), which
complement ESCOs work in the residential sector (Brand and Geissler 2003).
Energy agencies at national, regional and local levels played and are still playing an
important role as mediators between ESCOs and current as well as potential clients.
Energy agencies have also taken on the role of carrying out energy efficiency monitoring
and verification (Seefeldt 2003).
The former ESCO association, PECU, claimed that, as of 2004, ESCOs had not been able
to attract industrial clients and certain barriers persist (PECU 2004). In 2006 there are
indications that ESCO activity in the industrial sector is on the rise.
The main barriers to ESCOs in industry are the unwillingness of clients to engage in
contracts with pay-back times longer than a few years, and the reluctance to use ESCOs
when the core production process is affected. A serious problem for ESCO projects is the
need to measure and verify savings, which requires a relation of trust between the ESCO
and the client, and the client’s willingness to co-operate with the ESCO is essential. To
overcome some of these barriers, the Wuppertal Institute and its partners have developed
a concept for a German “EnergySavingFund”. One suggestion is to establish a guarantee
scheme for ESCOs to overcome problems of insolvency of ESCO clients which have
increased in recent years.
In the public sector certain legal conditions (budgetary and municipal law) could be
improved, because they hamper the work of ESCOs today (Geissler et al. 2006). A
neutral stance on how remuneration from savings should be accounted within the
municipal budget is one essential point which needs a clear definition. Energy efficiency
related public contracts are usually simply awarded to the lowest bid (upfront
investment), and energy saving are not considered (lifecycle costs). PECU therefore
requested that life-cycle costs of new equipment are taken into account (PECU 2006) in
the public bidding process and that it becomes more transparent. Purely project based
financing for Performance Contracting projects is believed to have the capacity to
improve market uptake, but has not yet been in use. Several larger ESCOs are reluctant to
bid for contracting projects in the public sector, because the tender specifications are
often considered as being of low quality and unclear, or because of the small size of
tenders and long and costly acquisition processes.
Delivery Contracting came to a halt in the residential sector because of legal
uncertainties. According to a recent decision by the German Federal Court of Justice, the
32
costs for investments in such a project can only be imposed on the tenant’s costs if this
was stipulated originally in the hiring contract, or if all tenants agree to the investment.
This is a step back for ESCO projects in this sector.
Nevertheless, the ESCO market in Germany continues to grow, with special increase in
certain sectors, such as the hospital sector or industry, which are projected to grow by as
much as 100-150% (Geissler et al. 2006).
Table 9. Summary of basic data of the German ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 500, of which about 50 ESCOs are
using the EPC scheme
Type of ESCOs Private and PPP, some MNC, many
local or municipal companies
ESCO association Exists, ESCO Forum and VfW
Size of the market Market potential is € 2 Bln in the
public sector alone
Change in recent years The growth slowed down slightly;
fewer pure EPC contracts, but
increased integration of energy
efficiency measures on the demand-
side into supply-side oriented
contracting
Most popular technologies Heating, insulation, CHP is growing

Austria
Austria is another success story of the ESCO industry in Europe, and the particularly fast
uptake is an exemplary case for the rest of the EU. Austria offers numerous interesting
case studies with high replicability.
The ESCO market in Austria saw a rather late commencement. The level of the ESCO
market was nearly zero in 1998. With a quick take-off in less than a decade (Geissler et
al. 2006), Austria has become an ESCO market leader in Europe. As of 2006, there are
around 30 ESCOs
38
in Austria, and the number is still increasing, though only ca. 5
companies cover 70-80% of the total market. ESCOs estimate there is a ca. 500 million
EUR investment opportunity in economically feasible projects for the rationalization of
energy use.
The general financing scheme in Austria has been the shared savings model. Bundling of
similar projects following the example of Berlin (ESP)
39
has proven to be an important
success factor. Increasing and guaranteeing the quality of projects is a priority, and for
this reason standard documents (such as contract models) have been made available, and
standardized project development has been introduced (E.V.A. 2005). Uniquely even
among the developed ESCO industries, several quality labels have been set up for ESCOs
and ESCO services (E.V.A. 2005). The Thermoprofit quality label initiated by the Graz

38
The developmental stage of the market is shown by the relatively large variance of the number of ESCOs
indicated in different literature sources. The number varies between 15 (E.V.A. 2005) and 20 (Mihatsch
2006) to 50 (Lutter pers.com.). The companies are clearly still building up capacities (E.V.A. 2005).
39
See the German country review above on page 28.
33
Energy Agency was introduced to guarantee reliable high quality proposals by ESCOs
using the label. The label is issued by Graz Energy Agency and an independent
commission that assess the ESCO companies at regular intervals to confirm that they fit
Thermoprofit standards (Graz Energy Agency 2003), and this example has spread to
other regions. The so called eco-label, on the other hand, denotes the quality of ESCO
services and the compliance with standards (E.V.A. 2005).
The great majority of the EPC contracts until now have been concluded in the public
sector, in federal and municipal buildings (E.V.A. 2005), and the private sector is lagging
behind. Between 1997 and 2005 over 1000 public buildings were optimized with the EPC
tool. In 2004-2005 another huge federal program started with about 800 buildings
(E.V.A. 2005). On average, ESCOs have been able to guarantee almost 20 % savings for
10 years in these contracts (Grim 2006). Improvements have been achieved on heating
and cooling systems, lighting, and water management. Street lighting has been renovated
widely, too. There are dedicated programs to increase energy efficiency in municipalities,
such as the e5 programme under the national climate protection program
40
.
In recent years, more and more effort is being given to increase the number of ESCO
projects in the private service sector and to find out the reasons for the slow uptake of the
ESCO model, in spite of the same or higher energy saving potentials as in the public
buildings. Various programs
41
have tried to find and remove barriers in this sector. It has
become clear that barriers are larger in the private sector both on the clients’ and the
contractors’ side. The building owners and/or users still lack awareness about the benefits
of energy efficiency and the opportunities offered by ESCOs (E.V.A. 2005), even though
energy related costs constitute up to 50% of the operating costs in private service
buildings (Grim 2006). Private buildings are often rented out, creating classical split
incentives. Furthermore, energy related matters are seen as less important compared to
core issues, and consequently private companies pay less attention to this area (E.V.A.
2005). It is perceived that decreasing energy demand does not add much to profitability.
Finally, the private building owners are often hesitant to get involved in long-term
contracts, and some are scared by previous bad experience (E.V.A. 2005).
A limited number of projects have been implemented in shopping centers, hotels, banks,
churches, office buildings, and hospitals.
Renewable energy sources have started to get attention, too, during the last few years.
Currently there are 3 million m
2
installed solar collectors in Austria (ST-ESCOs 2006).
Graz (250,000 inhabitants) has an innovative district heating system, that integrates a
10,000 m
2
sized solar collector surface for supplying a 2500 MW thermal energy per
year. This area is clearly growing, opening new fields for ESCOs (ST-ESCOs 2006).
The government has played a significant role in the sharp development of the ESCO
sector in Austria. A number of incentives are available for investments for the rational
use of energy (subsidies, soft loans, tax credits for residential buildings). The
involvement of federal and municipal buildings to the extent described above is
exemplary. Energy agencies have been very active, participating directly and indirectly in
ESCO projects. Obligations have not been typical, but in a few regions audits are

40
klima:aktiv
41
such as the EUROCONTRACT (E.V.A. 2005) and ecofacility framed in the national climate protection
program (klima:aktiv) (Grim 2006, Unterpertinger 2005).
34
obligatory in public buildings. Finally, ensuring quality and developing certification of
ESCOs and ESCO businesses must be highlighted.
Table 10. Summary of basic data of the Austrian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs ~30
Type of ESCOs Private and public
ESCO association no
Size of the market €500 M investment opportunity
Change in recent years fast development and increase
Most popular technologies Heating, cooling, lighting, water
management

2.1.4 Benelux countries
Belgium
ESCO business started in Belgium in 1990 (Vine 2005). As of 2006, the number of
companies that offer complex energy services in Belgium is increasing and the scope of
ESCO activity is growing, yet this is not matched by an actual market expansion, in
particular in financing services. To the knowledge of the authors, there is no estimation
available about the size of the market today. The ESCO market is dominated by large
multinational companies, offering facility and building management using the Chauffage
model, while EPC is not yet wide-spread. In the tertiary building sector (large buildings)
the market is similar to France.
The public sector (mainly sports halls and schools) has received much attention from
ESCOs in Belgium, and the industrial sector was also targeted to a large extent.
Willingness to outsource by large consumers has been an important driving force, in
order to provide off-balance sheet solutions for energy efficiency investments.
The public sector has been targeted also by the government itself, through establishing a
public ESCO, the FEDESCO. It was started with a 1.5 million EUR governmental grant
from the Kyoto Fund and with additional 5 million EUR private funding (IEA 2005). The
FEDESCO carries out energy audits, and provides pre-financing to carry out identified
potential measures. The clients have to earmark the cost savings from energy efficiency
interventions and reimburse FEDESCO (first-out contract).
A small part of the industry is currently initiating activities in the residential sector. It is
the aim of smaller energy consultancies to complement auditing services with the sales
and direct installation of energy efficient household equipment and lighting (de Groote
2006). Nevertheless, the residential sector is still a minor client for ESCOs.
Technologies targeted in the public and industrial sectors are lighting renovations,
improvement of heating and cooling systems and control systems. As a result of low
energy prices, the pay-back time of ESCO projects is long; even lighting projects have a
PBT of 5-7 years, which can also explain the prevalence of complex facility management
contracts.
Financing of ESCO investments is not a problem, and it is not a factor that limits
development. Customer financing, ESCO-based funding and third party financing
(mainly leasing) are all used in Belgium. ESCO-based funding is often preferred in order
to limit participants and to have only one responsible partner for the entire project.
35
The federal and regional governments have taken important steps towards increasing
energy efficiency, although not particularly to strengthen the ESCO market (IEA 2005).
Besides transposing and implementing EU legislation, other measures, such as voluntary
agreements, green certificates, public sector obligations have been aimed at increasing
energy conservation in Belgium (IEA 2005). Flanders has been active for a long time in
implementing energy efficiency measures in all sectors, while Wallonia started a little
later.
The most important barrier to ESCO projects is low energy prices. In order to develop the
EPC market in Belgium, complex political action would be useful, that could effectively
combine an obligation to save energy, increasing energy prices, subsidies for energy-
efficient investments, tax exemptions or other benefits – some of which already exist.
Table 11. Summary of basic data of the Belgian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs ~30
Type of ESCOs PPP and private, many MNC and 1
public
ESCO association No
Size of the market n.a.
Change in recent years increasing
Most popular technologies public building refurbishment

The Netherlands
The Netherlands has been referred to as a successful country in energy efficiency,
without significant energy service company activity (EC DG JRC 2005). Energy
management is common but there is almost no energy performance contracting (Bertoldi
et al. 2006b). There are only a few ESCOs active in the Netherlands, mostly MNCs
similarly to the surrounding countries. The level of activity and the number of companies
have not changed much in recent years. The market is small, although no exact market
potential has been estimated. The last significant research on ESCOs was conducted in
1998, and an update is expected in 2007 by SenterNovem, which should be able to reveal
recent developments and trends.
ESCOs could develop and add to the already large energy saving results but apparently
awareness about this option is too low and the institutional framework is missing, which
hamper the launch of activity.
In the case of the industrial sector, voluntary agreements have been successfully pushing
energy efficiency improvements and industry has been implementing measures on its
own, given that they possess the financial and technical means and in-house capacity.
There has been, however, a market for specific consultancies to support these changes.
Lately, voluntary agreements cover the tertiary building sector, too.
Energy efficiency improvements in the residential sector are supported by other means
than ESCOs, including grants, and preferential loan rates. 80% of all rented houses are
social houses, which are occupied by lower-income people at low rates. Improvements in
the social housing could be potentially an important market for ESCOs, however as a
result of governmental programs, this sector is rather overcapitalized and ESCOs are not
able to compete for projects.
36
In the case of the public sector, the role for ESCOs has been limited because there is one
organization responsible for the management and operation of all state owned buildings
and another one for military sites, which are taking care of energy related investments
and refurbishments on their own, and are not interested in employing an ESCO. These
organizations themselves stand close to the ESCO definition, but without guarantees and
traditional risk-sharing. Nevertheless, implementation of energy system improvements is
supported with energy performance calculations.
Street-lighting and large buildings that are not state owned (hospitals) do make up a
segment that is available and open for ESCO contracting. Complex projects often take
place through joint ventures.
Since the energy efficiency market has been moving without ESCOs, potential clients
have not seen positive examples and do not count on this solution for energy saving. It is
evident that the ESCO is only one of the tools for increasing energy efficiency, and the
Netherlands has been using other measures to become one of the leaders of energy use
rationalization.
Table 12. Summary of basic data of the Dutch ESCO market
Number of ESCOs very few
Type of ESCOs MNC, often joint-ventures
ESCO association No
Size of the market n.a.
Change in recent years Stable
Most popular technologies Street lighting and large building
renovations

Luxemburg
Specific information about the ESCO market in Luxembourg is scarce. The number of
ESCOs present in Luxembourg is around 3-4, which include daughter companies of large
multinational companies of French and German origin, but also one Luxembourgian
company, too. Occasionally, ESCOs in the surrounding countries implement projects in
the country.
Energy intensity in Luxembourg has decreased 2.5 times faster than the EU average
between 1990-2004. To this end, lots of measures related to energy conservation and
rational use of energy were introduced in order to support the achievement of Kyoto
targets and other commitments. These measures include voluntary schemes with industry,
with hospital associations and the banking sector, subsidies and fixed feed-in-tariffs for
RES, and support for households and the public sector to implement energy efficiency
with a maximum subsidy of 40% of audits carried out for the buildings (MURE-Odyssee
2006a). However, specific measures to support ESCOs have not been central in
Luxembourg.
37
Table 13. Summary of basic data of the Luxembourgian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 3-4
Type of ESCOs local and multi-national companies
ESCO association No
Size of the market not known
Change in recent years n.d.
Most popular technologies n.d.

2.1.5 Nordic countries
Finland
The Finnish energy agency, Motiva
42
, maintains a public list of ESCOs and an ESCO
project database
43
. While there were three ESCOs identified in 2003 (EC DG JRC 2005),
by 2007 the number of active ESCOs registered in the database of Motiva reached 9
(Motiva n.d.). Experts at Motiva are aware of a total of 11 companies that have
implemented at least one ESCO project. 4-5 of these companies are actually actively
participating in the sector, and only one ESCO company has circa 90% of the market
share. There are 6 local ESCOs or subsidiaries of multinational companies, 2 local energy
companies, and 3 other companies that have had several ESCO projects. The EPC
business has been increasing lately, but not to the extent expected before
44
.
Industries are the focal point for energy efficiency investments by ESCOs. Energy
intensive industries, such as the paper, and chemical industries and metallurgy make use
of ESCO-offered services increasingly. These industries are interested in energy savings
because 15-20% of their costs are energy costs. Thus, production processes and heat
recovery have been the most common ESCO project areas. The public sector has also
been addressed widely. In regards to the numbers of projects, 50% have been carried out
in this sector, though regarding the level of energy savings, the public sector accounts for
only 10% of total savings resulting from ESCO projects. The public sector contracted
ESCOs for HVAC system improvements in the most cases. Both shared savings and
guaranteed savings contracting models are used in Finland.
No recent estimate of the size of the ESCO market is available in Finland. The latest
information is for the period 1998-2004, when the annual savings through energy
efficiency were roughly 95 million EUR/year, 5% of which was carried out by ESCOs
(Hypponen 2006). At the same time, ESCOs estimate that by 2004 not more than 10% of
the constantly growing industrial ESCO market potential had been captured.
The most important and successful push for energy efficiency in general and for ESCO
contracting has been the Voluntary Energy Conservation Agreements between the
industry and the Ministry of Trade and Industry introduced as long ago as 1997
(Hypponen 2006, Motiva 2005). There is an on-going auditing program supported by the

42
Motiva Oy, www.motiva.fi
43
http://www.motiva.fi/fi/toiminta/esco-toiminta/esco-hankerekisteri/esco-yrityksetsuomessa.html and
http://www.motiva.fi/fi/toiminta/esco-toiminta/esco-hankerekisteri/
44
It is reported in the European ESCO Status Report 2005 (EC DG JRC 2005) that experts had predicted a
doubling of the market from 2004 to 2005
38
government; but this has not created a large increase of ESCO activity because clients
generally implement the suggested measures themselves.
Financing of energy efficiency investments has not been a problem in Finland, in spite of
the limited activity by banks. Both clients and ESCOs have the capacity to obtain
financing for the projects. However an increase of awareness in the financial sector about
ESCO industry would be able to boost the market by increasing financial input and
involving new ESCOs, clients and projects (Hypponen 2006).
Other driving forces are the increasing energy prices and environmental requirements,
limited in-house energy expertise in the industry and sometimes limited budgets for
refurbishment (Hypponen 2006).
The normal procurement process does not recognize EPC and standards for procuring
ESCO services are needed. The new accounting system makes the bookkeeping of ESCO
projects more complicated: according to the new IAS/IFRS
45
reporting, equipment must
be shown in the client’s own balance sheet and investment budgets, and booked as a
financial lease. This way, an ESCO service is booked in the accounting in 3 parts:
services, lease and interest. This is unfavourable for the ESCOs, which offer a complete
service package and not equipment separately. More importantly – because the new
equipment appears as clients’ investment – decisions must be taken by the client
according to their internal investment rules (Hypponen 2006). Earlier, the ESCO service
could be handled simply in the income statement as a purchase of services.
Industries that have joined the voluntary agreement described above are eligible for 15-
20% subsidy of the energy efficiency investment costs from the government (Hypponen
2006). Furthermore, the subsidies are peculiar in Finland since they are designed to help
the ESCO industry by offering an additional 5 percentage points subsidy to clients if an
ESCO is employed in the project.
It is important to note that a new niche has been discovered by ESCOs in Finland, namely
material efficiency, which has an enormous saving potential (Hypponen 2006). So far,
greater hesitance is experienced on part of the clients than in case of energy efficiency
improvements, but ESCO-type scheme is expected to operate in this field, too (Hypponen
2006).
Table 14. Summary of basic data of the Finnish ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 9-11
Type of ESCOs Independent ESCOs, local energy
companies, MNC, consultancies
ESCO association no
Size of the market € 220M investment 1998-2004
Change in recent years Slowly, but increasing
Most popular technologies Heat recovery, production
processes, HVAC, new area:
efficiency of recycling raw materials


45
International Accounting Standards; http://www.iasplus.com/standard/standard.htm.
39
Sweden
The Swedish EPC market has been dormant until recently (Energikontor Sydost
46
2005,
Geissler et al. 2006). A quick growth has been observed during the last 2-3 years driven
by the growing interest from potential customers (Forsberg et al. forthcoming). For a long
time, a lack of experience, mistrust and legal ambiguities hindered the uptake of the
benefits offered by ESCOs. Mistrust in ESCOs and EPC is a particularly important issue
in Sweden. The mistrust developed because ESCO-type investments already took place
as early as 1978 (Vine 2005); however, many of these failed, and did not present the
anticipated savings result
47
.
The number of ESCOs offering EPC in 2007 is around 12-15 (Forsberg et al.
forthcoming), going up from around 5 in the last 2 years when two larger consultancy
firms and one HVAC company started to develop ESCO-like services for small-scale
projects. As of 2007, there are local market actors, control companies, building service
companies and consultancy companies. Some of the EPC providers have extended their
structure and formed special EPC branches (Forsberg et al. forthcoming).
According to expert estimates, in 2006 the turnover from projects employing EPC was
around 50 million EUR (Forsberg et al. forthcoming). The market size in a broader sense,
including all “Performance oriented” contracts (for instance boiler and heat pump
retrofits) was twice as large, around 80-100 million EUR.
The energy saving potential through ESCOs in Sweden has been calculated at 15% of the
present energy demand, and this suggests a 650 million EUR ESCO investment potential
with a relatively short pay-back time (Geissler et al. 2006).
Clearly the most attractive and emerging sector that takes up ESCO projects is the public
sector (municipal buildings, hospitals). In less than 5 years, 5% of the public building
stock has been contracted by EPC (Forsberg et al. forthcoming). As of 2006, about 3
million m
2
in public buildings had been covered by an EPC and an additional two million
m
2
was under preparation. The most crucial success factor for the uptake of ESCO
projects by public bodies is a change in mindsets: ESCO companies have distanced
themselves from pure outsourcing, and focused on implementation and operational
partnerships instead.
Almost all projects that have been implemented lately have installed new or improved
control systems. Large-scale air-handling refurbishment in combination with improved
heat recovery accounts for the largest project investment values. An interesting
development is that public bodies in 2005 also started to use the cost savings from EPC
projects to finance RES installations.
The Swedish ESCO revival is believed to be the outcome of a complex mix of targeted
strategic activities
48
(Forsberg et al. forthcoming). Key parts of the strategy have been
ground studies and market studies, pilot projects and guidelines for procurement and
model contracts, large scale and effective information dissemination and capacity

46
Energy Agency of Southeast Sweden
47
Details of the reasons of the failures of EPC in Sweden, first in the 1970-1980’s, then again in the 1990’s
are provided in Forsberg et al. (forthcoming).
48
Sweden has carried out a number of local initiatives and participated in international projects for the
induction of the EPC market. For instance, local projects have been the Forum for energy services; EPEC;
U.F.O.S. EU projects: EUROCONTRACT, PU Benefs; Interco-PPP; and international level activity: IEA
DSM Task X (Forsberg et al. forthcoming).
40
building for multipliers, combined with personalized information dissemination to EPC
buyers to provide answers to their preoccupation (Forsberg et al. forthcoming).
Nevertheless, in spite of the information dissemination and stakeholder meetings,
interpretations still differ on some key issues (Geissler et al. 2006). Another problem is
that trust towards ESCOs is still not fully restored, and in this regard, it would be
beneficial to have clear “official” statements by the government and public bodies in
support of TPF, EPC and ESCOs.
As of 2005, the financing of EPC was not well established by banks. Today there is at
least one Nordic commercial bank provides TPF, also buying receivables/using forfeiting.
Smaller projects are directly financed by ESCOs.
The Swedish example demonstrates that deliberate, well-designed dissemination of
information, clarified regulatory environment, standardized, trustworthy documents and
procedures, and successful show-cases can be of key importance for development.
Nevertheless, the recipe is not valid for just any market, different markets have to
overcome their own barriers using some of these measures and combined with others
(Forsberg et al. forthcoming).
Table 15. Summary of basic data of the Swedish ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 12-15
Type of ESCOs Local and MNC
ESCO association No
Size of the market ~€50 M turnover in 2006
Change in recent years Rapid uptake
Most popular technologies Improved control systems,
ventilation and heat recovery

Denmark
According to the Energy Division of the Danish Offshore Industry, less than 5 companies
offer ESCO services in Denmark. The number of ESCOs has been rather constant over
recent years, although companies enter and leave the market, which results in some small
fluctuation. To the knowledge of the authors, the ESCO market size has not been
evaluated lately, but ESCO experts estimate it to be around 5 million EUR per annum.
Experts claim that the commercial market for ESCOs is more favourable in 2006 than it
was in 2000 (DI and PSO 2006), as the market may experience a further expansion in the
coming years, partially as a result of the governmental commitment to decrease final
energy consumption by 1.7%/year by 2013, which is supported by the obligation on
energy producers and distributors to document their obtained savings.
Until the early start of 2000s, efforts for energy savings and energy efficiency
improvements were concentrated on the private sector (industrial sites) and remarkable
results have been achieved in particular in the brewery sector, but as of 2006, the (public)
building sector is receiving growing attention. The types of projects implemented by
ESCOs so far in Denmark have been control system installation, ventilation and industrial
process improvements.
According to the Danish Offshore Industry, financing of ESCO projects through banks
has not deployed yet probably due to a lack of knowledge and experience of the financial
41
sector of the market perspectives of EPC. Clients have financed ESCO projects
implemented to date.
There is a need to develop awareness and trust among potential clients through
demonstrational projects and making standardized contracts and related documents
available (DI and PSO 2006). Experts believe that one of the most important barriers to
EPC is the lack of established standard monitoring and verification methods. Another
major necessity that has been articulated by experts is to establish working networks
where utility/grid companies, financial institutions and equipment suppliers can jointly
develop organisational and financial models. Today, suppliers of energy saving
equipment are often dependent on utilities in order to be able to measure baseline energy
consumption and savings (DI and PSO 2006).
The Danish Offshore Industry believes that more effective and successful enforcement of
the already existing EU level legislation for energy savings, such as the Buildings
Directive (Directive 2002/91/EC), is also of major importance.
Table 16. Summary of basic data of the Danish ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 2-4
Type of ESCOs Danish based MNC
ESCO association No
Size of the market €5 M/year
Change in recent years no change
Most popular technologies industrial processes, eg. in brewery,
control systems, ventilation

2.2 New EU Member States 2004
2.2.1 Baltic Countries
Lithuania
Lithuania has a large level of power generation overcapacity and is a net exporter of
electricity. Consequently the energy price used to be very low, and energy efficiency was
a low priority area (COGENchallenge 2005b); however this has significantly changed. In
addition, 100% of the natural gas is imported from the Russian Federation, the electricity
market will be fully opened from 2007, and the Ignalina power plant is expected to be
closed in 2009 (COGENchallenge 2005b), while the economy is steadily growing (GDP
growth was 6.6% in 2004).
The first ESCO businesses and a business plan for an Energy Service Company were set
up in the framework of the SAVE project “Energy Service Companies in Lithuania” in
2001-2003 (LEI n.d.b.). As of 2006, there were already six ESCOs or ESCO-type
companies working in Lithuania. These were established mainly as subsidiaries of large
foreign companies. The number of companies and the size of the market are slowly
increasing. One new company started operating in 2006.
The ESCO market is concentrated on residential and public buildings, and to a limited
extent on industrial investments. The estimation of the market size is around 125 million
EUR for the residential and public segment, and a further 50 million EUR for industry.
42
Lithuanian ESCOs and ESPCs are primarily engaged in heat production and supply side
energy management in the district heating sector, which includes the modernization of
boilers in order to utilize biofuels and other local resources. Most projects were
commissioned by municipalities and the public sector. The most popular contract scheme
is the guaranteed savings model.
Both national and international banks are eager to be involved in financing ESCO
projects. The development of the financial sector of Lithuania has been lagging behind
other CEE countries, which has delayed their involvement in TPF until recently (LEI
n.d.a.). There are also a number of forms of capital support from the state and
municipalities, including investment subsidies, soft loans, interest subsidies, and loan
guarantees.
There are many barriers hampering the exploitation of ESCO potential, one of the most
important being the lack of information, and limited understanding of the importance and
benefits of energy efficiency by authorities (potential clients). Furthermore,
administrative hurdles persist, such as complicated procurement procedures. Decision on
a tender winner is primarily based on the cost of the initial investment. Streamlined and
rigorously implemented policies aimed at radical improvement of the energy efficiency in
buildings and the industry could significantly increase the ESCO market.
In order to overcome the most important barriers, efforts would be needed at various
levels. Governmental support for and promotion of energy performance contracting
would be helpful. This could be in the form of supportive policies, and clarified
procedural regulations. A concise national strategy for energy efficiency in line with
necessary changes in the energy sector is needed. More promotion of “best energy
efficiency practice” is seen as necessary for building up trust and an understanding of the
ESCO concept.
Table 17. Summary of basic data of the Lithuanian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 6
Type of ESCOs MNC
ESCO association No
Size of the market €175 M
Change in recent years Increase
Most popular technologies Heating, DH, large boilers

Latvia
The first ESCO action was started in December 2001 with the renovation of the street
lighting system and the application of efficient lighting technology in Tukums
municipality within the ELI project
49
(Rochas 2004). As of 2006, there are two
companies using EPC in Latvia. This number has not changed lately (Rochas 2004).
Apart from this, there are several projects which include leasing of CHP and new boilers,
and are often developed with some elements of EPC. Furthermore, over 40 companies
have been identified that work with energy delivery contracts, which is still seen as more
profitable than EPC (Ekodoma n.d.).

49
More information about the ELI project and the municipal lighting refurbishment activities in Latvia can
be found at: http://www.efficientlighting.net/FormerELI/latvia/overview_streetl.htm.
43
There is no information on the ESCO market size or the potential of energy efficiency
investments. Until now, most projects have been realized in the public sector with public
lighting and boiler improvements.
The public sector is not yet fully aware of the benefits of EPC and ESCOs. Pubic
budgeting rules induce a lack of interest in energy cost saving anyway, because if a
municipality saves money, it may loose all financial savings by getting a smaller
allocation for subsequent years, depending on the calibration of the subsidy allocating
formula in the country. This situation creates a “pressure” to spend the entire annual
municipal budget in order to avoid being cut the following year. This situation is typical
of a large number of other countries.
In general, the lack of belief and trust in demand-side energy efficiency is evident and it
is crucial when decision makers are obliged to select among different measures to be
taken. The small number of ESCO projects could not yet build the trust and provide
enough success stories. In addition, a standard requirement for a tender is a minimum
number of bids: it is impossible to conclude a tender when potential business actors are
not interested.
Financial institutions in Latvia are open to EE investments: for instance 2 local banks
even have staff trained on energy efficiency project management and the ESCO concept.
Lately others banks are showing interest in this business, too. Therefore, it is not the
problem with financing that limits the ESCO market in Latvia.
It is expected that the opening of the energy markets will facilitate the development of
Energy Delivery Contracting, and hopefully EPC, too (Ekodoma n.d.). Public
procurement procedures need revision to incorporate and support “green” procurement
and the procurement law could directly introduce the concept of ESCOs to facilitate the
market.
Table 18. Summary of basic data of the Latvian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 2 + about 40 ESPCs
Type of ESCOs 2 companies focused on EPC, the
others on delivery contracting
ESCO association No
Size of the market n.d.
Change in recent years No change, but the environment has
become better, thus consequent
growth is expected
Most popular technologies Public lighting and boiler
improvement

Estonia
According to Estonian experts, ESCOs have not deployed yet in Estonia as of 2006-07.
The ESCO market is limited to only a few transactions with an energy services nature.
Until 2006, 2 companies (one local and a multinational) had been established, and even
these do not perform ESCO activities as the main business area with primary activities
oriented to other fields. No estimate of the market size and potential exists to the
knowledge of the authors and the local respondents.
44
The few ESCO-type investments that have been realized took place in the public sector,
aiming at the improvement of public lighting, control and automation systems. Boiler
improvements are also common by the one multinational ESCO, but only on the supply
side with the formula of Delivery Contracting.
Financial institutions would be interested in participating in TPF of energy efficiency
investments, and strong competition has reduced interest rates, which can be a crucial
benefit for EE through ESCOs.
One of the most important barriers to the ESCO market is the changing environment
where they have to work. The legal system has been altered significantly since the
restoration of independence, and still the laws are often amended. The unstable, still
developing regulatory framework hinders the conclusion of long-term, technically
complex agreements. Election cycle-based thinking and attitudes have also been an
important impediment, inhibiting long-term contracts in the public sector.
Experts believe that the delayed appearance of ESCOs is also due to the limited
knowledge and understanding of the concept and benefits. ESCOs are expected to get off
the ground if information is disseminated effectively and widely and if standard contract
formulas and procedures are developed and accepted.
Although ESCO activity has been low in Estonia, energy efficiency is a priority in all
sectors. In fact, ESCO projects have not been active in domestic apartment block (which
have huge saving potential) because they cannot compete with the high level of
governmental support and the low interest rate loans that are available for households
through which energy efficiency has been increased significantly in recent years.
In the public sector, many of the large municipalities are able to finance their own
investments and therefore do not expect ESCO activity. Municipalities were obliged to
apply for Structural Funds, which were also used for energy system improvements. On
the other hand, municipalities often require energy audits by consulting companies.
Similarly, the industrial sector has the financial and technical capacity to carry out energy
retrofits without ESCOs. Furthermore, this sector in Estonia is averse to outsourcing.
An ESCO that targets the residential sector is being set up during the preparation of this
report. The ESCO integrates the governmental “energy saving loan” for households, the
obligatory “renovation fund”, and further bank loan if required by the tenants. If a
housing association decides to implement energy efficiency investments, the so called
“renovation fund”, that all associations must establish and keep, will be the basis of
financing. If this is not sufficient, the association is eligible for a low-rate preferential
energy saving loan. It is obligatory to carry out a detailed energy audit to draw this loan.
The ESCO carries out the audit and identifies energy efficiency measures and their costs.
The housing association can consequently decide which measures to implement. The
bank loan is given based on the guarantee given by the ESCO. Upon request insurance
can be provided by an insurance company on the ESCO guarantee can be also involved
for 2 years in order to avoid any financial risk. The scheme is expected to open up the
residential sector for ESCO businesses, thus significantly increasing energy efficiency
and living conditions in households.
45
Table 19. Summary of basic data of the Estonian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 0-2 (few projects)
Type of ESCOs One local and one MNC
ESCO association no
Size of the market not known
Change in recent years stable
Most popular technologies public lighting, but complex
residential projects are expected to
increase

2.2.2 New Member States in Central Europe
Hungary
The development of the Hungarian ESCO industry has been celebrated as a unique
success story not only in Central Europe, but also across the EU (Urge-Vorsatz et al.
2004, EC DG JRC 2005). The ESCO industry in Hungary dates back to the early 90s.
After 15 years the market is experiencing stagnation, and whether the exemplary success
is continued is debated. The easy “cherry-picking” projects have already been exploited
and the market is in need of revitalization, while the ESCO sector is undergoing a
transformation process with some companies exiting or changing their core business
away from energy service provision. Time will show whether this situation will
strengthen the EPC market by consolidating it or will weaken and water it down by
concentrating it in the hands of a few parties only.
Based on a registry of the Energy Center
50
, there are about 30 ESCOs or ESCO-type
companies in Hungary, but only about 5-6 companies cover 80% of the market. French
ESCOs played a crucial role in the early development of the industry in Hungary; another
important factor was strong local engineering expertise and interest in entering a new
market for energy service provision. The ESCOs approximate a 150-200 million EUR
market size, excluding large power plant investment opportunities.
Projects in the beginning were primarily focused on public lighting, co-generation and
district heating system improvements. As of 2005, other technologies have been gaining
an increasing importance, such as heating and hot water system interventions, industrial
water and steam supply, air conditioning, automatization and RES (biomass) (Rodics
2005).
Most of the clients have always been in the municipal sector. This is partially due to the
long-term security that this sector provides for ESCOs, and to the specific support
programs (such as the UNDP/GEF Hungary Public Sector Energy Efficiency Project
51


50
Collected through the UNDP project implemented by the Energy Center (for the financial assistance of
the energy audits and feasibility studies related to energy efficiency for municipalities) and completed by
the authors.
51
The Program aims at supporting municipalities in the starting steps of energy efficiency project
development by funding feasibility studies and audits http://www.undp.hu/oss_eng/fooldale.htm.
46
and the Szemünk Fénye (Light of Our Eyes) program
52
, the Phare co-financed twinning
project, the German Carbon-Aid Fund) that target energy efficiency in this sector and that
have increased the willingness to employ ESCOs. The involvement of ESCOs in the
residential sector is also possible, although only through the combination with targeted
state subsidies and/or subsidised loans (Panel Program and Panel Plus Program
53
,
Thermal insulation of apartments, Residential Energy Saving Grant). Certain strong
barriers still restrict the expansion of residential projects. The industrial sector has been
gaining more attention lately, and accordingly, more recent figures suggest that the
distribution of ESCO projects is 30% in industry, 30% in district heating retrofits and
development, and 30% in the municipal sector. Renewable energy investments have been
started, although these have not gained a major role yet (Rodics 2005).
Projects had typical pay-back times of between 3-5 years during the 1990s (Urge-Vorsatz
and Lazarova 2003). Today this figure is 5-7 years (Rodics 2005), which is actually one
of the major challenges the ESCOs are facing: companies engaging in projects with
longer PBTs have to be financially stronger and more stable than previously.
In parallel to the increasing timeframe of investments, international aid, which was
previously very substantial in Hungary, is decreasing or coming to an end (for instance
UNDP/GEF Hungary Public Sector Energy Efficiency Project). This – in principle –
should not be a problem since they were intended to aid the development and the
establishment of the sector.
Only a few main barriers are discussed below. Experts have repeatedly highlighted the
problems caused by the lack of baseline data. Sites and buildings sometimes do not have
detailed billing systems and pay average fees per month, not according to the real
consumption. Thus, ESCOs are in a situation where they cannot prove the savings
achieved appropriately using this information, or they would have to spend 1-2 years
before the project begins on establishing the baseline information. In this situation, the
energy saving potential (and whether an EPC project is feasible) could be evaluated only
after 1-2 years already were spent on the case
54
. ESCOs must use different ways to
estimate the savings. In addition to this, accepted M&V practices have not been widely
introduced. Trust established between an ESCO and the client is needed for the
remuneration of an ESCO project.

52
The program was initiated in 2005 by the Ministry of Education in order to increase energy efficiency
and quality of lighting and heating in educational buildings. Further information is available at:
http://www.szemunk.fenye.hu/index.html.
53
The Panel Program was launched in 2001, open for housing associations living in block houses. The
grant is open for renovation projects and for modernization of heating systems. In the scope of the grant 1/3
of the investments is financed by the national budget, 1/3 is given by the municipality and the residents
have to pay only 1/3 of the costs. The Panel Plus Program is a low-interest rate loan for helping residents
pay for the 33% of the refurbishment costs. It started in 2005. According to the Ministry of Regional
Development until today 87000 apartments have been refurbished using 16.4 billion HUF (ca. 58 million
EUR) financial support. Source: www.fejlesztes.gov.hu
54
These circumstances are common in some other countries, where regular data collection is not general.
The ESCOs need to find the proper way to evaluate their savings, and one way to do that is to collect data
during a certain time to establish the baseline data themselves. However, this can increase transaction costs
significantly, and ESCOs often use generalized values instead, which are however not as reliable.
47
Availability of financing can cause problems both in the municipal and residential
sectors. The municipal borrowing is restricted by a cap on obligations creating debt
55
.
Although, an ESCO project is not a traditional loan because the savings appear every
year, in legislative terms there is no difference. It would be especially beneficial to
impose different accounting rules on ESCO projects taking into consideration the
repayment of the investment.
As in many other countries, most local authorities are still not informed about the
opportunities ESCOs offer and are often suspicious to the financial schemes. In addition
municipal authorities often feel uncomfortable about sharing the financial benefit of their
project with a private company and as a result a project gets postponed or never
implemented. Procurement difficulties (only cost-related criteria), fear of having
redundancies also limit municipalities’ willingness to engage in ESCO projects. The 4-
year election-cycle-based decisions make it particularly difficult to plan in the long-term
and conclude ESCO contracts that are longer than 3-4 years. Finally, split incentives with
investment and operational expenses paid by different budget lines are still very
significant, and have always been a major obstacle.
On the other hand, it must be highlighted that many positive examples have been seen,
where personal commitment of energy managers at municipalities has been a significant
catalyst for ESCO projects. Also, the importance of the UNDP/GEF Hungary Public
Sector Energy Efficiency Project is usually highlighted, which has played an important
role in the ESCO project development in this sector.
The residential sector could play a much bigger role in practically all CEE countries,
especially with rational utilisation of new state support programs (see above). However,
decision making and concluding a long-term contract is very hard in the case of a large
block house, where the law requires the consensus of all apartment owners. Some
projects (façade renovations) may be done with the agreement of only the concerned
apartment owners, or renovations can be carried out only on the apartments which agree
to it (and finance it), but this is not possible with for instance hot water, heating, or
insulation renovations. Furthermore, ownership of certain objects (the water tubes, walls)
is not clear (not stipulated in the housing association contract) and can cause a stalemate.
Some of the above barriers are found in the industrial sector, too. The lack of baseline
data and the difficulty of defining the scope of the projects because of the complex
structure of the plant systems is the most important.
Revision of problematic legislation (ownership-related issues) is therefore desirable,
while proper enforcement of other existing laws (notably the obligation for renovation
fund in the residential sector) could also help for stronger involvement of ESCOs in the
residential sector.
Dissemination of information remains to be important. Although there is a growing
understanding in the way ESCOs work and the benefits they deliver, the level of
acceptance and trust is still considered as one of the major (if not the most important)
impediments. Well-disseminated demonstration projects, establishment of an ESCO

55
According to the Act on Local Governments (Act LXV of 1990), the limit is set at the annual target of
the so-called adjusted own revenue, which represents 70% of the local government’s own current revenue
(such as local taxes, local fees, interest revenues, environmental fines and other specific revenues of the
local government) reduced by short-term commitments (which include capital repayment, interest payment
and lease fees) (Rezessy et al. 2006).
48
Association and finding ways of explaining the short and long term benefits for decision
makers would serve the ESCO industry well.
Financing of ESCO projects by banks is not a problem. On the one hand, some (mainly
multinational) ESCOs have sufficient financial means, and on the other hand third-party
financing is a well accepted and widespread scheme. Banks are particularly open to
participate in performance contracting.
Action should be taken to overcome the long-standing barriers to ESCO projects by
finding ways to support the market itself and not individual companies or groups of
companies. It is crucial that governmental action be based on a combination of
appropriate legislation, regulation, monitoring and enforcement, and be combined with
extensive and innovative information campaigns. In addition, authorities should play a
demonstration role and an obligation of municipal and governmental buildings and/or the
largest industries to effectuate energy saving measures would be a significant driving
force.
Table 20. Summary of basic data of the Hungarian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 30
Type of ESCOs local and MNC
ESCO association no
Size of the market 150-200 million EUR
Change in recent years stable, maybe decreasing
Most popular technologies CHP, HVAC, automation

Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is another ESCO frontrunner among the New EU Member States,
even though the market is still considered as in its initial period (Zidek 2005). The EPC
concept was unknown in the Czech Republic until 1993, yet in the next two years the
country saw a rapid takeoff of ESCO activity with a 3 million EUR investment in public
healthcare (Zeman and Dasek 2005). The first project was the renovation of the thermal
energy handling system, of “Na Bulovce University Hospital” (Zidek 2005). Until 2001
the development was slow due to numerous barriers and obstacles, but in 2001 the Czech
ESCO market reached a turning point because of important changes in legal
circumstances (Zidek 2005). A new law was passed and energy audits were made
obligatory for large consumers
56
. This decision has meant a strong push for energy
efficiency investments. In 2004 the State Energy Policy was adopted, which highlights
the role of energy efficiency. Accordingly the National Programme for Energy Effective
Management was accepted, where EPC is recognized as one of the support mechanisms
for energy saving (Zidek 2005).
According to the Czech ESCO database
57
managed by the Czech Energy Agency, there
are currently 5 companies in the Czech Republic that are focused on providing services
according to the EPC concept, and 2 other companies working as ESPCs. However,

56
According to the Act No. 406/2000 Coll. on Energy Management consumers with a demand higher than
1500 GJ in the public sector, and for other consumers of more than 35000 GJ consumption are obliged to
prepare energy audits of their premises.
57
http://www.ceacr.cz/epc/
49
experts estimate that the number of ESCOs is higher than this, between 10 and 15 (based
on the database of SEVEn
58
). This number is increasing. In 2005 alone two new
companies were created for the provision of ESCO services. Besides, there are about a
dozen companies providing long-term energy delivery contracts.
The potential of energy savings through EPC, which is economically attractive, is about
100 million EUR. Available estimations of the market potential vary slightly, but they are
in the range of 10-20 million EUR/year
59
. Until now about 70 projects have been realized
through EPC (Zidek 2005), but over 30% of these have been done by one ESCO.
The most effective tool to promote ESCOs in the Czech republic has been large scale
awareness raising, where the ESCOs’ own lobbying activity was deemed particularly
valuable.
ESCOs’ successes across sectors are varied. The healthcare sector is the primary focus
for ESCOs, while educational buildings, military and other state owned sectors are
appealing projects, too. Military refurbishment projects are complicated with special legal
conditions, but the interest is high due to the high energy saving potential (Zeman and
Dasek 2005). The ease of project implementation partially depends on the owner of the
building. Middle sized cities are very active in working with ESCOs bundling tens of
buildings into project pools. Apart from the public sector, the private sector (typically
industry) is also on track regarding energy efficiency investments (EC DG JRC 2005,
Zeman and Dasek 2005). The rough division between ESCO investment categories is
shown in Figure 2.

37%
27%
22%
5%
3%
3%
3%
education
district heating
hospitals
residential
sport facilities
hotels
others

Figure 2. Distribution of EPC in investment categories, 1995-2005
(GreenMaxCapital Advisors for IFC, 2006 from Dasek pers.com.)

58
www.svn.cz
59
Helenova (pers.com.) approximates that the market size currently is only 2-5 million EUR, which will
probably grow up to 7-10 million EUR in the future. Dasek predicts a similar size, putting the market of
EPC projects in the public sector at around 10-15 million EUR/year (based on tenders until today, mainly in
education, healthcare and public transport sectors), and at around 5-10 million EUR/year in the private
sector (Dasek pers.com.).
50
The most common contracting form is the guaranteed savings, but as the market is
diversifying and consolidating, contracts are individualized as a result of negotiating
between the ESCO and the client. Financial institutions, including mostly local banks, are
available and are ready to participate in TPF, but multinational ESCOs often use their
own corporate financing. The International Financial Corporation is running its
Commercialization Energy Efficiency Facility, providing loan guarantees for ESCOs and
end-users. There is also limited governmental support for ESCOs thorough the Czech
Energy Agency.
In the last few years, the role of EPC has been decreasing, while Energy Contracting
schemes are more common with customers seeking a guaranteed in the price of energy
supplied.
Despite some consolidation and a steady increase of the market in recent years, some
barriers still exist. Scepticism by management towards energy efficiency investments and
EPC still lingers (Zeman and Dasek 2005), as a result of earlier unclear definitions,
confusing concepts and some failed contracts (Zeman 2005). Correct understanding of
the benefits and conditions of ESCOs and EPC has grown, but prejudices against
complex solutions remain strong. Increasing effective information dissemination, raising
awareness and education related to energy efficiency is still essential to overcome this
problem.
On the ESCOs side, companies are not (yet) ready to take projects with a long pay-back
period. Typical projects are 4-6 years long, and the majority of ESCO investment interest
is for heating equipment (heat delivery regulation, piping, pipes insulation, boilers
replacement, fuel switching), or power factor management. However, most industrial
end-users have already installed such equipment. On the other hand, insulation and other
building renovation measures have a long-term pay-back period (more than 10 years) and
therefore are excluded from the current scope of attention. It is considered too risky to
invest in long contracts in the private sector because of the unpredictable financial future
of potential clients. To a lesser extent, the same fear is present towards the public
institutions. Governmental support for EPC in the public sector would be necessary
thorough providing guarantees of long-term standing of potential clients. Nevertheless,
longer projects are already starting to gain importance in the public sector, especially for
street lighting and energy delivery.
Similarly to many NMSs, detailed, reliable information on present energy consumption
and condition of buildings is lacking, which hinders the easy set up of energy efficiency
targets. Attention has to be given to appropriate project implementation and especially
monitoring and verification of savings.
Legislative barriers have largely been removed both in the public and private sector.
Standardization of public tenders and verification of EPC contract evaluation procedures
is vital (Zeman and Dasek 2005, Zeman 2005). The responses to calls for tenders often
include both EPC and EC. However, public administration is usually unable to effectively
compare these two different types of proposals, which causes confusion (Zeman 2005).
Standardization of EPC project procedure would be particularly beneficial to avoid
dissatisfaction, and unwillingness to start the process and to help ensure completion of
successful projects.
The ESCO sector is moving in the right direction, and the country can already present
success stories and areas of well-developed energy efficiency focus. However, there is
51
still room to develop, and some sectors with high saving potential have hardly been
tapped (such as the military). The legislative background has become exemplary
(obligatory audit) and has advanced the sector significantly, though with some important
issues still open for change (procurement).
Table 21. Summary of basic data of the Czech ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 10-15
Type of ESCOs local and MNC
ESCO association no
Size of the market €10-20 M/year
Change in recent years increasing
Most popular technologies heating

Slovakia
ESCO-type companies appeared early in Slovakia. Energy service companies starting in
beginning of 1990s did not perform very well at the beginning, and 2003 could be
considered as the real starting point (Murajda 2005). As of 2006, there are about 30
ESCOs and ESCO-type companies. The Energy Center Bratislava divided companies
providing EPC into 4 categories according to their orientation and potential to offer
ESCO services. Foreign companies offering a full range of solutions, including ESCO
equity financing, are the most active and successful in the traditionally defined ESCO
business. The second group comprises foreign based companies whose main profile is not
energy efficiency service provision, but energy systems operation, such as district heating
operators. These are not genuine ESCOs and most of them are Public-Private-
Partnerships (PPP), in general in the form of joint ventures of private companies with
municipalities. Local ESCOs in Slovakia are in the third group. They have their own
capital, expertise and know-how, but are focused mainly on small energy systems where
the costs of reconstruction are feasible with a limited budget. In many cases they apply
the BOOT scheme. Finally, the fourth group includes potential ESCOs, energy system
operators, equipment and engineering companies, which are not (yet) able to offer
financial services due to their small equity size and the lack of good financing through
banks (ECB n.d.a and n.d.b.).
ESCO clientele has until now included municipal buildings, schools, banks, and
hospitals; while outsourcing in the industry, and private tertiary is more and more
popular. ESCOs normally participate in building renovation, DH and public lighting
projects (Murajda 2005).
Similar to other countries with formerly planned economies, the lack of data to construct
baselines, subsidized energy prices, poor management/operation of buildings are
common. At the same time 70% of the building stock is in need of renovation (Murajda
2005, Husarik 2004). Furthermore, ESCO contracting in the municipal sector is hard to
carry out administratively because public spending requires tendering and comparison of
at least 3 offers, while the number of companies able and willing to participate in the
bidding may be lower (ECB n.d.b). Therefore, energy saving potentials are extremely
high, but the need for certain legal, institutional and social adjustments is obvious.
52
The Slovak banking sector still has limited understanding of and experience with EE
project financing, and thus perceives such projects as risky, which results in lending
terms that may not be acceptable for ESCO project developers This limits ESCO activity
to the large ESCOs that can financially support their own activity (ECB n.d.a.), and could
limit the growth of the sector on the medium term.
ESCOs’ opportunities are expected to grow, in line with the general energy conservation
and energy efficiency requirements as the Governmental commitments have been
emphasized in the 2005 National Energy Policy. This policy identified many tools
promoting EE, such as minimal requirements for energy efficiency of new and large
existing buildings as required by the EPBD, the introduction of regular controls of boilers
and air conditioning systems of certain buildings, and the introduction of energy
certification for buildings (as required by the EPBD) and so on (Murajda 2005).
Table 22. Summary of basic data of the Slovak ESCO market
Number of ESCOs ~30
Type of ESCOs Local, but mainly joint ventures
including MNC
ESCO association no
Size of the market n.d.
Change in recent years Increasing, orientation changing
Most popular technologies district heating, building renovation,
public lighting

Poland
Experts agree that Energy Service Companies in the traditional meaning have not proved
successful in Poland. Even today, there is a limited level of ESCO activity, with only a
few (up to 5) specialized companies. ESCOs are typically subsidiaries of foreign
companies. In addition, some energy utilities offer ESCO-type services since the market
is being opened. The volume of ESCO contracts is around 10 million EUR/year.
Most EPC contracts have been concluded in the public sector, including municipal
buildings and universities, military bases, and prisons. In a typical ESCO project heating
systems (DH), public lighting, and buildings have been refurbished. In a few cases,
complex renovations have also been carried out. In addition, housing cooperatives have
been targeted, too.
Earlier ESCO failures have significantly hindered development, and ESCOs still have not
been able to significantly enter the market. Experts believe that the main reason behind
this is that the Polish market is not suitable for exactly what ESCOs offer.
First of all, clients are not interested in the EPC guarantee. The guarantee represents costs
for clients (a service from the ESCO) that the facility owners/managers are not willing to
pay for. Polish municipal and industrial sites have well-trained energy managers as a
positive legacy from the previous planned economy system, indeed many other
employees have an engineering background. These customers have the necessary in-
house expertise the ESCO is trying to sell, and they do not require a guarantee because
they understand the meaning of an audit, and can already make investment decisions
based on that.
53
On the other hand, TPF could be attractive, but there are two major barriers to it. First,
the ESCOs are not particularly interested in focusing purely on financing services
because they do not have the appropriate capital basis. Although banks in Poland are
interested in investing in energy efficiency, ESCOs without the appropriate capital basis
are unable to get unlimited TPF through the bank (after 1-2 projects, which are still in the
starting phase, banks are not willing to give more credit). Secondly, potential ESCO
clients can attain a number of other sources of financing because the government has had
a number of different schemes that were available for energy efficiency projects during
the last 15 years. The biggest one is the National Fund for Environmental Protection and
Water Management (NFOS), which operates in conjunction with Poland’s Environmental
Protection Bank. The NFOS provides investment support to – among others – energy
saving projects at national, regional and municipal level
60
. Funding is available in the
form of loans, joint funding, credits and project subsidies. There is also an ecological
fund. There has been funding from the Structural and Cohesion Funds and EEA funds
from the EU. These can finance as much as 75% of the EE investments. For blockhouses
and some public buildings (schools, hospitals), the Thermo-Modernization Fund was
established in 1998 that can finance up to 20% of the modernization investment
61
. An
ESCO cannot compete with such strong funding.
In such circumstances, the essential parts of an ESCO solution are not needed (guarantee,
engineering expertise), and are not available in an attractive format (financing). It is only
the equipment supply that clients are interested in. Indeed, energy efficient equipment is
sold through lots of consulting companies and equipment suppliers.
Finally, procurement rules create a “catch 21” situation for ESCOs. In the public sector it
is obligatory to go through a tendering process. For potential energy efficiency
investments the ESCO offers a free “walk-through” site visit to the potential municipal
client, identifies potential savings and the appropriate extent of these savings. If the client
agrees to the suggested measures, in principle the ESCO can be requested to make a more
detailed audit, called an investment grade audit, which however is more costly, thus the
ESCO cannot offer it for free. However in this case the municipality must open a call for
tender, which has two consequences. First of all, the ESCO who did the first audit might
lose the opportunity in which they invested. Secondly, the other ESCOs participating in
the bid will already have a ready feasibility study from their potential competitors so they
can propose a lower price and the municipality will have to choose the cheapest and not
the “greenest” bid.
These and other barriers make the guarantee based and/or financing oriented ESCO
business unsuitable for the Polish market.

60
earmarked from the environmental taxes and penalties, and later the Structural Funds.
61
The Thermo-Modernization Fund requires at least 20% own funding, and adds the rest of the investment
for commercial loan, which is paid back from the savings. The loan repayment period is capped at 7 years.
Timely repayment of 75% of the loan is rewarded by granting the remaining 25%.
54
Table 23. Summary of basic data of the Polish ESCO market
Number of ESCOs Few (~5)
Type of ESCOs Local, but mainly joint ventures
including MNC
ESCO association no
Size of the market 10 million EUR/year
Change in recent years stagnation, maybe small growth
Most popular technologies district heating, insulation, public
lighting

Slovenia
The first ESCO contract for upgrading 14 municipal buildings using the Energy Saving
Partnership model was concluded in Slovenia in November 2001 (Geissler 2004). The
buildings were bundled together in order to reduce transaction costs. Indeed, it was found
that ESCO-type projects had failed earlier in Slovenia because project sizes were too
small, and transaction costs were thus large. Other barriers included public procurement
rules, complicated administrative burdens, and lack of expertise and experience.
After the first project was implemented in 2001, the principal procedure was elaborated.
In addition, it has been concluded that capacity building and establishing local contact
points for assistance, especially for public projects, was essential for the development of
the ESCO industry (Geissler 2004). However, it was not yet the real launch of the ESCO
business in Slovenia
The Ministry of Finance has shown its support for EPC in Slovenia. While a law for the
use of public budget has been issued, restricting the highest burden on the state budget to
60% of the total budget of goods, services and transfers to be carried over to the
following accounting years, EPC contracts are an exception (Geissler et al. 2006).
Nevertheless, the ESCO business is not yet established in Slovenia. During the
preparation of the present report a small Austrian-Slovene company is entering into the
EPC market, and two energy companies have been planning the same.
The sectors attracted to EPC are primarily industry and the public sector. Industry has
shown an interest in energy efficiency investments and solutions through ESCOs. So far
4 projects have been implemented in lighting in the steel industry, 2 of which were
financed by the plants’ own equity and two by the Eco Fund. Some small projects were
also implemented in the public sector, mainly in primary schools and in one hospital,
which were all financed by companies that acted as an ESCO. The main driving force in
industry is that when the country separated from Yugoslavia industry was broken apart,
and many small companies remained, mostly with no in-house energy management
expertise. Thus solutions for outsourcing or external energy management are attractive.
On the other hand, the public sector was addressed by the successful pilot ESCO project
mentioned above. Unfortunately no significant move has been seen since then.
Scepticism on the side of potential clients is extremely large.
In summary, the ESCO market has not yet deployed in Slovenia, in spite of an early pilot
initiative by German ESCOs, the large potential, and the need for outsourcing in industry.
55
Table 24. Summary of basic data of the Slovenian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 1-2
Type of ESCOs Local and 1 foreign
ESCO association no
Size of the market n.d.
Change in recent years Stagnation, did not get off the
ground
Most popular technologies n.d.

2.2.3 Mediterranean New EU Member States
Malta
As yet there are no ESCOs on the Island of Malta, and the EPC concept has not taken
root. Some companies are providing building management; and some examples of
successful energy efficiency investments can be found in governmental buildings and in
the brewery sector (Fsadni and Ghirlando 2004). The best technological opportunities are
expected in water heating and HVAC of buildings. Efficiency improvements have been
taken in desalination of sea-water (Fsadni and Ghirlando 2004).
During 2006-2007 the government has taken important steps to improve energy
efficiency in Malta. The water tariff system has been revised, inducing large savings).
Furthermore, grants have been introduced for the purchase of solar water heaters and
photovoltaics, and financial incentives are given to consumers when buying energy-
efficient appliances, which have been intended to raise awareness of the energy-efficient
label on appliances.
At the same time, no significant coordination or uptake of the ESCO concept has so far
taken place. The government could facilitate the market for ESCOs in particular by
introducing relevant legislation, regulations and measures, which could be particularly
beneficial for the country and would be in line with recent efforts for energy efficiency.
Table 25. Summary of basic data of the Maltese ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 0
Type of ESCOs -
ESCO association no
Size of the market -
Change in recent years No change
Most popular technologies -

Cyprus
As of 2007, ESCOs have still not spread into Cyprus and no company is preparing yet
either (Xichilos 2004), though there are a few energy advisors and consultant companies
offering advice for energy savings in buildings and industry. Also some companies offer
energy efficient technologies and energy management systems. At the same time, the
huge potential of RES (solar) is acknowledged and the increase of renewable energy
sources is considered to be a priority (Xichilos 2004).
56
Energy efficiency improvements could result in a 20-25% demand decrease, and some
areas, such as CHP, and HVAC offer the largest opportunities (Xichilos 2004). Since the
market is not yet developed only an expert estimation on the market potential is available,
which is in the order of 2,000,000 EUR. A typical ESCO type project from the tertiary or
industry sector is expected to be in the range of 15,000-130,000 EUR. The clients of
future ESCOs are anticipated to be from the tertiary sector (hotels, public buildings, and
office buildings) and industry (mainly food industry), and the investments are expected in
waste heat recovery, insulation, solar thermal, frequency inverters for motors, power
factor correction, energy management systems, and efficient lighting.
Governmental commitment for EE has been increasing during the last few years, which is
manifested in the form of the available “Grant Scheme For Energy Conservation”;
Promotion of the Utilization of RES; and the Action Plan for Energy Conservation in
Buildings. Financial incentives include direct grants and feed-in tariffs. Further actions to
promote energy efficiency and ESCOs are deemed essential. Currently, there is no
national legislation regarding the development of energy services in conformity with the
Energy Service Directive
62
. The lack of qualification, accreditation and certification
schemes for energy service providers and energy auditors, complicated measurement and
verification methodologies which are not harmonized among players, and the lack of
competition on the electricity market are seen as major barriers. TPF of EE is strictly
limited because banks are not willing to enter the EE financing field, due to limited
understanding of energy efficiency. However, TPF exists for small scale RES
investments, but energy performance contracting is perceived to be risky. Facilities
owners are seeking fast pay-back periods and prefer investments in their core business,
therefore interest in ESCOs is low. Significant effort and external assistance is seen as
necessary by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism (Xichilos 2004).
Table 26. Summary of basic data of the Cypress ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 0
Type of ESCOs -
ESCO association no
Size of the market 2 million EUR
Change in recent years No change
Most popular technologies -

2.3 New EU Member States 2007
Romania
The Romanian ESCO market is in an embryonic state, with few companies willing to
enter the market. The Romanian Energy Efficiency Law (Law Number 199/2000) was
passed in 2000, which puts forward a number of measures to support energy efficiency.
International agencies (EBRD, USAID, World Bank/GEF and UNDP/GEF) have also
been active in the development of energy efficiency financing. FREE, the Romanian

62
Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use
efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC.
57
Energy Efficiency Fund
63
, was established by the World Bank and financed by the GEF
and the Romanian Government to increase energy conservation activities and implement
measures in the country. In spite of these efforts, the ESCO market has not been able to
get off the ground because of a number of strong barriers.
Currently there are two companies – one specialized in electricity and the other in
thermal services – which qualify as private ESCOs that offer pure EPC solutions. One of
them was set up in 1996, thus becoming the first Romanian Energy Service Company,
and it has 100% local Romanian ownership. The other ESCO was founded in 2004 as a
Romanian-Canadian Joint Venture. These companies offer a wide range of services,
including ESCO projects, auditing, equipment installation, operation and further
engineering projects. In addition, there is one ESCO-type company chiefly working with
CHP projects. There are a few MNC and regional ESCOs active in Romania offering
Energy Supply Contracting. ESCOs also do boiler renovation and operation of residential
district heating.
The UNDP/GEF Energy Efficiency Project was launched in 2005 as a collaboration of
four partners: ARCE
64
, UNOPS
65
, UNDP and GEF. The program assists energy
efficiency investment in various ways. First of all, technical assistance is offered to the
public and private sector through feasibility studies. For the public sector a direct
contribution to equipment purchase is also available of up to 20% of the investment, but
not more than 50 000 Euro. Finally, the so called “deal building” brings together energy
efficiency investors and financers and offers advise when needed. These support
activities have been able to catalyze large-value energy efficiency projects – over 20
million USD investment so far and about 7 million USD in the pipeline (Racolta 2005).
Besides international financial institutions, local banks have started to move into the
energy efficiency market, however they have not yet fully acknowledged the potentials
lying in energy efficiency, they are not completely familiar with the ESCO concept, and
it is not seen as part of the core target market. Banks still lack the internal expertise to
evaluate energy efficiency projects. Thus, banks are not yet ready to finance energy
efficiency projects based on the credibility of the investment and the prospects of the
savings, but still use the traditional asset based financing, and evaluate the client’s
creditworthiness. Unfortunately, the concept of repaying from the savings cannot be
realized yet as a consequence of the above.
In the municipal sector the lack of off-balance sheet solutions is the major obstacle. The
municipality cannot take the investment of the energy efficiency equipment on its balance
sheet because it would often override the maximum lease credit (given in percentage of
total budget), while the ESCO investment is not a traditional loan, so it should be treated
differently. The ESCO is also unable to claim the investment on its own balance sheet,
because after a few projects no bank would lend to it. This problem also appears to a
smaller or larger extent in many other European countries.
The industry is also a likely client of ESCOs and in fact some EPC is implemented here.
Audits are obligatory above a certain size, and this should make the EPC market more
active. However, penalties are so small that plants prefer to pay them than comply with

63
www.free.org.ro; Fondul Roman Pentru Eficienta Energiei.
64
Agentia Romana pentru Conservarea Energiei.
65
UN Office for Project Services (executing agency).
58
this regulation. On the other hand, industries are also reluctant to give out data about their
sites.
The domestic sector mainly offers investment opportunities in DH. A major obstacle is
the large size of housing associations, where decision making is virtually impossible. The
government plans to launch something similar to the Hungarian Panel Program
66
.
Finally, one of the most important barriers, like in most countries, is the poor
understanding of the concept. Clients often believe that an ESCO is just a type of bank.
Table 27. Summary of basic data of the Romanian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 2 + some MNCs
Type of ESCOs Local and subsidiaries of MNC
ESCO association no
Size of the market n.d.
Change in recent years No significant change, barriers are
too strong
Most popular technologies DH, lighting, heating, industrial
processes

Bulgaria
The energy service company market has still not been deployed in Bulgaria. Currently
there are 1-3 ESCO companies offering guarantees on savings. This number has been
largely steady for the last few years. Besides these, there are few more companies
working in the field of energy efficiency offering investment repayment schemes for a
period of 3-5 years, but their returns are not based on the generated savings. Furthermore
there is a lot of activity in energy efficiency auditing and certification. The number of
companies offering consultancy and auditing in energy efficiency is dynamically
changing from year to year. Information on the current market size or even on market
potential is unavailable. The economic potential for energy savings is believed to be
especially high in Bulgaria. Energy intensity is twice that of the EU average, while
electricity intensity is outstanding even in the region, 4 times higher than in Hungary or
Turkey (Zachariev 2005). Saving potential is estimated to be up to 50% of the energy
demand of the building stock, 40% of DH, and 30% in industry (Zachariev 2005).
ESCOs work primarily in the public sector (schools and other educational buildings),
mostly contracted for improving heating systems. Small and medium sized industrial
companies also tend to contract ESCOs for energy efficiency investment solutions. At the
same time, ESCOs have not yet worked in governmental buildings, in the commercial
sector, large industries and in households. Projects finance fuel switch, heating
modernization, public lighting, and industrial processes, including mostly boiler and
steam equipment modernization. Sometimes, municipal projects are bundled in order to
increase profitability and decrease transaction costs. The most widely used contracting
format is the shared savings model.
While the market has not taken it up, financing is not a problem; commercial banks are
eager to lend for energy efficiency investments under the so called KIDSF
67
EBRD credit

66
see above on page 45.
67
Kozloduy International Decommissioning Support Fund
59
line to companies and municipalities. Since 2006 the Bulgarian Energy Efficiency Fund
(BEEF) is operational, providing financing for ESCOs as well, but in 2006 only one
ESCO applied. The BEEF offers three types of help: partial credit guarantee, joint
crediting with commercial banks and technical assistance for project development. The
use of partial credit guarantees in Bulgaria is supported by USAID through EBRD and
the World Bank to increase the availability and access to credit for municipalities through
a commercial bank. In 2005, the available loan was 15 million USD, 13% of which was
used for energy infrastructure improvement, including ESCO investments (USAID 2005).
The Facility for Municipal Energy Efficiency under the USAID is more than just
financial help, as technical support is also provided for clients.
The level of energy prices – even if steadily growing over recent years and not that low
when compared to other European countries on purchasing power parities basis – is still
limiting the profitability of energy efficiency investments. It often happens that energy
efficiency investments do not realize in real savings of energy, but rather in an increased
comfort (at an unchanged cost). Juridical and institutional barriers limit the spread of
energy service companies, though recently there has been a significant improvement in
the legal and regulatory environment of municipalities (USAID 2005). There is a specific
law on energy efficiency (Zachariev 2005). Nevertheless, there is still a legal ambiguity
about the ownership transfer of equipment installed through ESCOs (Zachariev 2005),
which is even complicated by, for instance, frequent changes in administrative structures.
The lack of reliable baseline data increases transaction costs often to a level that can
endanger profits and while there have been plenty of projects that can demonstrate the
feasibility of the ESCO concept, understanding the idea is still lagging behind (Zachariev
2005). This is exacerbated by a lack of motivation on part of end-users to undertake EE
improvements.
To overcome most of the barriers, it is crucial to drastically change people’s thinking
about the need for energy efficiency together with information dissemination on the
opportunities opened up by ESCOs.
Table 28. Summary of basic data of the Bulgarian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 1-3 (12)
Type of ESCOs Local (energy utilities)
ESCO association no
Size of the market n.d.
Change in recent years No significant change, still slow
growth
Most popular technologies Heating, fuel switch, public lighting,
industrial process modernization

2.4 Candidate Countries
Croatia
There is only one Energy Service Company in Croatia offering EPC (Steko pers.com.),
which was established in 2003, and is a recipient of financial support from the GEF and
World Bank loans (Fanjek and Steko 2005). The estimated potential for energy savings in
Croatia exceeds 400 million EUR. There are new companies that are attempting to enter
60
the market and have carried out several projects, and there are many energy efficiency
provider companies that do not provide a guarantee. The total amount of ESCO
investment has been increasing in the last few years.
So far 3 projects have been completed in the country; these have been focussed on public
lighting and system improvements in educational buildings. More than 40 projects are in
the preparation or implementation phase. These are focused on a number of technologies:
public lighting, co-generation, HVAC, steam-system recovery, and insulation.
The sources of financing are various. Besides international aid and loans (World Bank,
GEF), local financial institutions have proved to be interested, and the ESCO’s own
equity is being used for project implementation. There are further funds and programs in
Croatia for energy efficiency, such as the Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy
Efficiency (in the form of subsidies) and the UNDP program (grant for feasibility
studies). The “first out” contract model has been used in past projects.
Since the ESCO that is working in Croatia is a state-owned company, primary attention is
not on large profits, but on supporting national interests, mainly energy efficiency and
environmental protection (Fanjek and Steko 2005). Therefore, the objectives of the
company when it was set up were to develop capacity and know-how, find sustainable
project financing mechanisms, and develop consumer demand (Fanjek and Steko 2005).
Some important barriers have been identified (Fanjek and Steko 2005). Consumers show
a lack of interest in energy efficiency (Fanjek and Steko 2005), probably due to the little
knowledge in the country about ESCO benefits and the concept in principle. The
legislative framework is not particularly supportive of the ESCO concept. Secondary
legislation on energy efficiency has not been developed, and the ESCO model is not
recognized by the authorities as an individual business model. The result of this situation
is that ESCOs cannot invoice their services as a package, and VAT must be paid for the
equipment installed for the client, which may jeopardize the profits. Connecting CHP
plants to the grid is also difficult. Similarly to many other countries, public procurement
is complicated.
Education and awareness raising about the existence of the opportunity offered by
ESCOs and more dedicated experts would be one of the most helpful measures for energy
efficiency project development and implementation in Croatia.
Table 29. Summary of basic data of the Croat ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 1-(2)
Type of ESCOs Public (established by WB)
ESCO association no
Size of the market n.d.
Change in recent years has not deployed yet as expected
Most popular technologies public lighting, co-generation,
HVAC, steam-system recovery,
insulation

Turkey
ESCOs have not yet appeared in Turkey as of 2007, although it is expected that in the
near future some companies will be able to tap the large saving potential, especially in
61
RES installations and heat and cooling services. Whether this potential will be tapped by
ESCOs providing EPC depends on creating appropriate conditions for the take-off of this
business model. Demand side energy saving potential is estimated to be around 2.5
billion EUR/year, a large portion of which could be captured through ESCOs.
Turkey has passed an Energy Efficiency Law in February 2007 which stipulates the role
of ESCOs, together with a number of supportive provisions, such as obligatory audits,
building codes, obligation to employ energy managers, etc. (Caglar 2006, Saffet Bora
2007). The Law is considered very progressive and up-to-date, but the enactment took
several years. A rapid uptake of energy efficiency by ESCOs (both locally established
companies and MNCs) is expected by experts (Caglar 2006). Turkey plans to establish a
coordinating body, according to the law, to execute, oversee and coordinate energy
efficiency activities by the relevant organizations around the country. The Energy
Efficiency Coordination Board will be also responsible for the authorization and quality
verification of ESCOs.
However, long-term purchase agreements for gas and oil also limit the potential for EPC
and energy savings. The most important barrier is probably the lack of information on the
side of the clients about the possibility of investing in energy efficiency using the ESCO
concept and its benefits. Furthermore, currently there are no companies offering this
service at all (Caglar 2006).
Table 30. Summary of basic data of the Turkish ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 0
Type of ESCOs -
ESCO association no
Size of the market -
Change in recent years Expected to increase rapidly with
the introduction of the new Energy
Efficiency Law
Most popular technologies -

2.5 Other European countries
2.5.1 Other Western Europe
Switzerland
Information on the level of the ESCO business in Switzerland is rather limited. There are
5-10 companies in the country that offer energy services. Some of these companies are
subsidiaries of multinational ESCOs, and there are also local Swiss companies. Facility
management, operation management, and energy and heating supply contracts dominate
the market. Most of these are actually offered by leading electricity companies. There are
no ESCOs offering EPC (PEEREA 2006b).
Around 100 so-called “Energy Contractors” form an association, Swisscontractor. These
companies include many energy efficiency consultants, as well as companies that provide
financing, engineering expertise, or facility management. The energy contracting market
is facilitated by the existence of organizations whose mission is to give advice to market
62
actors and potential or actual clients (for instance Energho
68
and energy agencies such as
S.A.F.E.
69
or EnAW
70
).
Companies offer solutions for heating and cooling systems, and install CHP, biomass and
other renewable energy plants.
Table 31. Summary of basic data of the Swiss ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 5-10 ESPC
Type of ESCOs Private + Energy Contractors
ESCO association No (Swisscontractor is an
association for “Energy
Contractors”)
Size of the market Not known
Change in recent years Not known
Most popular technologies HVAC, CHP, RES

Norway
The ESCO industry in Norway is still at an early market stage (Norsk Enok og Energi AS
2005, Vegel 2006). The number of ESCOs is 10-15 as of year 2006, up from 7 companies
identified in 2002 (NVE 2002). Nevertheless so far only a few contracts have been
concluded and activity is moderate (Vegel 2006). According to experts the ESCO sector
turnover is about 30-40 million EUR.
Usual clients include public and commercial buildings, which outstrip industrial and
residential sectors in market value. In terms of numbers of projects, most are realized in
the residential sector. Projects include complex refurbishment, control system
installation, or HVAC and lighting system renovations in the buildings. ESCO projects
cover heat recovery from HV systems, installation of heat-pumps, and realization of local
alternative heat production.
Financing ESCO projects has not been a problem in Norway. ESCO financing is quite
often set up by a bank loan given to the ESCO. EPC with TFP has proven to be the most
suitable scheme in Norway.
There are however vital barriers. Public procurement procedures do not consider the
benefits of an EPC other than economic factors. Also there are too few potential
contractors (Norsk Enok og Energi AS 2005). This makes the decision difficult, which is
finally not always for the best offer. There is an urgent need to redesign legislation on
public budgeting, and add guidelines and standard documents. Another major problem is
that the contracts used are not in line with the National Standards (NS/EN). Development
of good national standards, as well as standards for setting the baseline of every project is
of great importance. It should be possible to guarantee the quality of EPC projects with
appropriate standards (Vegel 2006, Norsk Enok og Energi AS 2005).

68
for the public sector www.energho.ch.
69
dealing with electricity www.energy-efficiency.ch.
70
for industry www.enaw.ch.
63
Table 32. Summary of basic data of the Norwegian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 10-15
Type of ESCOs Private, equipment suppliers,
consultants, electric utilities and oil
companies
ESCO association No
Size of the market €30-40 M (turnover)
Change in recent years No change
Most popular technologies control system, HVAC, lighting,
heat recovery, heat-pumps, local
alternative heat production

2.5.2 Other Eastern Europe
Commonwealth of Independent States
The European region of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), which is dealt
with in this report (including Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova), can be considered
as a set of successful examples of ESCO penetration into transition economies in spite of
the sometimes extreme obstacles. Energy Service Companies or ESCO-like companies
have appeared in all of these countries
71
, although the ESCO markets are in an embryonic
state. These countries were left with highly inefficient economies, below-market priced
but rising and socially burdensome energy costs, and collapsed industries after the fall of
the Soviet Union. As a result, their benefit from increasing energy efficiency and
potentially from ESCOs could be even larger than that of the rest of the continent. Thus
an ESCO industry boom can be expected after some basic barriers, described below, are
eased. To aid this process IFIs have been particularly active, bringing energy efficiency
projects and participating in ESCO establishment in the region.
The most important common barriers to energy efficiency and energy efficiency services
lie with the legacies of the former planned economic system. The legal systems have
mostly been updated after the fall of the Soviet Union, but nevertheless many gaps and
inconsistencies remain, such as the lack of clearly defined ownership statuses, ongoing
privatization processes, coupled with the inability of the consumers and the energy
providers to overcome energy arrears. Information that decision makers depend upon is
insufficient, statistical data (especially historic data) is frequently lacking, and
measurement of the effects of energy efficiency programs is thus difficult. Furthermore
general awareness of the positive effect of energy efficiency and energy saving is very
low. In fact, the attitudes are rather negative as other priorities take precedence
(Chistyakova et al. 2006). This situation is often seen to end in a vicious circle, where the
lack of financial (and other) resources that could be spent on upgrading energy systems
causes higher risks and more finances needed to overcome urgent repairs (ASE n.d.a.).
One of the biggest barriers is that “low” energy prices jeopardize the profitability of
investing in energy efficient equipment.

71
ESCO activity is restricted in Moldova to ESCO-like, rather consultancy companies. See the country
overview below.
64

UkrESCO
72
was the first commercially viable ESCO in Ukraine and one of the first ones
in the CIS region (EBRD 1998). It came into existence in 1998 based on a sovereign loan
of USD 30 million from the EBRD and aided by a grant from the European Union’s
technical assistance program (TACIS) (Evans 2000). The first EPC contract was signed
in 2000 between UkrESCO and Gostomel Glass Plant (Evans 2000). Before UkrESCO,
ESCO-type companies had already existed in the country, however without the use of
EPC and without providing guarantees and financial solutions (Evans 2000). Since then a
few new companies have been established and a few existing ones have ventured into the
energy efficiency business: in particular the Energy Alliance was started up in 2004,
sponsored by the Western NIS Enterprise Fund and ESCO-Rivne was set up with UNDP
support as a joint-stock public company (Olshanskaya 2006). Other similar companies
can be described more as consultancies and do not coincide with the traditional ESCO
definition due to limited access to capital. The exact number of such companies engaged
in energy saving activities is unknown. There have been a number of local ESCOs aided
by USAID, which joined under the national Association of ESCOs, AESCO (Evans
2000).
Among the three companies considered as traditional ESCOs, UkrESCO and ESCO-
Rivne are publicly owned companies, but are expected to be privatized shortly, and the
Energy Alliance was created as the first private ESCO in 2004. UkrESCO has been
implementing projects using the TPF scheme with ESCO borrowing, however the BOOT
concept is also known.

Figure 3. Financial scheme applied by UkrESCO.
The size of the Ukrainian ESCO market is unknown to the authors and the interviewed
experts, and is not available in the literature. The market potential is large as a result of

72
http://www.ukresco.com/index_e.html
65
the highly inefficient infrastructure inherited from the Soviet Union (PePs n.d.), in fact
the energy intensity of Ukraine is one of the highest in the world.
The targets of ESCOs in Ukraine are typically industrial sites, SMEs and municipal
energy efficiency. The Energy Alliance has been created to focus on leasing CHP engines
to industrial clients. Most projects have taken place in machine building, chemical, glass,
porcelain and pottery, food processing, construction, and power engineering industries, in
agriculture, and with municipal heating and lighting.
The Ukrainian government has taken important steps to fight high energy intensity with
the help of energy conservation by participating in UkrESCO, funding regional and local
energy efficiency programs (Evans 2000), establishing key institutions, such as the State
Committee for Energy Conservation for instance (UNDP n.d.), although with insufficient
staffing and finances (Chistyakova et al. 2006).
According to experts, some of the barriers are the following: the ESCO market is
hindered financially, because their own funds are insufficient to carry out many
successful projects, except if they are financed from outside; and due to high interest rates
on loan funds which hamper profitability. Legislative incentives, such as tax exemptions,
are missing, while investments are perceived too risky for Ukrainian companies that are
often in a difficult financial position. The lack of a liberalized energy market with
market-driven prices is also seen as a basic limiting factor on the profitability of energy
efficiency projects. Finally, information on ESCOs is very scarce and thus the concept is
little if at all known.
There is a need for significant adjustments in policies in order to create a supportive
ESCO market in Ukraine and to overcome, among others, the above barriers. Incentives
for energy saving should be introduced, including tax privileges on profit from energy
saving measures. In addition, the tariff system should be improved and restructured. The
main aims must be to assist the creation of market competition in the sphere of energy
generation and supply, and the development of an appropriate price policy. In the current
situation Ukrainian ESCOs and their supporters need to concentrate on eliminating
erroneous ideas about energy efficiency and launch wide-scale information campaigns
about energy saving opportunities.
In the current circumstances, local banks are not particularly open to ESCO project
financing because on the one hand they are willing to enter only short-term projects and
on the other hand their interest rates are not suitable for energy saving projects. However,
IFIs are very active and supportive of this sector, EBRD and the Western NIS Enterprise
Fund provide direct financing to ESCOs, while many others, including UNDP and ASE
73

are active in information dissemination, capacity building, and ESCO partnership
development.

73
Alliance to Save Energy; www.ase.org.
66
Table 33. Summary of basic data of the Ukrainian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 3, plus a few dozen of national and
local ESCO-like consultancies
Type of ESCOs both private and public
ESCO association yes, AESCO
Size of the market not known
Change in recent years 1 new ESCO aided by EBRD, and
other local and international
initiatives. ESCOs appear and
disappear.
Most popular technologies heat generation, cooling,
compressed air production and
distribution system

Russia has vast potentials of both RES (the economic potential is estimated at about 270
million tons of coal equivalent (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2004)
and EE (IEA 2003). Legislation for energy saving has been growing since the late 1990s
(Efremov et al. 2004) and activities in relation to energy conservation are slowly
developing in Russia. Yet the continuing low level of EE in all aspects of energy
generation, distribution and consumption, together with a harsh climate and energy
intensive economy results in an energy intensity of 3-5 times higher than that of Western
Europe (Ketting 2006). The Russian government recognizes the problem that while they
aim at rapid economic growth and increased living standards more efficient production
and use of energy is an important goal (Ketting 2006). According to the Russian Energy
Strategy 2020, energy consumption in Russia could be lowered by 40% to 48% by 2020
through effective energy efficiency measures and structural change in the Russian
economy. The ESCO concept, as a tool to that, is relatively new in the country and is not
yet well known (Efremov et al. 2004).
In spite of the expected strong appetite for energy efficiency and its financing, the energy
efficiency market has not deployed as yet. The barriers are often similar to other
Economies in Transition in the region, mostly even more pronounced, and are discussed
below. Nevertheless, the first ESCO-type companies date back to 1996 (Administration
of Seversk 2006).
There are only a small number of local ESCO-type companies in Russia, which are not
yet able to provide well-developed turn-key energy saving offers (Efremov et al. 2004)
and they are concentrated around Moscow. Earlier a number of US- and European-based
ESCO companies were identified to start up projects in Russia, however some
unsuccessful stories discouraged further projects (Evans 2000). Experience shows that
European and American models cannot simply be transposed, but need rigorous
adaptation to the Russian circumstances (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre
2006).
Thus, ESCO companies that offer EPC guarantees have not yet been set up according to
international experts (for instance Woellert and Ligot pers.com.). ESCO activity is
restricted to several pilot projects, often initiated by foreign companies or implemented
with the assistance of foreign investors and financial institutions. Nevertheless, the
67
breakthrough point is believed to be close, and some experts estimate that there has been
a moderate growth in the ESCO-like market during the last 1-2 years.
The size of the market is unknown and none of the experts interviewed for the present
report could estimate the current potential. It is probably due to the changing market
conditions, and the changes in the ESCO industry, too. Besides the work done on
introducing the ESCOs (by for instance Finnish companies under the FRESCO project
74
),
concept dissemination and exchange of technology and know-how expertise (for instance
under the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre), Russia has taken steps on a
number of other platforms to increase energy efficiency.
According to the experience of ESCO projects to date, a pay-back time not longer than 6-
7 years prevails. A study conducted by Enprima Ltd. in the framework of the FRESCO
project analyzed the feasibility of potential projects in Russia, and found boiler
automation upgrade, installation of new pre-furnace for utilization of bio-fuels,
installation of new economizers, utilization of local boilers for DH systems, installation
of Variable Speed Controlling systems for DH pumps, and automation of centralized
compressed air production facility to be likely good projects for ESCOs (Enprima 2004).
There are very many and serious barriers to ESCOs in Russia, often embedded in the
unstable environment for SMEs (Efremov et al. 2004) and the tradition of a centrally
planned economic system. Low energy tariffs challenge incentives for energy
conservation and an “energy wasting attitude” is inherited from the Soviet-system
(Honkanen 2006)
75
, while from a social point of view residential prices are too high
compared to the household income. Bureaucratic and rather slow decision making
process, and vague ownership issues make it hard to identify and start off ESCO projects
(EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006, OECD 2006). Ensuring
guarantees for pay-back would be essential because control over risks is a major problem
at all levels. Guarantees could be established by international finance institutions or by
guarantees of governments of Russian regions (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology
Centre 2006). A reliable system of energy tariffs whose changes are possible to foresee
combined with the creation of realistic energy prices free from subsidies has been pushed
by the international community, and Russia may see a change in this as a result of WTO
accession (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006). ESCOs in Russia
would require appropriate, clear, complete and supportive legislation and predictable
taxes (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006). Awareness raising in
regard to both energy saving and ESCOs as a tool needs to be a top priority. Banks
should be approached and informed widely about the business opportunity offered by
energy conservation financing (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006).
Financing for ESCO projects through IFIs is starting up, combined with technical
assistance (Ligot 2006).

74
South-East Finland-Russia "FRESCO" project is an Interreg III A initiative, which aims at studying the
possibilities and potential of ESCO business in Northwest Russia. Besides, the project targets at building
the contact network for Finnish energy enterprises in the destination area, establishing co-operation strategy
for promotion of optional energy source utilization and Finnish technology export, and finally the project
prepared a model for ESCO business in Northwest Russia. (http://www2.et.lut.fi/fresco/index_eng.htm).
75
There has been a hot debate whether energy prices are actually low. For instance Bashmakov explains
that Russian energy prices seem low only if compared directly to Western European prices, but when
compared together with labour costs, the ratio of energy spending is much higher than that in Western
countries (Bashmakov 2000).
68
Though the Russian environment for ESCOs is less favourable than in many European
countries, this is compensated by the enormous potential of “low hanging fruit” projects
(EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006).
Table 34. Summary of basic data of the Russian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs no precise number, probably
between 4-15 ESCO-type and 100s
of engineering, consulting
companies
Type of ESCOs private
ESCO association no
Size of the market not known, EE potential is 40-48%
of current energy consumption
Change in recent years ESCO market has been changing a
lot, with first upheaval and decline
in 1990s, and low interest and
success in the last years, while an
expected growth for the near future
is seen
Most popular technologies HVAC, heating, automation, control
systems, compressed air systems,
DH (supply side)

There is one ESCO company in Belarus, which started its operations in early 2005, and it
is expected that upon successful project completion several others would follow suit, thus
an expansion of the market is expected.
Since the ESCO market started recently, a market size estimate only covers one project
that has been implemented so far, and which was a 10 million EUR investment. It is
projected that in the short term 5 such projects can be implemented annually, making for
a market worth 50 million EUR per year. However, the potential of the energy efficiency
market for ESCOs is much larger. It is calculated that at least 20-25% of the current
energy demand can be saved in the industrial and municipal sectors, though external
finances will be necessary for this.
The existing ESCO project in Belarus implemented a co-generation plant in a large
industry. According to market surveys, potential ESCOs are expecting to deal with
boilers, heating control systems, compressed air systems, HVAC systems, steam
distribution and electric load management mainly in private and public industries. The
residential and tertiary sectors are not attracting ESCO interest at this point.
The first ESCO contract followed the UK Energy Management Contract model. In this,
the ESCO executes a turn-key project, including the delivery, installation and operation
of a CHP plant or other energy efficiency installation. The ESCO owns the installation
during the timeframe of the project, and is selling the service (electricity and heat) at a
lower price than the local supplier, but when the project ends, the installation is handed
over to the client. This is also referred to as BOOT contract (EC DG JRC 2005). The
ESCO project is financed from foreign bank loans through the ESCO, and a guarantee by
a local bank or EU stakeholders is provided.
69
Local banks are not yet open to take part of the ESCO market, however foreign investors
do finance the ESCO activities. Barriers to ESCO operations are numerous and
essentially overcoming them would require changes at all levels. Nevertheless, it is a
good sign that ESCOs have already appeared. The most significant barrier is the fixed
rates for electricity and heating prices. CHP installations on the other hand do not have
secured prices.
In the industrial sector the rigid and complicated accounting rules and taxation system
results in immediate loss of the benefits from energy savings in the overall cashflow of
the company, rather discouraging energy conservation. Institutional barriers in the
industrial sector embrace the hierarchical system of the still largely state-owned
industries when officials on several levels have to be fully informed and convinced about
the benefits of an ESCO contract. In the public sector certain aspects of bureaucratic rules
for procurement and tendering hinder the effectiveness of setting up an ESCO agreement.
On the other hand, the banking sector is also limited and faces a number of barriers. Most
potential ESCO projects are long term, while commercial bank loans are only available
for up to 7 years, and the interest rate is relatively high.
In spite of the difficulties, positive changes can been seen. The interest rates mentioned
above have been steadily going down lately, which can help ESCO projects to a great
extent. At the same time, the Government’s pricing policy has been introduced, according
to which all energy tariffs include a component that is collected in an Energy Efficiency
Fund which can be used for various energy saving measures (UNDP n.d.). Finally, the
Government has been pronouncedly in favour of EE, and has created relevant institutions,
and has already engaged in the 3
rd
National Energy saving Program since 1996 (UNDP
n.d.). In May 2006 presidential Decree No 93 was passed, which endorsed a clear system
for power transmission tariffs and charges, with which CHP projects implemented by
ESCOs are eased.
It is suggested that to tackle the above obstacles still much political work needs to be
done. Legal changes on a number of issues are necessary, such as regarding banks, which
should be allowed to finance longer projects than 7 years. Also, the public sector
procurement and tendering rules should be reconsidered to allow ESCO operation, and
mechanisms should be developed that allow companies to monitor and verify energy
savings and separate those from overall company cashflow. Successful pilot projects are
expected to be able to demonstrate the feasibility of the ESCO concept for all
stakeholders. Finally, the adoption of a model ESCO contract is strongly needed.
In summary, in spite of the legacies from Soviet times, difficulties in legal, administrative
and ownership issues, ESCOs are starting to gain a foothold in Belarus, and a boom may
be seen shortly.
70
Table 35. Summary of basic data of the Belarusian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 1
Type of ESCOs Private with mainly foreign
shareholders
ESCO association no
Size of the market potential of around 20-25% of
energy demand in industrial and
public sector
Change in recent years first ESCO was set up in 2005
Most popular technologies industrial systems, CHP

Information on energy efficiency and ESCOs or their potential in Moldova is rather
limited. The authors were informed that there are a few ESCO-type companies working
in Moldova, and there has been activity in the energy efficiency field that points towards
the probable emergence of an ESCO market in the country. However, ESCOs offering the
classical EPC have not appeared yet.
Due to the economic recession, high debt levels, and out-dated institutional arrangements,
both state and private decision-makers’ attention is focussed on urgent priorities and
pressing issues, rather than on energy efficiency (ASE n.d.a.). The opportunities energy
conservation can offer are little understood.
Due to the economic crisis and slow transition to a market economy Moldova’s
development has been seriously endangered since the fall of the Soviet Union (ASE
n.d.a.). In particular the energy sector has been deeply affected by the recession. Massive
energy arrears characterize the energy system, and large industrial sites, as well as much
of the residential sector have been disconnected from the energy supply and district
heating systems due to non-payment and increasing prices. In many parts of the capital,
Chisinau, the district heating system has simply been dismantled, and replaced by electric
heaters or building-level gas boilers. This has resulted in both a local production that was
created by necessity and an extremely inefficient supply system, which is now in poor
condition (ASE n.d.a., USAID n.d.b.).
Measures on energy efficiency improvement are nevertheless being carried out on a
commercial basis by both local and foreign firms and organizations. The work is prepaid
by the customer and no guarantee on energy savings is involved. Most important
investments include the installation of heat-meters, the installation of modern high-
efficiency boilers in industrial sites, thermal insulation of buildings, including the
exchange of windows and doors in public and residential buildings, and the application of
new industrial high-efficiency technologies.
The most important barrier to energy efficiency investments is that they are still
considered as luxury spendings that can be only afforded by wealthier countries. This is
the result of the huge national budget share (20% of annual GDP) subject to cover natural
disaster recovery (Chistyakova et al. 2006), partially related to the energy sector. The
country has got into a vicious circle in the sense that some of the disasters could be
avoided and debts could be repaid if energy demand levels were optimized, while the
concentration of attention and funds on disaster mitigation limits the country’s ability to
improve energy efficiency. In spite of this situation, Moldova does have a particularly
71
progressive Law on Energy Conservation that was adopted in 2000, although
unfortunately there is no real mechanism to provide for incentives for conservation that
could make the Law effective (Surugiu n.d.). The relative instability of the economic
situation at both macro and micro level affects potential ESCOs’ trust and willingness to
engage in a guaranteed long-term contract. The problems with bureaucracy are similar to
those described in the case of Russia. It is interesting, however, that the Energy Strategy
stipulates the need for promotion of ESCOs (PEEREA 2004).
International agencies have not been particularly active in Moldova, though USAID and
the Alliance to Save Energy have done significant work in the energy conservation field.
Activities include various tools (though not related to ESCOs), such as information
dissemination and training of municipalities and housing associations, awareness raising
through national broadcasts, newspaper articles, forums, trainings, study tours for
stakeholders, giving technical assistance for DH Strategy and know-how sharing in
reviewing energy legislation (PEEREA 2004). Information dissemination, not only on the
concept but to increase trust is very important.
A Revolving Fund has been created, which partially serves to help the ESCOs’ operation.
Profit tax exemptions were also planned for ESCOs, however in the end this was not
included in the legislation (PEEREA 2004).
To exhibit the best results of the energy efficiency measures and disseminate positive
experiences, the MUNEE Network
76
conducted several demonstration projects in
Moldova between 2001 and 2004. This can serve well for ESCO market development and
to show the feasibility of ESCO projects.
Table 36. Summary of basic data of the Moldavian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs few
Type of ESCOs n.d.
ESCO association no
Size of the market n.d.
Change in recent years ESCO as a tool stipulated in
legislation
Most popular technologies DH, installation of heat-meters,
installation of high-efficiency
boilers in industry, thermal
insulation in public and residential
buildings, new industrial high-
efficient technologies

Non-EU South-East Europe
The region can be characterized by rapidy growing economies as a result of
reconstruction after the war period that impacted most of the SEE countries seriously,
directly or indirectly. This change is accompanied by rapidly rising energy demands,
combined with an originally poor performance on energy intensity. The region is still a
little turbid, as borders keep changing, though the separation of the Republic of Serbia

76
Municipal Network for Energy Efficiency, supported by the USAID and managed by the Alliance to
Save Energy
72
and the Republic of Montenegro is considered as the end of former Yugoslavia. The
reconstruction is fortified by a strong emphasis on legislative modernization that also
takes into consideration the harmonization with European Union Directives and
International Agreements.
Energy efficiency is definitely a priority in all SEE countries as a means to address
environmental, economic and social problems, though ESCOs have not yet really get
going in SEE. A few ESCO type projects have been carried out, and IFIs are active in the
area of rational energy systems. The World Bank is in the process of establishing one
public ESCO in Macedonia, and ESCOs can be expected to add to the energy efficiency
solutions tool-kit in the coming years. Legislative systems must be strengthened in most
cases, while the institutional framework already involves a number of energy and energy
efficiency agencies. The most important barriers to the kick-start of the ESCO market
have been listed by local experts as low awareness and knowledge of the concept, high
interest rates and lack of examples.

According to experts, the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro
77
have
not seen an active ESCO industry (Chabchoub 2005). There are only a few isolated
actions related to private companies, and no EPC contract has been signed up to 2006
according to the knowledge of the authors.
Most activity has been oriented towards preparing business plans and disseminating the
concept up to now (Chabchoub 2005). The most critical issue for the uptake of this sector
is claimed to be wide-scale awareness raising and capacity building which are necessary
to overcome the very primary hurdles to the ESCO sector foundation (Pavlovic 2005,
Chabchoub 2005).
On the other hand, resembling the other Eastern European countries and even surpassing
them, Serbia and Montenegro can be characterized as having extremely high energy
intensity (6 times that of EU15 (Pavlovic 2005)), combined with low energy consumption
per capita, which is however increasing steadily, due to the economic lag (SEENERGY
n.d.). The war and economic crises resulted in the collapse of the energy supply systems
and the decline of the industry. The countries saw serious blackouts of supply around
2000. The residential sector is responsible for 70% of the energy demand today, which is
critically high and is a consequence of the above, not the high energy use of the people
(ASE n.d.b.). Heating with electricity is typical. Energy prices were soaring in the
beginning of the 2000s, putting people in economic difficulties, nevertheless prices are
still subsidized. A strong focus on energy efficiency and rational use of energy is needed
and is apparent on many other platforms in the countries (ASE n.d.b., SEENERGY n.d.,
Pavlovic 2005).
Important local changes have already occurred which can be supportive of a potentially
emerging ESCO market. The New Energy Law of 2004 in Serbia foresees new
responsibilities for municipalities: energy balancing, energy strategic planning and
establishment of local energy markets (BISE 2005). Energy price liberalization has
started, and an institutional framework has been created.

77
As a result of the referendum held in Montenegro on 21 May 2006, the two entities separated as of 3 June
2006, and the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro became two countries. In this report they are discussed
together because of the common development history, but highlighting any significant differences if
necessary.
73
International financial institutions have shown great interest in financing energy
efficiency after the war-period, setting the stage for ESCOs. The European Union helped
the establishment of the Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency (SEEA) via the European
Agency for Reconstruction (EAR) (Pavlovic 2005, Chabchoub 2005). The EU has been
actively supporting and giving technical assistance to modernization projects and training
of industrial personnel and municipalities about energy management systems (Pavlovic
2005), while the World Bank has launched the Serbian Energy Efficiency Project with 21
million USD (Pavlovic 2005). The World Bank support enabled investments to replace
existing room and water heating facilities in clinical centers and social service facilities,
thus supporting the promotion of energy efficiency efforts (Chabchoub 2005). USAID
focused on awareness raising, and carried out a large-scale assistance effort designed to
demonstrate the potential savings from energy efficiency projects in schools, hospitals
and other buildings and to educate people about the inevitable rise in electricity prices
(USAID n.d.c.). Furthermore, several bilateral agreements have been made, and
international grants have been established for Serbia, for instance Norway is supporting
energy efficiency improvements in the area by financial means (ca. 300,000 EUR
annually), as well as by giving technical assistance.
As a result, numerous projects have been implemented. These have focused on
refurbishment of municipal buildings, improvement of street lighting and DH, as well as
RES. It is hoped that these efforts have prepared the ground for the introduction of energy
service companies, after the concept precipitates to both clients and potential companies.
Table 37. Summary of basic data of the Serbian and Montenegrin ESCO market
Number of ESCOs few ESCO oriented activities
Type of ESCOs n.a.
ESCO Association no
Size of the market not known
Change in recent years opening towards energy efficiency
Most popular technologies n.a.

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is extensively decentralized and consists of two state-
like entities, the Federation of BiH, and the Republika Srpska and District Brcko, and the
Federation of BiH entity is further divided into regions (cantons). According to the
Dayton Agreement in 1995, foreign, economic, and fiscal policy are dealt with by the
central government, while internal affairs, including energy, belong to the Entities’
governments (USAID n.d.a., E.V.A. n.d.a.). According to experts, the compound
authority and political situation results in a lack of overarching energy strategy or policy
(Chabchoub 2005). Regrettably, according to the MUNEE Network
78
, energy decisions
and directions in Bosnia and Herzegovina can be characterized to some extent by
“unclear authority over energy issues”, the need for a “long-term energy strategy on the
state level”, and the improvement of energy statistics (USAID n.d.a.).
Consequently, ESCO activity is limited, although not absolutely unknown. There are no
ESCOs offering EPC in BiH (Prašović and Knežević 2005, Chabchoub 2005), though

78
Municipal Network for Energy Efficiency, supported by the USAID and managed by the Alliance to
Save Energy
74
there is at least one company using the ESCO concept in implementing a small scale
boiler biomass heating project, and a number of other ESCO projects have taken place.
ESCO projects range from installation of mini heating systems, through boiler exchanges
to the establishment of tri-generation plants. The exemplar projects have involved
guarantees on energy savings by an ESCO-type private company, and the simple pay-
back time has been less than 5 years.
Besides the above mentioned strong structural barriers, including unclear authority, lack
of data and legislation, training and information dissemination are strongly needed in
order to raise awareness of the potential offered by energy efficiency, which can improve
economic and environmental performance and their interplay (Sehovic 2005a,
Chabchoub 2005). Traditional financing in developing countries, such as the national
budget, international aid and programs, and leasing companies, is limited (Chabchoub
2005), thus third party financing scheme is considered as an appropriate means to seize
energy saving opportunities (Sehovic 2005b).
First of all, in-depth analysis and research on the ESCO market potentials in BiH is badly
needed in order to attract ESCOs from other countries as well as to communicate the
rationale for setting up ESCO companies to the SMEs in BiH. In addition, state and local
capacity and general awareness raising would be desirable, but also the banks should be
encouraged towards financing (Sehovic 2005b). Capacity building of the municipal
officials regarding the possibilities of ESCO financing could be especially effective, since
a large amount of money is allocated for electricity and heating costs in public buildings.
Demonstrational projects could be useful to bring these opportunities closer to both
clients and financers. Finally, as already mentioned, establishment of overall energy
efficiency legislation and the institutional framework is regarded as essential (Chabchoub
2005). Technical aid from more experienced countries in the form of project development
and feasibility studies could have a multiplier effect.
Table 38. Summary of basic data of the Bosnian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 1 ESCO-like company, and a few
ESCO projects
Type of ESCOs n.d.
ESCO Association no
Size of the market not known
Change in recent years not known
Most popular technologies CHP, heating systems, biomass

The Republic of Macedonia, independent since 1991, is in an economic transition with
some setbacks and major economic, financial and social difficulties complemented with
following economic growth and stabilization. Policy-making has been influenced by
harmonization with European Union legislation, in order to prepare a possible accession
to the EU (E.V.A. n.d.b.). A Programme on Efficient Energy Use in the Republic of
Macedonia until 2020 was adopted in 1999, based on which a Strategy for Energy
Efficiency until 2020 was developed by 2004 with the financial support of USAID
(PEEREA 2006a, E.V.A. n.d.b.). Furthermore, the new Energy Law, incorporating a
special chapter “Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy” was passed in May 2006.
Though the establishment of an Energy Efficiency Fund is stipulated in the Energy
75
Efficiency Strategy, it had not occurred by the end of 2006 and energy efficiency funding
is not allocated from the national budget, but is based on international cooperation,
including IBRD/GEF, USAID and EBRD and private European funding (PEEREA
2006a).
The state of the ESCO market in Macedonia is in an early embryonic phase. The potential
for energy savings is significant in industry, which is dominated by the metal processing
industry (E.V.A. n.d.b.), and in the municipal and residential sectors, especially in
heating, where electric heating prevails. Energy intensity is 50% higher than in
neighbouring countries (E.V.A. n.d.b.).
There is local interest in the ESCO business. As of 2006, there is one ESCO-type
company working with heating units and heat pumps on geothermal energy, and this has
a good service all over Macedonia. It is estimated that there are 2-3 national engineering
companies with good technical skills and personnel, which would like to widen their
services as ESCOs, nonetheless they seriously lack sufficient capital even for the
transaction costs to get off the ground in this area. In addition, there is also interest from
regional companies, in particular on the part of former Yugoslav countries, to get into the
Macedonian energy efficiency market.
There are a number of important traditional barriers to energy efficiency investments and
to the development of the ESCO sector, but the World Bank has identified financial
restraints as the most urgent and effective to deal with in the case of Macedonia. In order
to overcome this obstacle, the World Bank has a currently operational project in the
country through the GEF, which supports the start of the ESCO market on the basis of 3
pillars. First of all, support is given to establish the market framework through technical
assistance to develop and implement secondary legislation set out in the Energy
Efficiency Strategy. Secondly, the World Bank (similarly to the system in Croatia)
establishes a public utility-based ESCO under the umbrella of the Macedonian Market
and Transmission System Operator (MEPSO), ELEM
79
and TOPLIFIKACIJA AD
80
.
(PEEREA 2006a, GEF 2004). The ESCO will provide turnkey and performance-based
contracting for energy efficiency, and will demonstrate the financial performance of such
projects using third-party financing for publicly-owned buildings. The launch of the
ESCO is expected by March 2007. Thirdly, the creation of the Sustainable Energy
Financing Facility is designed to provide a loan guarantee facility and a debt fund, on a
co-financing basis with commercial institutions and the Macedonian Bank for
Development Promotion (MBDP) (PEEREA 2006a).
The resistance of the banking sector to getting involved in the energy efficiency business
until now is being addressed by programs of the EBRD. For instance, in 2004 EBRD
extended a syndicated loan of 20 million EUR to a Macedonian bank (EBRD n.d.).
Besides financial constraints and the low involvement of the banking sector, barriers are
similar to other Central and South-Eastern countries. Procedural hindrances to
procurement are experienced, and low awareness, lack of information, and trust in energy
efficiency investment are also a major hindrance. On the other hand, energy is not as
deeply subsidized as in other countries of the region.

79
Macedonian Power Plants – 100% owned by the State
80
District heating company, owner of the heat energy production (boiler houses) and manager of the district
heating distribution pipelines in Skopje.
76
The new utility-based ESCO is planned to focus primarily on educational buildings and
hospitals, with some attention to traditional start-off areas, such as public lighting.
Macedonia is in the introductory phase of the energy service company market, and given
the local potential, interest and international help, the next two years should see the
results of recent efforts.
Table 39. Summary of basic data of the Macedonian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs 1, and 1 is to be launched in 2007
Type of ESCOs Private (the new one will be public)
ESCO Association no
Size of the market not known
Change in recent years increased interest, expected take off
from 2007
Most popular technologies geothermal heat pumps, planned
targets are educational buildings and
hospitals

As of 2006, there are no companies dedicated to energy efficiency investments, nor have
ESCO-type projects been implemented in Albania, based on local experts’ reports.
The country has emphasized the priority of energy efficiency on a number of platforms
though. Albania has been modernizing the national energy policy in order to harmonize
with EU directives and international commitments, such as the Kyoto Protocol, the
Energy Charter Treaty or for instance the South-East European Stability Pact (NSE
2005). The National Strategy for Energy adopted in 2005 is a comprehensive document
that has a special chapter just dedicated to energy efficiency, which is regarded by the
country as a priority (Fida 2005). The NSE also projects the investment need in energy
efficiency, which is around 40 million USD including the residential, industrial and
tertiary sectors by 2010 (NSE 2005).
Furthermore, the Energy Efficiency Law has also been created and passed, which has
important implications for energy saving opportunities, and is establishing the ground for
ESCOs, too. Energy investment-friendly measures in the Law include for instance an
obligation to conduct energy audits for some consumers, the national evaluation of
energy saving potentials, and the establishment of the Energy Efficiency Fund.
Raising awareness and information dissemination is also regarded as a priority area for
dealing with increasing energy consumption, and the institutional framework is rather
developed as of 2006. Albania has an Albanian-EU Energy Efficiency Centre (AEEC
n.d.). Besides awareness raising, the Center has been carrying out international and
national programs for energy conservation, has engaged in energy audits (AEEC n.d.),
and may have the potential to serve as an ESCO.
Energy Service Companies and Third Party Financing are also specifically highlighted in
the National Energy Strategy as useful tools for capturing energy efficiency potentials
(NSE 2005). Nevertheless, Albania is still considered a few steps away from a successful
ESCO launch by experts. Some of the remaining obstacles listed by experts are the
further improvement of the legal and regulatory framework, the lack of appropriate and
accessible financial resources and still low awareness. To overcome these to some extent,
Regional Energy Offices in certain Albanian municipalities are being established as of
77
the end of 2006. These will have a profile for energy related data collection, assessment
of energy saving potentials, energy efficiency promotion, and so on.
Table 40. Summary of basic data of the Albanian ESCO market
Number of ESCOs none
Type of ESCOs n.a.
ESCO Association no
Size of the market not known
Change in recent years not known
Most popular technologies n.a.


78
79
3 CONCLUSIONS
The Energy Service Companies market in the European Union and New Candidate States
has been developing swiftly in the last two decades. ESCOs took off the ground in many
countries as early as the beginning of the 90s. The current status of national ESCO
industries shows noteworthy differences and their recent development paths have been
diverse. A general observation is that the ESCO market across Europe is growing rapidly,
even if it is stagnant or even slowly declining in some countries.
The European Union and some national governments have taken important steps to
promote ESCO and EPC markets. Strategies include policy instruments, such as the
Energy Service Directive
81
, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
82
and the
CHP Directive
83
, programs such as the GreenLight
84
, Motor Challenge and
GreenBuilding
85
and a number of European projects
86
most of them supported by the
IEE
87
. In addition to this, many national governments have placed the promotion of
energy savings through ESCOs on their priority list, and introduced measures that are
beneficial for ESCO businesses. Examples range from single measures (for instance
establishment of one or more public ESCO) to complex targeted strategies (combining
wide-scale information collection and dissemination, carrying out demonstration
activities, capacity building, and developing guidelines and model contracts). The general
trends of European ESCO markets are discussed below, followed by a short discussion on
common barriers and selected enabling factors seen across the EU and the neighbouring
countries.

3.1 Changes compared to the beginning of the millennium
Most of the ESCO markets have expanded since 2004-2005, when the European ESCO
Status Report, the basis of the present Update report, was prepared. There are also some
countries where the market has been remained stable. For instance, Germany, the UK,
France and Spain have maintained their leading positions in the ‘premier league’ of
ESCO countries (see European ESCO Status Report). At the same time, some countries
have seen a spectacular increase in ESCO activity in the last few years: Sweden is an
example in this respect. A focused and comprehensive strategy that was designed for the
local circumstances has led to a significant market rise. This is especially impressive in
the Swedish environment where lack of credibility in ESCOs plagued the market after
earlier failures once at the end of 1970s, and then in the early 1990s. The Czech Republic
has significantly strengthened the ESCO industry by concerted efforts on part of the
government, agencies, the IFC and the industry itself. The introduction and enforcement

81
Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use
efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC.
82
Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on the energy
performance of buildings
83
Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 on the
promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market and amending
Directive 92/42/EEC
84
http://www.eu-greenlight.org/
85
http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/energyefficiency/greenbuilding/index.htm
86
such as the EUROCONTRACT, EuroWhiteCert, ST-ESCOs) project among others
87
Intelligent Energy Europe Program; http://ec.europa.eu/energy/intelligent/index_en.html.
80
of obligatory audits have an important role in making the Czech ESCO market one of the
European frontrunners. The effect of the introduction of a White Certificate scheme in
some countries is debated, but it has been an important instrument to promote Italian
ESCOs. A similar result is expected in France, and maybe the tool will become popular in
other EU Member States, too. The White Certificates can increase the cost efficiency of
project by allowing ESCOs to gain an additional revenue stream from selling verified and
certified energy savings.
Other countries with strong and consolidated markets have seen no significant change
during the last few years. The French market is dominated by a few actors and their role
has not significantly altered, although there are new companies coming into the French
market using EPC, and further changes can be expected. The Hungarian situation is more
complex because by simply looking at the industry, it seems well-developed and even
growing during the last years; however some ESCOs argue that the market is shrinking
and ESCOs have to change their orientation and sometimes even their core activities in
order to keep profits.
There are countries where the first ESCOs appeared in the last two years. Greece has
been lagging behind other EU-15 countries, in spite of the significant saving potential,
and it is hoped that a current EU project will be able to get the industry off the ground.
ESCOs are progressing on the Estonian market, too. Meanwhile, some countries (Poland,
Slovenia) do not seem to be getting into the ESCO business significantly in spite of
various attempts, which could be because the traditional ESCO offer does not correspond
to the market needs and peculiarities in these countries. There are also countries where
ESCOs and EPC are unknown until today, and no change has been seen (Turkey, Malta,
Cyprus).
Finally, there are a number of countries which have a very successful energy efficiency
market, but without ESCO contribution (Denmark, the Netherlands, Lithuania). This
clearly proves that ESCOs are a useful and very cost effective tool to achieve energy
efficiency goals, but they are not the only available and possible solution. ESCOs offer
the means to deliver infrastructure improvements to facilities that lack energy engineering
skills, manpower or management time to deal with energy efficiency, capital funding or
willingness to borrow for EE projects, understanding of risk in EE, and/or technology
information.
In general, the ESCO concept is more developed and more spread, also thanks to the
preparations related to the Energy Service Directive. Nevertheless, dissemination of
information is still important and could further enlarge the market.
TPF has become an accepted tool, and the ESCO contracts are more and more suited to
the needs of the clients, offering all or part of a complex energy saving investment.
Model contracts are available in more countries than in 2005, which has been a major
focus of many European-wide activities, EU projects.
Primarily in the CEE countries, the EPC scheme is being overtaken by more Energy
Contracting and complex facility, operation management and heat and electricity supply
contracts. The savings or performance guarantee is sometimes seen by the client as
unnecessary and costly.
The public sector has been the most important customer of ESCOs, but the present
research has shown that other sectors are overtaking in some countries. Interestingly, the
residential sector is becoming attractive for ESCOs in some countries; this sector was
81
believed to be a difficult market for ESCOs before because of its complexity in decision
making, small project sizes and large transaction costs. Apparently, ESCOs are able to
deal with these problems, although, often the key to success lies in combining the ESCO
guarantee with a national subsidy or other support program for domestic buildings.
The following table summarizes the basic characteristics and data of the EPC markets of
the European Union Member States as discussed within the present report.

82
Table 41.a. Summary of basic data of the Energy Service Companies markets in the
European Union Member States as of 2006-2007. Countries are listed following the
order they appear in the present report.
Country Number of ESCOs Market size/Market
value
Main clients
Spain 10-15 private
companies + several
public ESCOs
n.d. Primary: public sector
Secondary: industry
Portugal 7-8 ~€8M (market value)
88
Primary: large and medium sized
industries
Secondary: large tertiary
buildings
Italy Several dozen ~€95M (investment for
CHP only)
Traditionally: public sector
Secondary: commercial sector,
industry
Thirdly: residential sector
Greece 0-3 (sporadic
projects)
~0 Project focus: governmental
buildings
UK 20-24 ~€860-940M (annual
turnover)
Traditionally: industry
Lately: Industry, commercial and
public sectors
Ireland 2 ~0; market potential:
€50-110M/year until
2020
Primary: industry
Secondary: commercial and
public sector
France 3 major ESCOs + 100
small ones
€3Bln/year (turnover) Traditionally: public sector and
industry
Lately: industry and residential
sector
Germany 50 €2Bln (market potential) Primary and traditional client:
public buildings
Secondary: private buildings
Expected entry: industry, offices
Austria ~30 €500M investment
opportunity
Primary: public buildings
Expected uptake: private sector
buildings









88
Only includes the biggest company.
83

Table 41.b. Summary of basic data of the Energy Service Companies markets in the
European Union Member States as of 2006-2007. (cont.)
Country Number of ESCOs Market size/Market
value
Main clients
Belgium ~30 n.d. Primary: public sector
Secondary: industrial sites
Expected uptake: residential
sector
The
Netherlands
very few n.d. Primary: public sector (lighting)
Secondary: municipal (non-state-
owned) buildings
Luxembourg 3-4 n.d. n.d.
Finland 9-11 €220M (investment value
between 1998 and 2004)
Primary: industrial sector
Sweden ~10 €40-60M (turnover) Primary: public buildings
Denmark 2-4 €5M/year Primary: industry and public
sector buildings
Lithuania 6 €175M Primary: residential and private
buildings
Secondary: industry
Latvia 2 n.d. Primary: public sector
Estonia 0-2 n.d. Expected uptake in the
residential sector
Hungary ~30 €150-200M Traditionally: public sector and
public buildings
Secondary: industry
Lately: commercial and
residential buildings
Czech
Republic
10-15 €10-20M/year Primary: healthcare sector +
other public sectors
Slovakia ~10-30 n.d. Primary: municipal and some
commercial buildings
Secondary: industry
Poland ~5 €10M/year Primary: public sector
Secondary: building
cooperatives
Slovenia 1-2 n.d. Primary: industry and public
sector
Malta 0 0 -
Cyprus 0 0 -
84

Table 41.c. Summary of basic data of the Energy Service Companies markets in the
European Union Member States as of 2006-2007. (cont.)
Country Number of ESCOs Market size/Market
value
Main clients
Romania 2 n.d. Primary: municipal sector and
industry
Bulgaria 1-3 n.d. Primary: public sector
Table 41.d. Summary of basic data of the Energy Service Companies markets in the
regions dealt with in the present report as of 2006-2007.
Region Number of ESCOs
(range)
Development of the
market
Main clients
EU15 0-50 (and even 1000
ESPC)
Many of the ESCO
markets are very well
developed, while some
have no ESCOs at al,
either because EE is
targeted with different
tools, or because ESCOs
are setting foot currently.
Very diverse among countries.
Industry and public sector are
the most important clients in
general
EU12 0-30 A few developed
markets, 2 of whose
development is close to
that of EU15, while some
markets have not even
started.
Mostly the public sector is the
main client, but the residential
clients are gaining importance.
Candidate
Countries
0-1 ESCOs have not yet set
foot, although some start
is seen.
Public sector if any
European
CIS
1-5 ESCO (several
dozen ESPC)
There is some ESCO
activity at least in every
country.
Primarily industry, while some
projects for public clients, too.
Non-EU
SEE
0-1 In some countries the
market is setting up
currently, while in others
no or hardly any activity
is seen.
Mainly the public sector is
interested, but projects could be
implemented well in industry
and the residential sector, too.

85

3.2 Common barriers
Barriers to EPC and ESCOs have been discussed in the case of every country. A list of
most common and most significant obstacles is given below. The development of the
obstacles is also discussed, using the analysis in the European ESCO Status Report 2005:
1. The European ESCO Status Report 2005 emphasized low awareness and lack of
information about the ESCO concept as the most important barrier to the
widespread use of the ESCO offer. The results of the analysis of the research in 2006-
2007 indicate that this remains the most pressing obstacle to the ESCO market
expansion across Europe. The most important barrier that hinders the evolution of
ESCOs is believed to be that potential clients are not aware of this solution and/or are
little interested because their attention is on their core business (private clients) or
main mission (public bodies) and energy constitutes a small part of their expenses.
Furthermore, large energy users usually have in-house expertise. Thus increasing
awareness and dissemination of information about ESCOs still need significant
attention even in countries with highly developed ESCO markets such as Germany,
especially in the buildings sector and in case of SMEs.
2. Trust and scepticism on the clients’ side in the ESCO offer is another long standing
obstacle that has not changed significantly in most countries. This is often the result
of limited understanding of energy efficiency opportunities, EPC and TPF. In the
CEE countries this is particularly an issue because of over -suspiciousness in EPC
offers on the side of some types of clients, who often suspect that there is a piece in
the contract that will make the agreement unfavourable for them. Some of the clients
are afraid that the guarantee would not function as expected.
3. High perceived risk of the ESCO investment goes along with the above barriers.
Technical risk perception has not been highlighted by informants to the present
research, and indeed, there are countries where even the guarantee constituting an
essential part of an EPC is seen as unnecessary. For instance in Poland, ESCO
projects are actually limited partially because clients with high technical expertise in
energy management do not require a guarantee. On the other hand, business risk can
be an important hindrance in several countries, especially if the ESCO industry has
already failed in the past (Slovakia, Sweden).
4. Restricted levels of public sector investments were blamed on non-supportive
procurement rules, and other legal and regulatory frameworks incompatible with
energy efficiency investments in many countries. This problem has not been possible
to solve in practically any of the countries in our focus, although there are a few
countries with progressive public procurement system (for instance the Czech
Republic, Slovakia and Germany, among others). Lack of off-balance sheet
solutions is important in some CEE countries, too, but also in Germany. Pubic
budgeting rules can also be an obstacle to ESCOs indirectly because these induce a
lack of interest in energy cost saving. If a municipality saves money, it may loose all
financial savings by getting a smaller allocation for subsequent years, depending on
the calibration of the subsidy allocating formula in the country. There is a strong
“pressure” on local decision makers to spend the annual municipal budget instead of
saving on it, in order to avoid being cut the following year.
86
5. Lack of and limited understanding of established measurement and verification
protocols for assuring performance was also discussed in the European ESCO Status
Report 2005. The need to solve this issue was again highlighted by the interviewees
in the present research. The development of a proper, neutral and reliable standard is
believed to have the potential to significantly add to the success of the EPC market in
almost all countries.
6. Administrative hurdles and high transaction costs limit willingness to participate,
mainly in the public and residential sector. These not only limit the clients’ interest,
but also keep ESCOs away. Small project size was also highlighted in the European
ESCO Status Report 2005. In certain countries these barriers are still serious, but
many have started to pool projects, which decreases both risk and transaction costs.
7. On the other hand, split incentives are still extremely important in the building and
the public sector. An example is the “renter-owner” division. The tenants pay the
energy bills, but the landlord is responsible for renovations because he controls the
property. Neither side has the incentive to invest in energy saving measures and
equipment because the owner would have to bear the costs, while the savings would
appear on the tenants’ bills, and on the other hand, the tenant can never be sure
whether he/she will use the property long enough to cover the pay-back time of the
investment.
8. In many CEE countries there is a high level of aversion to outsource energy
management tasks and allowing an outsider (the ESCO) to intervene in common
practices and/or change equipment that the users are used to. In addition, the
resistance is even higher when an intervention would affect the core business. In the
industrial sector the client may be reserved in allowing the ESCOs in its processes
and sometimes fear for data or patent protection may be the reason. In the public
sector there is a fear of layoff if energy management is outsourced.
On the other hand, in more developed countries, it is exactly the interest to outsource
that may trigger the ESCO markets. The French market has actually been built on this
interest from the clients, and the development of the British and Belgian industry is
also based on this incentive. In the CEE region, Slovenia has seen similar changes
and evolution of interest. As the industries have been cut into smaller units in
Slovenia, the energy management knowledge is missing in most of the offspring
companies, thus there is a significant need for contractors willing to take this task
from the clients.
9. Problems with the availability of financing that matches the specifics of EE projects
have been quoted in many countries, although the significance of this barrier has
drastically decreased since 2004-2005. It has been highlighted in almost all countries
that financing institutions are interested in participating in energy efficiency
investments, however sometimes the financing solutions offered are not advantageous
and high perceived risks often hinder the availability of good offers. One of the
problems with financing is that banks often assess the creditworthiness of the client
instead of the project itself, with which a lot of good projects are excluded from
financing. Secondly, as a general rule, lending is asset-based, and not cash flow-
based. In asset-based lending the bank requires a collateral (which can even be 200%
of the value of the loan), however in an EE project there is often nothing that can
serve as a collateral, so the client is required to offer some property to serve as a
87
collateral. In contrast, cash-flow based financing would be the appropriate solution
for EE projects, where the bank would accept the stream of revenue coming from
savings as a collateral. In addition, commercial financial institutions are only
interested in the “low hanging”, easy projects, thus limiting activity with longer
projects and in some client segments (for instance in the residential sector).
In many markets large ESCOs dominate because they can afford to invest own equity.
In such cases small ESCOs face difficulties to convince both the clients and the
financial institutions to start up a different type of EPC contract and borrow from the
financial markets. Forfeiting has become a tool to remedy the “lack of cash-flow”
problems.
10. In the public sector ESCO projects may often have a difficult start if at all, because
typically little attention is (possible to be) given to energy issues in local decision
making, maybe because other “more important” priorities often override these, and
little credit is given to the immense local co-benefits of energy efficiency. This might
often be so in the private sector, too.

3.3 Success factors
The long history of ESCOs in certain countries is a result of the presence of various
enabling factors and/or the ability of the market to overcome the most important barriers.
As it has been shown in the present report, there are a few success stories emerging
across Europe also currently that can be attributed to intended or unconscious facilitation
of these markets.
In some countries, the ESCO market has been developed strategically (for instance in
Austria, Sweden, and Germany), while in others some specific measures have been
introduced or the environment became susceptible for this business (for instance in Spain,
Czech Republic). Some of the most important individual factors are discussed below.
There are certain barriers that were significant in 2004-2005 (and are listed in the
European ESCO Status Report 2005), but which seem to have eroded at least to some
extent.
1. Energy prices have been going up significantly in almost all countries as a result of
increasing world energy prices, stricter environmental regulation, and/or the removal
or rationalization of subsidies. This has significantly increased interest in energy
efficiency and EPC, because energy use is more and more expensive and consumers
are now forced to revise their energy spendings. High energy costs ensure the
profitability of investing in energy saving for both the customer and the ESCO. It has
been highlighted, for instance in Finland, that ESCOs work with industries whose
energy costs represent a large share of their expenditures. Energy prices have been
rising in almost all countries due to global market price increase and as a result of
subsidy removal and/or rationalization especially in many CEE countries. Some
ESCOs consider energy taxes as one of the most effective political measures for
energy efficiency. (However, a sharp increase in the price of gas can have dramatic
effect on CHP investments and decrease or erode its profitability).
2. Governmental support pointed at as an important missing factor in the European
ESCO Status Report 2005, is more appreciative now for ESCOs. This may be
partially due to increasing European-level attention and policies, such as the
legislation (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, Energy Services Directive)
88
and often also due to liberalization of the electricity market. Subsidies are peculiar,
but very helpful of ESCOs in Finland, since they are designed to help the ESCO
industry by offering an additional 5 percentage points subsidy besides the 15-20%
subsidy of the energy efficiency investment costs.
3. Liberalization has unclear effect on the ESCO market. On the one hand, competition
has pushed prices down (especially in case of electricity), thus decreasing the
incentive to save energy. In Germany for instance, energy prices dropped
significantly between 1999 and 2001 as a result of liberalization. On the other hand,
competition induces new services offered by the energy utilities. In Portugal, as a
result of market opening, the national energy supplier opened new business areas,
including ESCO servicing. Among many others, the British energy facilities also
offer energy services in order to attract more customers or keep old ones.
4. Dissemination of information and capacity building has been particularly
successful in many countries if done effectively and for the appropriate audience. The
case of Sweden and Austria has shown that introducing the ESCO concept and its
basics to potential customers formed an essential part of their ESCO development
strategy. The Czech market is another example of successful ESCO development
largely because of the successes of information distribution. Much attention is paid to
increasing trust, knowledge and understanding of the ESCO concept in South-East
Europe where the ESCO industry is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years.
5. Some experts have been particularly favouring standard documents that help ESCO
businesses by providing a template of the contract, or give a successful procedure
protocol for carrying out parts or all of the ESCO operations. Templates and protocols
are usually useful for embryonic markets and for building trust in the ESCO business
in general, because these documents are produced by a neutral body, such as an
energy agency or NGO.
6. Small project sizes were also important barriers to energy saving investments in
2004-2005. This is still an important issue, however on the one hand different
solutions have been applied (such as pooling, obligatory audits, grants), and on the
other hand rising energy prices improved the economics of previously snubbed
projects.
7. Accreditation of ESCOs has been referred to as one of the most effective tools to
increase trust in the quality of ESCO work, however not widely used. Austria is a
unique and very successful example of this. Several quality labels have been set up
for ESCOs and ESCO services. The Thermoprofit quality label guarantees reliable
high quality proposals by ESCOs using the label, while the so called eco-label
denotes the quality of ESCO services and the compliance with standards (E.V.A.
2005).
8. It has been repeatedly expressed in the country reports that financing is not a problem
in general, however, some areas, such as the residential sector could not take up much
energy efficiency investment because the transaction costs are too high for ESCOs.
There are some countries across Europe, for instance Hungary and Estonia, where
ESCOs have been able to combine their offers with state funds (Panel Program in
Hungary) and make the sector an interesting area for investment.
9. Improving legislation and supportive regulatory background have been often
emphasized to be especially important. The Directive 2006/32/EC of the European
89
Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and
energy services is probably one of the most important pillars for the promotion of the
ESCO industry. It is a complex set of indications and obligations on how to increase
energy efficiency through energy services. Besides further supporting the supply side
of energy services, the Directive also aims at increasing incentives for the demand
side. The role of the public sector in Member States is underlined. The public sector is
requested to act as a role model for the private sector concerning energy efficiency
measures such as energy services, investments, maintenance and management of
other expenses related to energy-using equipment.
10. Obligatory audits have also been found effective to facilitate the ESCO markets. It is
believed that the introduction of mandatory audits in the Czech Republic has been a
keystone in the development of the Czech ESCO industry. However, in other cases,
this connection is not seen. For instance, in Romania penalties are so small that plants
prefer to pay them than comply with the regulation. Another reason for the failure of
the mandatory audits can be if the industries are reluctant to give out data about their
sites, because they are afraid that they get in the hands of their competitors.
11. The most important and successful push for energy efficiency and for ESCO
contracting in Finland has been the voluntary agreement with the industry.
Industries that have joined the voluntary agreement are eligible for 15-20% subsidy of
the energy efficiency investment costs from the government.
12. Energy Efficiency Certificates (White Certificates)
89
are considered as a significant
enabling factor for ESCOs, as proven by the Italian experience. Energy saving
measures implemented by ESCOs must be certified and verified. White Certificates
acquired by ESCOs can be sold to distributors, who can cover their end-use energy
conservation obligations with these.
13. The growing success of ESCOs, i.e. companies delivering carbon savings for obliged
parties and/or obliged nation states, is also largely due to the increased climate
consciousness, the increasing level of obligations related to Climate Change Politics.
Under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union is committed to reducing GHG
emissions by 8% between 2008 and 2012 relative to 1990 levels. In addition, the EU
established obligations for its Member States towards more rational use of energy.
For instance, the “RES-E Directive” (Directive 77/2001/EC) aims at increasing the
share of green electricity (RES-E
90
) from 14% to 22.1% and to double the share of
renewable energy in the total primary energy supply from 6% to 12% by 2010. In the
beginning of 2007, the EU endorsed a unilateral plan to reduce GHG emissions by
20% by 2020 as a binding target regardless of international climate negotiations. To
this aim, the total energy consumption should be decreased by 20% by 2020,
compared to the projections. These targets increase the need for complex RUE
solutions at project level, too.

While there is no “magic carpet” and a mixture of factors might work for the benefit of
ESCOs in one country, the same mixture might not have a start up value for ESCOs in
another country. Strategies to develop the energy efficiency markets must consider the

89
Distributors and their subsidiaries or associated companies are also eligible for White Certificates if they
carry out energy conservation measures for the benefit of end-users.
90
Electricity produced from renewable energy sources
90
local circumstances and combine interventions most appropriate there. Even the most
careful market development strategy might fail for unknown or unexpected reasons, for
instance another issue, such as terrorism can draw attention away from energy savings.
However, ESCOs are businesses – that is companies that need to make profit –, and
therefore there is a primary need to combine entrepreneur sprit and understanding of risk.
Nevertheless, as indicated above, there are several factors that have been able to
significantly increase the ESCO industry across Europe.

3.4 New countries
The review of the national ESCO markets of countries that have previously been omitted
from systematic ESCO research
91
is a special feature of the present report. These markets
offer a large business opportunity for Energy Service Companies because of the highly
inefficient economies, the significant amount of untapped potential, and in many cases
quickly growing economies. Nevertheless, barriers are numerous and the establishment
and penetration of ESCOs in these countries has been slow until today.
The ESCO markets of the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States
have a rather long history. The first ESCOs were set up already in the 1990s in Russia
and Ukraine. Although the ESCO markets in the CIS cannot be regarded as particularly
successful compared to some EU countries or the USA, their relatively high development
must be acknowledged.
Countries of the Non-EU South-East Europe (SEE) region also show significant energy
saving potential that could support a successful ESCO sector. ESCOs and EPC have no
history yet in Non-EU South-East Europe, but rapid expansion and growth is expected.
IFIs, ESCOs in other countries, energy efficient equipment suppliers and local companies
are increasingly interested in starting up ESCO work there, and the World Bank is
launching an ESCO in Macedonia in 2007.
Both the CIS and SEE countries feature inefficient industrial and buildings sectors. The
energy saving potential is also large in their public sectors. Energy prices tend to be low
and limit the profitability of an ESCO project, and thus lower the interest in ESCO
business. However, prices are going up and economic growth forecasts indicate a large
increase in energy demand, which could create a stable background for ESCO projects.
Regulatory and legal barriers are significant, and sometimes the lack of a proper business
environment is an important obstacle. Nevertheless, due to the EU-orientation of these
countries, especially of SEE, it is possible that energy efficiency will be an increasingly
important priority, further enhancing an ESCO friendly environment.


91
Non-EU South-East Europe: Serbia and Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, and Albania;
and European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States: Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, and Moldova.
91
4 REFERENCES
Administration of Seversk. 2006. Program of the regional development for administration
unit of Seversk 2006-2009. Annex II. Project “Providing heat to municipalities”.
The analysis of projects under investments of international financial organizations
(in Russian).
Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie (ADEME). 2006. Current
situation of the Energy Efficiency Services market in France. Country Overview.
EUROCONTRACT project.
Aidonis, A. and Markoginnakis, G. 2006. Development of Pilot Solar Thermal Energy
Service Companies (ST-ESCOs) with High Replication Potential. ST-ESCOs
Market Analysis: Hellas. (Project Report of no. EIE/04/059/S07.38622).
Albanian-EU Energy Efficiency Centre (AEEC) n.d. webpage. URL:
http://www.eec.org.al [consulted 10 November 2006].
Alliance to Save Energy (ASE). n.d.a. Countries: Moldova. URL:
http://ase.org/section/country/moldova [consulted 19 December 2006].
________. n.d.b. Countries: Serbia and Montenegro. URL:
http://www.ase.org/section/country/serbmont [consulted 19 December 2006].
Associazione Imprese di Facility Management ed Energia (AGESI). n.d. website. URL:
www.agesi.it (partially only in Italian).
Austrian Energy Agency (E.V.A.). 2005. Country Overview. EUROCONTRACT project.
________. n.d.a. Energy Profile Bosnia and Herzegovina. URL:
http://www.eva.ac.at/enercee/bih/index.htm [consulted 10 December 2006].
________. n.d.b. Energy Profile Macedonia. URL:
http://www.energyagency.at/(en)/enercee/mk/index.htm [consulted 10 December
2006].
Autorità per l'energia elettrica e il gas (AEEG). 2004. "White certificates" market ready
for January debut: 2005 conservation targets set for electricity and gas
distributors. Press release.
________. 2005. One hundred sixty-two firms accredited as energy service companies.
Press release.
Bashmakov, I. 2000. Energy Subsidies and “Right Prices”. Energy Efficiency 27: April-
June 2000.
Berliner Energieagentur GmbH. 2006. Performance Contracting. Energy Saving
Partnership. A Berlin Success Story. Brochure.
BerliNews 17 May 2005. European Energy Service Award 2005. based on information
from Berliner Energieagentur GmbH, Andrea Köhnen. (in German) URL:
http://www.berlinews.de/archiv-2004/3446.shtml [consulted 5 August 2006].
Bertoldi, P., Berrutto, V., de Renzio, M., Adnot, J., and Vine, E. 2003. How are EU
ESCOs behaving and how to create a real ESCO market? In: Proceedings of the
Summer Study Conference, ECEEE, Saint Raphaël, France, 2-7 June 2003. Ed:
Stockholm: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.
Bertoldi, P., Hinnells, M. and Rezessy, S. 2006a. Liberating the power of energy services
and ESCOs in a liberalised energy market. In: Proceeding of the International
Energy Efficient Domestic Appliances and Lighting Conference (EEDAL`06),
London, 21-23 June 2006. Eds: Bertoldi, P., Kiss, B., Atanasiu, B. Ispra, Italy:
European Commission, DG Joint Research Center.
92
Bertoldi, P., Rezessy, S. and Vine, E. 2006b. Energy service companies in European
countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development. Energy Policy
34: 1818-1832.
Better Integration of Sustainable Energy (BISE). 2005. Reports by Countries:
Development of Municipal Energy Efficiency Networking Activities. URL:
http://www.bise-europe.org/IMG/pdf/National_reports_Bise.pdf [consulted 5
August 2006].
Brand and Geissler 2003. Innovations in CHP and lighting: best practice in the public &
building sector. In: Proceedings of the First Pan-European Conference on Energy
Service Companies, Milan, 22-23 May 2003. Ed: Bertoldi, P. Ispra, Italy:
European Commission, DG Joint Research Center.
Bundesverband Privatwirtschaftlicher Energie-Contracting-Unternehmen (PECU) e.V.,
(German association of private ESCOs). 2006. Förderung des Contracting ist
gesamtpolitische Aufgabe. PECU fordert Bundesregierung zur Erleichterung von
Contracting-Massnahmen auf (Support of Contracting is a societal task. PECU
asks government to facilitate contracting maeasures). (in German) URL:
http://www.pecu.de/index_aktu.html. [consulted 25 July 2006].
Caglar, M. 2006. Energy efficiency and financial availability for energy efficiency
project in Turkey. Presentation at the JRC Workshop on End-Use Efficiency:
“Financing of energy efficiency in New Member States, Acceding and Candidate
Countries” Budapest, Hungary, 16-17 October 2006.
Capozza, A. 2003. Performance Contracting. Country Report – Italy. Working Paper of
IEA DSM Task X.
Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES). 2005a. EPC in Greece: Current
Situation. Country Overview. EUROCONTRACT project.
________. 2005b. ST-ESCOs newsletter. Issue 4. URL: http://www.stescos.org/index.htm
[consulted 28 August 2006].
Ceresi, G. 2005. Role of ESCO in the industrial marketing in Italy: Siram experience.
Presentation at ESCO Europe Conference 2005. 4-5 October 2005, Vienna.
Chabchoub, J. 2005. Country Summaries (Part 2) The Environment for Energy
Performance Contracting in Central Europe. Monthly Balkan Energy Solutions
Team (BEST) e-mail bulletin in power systems, renewable energy sources,
electricity market and ecology 16: 9-15.
Chistyakova, O.N., Morin Allen, A. and Pasoyan, A. 2006. Removing Barriers to
Residential Energy Efficiency in Southeast Europe and the Commonwealth of
Independent States. Kiev, Ukraine: Alliance to Save Energy.
COGENchallenge project. 2005a. Small-scale CHP Fact Sheet Greece.
________t. 2005b. Small-scale CHP Fact Sheet Lithuania.
________. 2006a. Small-scale CHP Fact Sheet Ireland.
________. 2006b. Small-scale CHP Fact Sheet Portugal.
________. 2006c. Small-scale CHP Fact Sheet Spain.
De Almeida, A.T., Lagos, A.C. and Carvalho, A. 2000. Energy Services in Portugal. In:
From Electricity Supply to Energy Services: Prospects for Active Energy Services
in the EU. ed. J.H.Chesshire. Brussels: Eurelectric and European Commission.
De Groote, W. 2006. ESCO`s for households: a New Phenomena in Europe? In:
Proceeding of the International Energy Efficient Domestic Appliances and
93
Lighting Conference (EEDAL`06), London, 21-23 June 2006. Eds: Bertoldi, P.,
Kiss, B., Atanasiu, B. Ispra, Italy: European Commission, DG Joint Research
Center.
De Renzio, M. 2003. Experiences in Italy: energy efficiency certificates, “Energy
Managers”, Energy Service Companies. Presentation at IEA/DSM TaskX
“Performance Contracting” seminar, 30 January 2003, Stockholm.
Dietrich, J., Coppi, I., Alessio, R. and Girardin, N. 2004. PFC project in Italy. In:
Proceedings of International Conference on Improving Energy Efficiency in
Commercial Buildings (IEECB’04), Frankfurt (Germany), 21-22 April 2004.
Danish Offshore Industry, International Business Development for Energy Industries (DI)
and Dansk Energi – Net (PSO). 2006. Muligheder og barrierer for internationalt
agerende ESCOs med base I Danmark. [Opportunities and barriers for
international action for ESCOs based in Denmark]. Workshop report.
Dupont, M. and Adnot, J. 2004. Investigation of actual energy efficiency content of
”energy services” in France. In: Proceedings of International Conference on
Improving Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings (IEECB’04), Frankfurt
(Germany), 21-22 April 2004. Eds. Bertoldi, P. and Atanasiu, B. Ispra, Italy:
European Commission, DG Joint Research Center.
Efremov, D., Smirnyagin, D., Valerianova, O. and Hernesniemi, H. 2004. ESCO
Companies in Northwest Russia Legal Issues and Organizational Schemes.
Discussion Papers No. 912. Helsinki: ETLA, The Research Institute of the
Finnish Economy.
Ekodoma. n.d. Potentials for Energy Performance Contracting and Delivery Contracting
in Public Buildings – Latvia (CLEARCONTRACT project). Riga: Ekodoma.
Energie-Cités. 2002. Intracting. Stuttgart, Germany. URL: http://www.energie-
cites.org/db/stuttgart_136_de.pdf [consulted 31 July 2006].
Energie-Cités. 2004. Performance contracting. In: Proceedings of Annual Conference of
Energie-Cités: Working in Synergy with the Private Sector? Martigny,
Switzerland, 22-23 April 2004.
Energikontor Sydost. 2005. EPC in Sweden. EUROCONTRACT project.
Energy Center Bratislava (ECB), n.d.a., Framework Conditions for Energy Performance
Contracting and Delivery Contracting in Public Buildings – Slovakia
(CLEARCONTRACT project). Bratislava, Slovakia: ECB.
Energy Center Bratislava (ECB), n.d.b., Potentials for Energy Performance Contracting
and Delivery Contracting in Public Buildings – Slovakia (CLEARCONTRACT
project). Bratislava, Slovakia: ECB.
Energy Charter Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects
(PEEREA). 2004. In-Depth Review of Energy Efficiency Policies and
Programmes. Moldova. Brussels: Energy Charter.
Energy Charter Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects
(PEEREA). 2006a. Republic of Macedonia: Regular Review of Energy Efficiency
Policies 2006. Part I. Trends in energy and energy efficiency policies, instruments
and actors. Brussels: Energy Charter.
Energy Charter Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects
(PEEREA). 2006b. Switzerland: Regular Review of Energy Efficiency Policies
94
2006. Part I. Trends in energy and energy efficiency policies, instruments and
actors. Brussels: Energy Charter.
Enprima Ltd. 2004. The Promotion of Finnish Energy Business in North-West Russia,
FRESCO: Applied Technology in Energy Production, Distribution and End-Use,
and Future Technological Trends. Final Report. FEA-15; 31.8.2004.
ENVIROS Consulting Limited (ENVIROS). 2005. Assessment of the Potential for
ESCOs in Ireland. Dublin: Sustainable Energy Ireland.
E.ON. 2006. Ruhrgas gazette 3-06, p. 29.
Estrela, A. 2004. Efficient street lighting: integration of information technologies in
energy management. In: Proceedings of First European Conference of Municipal
Energy Managers. Stuttgart, Germany, 1-2 July 2004.
EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre. 2004. Renewable energy sources
potential in the Russian Federation and available technologies. Analytical
Review for the workpackage #4 of the contract NNE5/2002/76. Main authors:
Kargiev, V.M.; Lins, C.; Pinov, A.B.; Murugov, V.P.; and Sokolsky, A.K. Also
available on-line at URL:
http://www.technologycentre.org/upload_files/Report_RE_English_.pdf
EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre. 2006. Summary of the the Seminar on
ESCOs and Gas Flaring In the Framework of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue
Moscow, Russia, 26 October 2006.
European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). 1998. EBRD and EU
encourage energy saving in Ukrainian small and medium-sized enterprises
through loan to country's first Energy Service Company (ESCO). EBRD Press
Release 24 May 2006. URL:
http://www.ebrd.com/new/pressrel/1998/24may9.htm [consulted on 10 December
2006].
European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). n.d. Projects in FYR
Macedonia. URL: http://www.ebrd.org/country/country/mace/showcase.htm
[consulted on 10 December 2006].
European Commission, DG Joint Research Center (EC DG JRC). 2005. European
Energy Service Companies Status Report 2005. Authors: Bertoldi, P. and
Rezessy, S. Ispra, Italy: EC DG JRC.
European Network for the Promotion of Energy Technologies in the Building Sector
(OPET). 2004a. Country Profiles: Spain, Basque Country. URL: http://www.opet-
building-epc-lcca.net/cms/_wcms_editor/front_content.php?idcat=25&idart=217
[consulted 20 July 2006].
European Network for the Promotion of Energy Technologies in the Building Sector
(OPET). 2004b. Review of EPC and applied technologies in eight European
countries.
Evans, M. 2000. Tapping the Potential for Energy Efficiency: The Role of ESCOs in the
Czech Republic, Ukraine and Russia. In: Proceedings of the ACEEE 2000
Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA, August,
2000. Washington, D.C: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.
Fanjek, J. and Šteko, B. 2005. Energy efficiency project in Croatia. Presentation at ESCO
Europe Conference 2005. 4-5 October 2005, Vienna.
95
Fida, E. 2005. National Communication exercise - a tool for mainstreaming climate
change into national policy and planning. Presentation at the “Seminar of the
Governmental Officials”, 16-17 May 2005, Bonn, Germany.
Flauger, J. 2005. Mit eigener Kraft die Stromkosten senken [Decreasing electricity costs
on your own]. Handelsblatt 235, 5 December 2005.
Forsberg, A., Lopes, C., and Öfverholm, E. forthcoming. How to kick start a market for
EPC – Lessons learned from a mix of measures in Sweden. In: Proceedings of the
European Council for Energy Efficient Economy 2007 Summer Study. Stockholm:
European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.
Fsadni, M and Ghirlando, R. 2004 Malta country report: Status of electricity end-use
efficiency in buildings and energy services. In: Proceedings of the Second
International Workshop on Electricity End-Use Efficiency in Buildings and
Energy Services in New Member States and Candidate Countries. Brussles,
Belgium 9-10 December 2004. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Ispra,
Italy: European Commission, DG Joint Research Center.
Global Environment Facility (GEF). 2004. Sustainable Energy Program: Project
Executive Summary (ID P089656). URL:
http://thegef.org/documents/Work_Programs/ [consulted on 10 December 2006].
Geissler, M. 2004. General advise on contracting issues. In: Proceedings of Annual
Conference of Energie-Cités: Working in Synergy with the Private Sector?
Martigny, Switzerland, 22-23 April 2004.
Geissler, M. 2005. EUROCONTRACT – Guaranteed Energy Performance. Standardised
Energy Services for Europe‘s buildings. Presentation at ESCO Europe Conference
2005. 4-5 October 2005, Vienna.
Geissler, M., Waldmann, A and Goldmann, R. 2006. Market development for energy
services in the European Union. In: 2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy
Efficiency in Buildings - "Less is More: En Route to Zero Energy Buildings".
Asilomar, CA, USA, 14-18 August 2006. Washington DC: ACEEE Publications.
Gerald, J.F. 2003. Energy Policy in Ireland. Working Paper 160. Dublin: The Economic
and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
Graz Energy Agency. 2003. Thermoprofit: Marketing Performance Contracting. Case
Study Paper of IEA DSM Task IX.
Grim, M. 2006. The Austrian programme for private service buildings: ecofacility. In:
Proceedings of International Conference on Improving Energy Efficiency in
Commercial Buildings (IEECB’06), Frankfurt (Germany), 26-27 April 2006. Eds.
Bertoldi, P. and Atanasiu, B. Ispra, Italy: European Commission, DG Joint
Research Center.
Hinnells, M. 2006. Aiming at a 60% reduction in CO
2
: implications for residential lights
and appliances and micro-generation. In: Proceeding of the International Energy
Efficient Domestic Appliances and Lighting Conference (EEDAL`06), London,
21-23 June 2006. Eds: Bertoldi, P., Kiss, B., Atanasiu, B. Ispra, Italy: European
Commission, DG Joint Research Center.
Husarik, M. 2004. Slovak Republic country report: Status of electricity end-use
efficiency in buildings and energy services. In: Proceedings of the Second
International Workshop on Electricity End-Use Efficiency in Buildings and
Energy Services in New Member States and Candidate Countries. Brussles,
96
Belgium 9-10 December 2004. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Ispra,
Italy: European Commission, DG Joint Research Center.
Hyponnen, S. 2006. Boosting efficiency with ESCO service. Presentation at the
European Conference on Developing the Energy Efficiency Market (DEEM). 21-
22 September 2006, Budapest.
Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía (IDAE). n.d. webpage. URL:
www.idae.es (in Spanish) [consulted 16 July 2006].
International Energy Agency (IEA). 2003. World Energy Outlook 2003. Paris:
OECD/IEA.
________. 2005. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Belgium 2005 Review. Paris:
OECD/IEA.
Irrek, W., Attali, S., Benke, G., Borg, N., Figorski, A., Filipowicz, M., Ochoa, A., Pindar,
A., and Thomas, S. 2005. PICOLight project, SAVE Contract No. 4.1031/Z/02-
038/2002 – Final Report. Döppersberg, Germany: Wuppertal Institut.
Irrek, W, Thomas, S. and Benke, G. 2006. Internal performance commitments enabling a
continuous flow of energy efficiency measures. In: Proceedings of International
Conference on Improving Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings
(IEECB’06), Frankfurt (Germany), 26-27 April 2006. Eds. Bertoldi, P. and
Atanasiu, B. Ispra, Italy: European Commission, DG Joint Research Center.
Ketting, J. 2006. Energy Efficiency in Russia: A Chance to Excel or a Hard Lesson to
Learn? Russia Investment Review 4: 94-95.
Kristof, K. 2002. Aktueller Stand des Contracting in Deutschland [Current contracting
scene in Germany]. Presentation at the EUROFORUM-Konferenz “Energie-
Contracting”, 4-5 June 2002, Köln, Wuppertal.
Ligot, J. 2006. EBRD’s Financing Mechanisms for
Energy Efficiency Projects. Presentation at the JRC Workshop on End-Use
Efficiency: “Financing of energy efficiency in New Member States, Acceding and
Candidate Countries” Budapest, Hungary, 16-17 October 2006.
Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI). n.d.a. Framework Conditions for Energy Performance
Contracting and Delivery Contracting in Public Buildings – Lithuania
(CLEARCONTRACT project). Kaunas, Lithuania: LEI.
Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI). n.d.b. Potentials for Energy Performance Contracting
and Delivery Contracting in Public Buildings – Lithuania (CLEARCONTRACT
project). Kaunas, Lithuania: LEI.
Martinez, M.T. 2004. Pamplona solar thermal ordinance – how does it work in practice?
In: Proceedings of First European Conference of Municipal Energy Managers.
Stuttgart, Germany, 1-2 July 2004.
Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio and Instituto para la Diversificación y
Ahorro de la Energía (IDAE). 2003a. Estrategia de Ahorro y Efficiencia
energetica en Espana 2004-2012. Plan de Accion 2005-2007. Resumen.
Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio and IDEA. 2003b. Estrategia de Ahorro y
Efficiencia energetica en Espana 2004-2012. Plan de Accion 2005-2007.
Resumen.
MOTIVA Oy. 2005. Country Overview: Finland. EUROCONTRACT project.
MOTIVA Oy. n.d.. website. URL: www.motiva.fi (information on ESCOs is in Finish).
[consulted 30 January 2007].
97
Murajda, T. 2005. Energy efficiency contract in district heating domain – Elementary
schools in Petrzalka by C-TERM spol. s.r.o. In: Proceedings of the Energy
Efficiency Potential in Buildings, Barriers and Ways to Finance Projects in New
Member States and Candidate Countries. Tallin, Estonia July 2005. Eds: Paolo
Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Ispra, Italy: European Commission, DG Joint
Research Center.
MURE-Odyssee. 2006a. Energy Efficiency Profile: Luxembourg. Also available on-line:
www.mure2.com.
MURE-Odyssee. 2006b. Energy Efficiency Profile: Spain. Also available on-line:
www.mure2.com.
National Strategy for Energy of Albania (NSE). 2005. Available in English at URL:
Norsk Enok og Energi AS. 2005. Country Overview- Norway. EUROCONTRACT
project.
Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). 2002. Performance
Contracting. Country Report – Norway. Working Paper of IEA DSM Task X.
Main authors: Magnussen, I.H. and Birkeland, H.
Olshanskaya, M. 2006. Presentation at the JRC Workshop on End-Use Efficiency:
“Financing of energy efficiency in New Member States, Acceding and Candidate
Countries” Budapest, Hungary, 16-17 October 2006.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2006. Improving
the quality of public administration (Chapter 3). In Economic survey of the
Russian Federation 2006. Paris: OECD.
Pavlovic, N. 2005. Improvement of energy efficiency in Serbia. In: Proceedings of the
Energy Efficiency Potential in Buildings, Barriers and Ways to Finance Projects
in New Member States and Candidate Countries. Tallin, Estonia July 2005. Eds:
Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Ispra, Italy: European Commission, DG
Joint Research Center.
Prašović, S and Knežević, A. 2005. Development of ESCO (Energy Service Company)
Companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Presentation at the Workshop on Energy
services companies (ESCO) and energy efficiency measures opportunities. 21
April 2005, Sarajevo
Promoting an Energy Efficient Public Sector (PePs). n.d. International Programs.
Available at URL: http://www.pepsonline.org/programs.html [consulted on 1
December 2006].
Pujol, T. 2004. The Barcelona solar thermal ordinance. In: Proceedings of Annual
Conference of Energie-Cités: Working in Synergy with the Private Sector?
Martigny, Switzerland, 22-23 April 2004.
Racolta, S. 2005. The UNDP/GEF Energy Efficiency Financing Team in Romania. In:
Proceedings of the Energy Efficiency Potential in Buildings, Barriers and Ways to
Finance Projects in New Member States and Candidate Countries. Tallin, Estonia
July 2005. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Ispra, Italy: European
Commission, DG Joint Research Center.
Rezessy, S., Dimitrov, K., Urge-Vorsatz, D., and Baruch, S. 2006. Municipalities and
energy efficiency in countries in transition. Review of factors that determine
municipal involvement in the markets for energy services and energy efficient
98
equipment, or how to augment the role of municipalities as market players.
Energy Policy 34(2): 223-237.
Rochas, C. 2004. European Conference on Local Energy Action: Optimising local action
to drive sustainable energy and transport in the Europe of Twenty-Five, 20-21
October 2004, Brussels, Belgium
Rodics, G. 2005. ESCOs in the Hungarian Energy Market. In: Proceedings of the Energy
Efficiency Potential in Buildings, Barriers and Ways to Finance Projects in New
Member States and Candidate Countries. Tallin, Estonia July 2005. Eds: Paolo
Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Ispra, Italy: European Commission, DG Joint
Research Center.
Russian Energy Efficiency Demonstration Zones (Rusdem). n.d. website. URL:
http://www.rusdem.com/Pages/index.htm [consulted 17 November 2006].
Saffet Bora, F. 2007. A New Era in Energy Efficiency in Turkey. Energy Review 9:2-4.
URL:http://www.turkishweekly.net/energyreview/TurkishWeekly-
EnergyReview9.pdf [consulted 5 March 2007].
Scott, S. 2004. ESCOs in Ireland: Investigation of Energy Service Companies in 2000.
Working Paper 155. Dublin: The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
Seefeldt, F. 2003. Energy Performance Contracting – success in Austria and Germany –
dead end for Europe? In: Proceedings of the European Council for Energy
Efficient Economy 2003 Summer Study. Stockholm: European Council for an
Energy-Efficient Economy.
Sehovic, H. 2005a. BISE Energy Efficiency Networking Activities: Bosnia and
Herzegovina. BISE.
Sehovic, H. 2005b. BiH Experience in Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency Financing.
Presentation at the Energy Efficiency Investment for Climate Change Mitigation
Seminar of UNECE. 1-2 December 2005, Geneva, Switzerland.
Slovak Energy Agency (SEA). 2003. “Bankable Energy Efficiency Projects – BEEP”
National Report: Framework Conditions for Financing Energy Efficiency
Projects in Slovakia. SAVE project.
Sorrel, S. 2005. The Contribution of Energy Services Contracting to a Low Carbon
Economy. Tyndall Centre Working Paper, Environment & Energy Programme
SPRU (Science & Technology Policy Research), Freeman Centre.
South-East Europe Multi-country Energy Website for the Athens Process (SEENERGY).
n.d. Country profile: Serbia and Montenegro. URL:
http://www.seenergy.org/index.php?/countries&stat=5&type=3&col=2124
[consulted 10 December 2006].
ST-ESCO project. 2006a. ST-ESCOs Market Analysis: Austria. Project Document.
Project no. EIE/04/059/S07.38622.
ST-ESCO project. 2006b. ST-ESCOs Market Analysis: Spain. Project Document. Project
no. EIE/04/059/S07.38622.
Surugiu, R. n.d. Opinion: Energy-Saving Resources not yet depleted. Interview by
Valentina Piantkovskaya. Office.
United Nations Development Program (UNDP). n.d. Financing Energy Efficiency in
Belorus. URL:
http://europeandcis.undp.org/?wspc=HowToGuide_EE_Financing_23 [consulted
15 December 2006].
99
Unterpertinger, F. 2005. How policy can promote energy performance contracting –
lessons from the Austrian experience. Presentation at ESCO Europe Conference
2005. 4-5 October 2005, Vienna.
Ürge-Vorsatz, D., Lazarova, S. 2003. ESCOs in countries in transition. Hungary: a
success story. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop “Electricity End-
Use Efficiency in Buildings in Candidate Countries”. Ispra, Italy, October 2003.
Editor: V. Berrutto. Ispra, Italy: European Commission, DG Joint Research
Center.
Ürge-Vorsatz, D., Langlois, P. And Rezessy, S. 2004. Why Hungary? Lessons Learned
from the Success of the Hungarian ESCO Industry. In: 2004 ACEEE Summer
Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings - "Breaking Out of the Box". Asilomar,
CA, USA, 22-27 August 2006. Washington DC: ACEEE Publications.
USAID. n.d.a. Municipal Network for Energy Efficiency (Munee): Country Program:
Bosnia and Herzegovina. URL: http://www.munee.org/go.idecs?i=340 [consulted
15 December 2006].
USAID. n.d.b. Municipal Network for Energy Efficiency (Munee): Country Program:
Moldova. URL: http://www.munee.org/go.idecs?i=57 [consulted 15 December
2006].
USAID. n.d.c. Municipal Network for Energy Efficiency (Munee): Country Program:
Serbia and Montenegro. URL: http://www.munee.org/go.idecs?i=8 [consulted 15
December 2006].
USAID. 2005. Credit Guarantees Promoting Private Investment in Development. Year
Review 2005. Washington: USAID.
Vegel, M. 2006. Eurocontract. European Platform for the Promotion of Energy
Performance Contracting. Presentation at the ESCO Europe 2006 International
Conference, Prague, 26-27. September 2006.
Vine, E. 2005. An international survey of the energy service company (ESCO) industry.
Energy Policy 33: 691-704.
Xichilos, C. 2004. Cyprus country report: Status of electricity end-use efficiency in
buildings and energy services. In: Proceedings of the Second International
Workshop on Electricity End-Use Efficiency in Buildings and Energy Services in
New Member States and Candidate Countries. Brussles, Belgium 9-10 December
2004. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Ispra, Italy: European
Commission, DG Joint Research Center.
World Energy Efficiency Association (WEEA). 1999. Briefing paper on Energy Service
Companies with directory of active companies. Washington: WEEA.
Zachariev, D. 2005. ESCO in Bulgaria: Projects, market, barriers. In: Proceedings of the
Energy Efficiency Potential in Buildings, Barriers and Ways to Finance Projects
in New Member States and Candidate Countries. Tallin, Estonia July 2005. Eds:
Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Ispra, Italy: European Commission, DG
Joint Research Center.
Zeman, J. 2005. Public tenders for EPC. Presentation at ESCO Europe Conference 2005.
4-5 October 2005, Vienna.
Zeman, J. and Dasek, B. 2005. ESCO in Czech Republic: projects, market, barrier. In:
Proceedings of the Energy Efficiency Potential in Buildings, Barriers and Ways to
Finance Projects in New Member States and Candidate Countries. Tallin, Estonia
100
July 2005. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Ispra, Italy: European
Commission, DG Joint Research Center.
Žídek, O. 2005. Energy Performance Contracting in the Czech Republic - history, present
and future development. Presentation at ESCO Europe Conference 2005. 4-5
October 2005, Vienna.

101
5 PERSONAL COMMUNICATION AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors of the present report would like to express their greatest gratitude to all
persons who have kindly answered or reacted to our emails, phone calls or personal
invitations to discuss about ESCOs across Europe. The experts, practitioners and
professionals supplying direct information for the country reviews are listed below.

Europe in general
̇ Dietrich, J. (Siemens). 19 December 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Sorrell, S. (University of Sussex). 7 July 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Johansen, P. (World Bank). 22 November 2006. Phone interview.

Spain
̇ De Molina, J.A. (Elyo). 7 July 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Alonso, P. (Geyca). 27 November 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Siguenza, J. (AMI). 4 September 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Escobar, G. (AEDIE). 25 August 2006. Email correspondence.

Portugal
̇ Beirao, D. (ADENE). 14 November 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ de Almeida, A., Fonseca, P. and Moura, P. (University of Coimbra). 15 March 2007.
Email correspondence.
̇ de Almeida, A. (University of Coimbra). 22 August 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Tavares, S. and Conceição, C. (EDP). 27 September 2006. Personal communication.
̇ Matias, M. (Selfenergy). 27 September 2006. Personal communication.

Italy
̇ Marchetti, S. (Consorzio Sinergia Nuoro). 27 June 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Tomaselli, A. (Heat & Power SRL). 27 June 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Di Lecce, P. (Reverberi Enetec s.r.l.- Gruppo MPES). 28 June 2006. Email
correspondence.
̇ Boemio, M. (Pro.Gest.A. srl.). 3 July 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ De Renzio, M (La Federazione Italiana per l'uso Razionale dell'Energia). October
2006. Telephone and personal communication.
̇ Piantoni, E. (Generele Energia). October 2006. Telephone interview.
̇ Fabionelli, M. (A.R.E. Agenzia Regionale per l'Energia). 2006. Personal
communication.
̇ Caroli, L. (Caroli Giovanni Energy Service Company Srl.). 5 December 2006. Email
correspondence.
̇ Graziotti, G. (ASSOESCo). 28 November 2006. Email correspondence.

Greece
̇ Psomadellis, F. (ANCO S.A.) .10 July 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Patlitzianas, K.D. (National Technical University of Athens). 20 July 2006 Email
correspondence.
̇ Lombotessi, H. and Mouratidis, E. (Hellenic Center for Investment). 26 September
2006. Email correspondence.
102
̇ Markogiannakis, G. (CRES). 8 December 2006. Email correspondence.

UK
̇ Sorrell, S. (University of Sussex). The UK. 7 July 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Hargreaves, C. (OFGEM). The UK. 26 September 2006. Personal communication.
̇ Lees, E. (Eoin Lees Energy). The UK. 26 September 2006. Personal communication.

Ireland
̇ O’Hanlon, A. (Sustainable Energy Ireland). 17 July 2006. Email correspondence.

France
̇ Jullian, P. (Schneider Electric, Services Division). 21 November 2006. Email
correspondence.
̇ de Beaurepaire, P. (FG3E). 18 December 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Adnot, J. (Center Energétique et Procédés). 2005. Email correspondence.

Germany
̇ Diehl, O. (Axima GmbH). July 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Brickmann, U. (Siemens Building Technology). Germany. 6 March 2007.
̇ Ratzmer, B. (Tesign Consulting). July 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Anastassacos, T. (Dalkia). July 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Irrek, W. (Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy). 6 March 2007.
̇ Waldmann, A and Goldmann, R. (Berliner Energieagentur). 30 August 2006. Email
and personal correspondence.
̇ Honcamp, S. (BBT Thermotechnik GmbH). 16 November 2006. Email
correspondence.
̇ Groeger, J. (Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH). 16 February 2007. Email
correspondence.

Austria
̇ Mihatsch, H. (AXIMA Gebäudetechnik GmbH). 20 July 2006. Email
correspondence.
̇ Lutmer, E. (Austrian Energy Agency). 2005. Email correspondence.

Belgium
̇ Kathleen Markey (Fines). July 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ van Isterdael, M. (Axima Services Suez). 27 September 2006. Personal
communication.

The Netherlands
̇ van Dril, A.W.V (ECN, Energy Research Foundation Department). 28 June 2006.
̇ Klinkenberg, F. (Klinkenberg consultants). 17 October 2006. Personal
communication.

Finland
̇ Koski, P. (MOTIVA Oy). 5 July 2006. Email correspondence.
103
̇ Hypponen, S. and Siitonen, E. (Inesco Oy). 26 Sept. 2006. Personal communication.

Sweden
̇ Sward, M. (Energy Agency of Southeast Sweden). 28 November 2006. Email
correspondence.
̇ Mundaca, L. (International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics). 2005.
Email correspondence.

Denmark
̇ Holst-Nielsen, J, (Danish Offshore Industry). 15 Sept 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Christensen. U. (Birch & Krogboe A/S). 21 November 2006. Email correspondence.

Lithuania
̇ Skema, R. (Lithuanian Energy Institute). 24 July 2006. Email correspondence.

Latvia
̇ Rochas, C. (Ekodoma). 5 July 2006. Email correspondence.

Estonia
̇ Vabamägi, A. (Regional Energy Centers). 28 June and 21 September 2006. Email and
personal communication.
̇ Laaniste, M. (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, Energy
Department). 7 August 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Tepp, J. (Energy Saving Bureau). 17 October 2006. Personal communication.

Hungary
̇ Giczi, I (Fótáv-Komfort Épületenergetikai Szolgáltató és Fóvállalkozó Kft). 12 June
2006. Personal communication.
̇ Nemeth, L. (ENSI Kft.). 14 June 2006. Personal communication.
̇ Makra, J. (Regionalis Fejlesztesi, Beruhazo, Termelo es Szolgaltato Zrt.). 14. August
2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Szoo, Z. (OMIKK). 12 June 2006. Personal communication.
̇ Kovacsics, I. (EGI). 13 June 2006. Telephone interview.
̇ Weores, B. (EnergoBanking). 13. June 2006. Telephone interview.
̇ Polczman, A. (Kipcalor Plc.) 14 August 2006.Personal communication.
̇ Beres, A. (Energy Center). 1 February 2007. Personal communication.

Czech Republic
̇ Dasek, M. (International Financing Corporation - CEEF). 25 July 2006. Email
correspondence.
̇ Chadim, T. and Vorisek, T. (Seven). 12 July 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Helenova, V. (Enviros). 4 August and 21 September 2006. Email and personal
communication.

Poland
̇ Szajner, A. (Sigma Termodinamik Ltd.). 26 June 2006. Email correspondence.
104
̇ Gula, A. (University of Science and Technology). 7 July 2006. Email
correspondence.
̇ Aron, C. (GreenMax Capital Advisors). 27 September 2006. Personal
communication.
̇ Johansen, P. (World Bank). 22 November 2006. Phone interview.

Slovenia
̇ Perpar, B.P. (Eltec Mulej). 17 October 2006. Personal communication.

Malta
̇ Ghirlando, R. (University of Malta). 16 October 2006. Personal communication.

Cyprus
̇ Riza, E. (CRM Europe). 16 October 2006. Personal communication.
̇ Kitsios, K. (Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism, department of Energy). 3
may 2007. Email correspondence.

Romania
̇ Dragostin, C. (Energy-Serv). 26 June 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Pop, F. (EnergoEco). 27 September. 2006. Prague, Personal communication.
̇ Ligot, J. (EBRD). 24 October 2006. Email correspondence.

Bulgaria
̇ Zhechkov, N. (Brunata). 18 September 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Doukov, D. (EnEffect). 8 September 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Kolio, K. (EEA). 2005 and 28 June 2006. Email correspondence.

Croatia
̇ Šteko, B. (HEP). 24 July 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Uran, V. (expert). 24 June 2005. Email correspondence.

Turkey
̇ Uyar, T.S. (Marmara University). 8 September 2006. Email correspondence.

Switzerland
̇ Brunner, C. (S.A.F.E.). 17 December 2006. Email correspondence.

Norway
̇ Hagen, L. A. (Research Council of Norway). 2005. Email correspondence.
̇ Mjos, T. (Norconsult AS). 17 December 2006. Email correspondence.

Ukraine
̇ Mitskevych, M. (UkrESCO). 20 October 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Petkov, B. (Nexant Limited). 18 October 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Ligot, J. (EBRD). 24 October 2006. Email correspondence.

105
Russia
̇ Honkanen, H. (Lappeenranta University of Technology). 29. November 2006. Email
correspondence.
̇ Ketting, J. (Lighthouse Business Management Russia BV). Russia. 5 December 2006.
Email correspondence.
̇ Woellert, T. (DG TREN. Delegation of the European Commission to Russia). 31
October 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Ligot, J. (EBRD). 24 October 2006b. Email correspondence.

Belarus
̇ Iqbal, A. (Maicon Associates Ltd.). 17 November 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Misiuchenka, V. (expert). 18 February 2007. Email correspondence.

Moldova
̇ Coseru, I. (Regional Environmental Center, Moldova). 22 December 2006. Email and
telephone communication.
̇ Gutu, C. (Institute of Power Engineering of the Moldavian Academy of Science). 30
December 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Lujanskaya, T. D. (Alliance to Save Energy). 7 February 2007. Email
correspondence.

Bosnia and Herzegovina
̇ Bratic, L. (Center for Energy Efficiency). 19 December 2006. Email correspondence.

Macedonia
̇ Johansen, P. (World Bank). 22 November 2006. Phone interview.
̇ Dimoska, J. (Energy Regulatory Commission). 19 December 2006. Email
correspondence.
̇ Dimitrov, K. (Ss. Cyril and Methodius University). 30 December 2006. Email
correspondence.
̇ Stefanovski, Z. (Toplifikacija AD). 18 January 2007. Email correspondence.

Albania
̇ Saraçi, A. (National Energy Agency). 16 November 2006. Email correspondence.
̇ Hido, E.M. (Albania-EU Energy Efficiency Centre). 4 January 2007. Email
correspondence.

In addition, the authors would also like to thank those who have not given particular
information but have directed us to the relevant people, or have hosted conferences and
workshops which provided forums for information collection, or helped the publication
of this report in any other way.

106
107
6 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ADEME Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie; the French
Environment and Energy Management Agency
AEEG Autorità per l'Energia Elettrica e il Gas; The Italian Regulatory Authority
for Electricity and Gas
AGESI Associazione Imprese di Facility Management ed Energia; Association of
Facility Management and Energy Services Companies
aM&T Automatic Monitoring and Targeting
AMI Asociación Espanola de Empresas de Mantenimiento Integral de Edificios,
Infraestructuras e Industrias; Spanish Association of Enterprises of
Complex Maintenance of Buildings, Infrastructures and Industries
ARCE Agentia Romana pentru Conservarea Energiei; Romanian Energy
Conservation Agency
ASSOESCo Associanziaone Nazionale Societi Servizi Energetici
BEEF Bulgarian Energy Efficiency Fund
BiH Bosnia and Herzegovina
CEM Contract Energy Management
CHP combined-heat-and-power
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
CO2 carbon-dioxide
CRES Center for Renewable Energy Sources (Kcvtpo Avuvceoiµev Hnvev
Evcpvciuc, KAPE)
DH district heating
EAR European Agency for Reconstruction
EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EDP Electricidade de Portugal, Portuguese Electricity Company
EE energy efficiency
EFIEES European Federation of Intelligent Energy Efficiency Services
EPBD EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings
EPC Energy Performance Contracting
ESCO Energy Service Company
ESCP Energy Service Provider Companies
ESP Energy Saving Partnership
ESTA Energy Services and Technology Association
eva Austrian Energy Agenvy
FG3E La Fédération Française des Entreprises Gestionnaires de services aux
Equipements, à l'Energie et à l'Environnement; French Federation of
Companies Providing Services to Facilities, Energy and the Environmen
FOGIME Crediting System in Favour of Energy Management
FREE Romanian Energy Efficiency Fund
GEF Global Environmental Fund
HVAC Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, see WB
ICO Instituto de Crédito Oficial
IDEA Instituto para la Diversificacion y Ahorro de la Energia; Institute for
Diversification and Energy Saving, the Spanish National Energy Agency
108
IFI international financial institution
KIDSF Kozloduy International Decommissioning Support Fund (Bulgaria)
Ktoe 1000 tonne of oil equivalent
M&V monitoring and verification
MNC multinational company
MOTIVA Finnish Energy Agency
NFOS National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management
(Poland)
OPET European Network for the Promotion of Energy Technologies in the
Building Sector
PBT pay-back time
PECU Bundesverband Privatwirtschaftlicher Energie-Contracting-Unternehmen
PePS Promoting an Energy Efficient Public Sector (program)
PPP Public-Private-Partnership
RES renewable energy sources
RUE rational use of energy
SEE South-East Europe
SEEA Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency
SEI Sustainable Energy Ireland
SME small and medium sized enterprises
SS2E, SSEE Energy Efficiency Service Companies (France)
TPF Third Party Financing
TACIS European Union’s technical assistance program
UkrESCO Ukrainian ESCO
UNOPS United Nations Office for Project Services
USAID United States Agency for International Development
VfW Verband für Wärmelieferung, Association for Heat Supply
WB World Bank
ZVEI Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie e.V.

European Commission

EUR 22927 EN – Joint Research Centre
Title: Latest development of energy service companies across Europe — A European ESCO update
Author(s): Benigna Boza-Kiss, Paolo Bertoldi, Silvia Rezessy
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
2007 – 108 pp. – 21 x 29,7 cm
EUR – Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593
ISBN 978-92-79-06965-9
DOI 10.2788/19481

Abstract
The present report is an update of the “Energy Service Companies in Europe – Status Report
2005”, which was published by the European Commission DG Joint Research Center in 2005. The
European ESCO Status Report gave an overview of the ESCO concept and key definitions, the
development of the energy service companies market across Europe, and a concise synopsis of
the state-of-the-art in the European Union Member States and the Candidate Countries in 2004.
The aim of the present report is to update and expand the scope of the Status Report 2005, and in
particular to investigate the specific situation in every country in more detail. To this end, the
authors sketch the current status of national markets, and identify changes that have occurred
during recent years, and especially since 2004. In addition, the reasons behind the changes are
investigated. Specific barriers are identified and potential interventions to increase energy efficiency
investments and to exploit energy saving potentials through ESCOs across Europe are discussed.
The primary scope of the report is the enlarged European Union (EU-27), however special attention
has been given to examining the ESCO markets in countries that have usually been ignored by
research, and thus the report is the first of its kind to scrutinize almost every country in Europe.




The mission of the JRC is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support
for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. As a
service of the European Commission, the JRC functions as a reference centre of
science and technology for the Union. Close to the policy-making process, it serves
the common interest of the Member States, while being independent of special
interests, whether private or national.



L
B
-

N
A
-

2
2
9
2
7
-

E
N
-

C





































The mission of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability is to provide scientific-technical support to the European Union's policies for the protection and sustainable development of the European and global environment.

European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute Environment and Sustainability Contact information Address: TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (VA), Italy E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@ec.europa.eu Tel.: +39 0332 78 9299 Fax: +39 0332 78 9992 http://www.jrc.ec.europa.eu http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/energyefficiency/

Legal Notice Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of this publication.

A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server http://europa.eu/

JRC 37574

EUR 22927 EN ISBN 978-92-79-06965-9 ISSN 1018-5593 DOI 10.2788/19481 Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities

© European Communities, 2007 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged

Printed in Italy

PREFACE
The present report is an update of the “Energy Service Companies in Europe – Status Report 2005” (the European ESCO Status Report), which was published by the European Commission DG Joint Research Center in 2005. The European ESCO Status Report gave an overview of the ESCO concept and key definitions, the development of the energy service companies market across Europe, and a concise synopsis of the state-of-the-art in the European Union Member States and the Candidate Countries in 2004. The European ESCO Status Report is available at http://energyefficiency.jrc.cec.eu.int/pdf/ ESCO%20report%20final%20revised%20v2.pdf. The aim of the present report (referred to herein as ESCO Update Report) is to update and expand the scope of the European ESCO Status Report, and in particular to investigate the specific situation in every country in more detail. To this end, the authors sketch the current status of national markets, and identify changes that have occurred during recent years, and especially since 2004. In addition, the reasons behind the changes (whether for better or worse) are investigated. Specific barriers are identified and potential interventions to increase energy efficiency investments and to exploit energy saving potentials through ESCOs across Europe are discussed. The primary scope of the report is the enlarged European Union (EU-27), however special attention has been given to examining the ESCO markets in countries that have usually been ignored by research, and thus the report is the first of its kind to scrutinize almost every country in Europe. ESCO markets in Europe have been found to be at diverse stages of development. Certain countries (Germany, Italy) have large numbers of ESCOs, while in others only a few energy service companies have been established so far (Latvia, Romania, Denmark), or none at all (Albania, Serbia). In addition, some countries have a rather decreasing market (Hungary), while in others the ESCO industry is still just getting established (Estonia, Greece, Belarus) or is expanding (Italy, France). There are also countries where the first ESCOs are being set up during the preparation of the report (Greece, Macedonia). This complexity indicates that the field is very turbid and rapidly changing and new information is arising day-by-day. With this report we hope to be able to catch an important moment of the development of the national markets.

This document does not represent the point of view of the European Commission. The interpretation and opinions contained in it are solely those of the authors.

2 .

5 Nordic countries __________________________________________________________ Finland ______________________________________________________________________ Sweden ______________________________________________________________________ Denmark _____________________________________________________________________ 2.2 New Member States in Central Europe ________________________________________ Hungary _____________________________________________________________________ Czech Republic _______________________________________________________________ Slovakia _____________________________________________________________________ Poland_______________________________________________________________________ Slovenia _____________________________________________________________________ 2.1 Other Western Europe _____________________________________________________ 61 Switzerland___________________________________________________________________ 61 3 .1 EU-15 Member States ________________________________________________ 12 12 12 14 16 19 20 20 23 25 25 28 32 34 34 35 36 37 37 39 40 41 41 42 43 45 45 48 51 52 54 55 55 55 2.1.2.4 Candidate Countries _________________________________________________ 59 Croatia ______________________________________________________________________ 59 Turkey ______________________________________________________________________ 60 2.1.3 New EU Member States 2007__________________________________________ 56 Romania _____________________________________________________________________ 56 Bulgaria _____________________________________________________________________ 58 2.2 New EU Member States 2004__________________________________________ 41 2.1.2 The UK and Ireland _______________________________________________________ United Kingdom_______________________________________________________________ Ireland_______________________________________________________________________ 2.3 Mediterranean New EU Member States________________________________________ Malta________________________________________________________________________ Cyprus ______________________________________________________________________ 2.1.1.1 Baltic Countries __________________________________________________________ Lithuania_____________________________________________________________________ Latvia _______________________________________________________________________ Estonia ______________________________________________________________________ 2.5.2.2.1 Mediterranean countries ____________________________________________________ Spain________________________________________________________________________ Portugal _____________________________________________________________________ Italy_________________________________________________________________________ Greece_______________________________________________________________________ 2.4 Benelux countries _________________________________________________________ Belgium _____________________________________________________________________ The Netherlands _______________________________________________________________ Luxemburg ___________________________________________________________________ 2.5 Other European countries ____________________________________________ 61 2.2 Methodology ________________________________________________________ 7 ESCOs in the EU until 2005 ____________________________________________ 8 2 The EU ESCO market: state of art as of 2006-2007 _______________________11 2.3 Central Europe ___________________________________________________________ France _______________________________________________________________________ Germany _____________________________________________________________________ Austria ______________________________________________________________________ 2.1 1.1 Introduction _______________________________________________________5 1.

2 Other Eastern Europe ______________________________________________________ Commonwealth of Independent States______________________________________________ Non-EU South-East Europe ______________________________________________________ 62 63 63 71 3 Conclusions_______________________________________________________79 3.4 Changes compared to the beginning of the millennium ____________________ 79 Common barriers ___________________________________________________ 85 Success factors ______________________________________________________ 87 New countries ______________________________________________________ 90 4 5 6 References________________________________________________________91 Personal Communication and Acknowledgements _______________________101 List of abbreviations _______________________________________________106 4 .1 3.Norway ______________________________________________________________________ 2.5.3 3.2 3.

therefore in case of certain countries the descriptions are less detailed than in others. Bertoldi et al (2003) and http://ec. the Candidate Countries (Croatia and Turkey) and other European countries (Norway. The European Commission has been promoting EPC. 1 5 . the following terms are used according to the Directive: For instance: Directive 93/76/EC. ESCOs and EPC help to overcome financial constraints to investments and pay off initial costs through the energy cost savings coming from the reduced energy demand. While ESCOs have been operational on a large scale since the late 1980searly 1990s. This extensive geographical coverage is unique. for instance. with a spotlight on the peculiarities and special features of the ESCO industry in each and every one of the 27 EU Member States. policy makers and other interested parties a supplement and update to the European ESCO Status Report 2005. and to complete the picture of current ESCO developments in European countries.1 INTRODUCTION Energy service companies (ESCOs) and energy performance contracting (EPC) are common tools to enhance the sustainable use of energy through promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy sources.eu/energy/demand/legislation/end_use_en. Nevertheless. This indicates the importance of common definitions that capture the diversity of energy service market developments in different countries. it may customize the ESCO related terminology. With the present report. The authors found that information was often hard to access. The authors therefore welcome the Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services (Energy Services Directive). or Directive 2005/32/EC.htm. An overview of altogether 40 countries is given in the report. Therefore. focusing in detail on selected noteworthy markets. the Energy Services Directive is a crucial step. even in countries with a particularly developed ESCO sector. The problem with definitions has been highlighted at many forums and by numerous experts and business actors. Besides the basic role and vital function. The Status Report was primarily focused on the introduction of the ESCO industry in general and it presented a short overview of the ESCO markets of EU Member States and Candidate Countries at that time. the energy service market in the European Union (and in Europe) is far from utilizing its full potential. through a number of direct and indirect Recommendations and Directives1. the authors hope to provide to professionals. It has also been found many times that comparison of ESCO markets is limited by the fact that the notion of “Energy Service Company” is understood differently from one country to another. For reviews see.europa. in this report. and sometimes used differently by experts even in the same country. ESCOs and TPF. The rationale behind this project was to update and expand the European ESCO Status Report 2005 published by the European Commission DG Joint Research Center. Non-EU South-East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States). Directive 2002/91/EC. Switzerland. ESCOs provide an opportunity to curb increasing energy demand and control CO2 emissions while exploiting market benefits for customers by decreasing the energy costs of their clients and making profit for themselves.

Often the full cost of energy services is recovered in the fee.⇒ "energy service company" (ESCO): a natural or legal person that delivers energy services and/or other energy efficiency improvement measures in a user’s facility or premises. The ESCO (or ESPC) may also take over the purchase of fuel and electricity. which means “the managing of some aspects of a client’s energy use under a contract that transfers some of the risk from the client to the contractor (usually based on providing agreed ‘service’ levels)” (ESTA cited in Sorrell 2005). motors. Principally. ⇒ "energy performance contracting": a contractual arrangement between the beneficiary and the provider (normally an ESCO) of an energy efficiency improvement measure. motive power and light) (Sorrell 2005). CHPs). also known as Supply Contracting or Energy Supply Contracting) is focused on the supply of a set of energy services (such as heating. is a form of Delivery Contracting. The payment for the services delivered is based (either wholly or in part) on the achievement of energy efficiency improvements and on the meeting of the other agreed performance criteria. "Energy Service Provider Companies" (ESPCs) are natural or legal persons that provide a service for a fixed fee or as added value to the supply of equipment or energy.) mainly via outsourcing the energy supply. Chauffage. per square meter (EC DG JRC 2005). where investments in that measure are paid for in relation to a contractually agreed level of energy efficiency improvement. the customer may pay a rate. In a chauffage arrangement the fee for the services is normally calculated based on the client’s existing energy bill minus a certain level of (monetary) savings. ESPCs are paid a fee for their advice/service rather than being paid based on the results of their recommendations (WEEA 1999). That third party may or may not be an ESCO. the following terms also need to be defined for the purpose of the present report: ⇒ In contrast to an ESCO. In such projects the ESPC is unlikely to guarantee a reduction in the delivered energy consumption because it may have no control or on-going responsibility over the efficiency of secondary conversion equipment (such as radiators. and instead ESCO-type work is referred to as Contract Energy Management (CEM). etc. and the ESPC does not assume any (technical or financial) risk in case of underperformance. drives) and over the demand for final energy services (such as space heating. Alternatively. one of the most common contract types in Europe besides EPC. In addition. ⇒ "third-party financing": a contractual arrangement involving a third party — in addition to the energy supplier and the beneficiary of the energy efficiency improvement measure — that provides the capital for that measure and charges the beneficiary a fee equivalent to a part of the energy savings achieved as a result of the energy efficiency improvement measure. and in line with the European ESCO Status Report 2005. ⇒ The terms EPC and ESCO are not widespread in the UK (Sorrell pers. motive power. for instance.com. 6 . lighting. projects implemented by ESPCs are related to primary energy conversion equipment (boilers. and accepts some degree of financial risk in so doing.) and Ireland. "Delivery Contracting" (DC. and ⇒ in contrast to EPC.

The questionnaire was based on the survey used in 2004-2005 for the European ESCO Status Report 2005. academia. governmental archives. The field research on the EU-27 countries and new Candidate Countries was carried out mainly between June-October 2006. Around 100 informative answers were received and interviews done. 2 Available at http://energyefficiency. Every European country is presented in detail drawing up the story of ESCO market development. Country reports have been verified by experts and company representatives. constructive critique or feedback is appreciated in order to be able to improve the information presented herein. please refer to the European ESCO Status Report 20052. The main body of this report is Section 2.cec. Detailed interviews were conducted personally and by the phone. The rest of this report is organised as follows. and a list of common and most important barriers and success factors. In spite of the extensive efforts of the authors to produce a correct overview of the situation. 7 . The information thus gathered was placed in context and extended by document search.2 reviews some basic results of the European ESCO Status Report 2005 on ESCOs in Europe and supplements them with further information about the overall European ESCO market. and during December 2006 on non-EU South-East Europe (SEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). literature.1 describes the methodology used for the preparation of the present report. and project documents were consulted to verify the information gathered.int/pdf/ESCO%20report%20final%20revised%20v2.1 Methodology The principal methodology of the research was based on stakeholder interviews and large-scale surveying of ESCOs. and thorough literature review. contract models and project elements).pdf. While the survey can be considered as very successful with a large amount of new information gathered. Section 1. Section 3 makes a summary of data and information on the individual ESCO markets. focusing on the timeframe 2004-2007. The list of interviews that were used for the compilation of the country reviews is indicated at the end of the report.jrc. 1. which is the period since the compilation of the European ESCO Status Report 2005. and results may therefore be biased. reports. the authors encountered difficulties in collecting sufficiently detailed information in some countries. international and national ESCO experts and experts in related fields. The final part. This indicates that in general at least 1. To overcome this handicap. any comments.eu. Using the snow-ball technique. which presents the findings of the research carried out in 2006-2007. Section 1. and emailed to potential informants. but in some cases 3-5 expert opinions are integrated for a single country report.For further terms and definitions used in the current report (related to financial schemes. and financial institutions. interviewees were asked for further contacts who were then also contacted.

EPC. but still little or no energy efficiency activity has been undertaken by 2005. ventilation and energy management systems (CRES 2005b). ESCO markets kicked-off in Central and Eastern Europe. the Netherlands. Austria and the Czech Republic became the new success stories by 2005. which was traditionally provided by the public sector. At the same time. with France and the UK. Investing in energy efficiency with the help of ESCOs is in principle a particularly profitable business in any European country. energy services and companies offering integrated energy efficiency solutions started to spread throughout Europe in the 1980s again. Portugal. The European market potential has been estimated to be at least 5-10 billion EUR per annum and 25 billion EUR in the long term in 2000 (Bertoldi et al. but tools other than ESCOs have delivered it. and Lithuania energy efficiency has been a priority. A Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) is a partnership between the public and private sector for the purpose of delivering a project or service. ESCOs are profit oriented businesses and should not be expected to intervene in areas that are too risky or do not offer profit. Geissler 2005). a group of countries could be characterized by low level ESCO activity in 2005 due to the internal and external factors that had prevented development until then. A few success stories emerged. public lighting. however. where EPC failed and thrust back further ESCO development due to a lack of trust: this happened in Sweden. Poland. In Denmark.2 ESCOs in the EU until 2005 The first companies offering services in the energy field and applying the ESCO concept appeared in Europe as long ago as the 1800s. 2004). This group should be further sub-divided into two. indicating that ESCOs are only one of the possible set of tools to bring energy efficiency improvements. The cradle of these so called “operators” or “managers” was France (Dupont and Adnot 2004). On the other hand Greece. 3 8 . Spain and Italy following close behind (Vine 2005. Slovakia. where the model of Public-PrivatePartnership (PPP)3 is one of the most effective tools to boost energy efficiency (Geissler et al. The majority of projects developed by Energy Service Companies in Europe have been undertaken in the public sector (CRES 2005b). actual profitability depends on many factors and can be curbed by a wide array of barriers. too (Urge-Vorsatz et al.1. 2006b). 2006). The concept moved to North America and boomed during the 20th century (EC DG JRC 2005). Germany is referred to as the largest and most advanced market. forthcoming. 2006b. Ireland. In addition. SEA 2003). relative to the other. there were countries where the ESCO industry emerged in a very short period at the onset of the 21st century. heating and cooling. Finally. Bertoldi et al. in the performance of specific tasks. The most common technologies so far have been co-generation. On the other hand. and Romania and Bulgaria have been examples where large potential for energy savings exist. and Estonia (Forsberg et al. there were also some negative examples. Malta and Cyprus. The PPP concept recognises that both the public sector and the private sector have certain advantages.

high transaction costs.Limited governmental support for EPC. . .Launching an accreditation system for ESCOs (proving the quality and reliability of services). . . the authors of the European ESCO Status Report suggested certain soft actions. EPC and TPF. lack of information and/or trust and scepticism on the clients’ side.Developing a Europe-wide TPF network. .Standardized saving measurement and verification.Limited understanding of energy efficiency opportunities.Developing financing sources. . including: . . . for instance non-supportive procurement rules. . the conclusion of the present report provides a snapshot about the existence or withdrawal of the above common barriers and/or emergence of new ones. .The European ESCO Status Report 2005 listed 9 major barriers in Europe: . which discourage ESCO business. 9 . . Apart from country specific assessment. The present ESCO Update Report looks at these and other barriers and success factors specific for every European country.Ensuring that governments take the lead with measures in public buildings.Increasing dissemination of information about ESCO services and projects. such as complicated procedures. The above barriers and enablers are explained (including details and examples) in the European ESCO Status Report 2005.Small project size and high transaction costs.Limited understanding of measurement and verification protocols for assuring performance guarantees.Low awareness.Legal and regulatory frameworks not compatible with energy efficiency investments. split incentives. . and aversion to opt-out energy management tasks.High perceived technical and business risk. In order to overcome some or all of the above hurdles.Administrative hurdles. . in which additional literature can be found.Lack of motivation because energy costs are only a small fraction of total costs.

10 .

ESCOs enter Change in recent years into new national markets CHP. which are not suitable for the purposes of this report. most important clients and preferred technologies and investment areas. The country overviews have similar structures to help the reader navigate through the information. Where figures exist. Occasional reference to other countries is made. It is essential to look at the European Union as a complex but open.2 THE EU ESCO MARKET: STATE OF ART AS OF 2006-2007 The present report builds on the national level because this approach was perceived to be most convenient and most informative. including the number and type of ESCOs. the country overviews start with basic data on the national ESCO market where available. In general. After setting the local context and providing information on the roots of Energy Service Companies. thus permeable market. the size of the ESCO market was very rarely known. street lighting. Number of ESCOs range from 0 to 50 per country (0-1000 ESPCs) both public and private. in order to reveal commonalities and differences. The present report summarises these and discusses issues of general importance to the extent that the national analyses allow. The most common financing mechanism and contract types are given. too. 4 European Federation of Intelligent Energy Efficiency Services. http://www. Table 1. The overall assessment of the market on the EU level is a Herculean task outside the scope of the present work.org/. many multiType of ESCOs national companies. diversified. What is essential is to gain an understanding of the commonalities and shared problems that exist among countries.efiees. heating Most popular technologies Number of ESCOs The next part of the ESCO Update Report introduces a detailed description and analysis of national ESCO markets. It is not possible to obtain or estimate reliable data on number of market players and size of the ESCO market in the EU. even though there are numerous multinational companies (MNC) that are present in the ESCO activities of more than one country. Summary of basic data of the EU-27 ESCO market The total number is unknown. but are separate documents and function as complete reports. 11 . energy efficiency and saving in general. most of which have heating and building control equipment retailer origin Exists: EFIEES4 ESCO association Size of the market (data from 2000 €5-10 Bln/year and for EU15) Increased. they are often from 3-10 years ago. Policy and decision makers need to know the specific situation and specific problems of their respective countries. however. The potential of the EPC markets were more often found or estimated by experts and other interviewees contacted for this report. and because one country’s market is often strongly related to others’.

1 Mediterranean countries Spain The Spanish ESCO industry is rather complex. Generally. AMI7. Indeed as of 2006-2007 there is a steep growth in interest in building energy efficiency in Spain and ESCO activity has been growing. AMI is a member of the EU ESCO Association. but should be considered as a pure list of countries. http://www. Public ESCOs usually accept higher risk and/or smaller profitability than private companies thus opening an investment area that otherwise would be left untouched. However. For several years 10-15 main private companies were actively involved in energy services. Infraestructuras e Industrias. with various types of companies operating successfully.ami-asociacion. The energy service market is diversified and enlarged by the participation of “public ESCOs”5: Many regional and local energy agencies. Italy. with an indication of what needs to be done in order to successfully overcome the obstacles and enhance the ESCO markets. Infrastructures and Industries. trends and the expected future of the ESCO industry are shown wherever available. has 13 members. which implements the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (Directive 2002/91/EC). and the European part of CIS and Non-EU SEE). Germany. as well as the Institute for Diversification and Energy Saving (IDAE. in Spain. Ukraine). The market is composed of local private and public ESCOs. Croatia and Turkey. Public ESCOs exist in a few EU and other European countries (for instance.Furthermore. Switzerland. The report first reviews countries of the EU15. followed by the countries that joined the European Union in 2004 (EU10) and that joined in 2007 (EU2).1 EU-15 Member States 2. 2. the national energy agency) act as ESCOs. An estimation of the market size or the market potential of the ESCO industry does not exist. These reviews are complemented by overviews on countries that are not EU Member States (Norway. Austria. The industrial sector has been increasingly interested in co-(tri)-generation investments recently and these technologies now account for the major share of the ESCO market. The underling reasons probably include the introduction of energy performance certificates for new buildings and the publication of the Technical Code of Buildings. these are energy agencies. in some provinces ESCOs have not been established yet and EPC technologies are still little known or unknown (OPET6 2004a).1. Spanish Association of Enterprises of Complex Maintenance of Buildings. EFIEES. but not always. The results and some important basic data are summarized in tabular format at the end of each country report. The order in which countries are presented does not indicate any prioritization or level of importance. and to increase dissemination of information about EPC. which implement EPC in certain types of projects especially with social importance and large demonstration effects. the most important barriers and success factors are presented.es/ 5 12 . 6 European Network for the Promotion of Energy Technologies in the Building Sector 7 Asociación Espanola de Empresas de Mantenimiento Integral de Edificios. The Spanish ESCO Association. as well as large multinational companies (mainly French origin). Finally. and aims to promote the EPC and the ESCO market in Spain.

9 There are seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades autónomas). parallel policies including the Action Plans of Energy Efficiency and Savings and Renewable Energies and the Technical Code of Buildings. Changing the relevant regulation may increase the motivation to invest in longer term projects in the public sector.). Often the ESCO provides the necessary financial resources itself or acts as a mediator between the client and the financial institution.d. Governmental involvement in ESCO development is apparent at several levels. especially in some provinces. It has the status of the State's Financial Agency of Spain. Background factors. www. Incentives and bonuses for high efficiency co-generation have been demonstrated in projects in the residential and commercial sectors. In the building sector. 10 For definitions please see the European ESCO Status Report 2005 (EC DG JRC 2005).ico.es. high solar potential in Spain. support this goal. both of which include the support of energy service-based Instituto de Crédito Oficial (ICO) is a State-owned corporate entity attached to the Ministry of Economy and Finance through the Secretariat of State for the Economy. According to these laws. the ESCO sector is partially composed of local. By 2004.000 m2/year.000 m2 for solar thermal power by 2010. Martinez 2004). all new buildings and buildings under refurbishment are obliged to use solar energy to supply 60% of their hot water requirements (Pujol 2004. which assumes a particularly rapid increase from the existing 700. The public buildings sector receives the most ESCO attention.000 m2 in 2004 (ST-ESCO 2006b). Specific barriers to ESCOs are found in all sectors in Spain. This presupposes a boom in solar thermal installation of over 700. such as local experience. The Plan of Promotion of Renewable Energies envisaged an installed surface of 4. and which would be of real value to help properly evaluate the effectiveness of projects.800. Public sector investment is limited by barriers such as split incentives11 (IDAE n. 8 13 .New financing lines have been opened for new plants in the tertiary sector through ICOIDEA8 and in some Autonomous Communities9. for instance. A major step forward would be if a standard Measurement and Verification Protocol was implemented and commonly used. The most popular contract model in Spain is the shared savings and the BOOT model10. for instance. ESCO activity in the public sector is limited due to regulations that are not supportive of EPC. 11 For an explanation see the conclusions in section 3. IDEA has introduced model contracts available online which supports both the ESCOs and the clients with a reference document to use. too (CogenChallenge 2006c). in 2003 the Spanish government approved the Energy Efficiency and Saving Action Plan as well as the Renewable Energies Action Plan for the period 2004-2012. the most important investment areas are solar thermal applications. opening a large potential market segment for ESCOs. 18 municipalities had introduced such an ordinance. regional and national energy agencies. As described above. The French-type Chauffage contract is also used. which could reduce the perceived risk of errors in monitoring savings and build trust of financial organizations and clients. amortization accounting does not allow projects of the appropriate length. European trends. Furthermore. The laws encourage higher uptake of sustainable energy solutions (often through ESCOs) in the municipal sector and/or building sector. Municipal bylaws regarding solar energy have become popular after IDAE published a model of Municipal Ordinance on Solar Energy for Thermal Uses in 2001 (MUREOdyssee 2006b). which incorporate 50 provinces.

National Action Plan 2004. retrofitting energy efficient equipment. The importance of ESCOs is growing as attention is increasingly given to energy savings obligations. EDP12. The Energy Efficiency and Saving Action Plan stresses that energy audits will be supported by the central budget to up to 75% of the total costs of the 276 prioritized energy audits (Ministerio de Industria. however new companies do appear. as well as with services. It is estimated that ca. Turismo y Comercio and IDAE 2005a. and building energy certificates. A few of these companies are large multinational ESCOs or daughter companies of the previously monopolistic electricity utility. industrial sites and public buildings that use over 1000 toe/year. transmission and distribution of electricity. Electricidade de Portugal Group. 13 Regulation of Energy Consumption Management (RGCE) of 1982 obliges private companies. have not yet been fully exploited. dealing with generation. It is expected that competition will induce the introduction of more added value services. There are also small ESCO-like consulting companies that are oriented towards auditing. Even some typical “low-hanging” ESCO projects. ESCO development is also supported by the complete electricity market opening in September 2006.improvements in energy use. ESCOs in Portugal are only targeting a fraction of the market saving potential. a few public ESCOs and a larger number of small ESCO-like companies both public and private.b). EC DG JRC 2005). 30% of municipal energy costs could be saved economically with a short pay back time (Estrela 2004). such as municipal street lighting projects. including 12 multi-national companies Exists: AMI not known increased co-generation. Table 2. street lighting. and others leave the market or change their core business. Although exact numbers are not available on the size and potential of the market. The number of larger ESCOs and the size of the market have hardly changed for several years (de Almeida et al. the ESCO concept is recently gaining popularity. as a result of old13 and new14 obligations associated with the rationalization of energy use. 14 For instance. solarthermal applications Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies Portugal ESCO business activity in Portugal is dominated by 7-8 medium and large ventures and moving upwards only slowly. and similar ESCO services. preparation of plans for rationalization of energy. or those that have high energy consuming equipment installed to undertake energy audits and prepare energy consumption rationalization plans that they have to fulfil. 2000. In spite of the past stagnation of the market. the Portugal electricity business group. especially in case of cogeneration. Summary of basic data of the Spanish ESCO market Number of ESCOs Over 10 private companies. 12 14 .

the high feed-in tariffs for co-generation guaranteed for 15 years have served as an important incentive. Most attention is given to CHP due to its simplicity. 2000). This situation is however changing and large suppliers are starting to offer energy services.ESCO customers are primarily large and medium sized industries and large tertiary buildings (shopping centers. hotels). Tradition and slow uptake of new business solutions have also been reported as a hindrance to the ESCO concept’s diffusion. documents and guidelines can be developed. The MAPE program encourages energy efficiency and promotes new energy sources in all sectors but the domestic sector. In spite of the successful examples of TPF and EPC. Financing of ESCO projects through TPF is sometimes in competition with certain governmental support schemes and programs15 to some extent. standard procedures for the planning. demonstration projects are needed. Activity in relation to renewables (wind-energy) has started to emerge during the last few years. while active marketing has been disregarded. and large ESCOs can also afford to finance projects from their own equity. for instance through energy rationalization. Perceived uncertainty of profits of energy services seems to be another critical obstacle to ESCO investments. As of today. The CHP sector. Transaction costs are regarded as too high. Finally. the ESCOs active in Portugal deal only with customers who initiate the ESCO project themselves. instead of complementing them. implementation and monitoring of a project can be beneficial. through grants and zero interest rate loans. In particular. Split incentive is also a typical barrier in Portugal.2% of total national electricity production as of 2003. combined with financial incentives (such as high feed-in tariffs) that are given to co-generation. thus companies still go for projects that they consider more profitable than demand side intervention. Local and international financing institutions are eager to get involved in ESCO-type projects. The most popular contractual schemes are the shared savings model and Chauffage contracts. which represented 12. Building trust via disseminating information and best practices among potential clients is one of the most important factors that could facilitate the ESCO sector. The EPC concept should be integrated into the legal framework: for instance. 15 15 . Direct financial incentives should be used as a support only. In public building projects accounting rules may override the goal of rationalization of energy use. financial barriers still exist. The SIME support scheme also provides both grants and zero-interest rate loans for improving the competitiveness of a company. but not of ESCOs in particular. hospitals. some significant barriers remain. As in many other countries. has benefited the most (COGENchallenge 2006b). especially if compared to supply side investments. In parallel with the positive environment for the development of ESCOs. Return rates are considered insufficient by ESCOs for many potential projects. the potential role of the public sector in Examples: The E4 (Energy Efficiency and Endogenous Energies) program ran until the end of 2006 and provided financial support for new projects. Multinational ESCOs also often implement heating and cooling solutions as part of facility management. The legal framework in Portugal has been supportive of energy efficiency and renewable energies. Energy suppliers have long seen themselves as providers of energy per se and not of energy services (de Almeida et al. as well as targeted information dissemination by a neutral stakeholder. running costs and investment costs are separated in the public sector budgets. low risk and short pay-back time. and saving on operations does not compensate for the costs incurred in the investment budget.

when it was boosted as a result of governmental policies and as a consequence of market liberalization. Cogeneration plants were commonly set up in hospitals (de Renzio 2003. Table 3. Market size estimations vary in a wide range. an ESCO association. public energy agencies. In the early 1980s. which required about 95 million EUR investment. This estimation is rather conservative because members of the association are small ventures. However. and would set a good example for other building owners. In addition. Cogeneration in hospitals has been regarded as one of the most important targets of ESCO investment ever since. 80 MW of CHP were installed in Italy through ESCOs. The sector has changed in the last 2-3 years. Some experts estimate it to be ca. whose energy optimization could serve as an important initiator and multiplier. Italian ESCOs have developed from diverse origins (Capozza 2003). but there are experts who put this at only 160 million EUR. Indeed. where ESCOs are active. founded in July of 2005. The recent 16 17 The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas (AEEG). EC DG JRC 2005). to be about 300-500 million EUR. Associanziaone Nazionale Societi Servizi Energetici. fuel and/or electricity suppliers. such as “ad hoc” independent companies. In 2006 only. ESCO experts claim that in spite of the spectacular registration-rate. wind. it would be able to give a basic impulse for the industry. but probable increase CHP. the number of registered ESCOs at the Autorità per l'Energia Elettrica e il Gas (AEEG)16 was over 160 in 2005. although the ESCO market has been increasing recently. Summary of basic data of the Portuguese ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO Association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies ca. While the number of ESCOs was put at 15 in 2003 (Capozza 2003).Portugal is enormous. In the past the ESCO market was stable. based on the average annual turnover of the companies associated with ASSOESCo17. PPP and joint ventures. 16 . Others estimate the micro-CHP market. 60 million EUR. but small companies also have some ESCO services. It is the owner of most service sector buildings. as of 2006. the number of companies really offering ESCO services is not more than a few dozen companies. the number of authorized companies reduced to around 80 due to stricter requirements. but not particularly large. the first ESPCs provided heat service to the public sector under Chauffage-type of contracts and sometimes using TPF. equipment suppliers. The market is still dominated by large ESCOs. HVAC Italy The Italian energy service industry has been active for over 20 years. and from ESCOs of French origin. It would demonstrate the feasibility of ESCOs on a large scale and in front of a large audience. because of the high saving potentials due to cooling (OPET 2004b). 7-8 + many small ESCO-type companies Private (local and 1-2 multinational) and some subsidiaries of EDP No not known Stable.

The residential sector is also getting attention. are rarely possible. White Certificates acquired by ESCOs can be sold to distributors. changing market environment and international pressure. for further information please see the German country report on page 28 or recent literature. 20 Distributors and their subsidiaries or associated companies are also eligible for White Certificates if they carry out energy conservation measures for the benefit of end-users. though they are rare. which issues certificates at the request of the regulator AEEG after verification21. By the end of the first period of the obligations (2005-2009). 19 18 17 . combustion control. The PICO concept19 was introduced in the form of case studies in the PICOLight project during 2004-2005. 21 Most importantly against the Ministerial Decrees of 20 July 2004. see Spain on page 12. By tradition. The current growth of the ESCO industry can be attributed to a complex set of legislative actions. 2006. Commercial banks are still scarce and over-cautious about financing ESCO-projects (EC DG JRC 2005) and ESCOs have reported that only projects with especially beneficial parameters pass the banking criteria. For definition. Public ESCOs18 are known in Italy. where boiler upgrading. Trading is encouraged in order to reduce costs of energy conservation measures. co-generation and power factor mitigation. such as the commercial sector and industry (Ceresi 2005). The energy efficiency policy mix that has been advantageous for the EPC market is complemented by the adoption of new building codes. Technologies mostly covered by ESCO projects are public lighting. Energy saving measures implemented by ESCOs must be certified by the Market Operator. who can cover their end-use energy conservation obligations as described above (AEEG 2005). Some ESCOs attribute much of the increase of the ESCO market to the introduction of the White Certificate scheme in January 2005. The Italian ESCOs often provide the financing themselves (Bertoldi et al 2006a).increase is due to the entrance of individual professionals and small specialized enterprises. Other sectors have moved into focus recently. and small district heating installation for newly built dwellings and some small co-generation installations are being carried out by ESCOs. 2005).000 toe was set for large distributors for 2005 (AEEG 2004). such as Irrek et al. which would be economically more feasible. while penalties for non-compliance have been envisaged. 2% of total consumption (AEEG 2004). as a result of the so called twin EE Decrees of 2001 (de Renzio 2003). A saving goal of 156. ESCOs operate in the public sector. This setting increases the market potential available for ESCOs. A common problem is that complex renovation projects. Accreditation of ESCOs by AEEG started in November 2004. too (de Renzio 2003). electricity and gas savings are expected to represent ca. heat control measures. heating boiler upgrade. Public Internal Performance Contracting. The participating authorities created a revolving fund to finance further energy saving measures from current savings (Irrek et al. Accredited ESCOs are eligible for Energy Efficiency Certificates (White Certificates)20. One of the most important changes in the regulatory background is the obligation for gas and electricity distribution utilities to reach end-use energy saving targets (Bertoldi et al 2006a).

The lack of interest from FIs should be overcome. A parallel programme of the European Commission is the GreenBuilding Programme: http://www.org/ 23 Associazione Imprese di Facility Management ed Energia. translocation. the private sector is sceptical about the ESCO concept. Another smaller association. AGESI23 (formerly called ASSOCALOR). which could serve as an introduction to further common business (Dietrich et al. GreenLight is a voluntary pollution prevention initiative of the European Commission to reduce lighting energy use in the commercial sector. Association of Facility Management and Energy Services Companies. Chauffage-type contracts are preferred. seeking and promoting technologies. The objectives of the Association are information dissemination. but this limits the size of the ESCO market strongly. and is suspicious about their own benefit from such an ESCO deal. 2004). So far.eu-greenlight. they suggest that every working relationship be built up through a small-scale project. 22 18 . represents 23 small sized ESCOs. One of the most significant obstacles is the demise of credibility of the participants of the ESCO market. such as a GreenLight Programme22. Since the central issue of their project was mutual trust and good understanding between the client and the contractor. Moreover. which embraces 30 companies and covers 90% of the ESCO offerings for the public sector (AGESI n. An innovative suggestion has been drawn up by an Italian branch of an international ESCO: to carry out a successful energy saving measure in a bank building. the ASSOESCo.ESCOs still highlight important barriers and problems that they and the EPC concept have to face.eugreenbuilding. as already described above. Tender procurements are traditionally price-based (based on initial investment cost) and energy performance (lifecycle costs) does not form the primary decision basis. and development of standards and means for successful integrated services. and encouraged to participate in third-partyfinancing. etc. On the one hand.org/. Banks should be informed. however. In this case. change of activity. Further information: http://www. even if they have not been offering ESCO services. hundreds of companies have been claiming to be an ESCO because the accreditation was based on self-evaluation until recently.).). although savings are normally realized. no energy saving guarantee per se is given and the savings are not monitored. ESCOs have mostly implemented projects using their financial bases. which would be important for an ESCO project.d. ESCOs in Italy have a representative association. ESCOs do not trust clients because some industries and commercial clients may disappear during the contractual period (due to bankruptcy. This situation is coupled with some uncertainty about the future legal environment. A major drawback to ESCOs in the public sector is that public sector regulations are not suitable for EPC. On the other hand.

19 . which is expected to boost ESCOs active in renewables and CHP. 24 Demotiki Epiheirisi Ilektrismou in Greek. The ESCO-type projects in the past were commissioned by the government and concerned governmental buildings.4% of the total electricity generation was produced in CHP units (COGENchallenge 2005a). While the existence of a large energy conservation potential. Licenses for power generation from alternative sources have been issued since 2006. such as investment subsidies. The sporadic EPC projects have been concerned with renewable energy technologies (mainly solar thermal systems and small hydro investments). principally in the services and the industrial sectors (CRES 2005a). In 2005. public lighting. and as of 2006 it was still in its infancy. and ESCO business in Greece has been restricted only to a few pilot EPC projects so far (CRES 2005a). only 3. control Greece The EPC market in Greece has not moved forward in recent years. end-use energy management is often weak. which is hampering fast and large-scale uptake of RES power generation. straightforward and supportive procurement procedures. tax reductions and feed-in tariffs. Summary of basic data of the Italian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies a few dozen mainly private. ASSOESCo 95M EUR investment by ESCOs for CHP only in 2006 Increasing CHP. Three companies attempted to act as ESCOs in the past (Aidonis and Markogiannakis 2006). At the same time. and the absence of contractual and administrative guidance for the selection. support schemes have been introduced for CHP and RES.Table 4. or the private sector. control and repayment of energy services. and little attention has been given to energy consumption and to possible savings. The remaining monopoly of the Public Power Corporation24 is one of the important obstacles to the development of the ESCO sector. On-site expert personnel and the top management are usually disconnected. because the utility is not motivated to offer alternative services. Energy performance contracting has not deployed yet either in the public. the licensing procedure is not sufficiently streamlined and thus timeconsuming. many of which are multinational companies AGESI. Nevertheless. thus information about energy use matters does not reach the decision makers (CRES 2005a). leasing schemes. The lack of ESCO business is blamed on the absence of a positive legal and institutional environment for the initiation and viability of ESCO operation. This includes the lack of clear. Some upgrades have been done in lighting systems and in air conditioning. At the same time. the ESCO activity is still negligible (Aidonis and Markogiannakis 2006).

such as insurance companies (Aidonis and Markoginnakis 2006). therefore capacity building has been started. and the last few years could be described as a period of mergers and consolidation. Until recently it was prohibited to employ a private body to operate and manage the building energy services infrastructure of public establishments. There is also some. Legislative changes have taken place that are expected to foster ESCO activity. activity in the domestic sector. District Heating and insulation is however done very effectively through Warm Front (earlier Home Energy Efficiency Scheme). The government has already acknowledged this contradictory situation. between 2000 and 2004 a serious stagnation of investment was experienced partially due to the demise of CHP. and has recognized the opportunities offered by EPC.2 The UK and Ireland United Kingdom In the UK energy service contracting dates back to 1984. though limited.1. pilot actions have been initiated. when the first energy management company was established as the subsidiary of a large oil company. considerable interest in financing energy efficiency and ESCO projects is present on the side of commercial banks. The finalization and adoption of a relevant legal framework and ending the monopoly of utilities are finally expected to contribute to the successful launch of energy service companies. Table 5. However. However.Moreover. Summary of basic data of the Greek ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 0-3. The UK has been seen as one of the most important ESCO leaders in Europe (for instance EC DG JRC 2005). small specialized companies. These might be formed as subsidiaries of multinational companies. A number of engineering companies soon followed suit by offering financial and other value-added services (Sorrell 2005). The slow down of the market was also the result of the implementation of new electricity trading arrangements in 2002. There have been no new entrants lately. and similar institutions. operation and maintenance of energy efficient equipment in buildings. Law 3389 on Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) should help the public sector to overcome one of the long-standing barriers. There are currently around 20-24 significant ESCO market players in the United Kingdom active in the non-domestic sector. The new law allows multi-year concession contracting for the installation. and procedures have not been developed due to the not yet active system (Aidonis and Markogiannakis 2006). mainly regarding district heating25 (Sorrell 2005). and legal formulas (such as a law on TPF) have been drawn up. 25 20 . utility based ESCOs. and also as public ESCOs. specific financial schemes. small hydro 2. sporadic TPF only projects No Negligible Starting solar thermal. which is a grant-funded programme for tackling fuel poverty.

HVAC plant replacement. The balance is now much more evenly spread across the industrial and the commercial sectors. CEM is very similar to a Chauffage contract. production) until the end of an ESCO contract. On the other hand. as an answer to the need for better measurement and management. There are no general model contracts like in Germany. The main element of CEM is that a significant percentage of the financial risk is transferred from the client to the ESCO that takes over responsibility for the management of energy (Sorrell 2005). accompanied by rising gas prices. although in most cases it is also on offer. The annual turnover in the non-domestic sector is estimated by ESTA26 to be around 860940 million EUR compared to ca. CEM does not inherently include project financing. 700 million EUR in 2001 (Sorrell 2005). Traditionally the industrial sector represented the largest part of the clientele using heat supply contracts (chauffage). The UK CHP market features both large-scale (for instance hospitals) and smaller-scale co-generation (such as leisure centres with pools). or using contracts with an open book approach. though still a little biased towards the private clients (Sorrell 2005). the residential sector still accounts for a negligible part of ESCO activity. In the public sector attention has been moving to biomass investments through ESCOs. under a CEM an ESCO is managing some aspects of a client’s energy use under a contract that transfers some of the (financial) risk from the client to the contractor (usually based on providing agreed ‘service’ levels) (ESTA cited in Sorrell 2005). lately.e. where all costs and profits are stated openly for all stakeholders. According to calculations. This translates to an annual investment in energy efficient plant and systems of about 145 million EUR. because manufacturing is often transferred abroad. Danish or Swedish in origin (Bertoldi et al. contracts allow the ESCO to take the risk on consumption. i. 26 Energy Services and Technology Association 21 . decentralised boilers and controls. The general contracting scheme is called Contract Energy Management (CEM). Generally. As of 2006. lighting control. the main building services elements that are commonly implemented are lighting. but for the client to take the main risk on the energy price. and slowest in industry. 2006a). Many indigenous ESCO companies withdrew from the market. This has been significant in igniting the spread of ESCO investments in this sector. The definitions usually found in Europe (and used in our reports) are not commonly used in the UK. In the last 2 years reasonable growth in investment has occurred again as climate change and energy prices have become an issue for many organisations. It is hard (if not impossible) to guarantee that the site will be still working under comparable conditions (size. and the companies that remained were predominantly French. ESCOs have captured circa 5% of the market potential so far (Sorrell 2005). More recently CHP is on the move.with falling electricity prices. The commercial sector is characterized by managing agents and other intermediaries who are starting to realise the need to be proactive in securing better energy performance. Growth of the ESCO market is the highest in the commercial sector. ESCO work in the industrial sector has been slowing down a little as a result of a lack of long-term security. then in the public sector. There is an established practice of measuring performance against agreed Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). regaining position. Automatic Monitoring and Targeting (aM&T) have been on the rise. too.

As a result. however.8 TWh total delivered savings was achieved. The most significant issue hindering the development of ESCO projects is the length of time and effort it takes to bring a project to fruition. Suppliers may assist their own customers or any domestic consumer in the UK. Programs such as the Energy Efficiency Commitment (EEC) should be further promoted and supplemented with similar initiatives in the non-residential sector. In particular. According to some experts. According to experts. contractors tend to be particularly careful and selective. ESCOs in the UK have good financial back-up. They have the financial capability themselves or through established banking routes to provide funding of up to five times the current market (an investment of 700M EUR) (Aldridge pers.com. Nevertheless. Financing good energy saving projects (with pay-back times below 3 years) is not a problem.000 or more domestic customers to encourage and/or assist customers to take energy-efficiency measures in their homes.). 22 . are regarded as among the most important measures that have been introduced in recent years and have helped the ESCOs significantly. the key issue is the lack of awareness and reluctance to believe the ESCO concept. the lack of long-term site security is a major barrier in the case of the industrial sector. In the next phase (2005-2008). Local authorities should replicate successful experience more. During the EEC-1 86.000 customers need to fulfil obligations.Certain obstacles to energy conservation are successfully being eliminated in the United Kingdom. thus fulfilling “fuelstandardized energy benefits”. the transposition of building regulations has been judged by some experts as not completely successful because requirements should have been stricter. only utilities with over 50. and they engage in negotiations with potential customers only when the project is highly likely to be realized and offers sufficiently large saving potentials to be able to pay for the initiation costs later. The Energy Performance Certificates (according to the Energy performance of Buildings Directive 2002/91/EC). The first EEC (2002-2004) obliged all gas and electricity suppliers with 15. As stated before. criticism is also pronounced. The EEC is running between 2002 and 2011. in 3-year cycles. The UK Government’s willingness to lead Climate Change policies internationally (Hinnells 2006) has definitely been beneficial for the ESCO sector. in many cases this is unnecessary because the current market is capable of tackling more activity than at present. but a higher total value must be reached. Whilst there is a level of bureaucracy in the public sector that adds to this problem. This can lead to a lack of clear requirements for end users and a situation where the urgency of issues is not evident. The target is 130 TWh. policies are sometimes interpreted in a rather weak manner and are delayed. Local authorities have plunged into creating ESCOs themselves. For significant projects this is typically 2-3 years. nor problems with financing. Experts do not see any major regulatory or legal barriers specifically regarding ESCOs and CEM.

but considers hidden and missing costs. mainly French. The authors of the report “Assessment of the Potential for ESCOs in Ireland” have applied various calculation methods in order to confirm the accuracy and came to a similar results27 (ENVIROS 2005). Danish and Swedish origin survive Exists: ESTA €860-940 M (annual turnover) After few years downward trend. 2. The ESCO sector. CHP Ireland The Irish energy services industry is still in its infancy (ENVIROS 2005). The two latter categories take upon themselves the financial arrangements of the investments and the provision of the technical services for the energy management. HVAC plant replacement.: Derivating from the EU ESCO market 27 23 .: By leveraging the UK government CO2 abatement cost models. lighting control. decentralised boilers and controls. and two multinational companies were found to offer guarantee on their services in the form of EPC (ENVIROS 2005). 3.Table 6. Calculation 2. 11 companies were identified that could be classified as energy service providers (ESPCs). On the other hand. This is not primarily due to the reluctance on the part of ESCOs to engage in financing.. with or without the actual ESCO service and concept (Scott 2004). whereby reducing the potential. and thus face little risk. The most prevalent contract model in Ireland is the BOOT model (ENVIROS 2005). increasing lighting. but prefer to work for a fixed service fee. companies offering contract energy management (CEM). cleaning etc. Today the estimate for the potential ESCO industry market size is between 50-110 million EUR/year until 2020 (ENVIROS 2005). As a start an overview study that assessed the potential for energy service companies in the country as a means to catch energy efficiency improvement opportunities was commissioned by Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI) (ENVIROS 2005). as of 2007. Irish ESCO-type companies can be categorized in three groups: 1. This calculation takes into account the 20% reduction potential of energy use in the EU. which comprises the management of the client’s water and energy use. At 20% market capture rate the ESCO market potential was 26-35 million EUR. is still underdeveloped. Irish ESPC companies do not often use EPC contracts. but rather the disinterest of the clients. too (Scott 2004). Summary of basic data of the British ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 20-24 Public and private. Calculation 1. The most typical (but still rare) motivation for potential clients is to outsource energy management to a specialized company. In 2005. the carbon marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves were created for energy efficiency technologies. companies offering facility management. companies constructing and operating CHP.

opening a market niche for energy efficiency. Summary of basic data of the Irish ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 2 Multinational companies No €50-110M/year until 2020 The market is getting off the ground Industrial processes. investment funds at the Irish Energy Center28 under the Energy Efficiency Investment Support Scheme were established (Scott 2004). commercial sector for 1030 % and the public sector for 10-20 % (Scott 2004).: Derivating from the EU ESCO market potential. The most important sector for ESCOs in Ireland is probably the industrial sector. efficient cogenerated electricity is favoured at the market. While the EPC concept is well known by companies that have the capacity to become ESCOs. which is not favourable for ESCO investments. On the other hand. and Calculation 4. however exact data are not available because of the lack of baseline and lack of ex post monitoring.: Checking against the market size based on 20% of Irish energy use. Sustainable Energy Ireland 24 . high transaction costs and the lengthy contractual arrangements still pose an obstacle to higher uptake of this market. by the 2000s. ENVIROS 2005). the market has seen a decrease in energy price. with liberalization. however no appropriate survey exists and conclusions can only be approximated from case studies presented in different research documentation (Scott 2004.A strong disincentive for ESCOs until recently was a result of forecasting errors of the electricity need in the 1970s. In parallel. The main barriers listed by informants to the survey carried out by ENVIROS (2005) include the lack of governmental regulations and targets. the market potential was between 50 and 100 million EUR. this excess capacity eroded (Gerald 2003). CHP potential. the market potential was between 90 and 180 million EUR. and the following excessive extension of electricity generation capacity (Gerald 2003). which is the commonly quoted energy efficiency improvement figure to be attained in the EU by 2020. and reluctance from potential ESCOs to take the risk of guaranteeing savings. Calculation 3. On the one hand. using energy expenditure comparison. The companies that are (at least somewhat) involved in ESCO-type activities have reported that industry accounts for 50-80 % of their business. The ESCOs estimate that they usually achieve 10-20% savings. which is important for the development of ESCOs (Scott 2004). Scott 2004). 28 today. These barriers need to be addressed as part of any program that aims at strengthening ESCOs. However. This resulted in a market potential of 30-90 million EUR. most of the potential customers are not aware of the ESCO concept. lack of appropriate expertise at banks. and the government earmarked 5 million EUR for CHP and district heating programs (COGENchallenge 2006a). and a reluctance to outsource energy services partially because of concerns about redundancies in staff. Table 7. with restructuring. Furthermore. because CHP is one of the most attractive areas for ESCO involvement in Ireland (COGENchallenge 2006a. In addition. electricity market liberalization was completed in 2005 (Scott 2004) and gas market liberalisation will follow soon. using GDP comparison.

the so called “Chauffage contract” is a contract which includes operation without explicitly committing to carrying out energy efficiency investment. The contractor can increase its profits by investing in more energy saving equipment or by procuring cheaper fuel. and ADEME (2003). The first formalized contract including TPF was signed in 1983. gas and electricity distribution. in keeping with the law (Dupont and Adnot 2004).3 Central Europe France Energy services (public lighting. Dupont and Adnot 2004). It needs to be emphasised that the French market cannot be fully associated with the definitions usually applied elsewhere in Europe30. This was primarily designed for financing energy saving investments in order to overcome clients’ aversion to high perceived risk of improvements that in reality were cost-effective. For a comprehensive overview on the development of the French ESCO sector. • P2: daily operation. The French ESCO model developed through 6 lines29. district heating) in the form of outsourcing public services in France dates back into the 19th century (Dupont and Adnot 2004).1. transport. Under a Chauffage contract. to apply different VAT rates. and to carry out the investment. The success of these and other “delegated management” services (waste and water management. Originally it was based on the combined operation and maintenance contract of HVAC systems and differentiated four basic elements (ADEME 2006. and • P4: funding for new (energy efficient) equipment It was necessary to separate the 4 items in the public sector in order to be able to contract separate companies for the different tasks. This model did not particularly spread in France due to the strength of the traditional “contract of operation” model. funding new energy efficiency equipment in the structure outlined in the bullet points above is not allowed in the public sector “as a rule with exception” (ADEME 2006. In addition. Traditionally. ESCOs in France are large companies that have the financial means to finance projects if necessary. Dupont and Adnot 2004): • P1: purchasing of fuel. thus creating the basis of the French ESCO model (Dupont and Adnot 2004). These types of contracts in France are usually long-term and include the obligation to diagnose problems and identify needs for improvement in the system. • P3: complete and complex maintenance. and to be able to keep the elements separately in the bookkeeping. Dupont and Adnot (2004). However. please see the European ESCO Status Report 2005 (EC DG JRC 2005). telecommunication) financially strengthened the private companies involved in these businesses. thus reducing the costs. For HVAC system operations. humidity) at a lower cost for the client if conditions remain unchanged. the contractor ensures optimal operation of an already existing system and must provide an agreed comfort level (for instance temperature. but also started to be more flexible. 29 25 . but not acknowledged as such by the clients (Dupont and Adnot 2004). 30 For details and exact description and definitions of the different types of ESCO contracts. please see the European ESCO Status Report 2005 (EC DG JRC 2005). Clients in the private sector applied the above contract-type. thus the role of banks is limited. the “contract of operation” model dominated the French ESCO market.2.

which has around 500 members.fg3e. Spain. in contrast to ESCOs in other European countries. with only three large ESCOs dominating the market. Furthermore. 60% of the ESCO projects are financed by ESCOs themselves.fr. French ESCOs mostly provide complex solutions. Italy. to be 3 billion EUR. Most of the ESCOs belong to an association. such as big installers who provide financing in addition to traditional HVAC services. traditionally clients of ESCOs were from the tertiary sector. In spite of the long history.ademe. Due to the historical developments described above. and significant development of the French ESCOs and the ESCO sector. One of the most important legislative restrictions that impedes complex ESCO activity in the public sector was already mentioned above. the French Environment and Energy Management Agency . appeared only after the late 1990s thanks to the liberalization of energy markets and due to the development of the European Directive on Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services and the subsequent debates (ADEME 2006). the UK. new actors have been entering the market. in cooperation with the French development bank. The annual turnover of the ESCO market is estimated by the ESCO association. 32 French Federation of Companies Providing Services to Facilities. while the public sector is still the primary client of facility management contracts. and local consultancies (ADEME 2006). created a Crediting System in Favour of Energy Management (FOGIME). It has long been claimed by ESCOs and the FG3E that the engagement of the private sector to provide complex solutions for the public sphere would be beneficial and Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie. ADEME. including Belgium.fr. and Central-Eastern Europe. These companies are subsidiaries of main energy utilities. As of 2006. for further information: www. though working independently from them (ADEME 2006).As of 2006. while 10% of the projects are paid for by the clients. Although the total number of companies offering Chauffage or EPC contracts is around 100. The new actors have different roots. La Fédération Française des Entreprises Gestionnaires de services aux Equipements. meaning Energy Efficiency Service Companies. 31 26 . Recently. à l'Energie et à l'Environnement (FG3E)32. there are a number of key barriers specific for different sectors. Grants and subsidies are available from the regional bodies of ADEME31. the French market is characterized by strong concentration of actors. 30% of the projects utilize TPF. Operation and particularly purchase of equipment in the public sector is not allowed to be designated to private entities. which is a guarantee fund for loans for investments in sustainable energy and renewables in the private sector. public lighting. common in Europe. Earlier they were referred to as “expolitant de chauffage” while they are more often called now SS2E or SSEE companies. http://www2. Energy and the Environment. and later from industry. and CHP and facility management. The French operators have ‘exported’ the Chauffage contract model to several other European countries. The terms ”energy service” and “energy service company”. (mainly multinational) equipment suppliers provide the EPC services found in other European countries. wide-scale activity. experts report increasing focus on industrial and residential projects. only in the scope of very special and formal public-private-partnership (PPP) agreements. compressed air production and building. Primary projects implemented by ESCOs are still HVAC system operations. FG3E.

private companies and households do not engage in energy saving measures. but longestablished French ESCO model. the social housing sector (and in general. Furthermore. and allows that payment is based on performance indicators previously set out in the contract (instead of being purely revenue based). together with the recently rising energy prices. subsidies) could be useful to overcome this significant barrier.innovative solutions could appear as a result. which is still one of the most successful examples in Europe. public accounting rules should also be revised and the separation of operation and investment budgets should be possible to overcome in case of ESCO projects. public procurement rules should be revised to allow for the inclusion of criteria on the effectiveness of the proposed energy efficiency measures. The private sector normally pays primary attention to its core business. 33 Law number 2005-781 of 13 July 2005. In parallel. In order to further increase the effectiveness of the new regulation. construction and operation of a project. This should be defined as a mandatory requirement postulated by legislation. A White Certificate system has just been introduced in France in 200633. where it is very important that the savings in operation budgets could be used for investing in efficient equipment. It is proposed by the FG3E association that fiscal incentives (tax exemption. The new Order also allows the public sector to pay the private company’s remuneration periodically during the project. It has been found in France that without fiscal incentives. 27 . rented houses) need special treatment to overcome split incentives. The price of energy is still not high enough to encourage savings in these sectors (ADEME 2006). Therefore the Government Order of 17 July 2004 on PPP has been greeted with high expectations of improving the situation. and is expected to enhance energy efficiency services in the private sector. recent legal developments are expected to further boost the French ESCO industry. The promotion of energy efficiency and ESCOs as a tool for that purpose should be emphasized. and accelerate the ESCO market. and to serve as a demonstration to the other sectors on the other hand. although based on the peculiar. The public sector should be required by law to improve its energy performance in order to increase energy savings significantly on the one hand. The Order creates the possibility to draw up PPP contracts where a concession scheme is not available and where traditional procurement contracts (marchés publics) cannot be implemented because of the legal restriction to have separate contracts for each phase of the design. Therefore.

Table 8. The number of companies offering services through Energy Performance Contracting is only a fraction of the total figure. In spite of the early start.php?id=3708&0=&type=1 www. It is among the oldest ESCO markets in Europe.vfw. The overall number of ESCOs and ESCO-like companies is still estimated to be around 500 (Brand and Geissler 2003.de. the continued increase in activity and the overall success of the German ESCOs. compressed air production systems. Summary of basic data of the French ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs 100. significant market possibilities still exist. www. The majority of these companies offer energy supply contracting (particularly heat delivery services) and operations contracting. The ESCO Forum is a recent merger of the former Bundesverband Privatwirtschaftlicher Energie-ContractingUnternehmen e. of which one is particularly active in the Energy Performance Contracting business. extending more and more to other countries HVAC. diversified. out of which 3 dominate the market The large ESCOs are subsidiaries of utilities. The ESCO Forum has 26 members (as of 6 February 2007). Furthermore. On the other hand.ZVEI)36. including former municipal utilities and multinational companies. and ESCOs with more than one reference EPC project are in the range of 20.V. street lighting. control systems. The newly established ESCO Forum represents the larger ESCOs34. (PECU)35 and the Contracting Forum of the German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers' Association (Zentralverband Elektrotechnik. 35 34 28 . and has experienced a constant expansion ever since. building management ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies Germany The German ESCO market is often celebrated as the most established energy service industry in the European Union (Seefeldt 2003).V. . the Verband für Wärmelieferung (VfW)37 is an association of http://www.pecu. are active on the market.de 37 Association for Heat Supply. EC DG JRC 2005). the four largest energy companies all have daughter companies carrying out various contracting activities. emerging in the early 1990s (Vine 2005).de 36 www. around 50.zvei.zvei.und Elektronikindustrie e.de/index. There are two associations helping the ESCO sector via a range of activities. Small and large local companies. which extend their activity to many other European countries + large international equipment installers and suppliers + local consultancies Exists: FG3E Turnover is €3 Bln/year Increased.

This comprehensive approach is expected to attract new customers from different sectors. and in housing (Berliner Energieagentur GmbH 2006). Average savings of EPC contracts in Germany are in the range of 10 to 38% for 0. The total number of running ESCO contracts is estimated at 50. 8% EPC. 2006). such as industry. with the municipal sector tending to longer projects because trust has been developed to a larger extent and outsourcing has become more common. their reliability and the correct value of contracts hindered the sector in Germany. thus shorter contracts dominate. Excess savings are shared between the client and the ESCO following a previously agreed percentage. In 2005. which corresponds to an annual potential of "350 million EUR monetary savings volume from energy savings".) is being set up. in order to embrace building and construction measures. The market potential is estimated to be about 2 billion EUR in the public sector alone (including energy turnover). The EPC market in Germany has had a total investment value of 750 million EUR by 2006 (Geissler et al. encompassing over 1300 buildings altogether. The establishment of the Energy Saving Partnership (ESP) in 1995 in Berlin is considered an important step in establishing the energy efficiency market in the public sector in Germany (Geissler et al. A notable number of EPC projects have been realised in Hessen. whilst industry is still averse to long-term contracts.mostly smaller heat delivery service suppliers. 2006).2 – 2. and window replacement. 83% of the contracting activity was energy supply contracting (with 8. North-Rhine-Westfalia.000. of which 197 have contracting projects (data from 2005). Under the ESP scheme buildings are bundled into pools in order to decrease transaction costs. In the meantime. instead of the typical focus on energy system improvements (equipment and control engineering).ON 2006). This scheme is based on the existing one and expands its application by also including work on the building shell. hospitals. and 4% pure third-party financing (E. such as Lower Saxony and in the Eastern Länder. VfW has 230 members. the total turnover of the members of VfW amounted to 1. 5% management of technical equipment. however there are less or no activities in other regions. and the pay-back times are also shorter. and doubts about the trustworthiness of ESCOs. where both the customer and the ESCO benefit from the savings immediately from the first year.000 MWth connected rating in total). only a limited number of EPC projects were initiated. offices. 2006). The most common contract model is the guaranteed savings scheme. no standard documents were available. Flauger (2005) refers to market researchers estimating a total potential of 1. according to Berliner Energieagentur GmbH (BerliNews 2005). including for instance heat insulation. In the beginning of the nineties. the share of EPC in the market is around 15-20% (Geissler et al. called “Energy Saving Partnership Plus” (Figure 1. and Bavaria. According to other sources.3 million projects in Germany.04 billion EUR (including energy revenues). 29 . an additional scheme. New investment amounted to 510 million EUR. around 3 years.000 MWh/EPC contracts respectively (Kristof 2002). 21 pools had been contracted by ESCOs by 2006. The average pay-back time of ESCO projects is 5-15 years.

have a strong demonstration effect and act as multipliers among other sectors. Germany is the homeland of the so-called “Intracting model” or Public Internal Performance Commitments (PICO) (Energie-Cités 2002. Energy Saving Partnership Plus scheme (based on Berliner Energieagentur GmbH 2006) According to some experts the share of pure EPC is actually decreasing in Germany. 2004). The provision of energy supply services is successful with private sector buildings. the development of energy prices since the liberalization of the electricity market is considered to be one of the most important triggers for the German ESCO 30 . A large number of municipal projects. This allows larger cost savings and less profitable projects. This can result in lower effectiveness of the investments. Besides the large private ESCO sector. these projects lack the energy savings guarantee. Furthermore.Figure 1. The successful ESCO industry in Germany is the consequence of a mixture of favourable conditions. many of which are supported by the energy agencies. because there are no sanction mechanisms within a single organization (even though PICO includes saving targets). In the PICO model one department in the administration acts as a unit similar to an ESCO in function for another department. and using existing know-how. but it is mainly the result of local political support and individual drivers. 2005). Nevertheless. finances and implements energy efficiency improvements mostly through a fund made up of municipal money. The ESCO market is projected to be further boosted by the expected expansion of co-generation. but the integration of demand-side energy efficiency measures into supply-side oriented contracting is gaining importance. most notably the commercial sector. The ESCO department organizes. However. this scheme increases activity for energy savings. which would be ignored by a private ESCO (Irrek et al.

sector. The former ESCO association. which requires a relation of trust between the ESCO and the client. and the reluctance to use ESCOs when the core production process is affected. Energy efficiency related public contracts are usually simply awarded to the lowest bid (upfront investment). Today. which complement ESCOs work in the residential sector (Brand and Geissler 2003). regional and local levels played and are still playing an important role as mediators between ESCOs and current as well as potential clients. and in the period 2002-2006 energy prices have almost doubled. Energy agencies at national. A neutral stance on how remuneration from savings should be accounted within the municipal budget is one essential point which needs a clear definition. as of 2004. PECU. Another vital step for the evolution of the ESCO industry was the establishment of standard procedures and documents such as model contracts. including research and development programs. claimed that. and incentive programs for renewable energy. and the client’s willingness to co-operate with the ESCO is essential. Several larger ESCOs are reluctant to bid for contracting projects in the public sector. Delivery Contracting came to a halt in the residential sector because of legal uncertainties. PECU therefore requested that life-cycle costs of new equipment are taken into account (PECU 2006) in the public bidding process and that it becomes more transparent. but has not yet been in use. One suggestion is to establish a guarantee scheme for ESCOs to overcome problems of insolvency of ESCO clients which have increased in recent years. and energy saving are not considered (lifecycle costs). 2006). Purely project based financing for Performance Contracting projects is believed to have the capacity to improve market uptake. there are approximately 7 different model contracts. but at the same time energy taxes increased. because the tender specifications are often considered as being of low quality and unclear. for instance kWf. In the public sector certain legal conditions (budgetary and municipal law) could be improved. According to a recent decision by the German Federal Court of Justice. The main barriers to ESCOs in industry are the unwillingness of clients to engage in contracts with pay-back times longer than a few years. As a result of liberalization. or boiler replacement by utilities). In 2006 there are indications that ESCO activity in the industrial sector is on the rise. an energy performance retrofitting model and a standard procurement procedure as well as contracting guidelines by the federal states of Hessen and Berlin (Seefeldt 2003). energy prices dropped significantly between 1999 and 2001. the 31 . Energy agencies have also taken on the role of carrying out energy efficiency monitoring and verification (Seefeldt 2003). Some ESCOs consider the energy taxes as one of the most effective political measures for energy efficiency. To overcome some of these barriers. because they hamper the work of ESCOs today (Geissler et al. The German government supports investments aiming at sustainable energy use and energy conservation through various financial and technical mechanisms. the Wuppertal Institute and its partners have developed a concept for a German “EnergySavingFund”. loan/funding schemes. ESCOs had not been able to attract industrial clients and certain barriers persist (PECU 2004). A serious problem for ESCO projects is the need to measure and verify savings. or because of the small size of tenders and long and costly acquisition processes. Additionally non-governmental programs also exist (such as credit programs by eco-banks.

and the number is still increasing. 2005).). many local or municipal companies Exists. CHP is growing Most popular technologies Austria Austria is another success story of the ESCO industry in Europe. the ESCO market in Germany continues to grow. some MNC. and the particularly fast uptake is an exemplary case for the rest of the EU.A.V.costs for investments in such a project can only be imposed on the tenant’s costs if this was stipulated originally in the hiring contract. 38 32 . which are projected to grow by as much as 100-150% (Geissler et al. and for this reason standard documents (such as contract models) have been made available.com. Uniquely even among the developed ESCO industries. Summary of basic data of the German ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years 500. though only ca. such as the hospital sector or industry. 2005). Austria offers numerous interesting case studies with high replicability. insulation. and standardized project development has been introduced (E. Increasing and guaranteeing the quality of projects is a priority. 5 companies cover 70-80% of the total market. The level of the ESCO market was nearly zero in 1998. or if all tenants agree to the investment. 2006). but increased integration of energy efficiency measures on the demandside into supply-side oriented contracting Heating. 500 million EUR investment opportunity in economically feasible projects for the rationalization of energy use. Nevertheless. Austria has become an ESCO market leader in Europe. Table 9.A. The Thermoprofit quality label initiated by the Graz The developmental stage of the market is shown by the relatively large variance of the number of ESCOs indicated in different literature sources. several quality labels have been set up for ESCOs and ESCO services (E. 2006). fewer pure EPC contracts. The general financing scheme in Austria has been the shared savings model. The companies are clearly still building up capacities (E. ESCO Forum and VfW Market potential is € 2 Bln in the public sector alone The growth slowed down slightly. 39 See the German country review above on page 28. of which about 50 ESCOs are using the EPC scheme Private and PPP. With a quick take-off in less than a decade (Geissler et al.A. Bundling of similar projects following the example of Berlin (ESP)39 has proven to be an important success factor.V. This is a step back for ESCO projects in this sector.A. The ESCO market in Austria saw a rather late commencement.V. 2005) and 20 (Mihatsch 2006) to 50 (Lutter pers. ESCOs estimate there is a ca. 2005). The number varies between 15 (E.V. As of 2006. with special increase in certain sectors. there are around 30 ESCOs38 in Austria.

soft loans. more and more effort is being given to increase the number of ESCO projects in the private service sector and to find out the reasons for the slow uptake of the ESCO model. energy related matters are seen as less important compared to core issues. that integrates a 10. the private building owners are often hesitant to get involved in long-term contracts. Currently there are 3 million m2 installed solar collectors in Austria (ST-ESCOs 2006). Obligations have not been typical. denotes the quality of ESCO services and the compliance with standards (E. 41 40 33 . in spite of the same or higher energy saving potentials as in the public buildings. Improvements have been achieved on heating and cooling systems. and hospitals. and some are scared by previous bad experience (E.V. The government has played a significant role in the sharp development of the ESCO sector in Austria. creating classical split incentives. Finally. office buildings. Graz (250.A. Between 1997 and 2005 over 1000 public buildings were optimized with the EPC tool.A. such as the e5 programme under the national climate protection program40. The so called eco-label. 2005). On average. The involvement of federal and municipal buildings to the extent described above is exemplary. Furthermore. Street lighting has been renovated widely. in federal and municipal buildings (E. churches. 2005). lighting. ESCOs have been able to guarantee almost 20 % savings for 10 years in these contracts (Grim 2006). There are dedicated programs to increase energy efficiency in municipalities.A. and consequently private companies pay less attention to this area (E. The great majority of the EPC contracts until now have been concluded in the public sector.V. 2005). and the private sector is lagging behind. Renewable energy sources have started to get attention. Energy agencies have been very active. during the last few years. 2005).A.V. participating directly and indirectly in ESCO projects. hotels. In 2004-2005 another huge federal program started with about 800 buildings (E. A number of incentives are available for investments for the rational use of energy (subsidies. Various programs41 have tried to find and remove barriers in this sector. opening new fields for ESCOs (ST-ESCOs 2006). but in a few regions audits are klima:aktiv such as the EUROCONTRACT (E.A. The label is issued by Graz Energy Agency and an independent commission that assess the ESCO companies at regular intervals to confirm that they fit Thermoprofit standards (Graz Energy Agency 2003). 2005). 2005) and ecofacility framed in the national climate protection program (klima:aktiv) (Grim 2006. Private buildings are often rented out.V. tax credits for residential buildings). and water management. This area is clearly growing. too.000 m2 sized solar collector surface for supplying a 2500 MW thermal energy per year. even though energy related costs constitute up to 50% of the operating costs in private service buildings (Grim 2006).Energy Agency was introduced to guarantee reliable high quality proposals by ESCOs using the label. on the other hand. The building owners and/or users still lack awareness about the benefits of energy efficiency and the opportunities offered by ESCOs (E. 2005).A. Unterpertinger 2005).V. It is perceived that decreasing energy demand does not add much to profitability.000 inhabitants) has an innovative district heating system.V. It has become clear that barriers are larger in the private sector both on the clients’ and the contractors’ side. and this example has spread to other regions.A. In recent years. too. A limited number of projects have been implemented in shopping centers. banks.V.

Technologies targeted in the public and industrial sectors are lighting renovations. ensuring quality and developing certification of ESCOs and ESCO businesses must be highlighted. lighting. even lighting projects have a PBT of 5-7 years. the pay-back time of ESCO projects is long. 34 . water management 2. The ESCO market is dominated by large multinational companies.5 million EUR governmental grant from the Kyoto Fund and with additional 5 million EUR private funding (IEA 2005). A small part of the industry is currently initiating activities in the residential sector. and it is not a factor that limits development. Finally. Nevertheless. In the tertiary building sector (large buildings) the market is similar to France. Summary of basic data of the Austrian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies ~30 Private and public no €500 M investment opportunity fast development and increase Heating. yet this is not matched by an actual market expansion. Table 10. the FEDESCO. The public sector has been targeted also by the government itself. through establishing a public ESCO. To the knowledge of the authors.obligatory in public buildings.1. cooling. Customer financing.4 Benelux countries Belgium ESCO business started in Belgium in 1990 (Vine 2005). The FEDESCO carries out energy audits. and the industrial sector was also targeted to a large extent. ESCO-based funding is often preferred in order to limit participants and to have only one responsible partner for the entire project. improvement of heating and cooling systems and control systems. in order to provide off-balance sheet solutions for energy efficiency investments. the residential sector is still a minor client for ESCOs. As of 2006. and provides pre-financing to carry out identified potential measures. The public sector (mainly sports halls and schools) has received much attention from ESCOs in Belgium. which can also explain the prevalence of complex facility management contracts. there is no estimation available about the size of the market today. while EPC is not yet wide-spread. It is the aim of smaller energy consultancies to complement auditing services with the sales and direct installation of energy efficient household equipment and lighting (de Groote 2006). As a result of low energy prices. Financing of ESCO investments is not a problem. in particular in financing services. Willingness to outsource by large consumers has been an important driving force. The clients have to earmark the cost savings from energy efficiency interventions and reimburse FEDESCO (first-out contract). ESCO-based funding and third party financing (mainly leasing) are all used in Belgium. the number of companies that offer complex energy services in Belgium is increasing and the scope of ESCO activity is growing. offering facility and building management using the Chauffage model. It was started with a 1.

and an update is expected in 2007 by SenterNovem. green certificates. Lately. ESCOs could develop and add to the already large energy saving results but apparently awareness about this option is too low and the institutional framework is missing. subsidies for energyefficient investments. Table 11.a. Energy management is common but there is almost no energy performance contracting (Bertoldi et al. given that they possess the financial and technical means and in-house capacity. tax exemptions or other benefits – some of which already exist. which hamper the launch of activity. Flanders has been active for a long time in implementing energy efficiency measures in all sectors. increasing public building refurbishment The Netherlands The Netherlands has been referred to as a successful country in energy efficiency. such as voluntary agreements. many MNC and 1 public No n. however as a result of governmental programs. There has been. The market is small. Summary of basic data of the Belgian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies ~30 PPP and private. increasing energy prices. In the case of the industrial sector. Energy efficiency improvements in the residential sector are supported by other means than ESCOs. Improvements in the social housing could be potentially an important market for ESCOs. other measures. which should be able to reveal recent developments and trends. 35 . The most important barrier to ESCO projects is low energy prices. voluntary agreements cover the tertiary building sector. public sector obligations have been aimed at increasing energy conservation in Belgium (IEA 2005). which are occupied by lower-income people at low rates. In order to develop the EPC market in Belgium. and preferential loan rates. The level of activity and the number of companies have not changed much in recent years. although no exact market potential has been estimated. There are only a few ESCOs active in the Netherlands. voluntary agreements have been successfully pushing energy efficiency improvements and industry has been implementing measures on its own.The federal and regional governments have taken important steps towards increasing energy efficiency. that could effectively combine an obligation to save energy. this sector is rather overcapitalized and ESCOs are not able to compete for projects. however. mostly MNCs similarly to the surrounding countries. although not particularly to strengthen the ESCO market (IEA 2005). without significant energy service company activity (EC DG JRC 2005). a market for specific consultancies to support these changes. while Wallonia started a little later. 80% of all rented houses are social houses. including grants. The last significant research on ESCOs was conducted in 1998. Besides transposing and implementing EU legislation. 2006b). complex political action would be useful. too.

To this end. and are not interested in employing an ESCO. too. These measures include voluntary schemes with industry. and the Netherlands has been using other measures to become one of the leaders of energy use rationalization. potential clients have not seen positive examples and do not count on this solution for energy saving. the role for ESCOs has been limited because there is one organization responsible for the management and operation of all state owned buildings and another one for military sites.a. ESCOs in the surrounding countries implement projects in the country. Table 12. Summary of basic data of the Dutch ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies very few MNC. However.In the case of the public sector. specific measures to support ESCOs have not been central in Luxembourg. Since the energy efficiency market has been moving without ESCOs. Occasionally. Nevertheless. which include daughter companies of large multinational companies of French and German origin. 36 . which are taking care of energy related investments and refurbishments on their own.5 times faster than the EU average between 1990-2004. often joint-ventures No n. Complex projects often take place through joint ventures. lots of measures related to energy conservation and rational use of energy were introduced in order to support the achievement of Kyoto targets and other commitments. The number of ESCOs present in Luxembourg is around 3-4. with hospital associations and the banking sector. It is evident that the ESCO is only one of the tools for increasing energy efficiency. Energy intensity in Luxembourg has decreased 2. Stable Street lighting and large building renovations Luxemburg Specific information about the ESCO market in Luxembourg is scarce. but without guarantees and traditional risk-sharing. and support for households and the public sector to implement energy efficiency with a maximum subsidy of 40% of audits carried out for the buildings (MURE-Odyssee 2006a). subsidies and fixed feed-in-tariffs for RES. implementation of energy system improvements is supported with energy performance calculations. These organizations themselves stand close to the ESCO definition. Street-lighting and large buildings that are not state owned (hospitals) do make up a segment that is available and open for ESCO contracting. but also one Luxembourgian company.

There are 6 local ESCOs or subsidiaries of multinational companies. when the annual savings through energy efficiency were roughly 95 million EUR/year. 2 local energy companies.fi/fi/toiminta/esco-toiminta/esco-hankerekisteri/esco-yrityksetsuomessa. No recent estimate of the size of the ESCO market is available in Finland. Summary of basic data of the Luxembourgian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 3-4 local and multi-national companies No not known n. and 3 other companies that have had several ESCO projects. There is an on-going auditing program supported by the Motiva Oy.motiva. and only one ESCO company has circa 90% of the market share.motiva. Experts at Motiva are aware of a total of 11 companies that have implemented at least one ESCO project. Motiva 2005). such as the paper. maintains a public list of ESCOs and an ESCO project database43. ESCOs estimate that by 2004 not more than 10% of the constantly growing industrial ESCO market potential had been captured. and chemical industries and metallurgy make use of ESCO-offered services increasingly.1. The public sector contracted ESCOs for HVAC system improvements in the most cases. Both shared savings and guaranteed savings contracting models are used in Finland. but not to the extent expected before44.Table 13. though regarding the level of energy savings. by 2007 the number of active ESCOs registered in the database of Motiva reached 9 (Motiva n. 4-5 of these companies are actually actively participating in the sector. production processes and heat recovery have been the most common ESCO project areas. 2. Industries are the focal point for energy efficiency investments by ESCOs.html and http://www.fi/fi/toiminta/esco-toiminta/esco-hankerekisteri/ 44 It is reported in the European ESCO Status Report 2005 (EC DG JRC 2005) that experts had predicted a doubling of the market from 2004 to 2005 43 42 37 . Energy intensive industries.). At the same time.fi http://www. 5% of which was carried out by ESCOs (Hypponen 2006). The EPC business has been increasing lately.d. The public sector has also been addressed widely. Thus. the public sector accounts for only 10% of total savings resulting from ESCO projects.d.motiva. Motiva42.d. The most important and successful push for energy efficiency in general and for ESCO contracting has been the Voluntary Energy Conservation Agreements between the industry and the Ministry of Trade and Industry introduced as long ago as 1997 (Hypponen 2006. www. n. The latest information is for the period 1998-2004. In regards to the numbers of projects.5 Nordic countries Finland The Finnish energy agency. 50% have been carried out in this sector. These industries are interested in energy savings because 15-20% of their costs are energy costs. While there were three ESCOs identified in 2003 (EC DG JRC 2005).

Financing of energy efficiency investments has not been a problem in Finland. HVAC. Other driving forces are the increasing energy prices and environmental requirements. but this has not created a large increase of ESCO activity because clients generally implement the suggested measures themselves. However an increase of awareness in the financial sector about ESCO industry would be able to boost the market by increasing financial input and involving new ESCOs. in spite of the limited activity by banks. the subsidies are peculiar in Finland since they are designed to help the ESCO industry by offering an additional 5 percentage points subsidy to clients if an ESCO is employed in the project. equipment must be shown in the client’s own balance sheet and investment budgets. but increasing Heat recovery.htm.iasplus. but ESCO-type scheme is expected to operate in this field. lease and interest. limited in-house energy expertise in the industry and sometimes limited budgets for refurbishment (Hypponen 2006). namely material efficiency. Industries that have joined the voluntary agreement described above are eligible for 1520% subsidy of the energy efficiency investment costs from the government (Hypponen 2006). and booked as a financial lease. local energy companies. clients and projects (Hypponen 2006). More importantly – because the new equipment appears as clients’ investment – decisions must be taken by the client according to their internal investment rules (Hypponen 2006). new area: efficiency of recycling raw materials 45 International Accounting Standards. too (Hypponen 2006).government. production processes. Earlier. The new accounting system makes the bookkeeping of ESCO projects more complicated: according to the new IAS/IFRS45 reporting. greater hesitance is experienced on part of the clients than in case of energy efficiency improvements. 38 . This is unfavourable for the ESCOs. Both clients and ESCOs have the capacity to obtain financing for the projects. Furthermore. Table 14. which has an enormous saving potential (Hypponen 2006). MNC. It is important to note that a new niche has been discovered by ESCOs in Finland. which offer a complete service package and not equipment separately. the ESCO service could be handled simply in the income statement as a purchase of services.com/standard/standard. Summary of basic data of the Finnish ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 9-11 Independent ESCOs. http://www. This way. The normal procurement process does not recognize EPC and standards for procuring ESCO services are needed. So far. an ESCO service is booked in the accounting in 3 parts: services. consultancies no € 220M investment 1998-2004 Slowly.

then again in the 1990’s are provided in Forsberg et al. and focused on implementation and operational partnerships instead. The energy saving potential through ESCOs in Sweden has been calculated at 15% of the present energy demand. forthcoming).Sweden The Swedish EPC market has been dormant until recently (Energikontor Sydost46 2005. 2006). EU projects: EUROCONTRACT. For instance.S. forthcoming). Clearly the most attractive and emerging sector that takes up ESCO projects is the public sector (municipal buildings. 47 46 39 . Almost all projects that have been implemented lately have installed new or improved control systems. hospitals). about 3 million m2 in public buildings had been covered by an EPC and an additional two million m2 was under preparation. U.F. According to expert estimates. forthcoming). EPEC. The most crucial success factor for the uptake of ESCO projects by public bodies is a change in mindsets: ESCO companies have distanced themselves from pure outsourcing. local projects have been the Forum for energy services. including all “Performance oriented” contracts (for instance boiler and heat pump retrofits) was twice as large. forthcoming). As of 2007. forthcoming). forthcoming). 2006). first in the 1970-1980’s. In less than 5 years. large scale and effective information dissemination and capacity Energy Agency of Southeast Sweden Details of the reasons of the failures of EPC in Sweden. The market size in a broader sense. For a long time. pilot projects and guidelines for procurement and model contracts. The Swedish ESCO revival is believed to be the outcome of a complex mix of targeted strategic activities48 (Forsberg et al. Key parts of the strategy have been ground studies and market studies. PU Benefs. building service companies and consultancy companies. Geissler et al. (forthcoming). An interesting development is that public bodies in 2005 also started to use the cost savings from EPC projects to finance RES installations. The mistrust developed because ESCO-type investments already took place as early as 1978 (Vine 2005). in 2006 the turnover from projects employing EPC was around 50 million EUR (Forsberg et al. and did not present the anticipated savings result47. A quick growth has been observed during the last 2-3 years driven by the growing interest from potential customers (Forsberg et al. many of these failed. Interco-PPP. however. 5% of the public building stock has been contracted by EPC (Forsberg et al. a lack of experience. and this suggests a 650 million EUR ESCO investment potential with a relatively short pay-back time (Geissler et al. around 80-100 million EUR. control companies. As of 2006. The number of ESCOs offering EPC in 2007 is around 12-15 (Forsberg et al. going up from around 5 in the last 2 years when two larger consultancy firms and one HVAC company started to develop ESCO-like services for small-scale projects. Some of the EPC providers have extended their structure and formed special EPC branches (Forsberg et al. mistrust and legal ambiguities hindered the uptake of the benefits offered by ESCOs. Large-scale air-handling refurbishment in combination with improved heat recovery accounts for the largest project investment values.O. Mistrust in ESCOs and EPC is a particularly important issue in Sweden. forthcoming). 48 Sweden has carried out a number of local initiatives and participated in international projects for the induction of the EPC market. there are local market actors. and international level activity: IEA DSM Task X (Forsberg et al.

2006). but as of 2006. the recipe is not valid for just any market. interpretations still differ on some key issues (Geissler et al. Summary of basic data of the Swedish ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 12-15 Local and MNC No ~€50 M turnover in 2006 Rapid uptake Improved control systems. partially as a result of the governmental commitment to decrease final energy consumption by 1. although companies enter and leave the market. also buying receivables/using forfeiting. well-designed dissemination of information. as the market may experience a further expansion in the coming years. and successful show-cases can be of key importance for development. According to the Danish Offshore Industry. ventilation and heat recovery Denmark According to the Energy Division of the Danish Offshore Industry. Nevertheless. As of 2005. but ESCO experts estimate it to be around 5 million EUR per annum.building for multipliers. The Swedish example demonstrates that deliberate. The number of ESCOs has been rather constant over recent years. less than 5 companies offer ESCO services in Denmark. forthcoming). which is supported by the obligation on energy producers and distributors to document their obtained savings. different markets have to overcome their own barriers using some of these measures and combined with others (Forsberg et al. which results in some small fluctuation. The types of projects implemented by ESCOs so far in Denmark have been control system installation. the ESCO market size has not been evaluated lately. clarified regulatory environment. it would be beneficial to have clear “official” statements by the government and public bodies in support of TPF. the financing of EPC was not well established by banks. standardized. ventilation and industrial process improvements. efforts for energy savings and energy efficiency improvements were concentrated on the private sector (industrial sites) and remarkable results have been achieved in particular in the brewery sector. Smaller projects are directly financed by ESCOs. Experts claim that the commercial market for ESCOs is more favourable in 2006 than it was in 2000 (DI and PSO 2006). and in this regard. Nevertheless. Until the early start of 2000s. forthcoming). Another problem is that trust towards ESCOs is still not fully restored.7%/year by 2013. trustworthy documents and procedures. financing of ESCO projects through banks has not deployed yet probably due to a lack of knowledge and experience of the financial 40 . the (public) building sector is receiving growing attention. EPC and ESCOs. in spite of the information dissemination and stakeholder meetings. Today there is at least one Nordic commercial bank provides TPF. To the knowledge of the authors. Table 15. combined with personalized information dissemination to EPC buyers to provide answers to their preoccupation (Forsberg et al.

sector of the market perspectives of EPC.2 New EU Member States 2004 2. 41 . As of 2006. however this has significantly changed.2. 100% of the natural gas is imported from the Russian Federation. control systems. financial institutions and equipment suppliers can jointly develop organisational and financial models. Today. The Danish Offshore Industry believes that more effective and successful enforcement of the already existing EU level legislation for energy savings. Table 16.b. Clients have financed ESCO projects implemented to date. in brewery. such as the Buildings Directive (Directive 2002/91/EC). Experts believe that one of the most important barriers to EPC is the lack of established standard monitoring and verification methods.1 Baltic Countries Lithuania Lithuania has a large level of power generation overcapacity and is a net exporter of electricity. One new company started operating in 2006. and the Ignalina power plant is expected to be closed in 2009 (COGENchallenge 2005b). there were already six ESCOs or ESCO-type companies working in Lithuania. and energy efficiency was a low priority area (COGENchallenge 2005b). ventilation 2.6% in 2004).d. The first ESCO businesses and a business plan for an Energy Service Company were set up in the framework of the SAVE project “Energy Service Companies in Lithuania” in 2001-2003 (LEI n. eg. In addition. and to a limited extent on industrial investments. There is a need to develop awareness and trust among potential clients through demonstrational projects and making standardized contracts and related documents available (DI and PSO 2006). is also of major importance. while the economy is steadily growing (GDP growth was 6. Summary of basic data of the Danish ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 2-4 Danish based MNC No €5 M/year no change industrial processes. Another major necessity that has been articulated by experts is to establish working networks where utility/grid companies. The ESCO market is concentrated on residential and public buildings. The estimation of the market size is around 125 million EUR for the residential and public segment. The number of companies and the size of the market are slowly increasing. Consequently the energy price used to be very low.). suppliers of energy saving equipment are often dependent on utilities in order to be able to measure baseline energy consumption and savings (DI and PSO 2006). These were established mainly as subsidiaries of large foreign companies. and a further 50 million EUR for industry. the electricity market will be fully opened from 2007.

efficientlighting. Summary of basic data of the Lithuanian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 6 MNC No €175 M Increase Heating. 49 42 . Furthermore. which includes the modernization of boilers in order to utilize biofuels and other local resources. which is still seen as more profitable than EPC (Ekodoma n. one of the most important being the lack of information. interest subsidies. over 40 companies have been identified that work with energy delivery contracts. Decision on a tender winner is primarily based on the cost of the initial investment. and loan guarantees.). The most popular contract scheme is the guaranteed savings model. which has delayed their involvement in TPF until recently (LEI n. including investment subsidies. large boilers Latvia The first ESCO action was started in December 2001 with the renovation of the street lighting system and the application of efficient lighting technology in Tukums municipality within the ELI project49 (Rochas 2004). Both national and international banks are eager to be involved in financing ESCO projects.Lithuanian ESCOs and ESPCs are primarily engaged in heat production and supply side energy management in the district heating sector. and are often developed with some elements of EPC. soft loans. Furthermore.d. such as complicated procurement procedures. In order to overcome the most important barriers. there are several projects which include leasing of CHP and new boilers. This could be in the form of supportive policies. More promotion of “best energy efficiency practice” is seen as necessary for building up trust and an understanding of the ESCO concept.).htm. Streamlined and rigorously implemented policies aimed at radical improvement of the energy efficiency in buildings and the industry could significantly increase the ESCO market. As of 2006. There are many barriers hampering the exploitation of ESCO potential. DH. There are also a number of forms of capital support from the state and municipalities. The development of the financial sector of Lithuania has been lagging behind other CEE countries. there are two companies using EPC in Latvia. and limited understanding of the importance and benefits of energy efficiency by authorities (potential clients).a. administrative hurdles persist. Governmental support for and promotion of energy performance contracting would be helpful. and clarified procedural regulations. This number has not changed lately (Rochas 2004). efforts would be needed at various levels. A concise national strategy for energy efficiency in line with necessary changes in the energy sector is needed. More information about the ELI project and the municipal lighting refurbishment activities in Latvia can be found at: http://www. Most projects were commissioned by municipalities and the public sector.d.net/FormerELI/latvia/overview_streetl. Apart from this. Table 17.

ESCOs have not deployed yet in Estonia as of 2006-07. the others on delivery contracting No n.). but the environment has become better. The ESCO market is limited to only a few transactions with an energy services nature. and even these do not perform ESCO activities as the main business area with primary activities oriented to other fields. too (Ekodoma n. 43 . Table 18. a standard requirement for a tender is a minimum number of bids: it is impossible to conclude a tender when potential business actors are not interested. No change. Lately others banks are showing interest in this business. Financial institutions in Latvia are open to EE investments: for instance 2 local banks even have staff trained on energy efficiency project management and the ESCO concept. too. Until 2006. Pubic budgeting rules induce a lack of interest in energy cost saving anyway. This situation creates a “pressure” to spend the entire annual municipal budget in order to avoid being cut the following year. Therefore. most projects have been realized in the public sector with public lighting and boiler improvements. it may loose all financial savings by getting a smaller allocation for subsequent years. In general. The small number of ESCO projects could not yet build the trust and provide enough success stories. This situation is typical of a large number of other countries. it is not the problem with financing that limits the ESCO market in Latvia. No estimate of the market size and potential exists to the knowledge of the authors and the local respondents. 2 companies (one local and a multinational) had been established. The public sector is not yet fully aware of the benefits of EPC and ESCOs. Summary of basic data of the Latvian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years 2 + about 40 ESPCs 2 companies focused on EPC. and hopefully EPC. the lack of belief and trust in demand-side energy efficiency is evident and it is crucial when decision makers are obliged to select among different measures to be taken. depending on the calibration of the subsidy allocating formula in the country. because if a municipality saves money. In addition. Until now. Public procurement procedures need revision to incorporate and support “green” procurement and the procurement law could directly introduce the concept of ESCOs to facilitate the market.d. It is expected that the opening of the energy markets will facilitate the development of Energy Delivery Contracting.d. thus consequent growth is expected Public lighting and boiler improvement Most popular technologies Estonia According to Estonian experts.There is no information on the ESCO market size or the potential of energy efficiency investments.

If this is not sufficient. Financial institutions would be interested in participating in TPF of energy efficiency investments. aiming at the improvement of public lighting. The housing association can consequently decide which measures to implement. In fact. The unstable. 44 . the so called “renovation fund”. Municipalities were obliged to apply for Structural Funds. but only on the supply side with the formula of Delivery Contracting. Upon request insurance can be provided by an insurance company on the ESCO guarantee can be also involved for 2 years in order to avoid any financial risk. Boiler improvements are also common by the one multinational ESCO. which were also used for energy system improvements. The legal system has been altered significantly since the restoration of independence. many of the large municipalities are able to finance their own investments and therefore do not expect ESCO activity. It is obligatory to carry out a detailed energy audit to draw this loan. municipalities often require energy audits by consulting companies. ESCOs are expected to get off the ground if information is disseminated effectively and widely and if standard contract formulas and procedures are developed and accepted. this sector in Estonia is averse to outsourcing. and still the laws are often amended. Although ESCO activity has been low in Estonia. The ESCO carries out the audit and identifies energy efficiency measures and their costs. Experts believe that the delayed appearance of ESCOs is also due to the limited knowledge and understanding of the concept and benefits. Furthermore. the industrial sector has the financial and technical capacity to carry out energy retrofits without ESCOs. still developing regulatory framework hinders the conclusion of long-term. ESCO projects have not been active in domestic apartment block (which have huge saving potential) because they cannot compete with the high level of governmental support and the low interest rate loans that are available for households through which energy efficiency has been increased significantly in recent years. The ESCO integrates the governmental “energy saving loan” for households. the association is eligible for a low-rate preferential energy saving loan.The few ESCO-type investments that have been realized took place in the public sector. If a housing association decides to implement energy efficiency investments. In the public sector. inhibiting long-term contracts in the public sector. The bank loan is given based on the guarantee given by the ESCO. An ESCO that targets the residential sector is being set up during the preparation of this report. thus significantly increasing energy efficiency and living conditions in households. On the other hand. One of the most important barriers to the ESCO market is the changing environment where they have to work. technically complex agreements. Election cycle-based thinking and attitudes have also been an important impediment. energy efficiency is a priority in all sectors. and strong competition has reduced interest rates. the obligatory “renovation fund”. which can be a crucial benefit for EE through ESCOs. Similarly. control and automation systems. The scheme is expected to open up the residential sector for ESCO businesses. and further bank loan if required by the tenants. that all associations must establish and keep. will be the basis of financing.

Table 19. Summary of basic data of the Estonian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 0-2 (few projects) One local and one MNC no not known stable public lighting, but complex residential projects are expected to increase

2.2.2 New Member States in Central Europe
Hungary The development of the Hungarian ESCO industry has been celebrated as a unique success story not only in Central Europe, but also across the EU (Urge-Vorsatz et al. 2004, EC DG JRC 2005). The ESCO industry in Hungary dates back to the early 90s. After 15 years the market is experiencing stagnation, and whether the exemplary success is continued is debated. The easy “cherry-picking” projects have already been exploited and the market is in need of revitalization, while the ESCO sector is undergoing a transformation process with some companies exiting or changing their core business away from energy service provision. Time will show whether this situation will strengthen the EPC market by consolidating it or will weaken and water it down by concentrating it in the hands of a few parties only. Based on a registry of the Energy Center50, there are about 30 ESCOs or ESCO-type companies in Hungary, but only about 5-6 companies cover 80% of the market. French ESCOs played a crucial role in the early development of the industry in Hungary; another important factor was strong local engineering expertise and interest in entering a new market for energy service provision. The ESCOs approximate a 150-200 million EUR market size, excluding large power plant investment opportunities. Projects in the beginning were primarily focused on public lighting, co-generation and district heating system improvements. As of 2005, other technologies have been gaining an increasing importance, such as heating and hot water system interventions, industrial water and steam supply, air conditioning, automatization and RES (biomass) (Rodics 2005). Most of the clients have always been in the municipal sector. This is partially due to the long-term security that this sector provides for ESCOs, and to the specific support programs (such as the UNDP/GEF Hungary Public Sector Energy Efficiency Project51

Collected through the UNDP project implemented by the Energy Center (for the financial assistance of the energy audits and feasibility studies related to energy efficiency for municipalities) and completed by the authors. 51 The Program aims at supporting municipalities in the starting steps of energy efficiency project development by funding feasibility studies and audits http://www.undp.hu/oss_eng/fooldale.htm.

50

45

and the Szemünk Fénye (Light of Our Eyes) program52, the Phare co-financed twinning project, the German Carbon-Aid Fund) that target energy efficiency in this sector and that have increased the willingness to employ ESCOs. The involvement of ESCOs in the residential sector is also possible, although only through the combination with targeted state subsidies and/or subsidised loans (Panel Program and Panel Plus Program53, Thermal insulation of apartments, Residential Energy Saving Grant). Certain strong barriers still restrict the expansion of residential projects. The industrial sector has been gaining more attention lately, and accordingly, more recent figures suggest that the distribution of ESCO projects is 30% in industry, 30% in district heating retrofits and development, and 30% in the municipal sector. Renewable energy investments have been started, although these have not gained a major role yet (Rodics 2005). Projects had typical pay-back times of between 3-5 years during the 1990s (Urge-Vorsatz and Lazarova 2003). Today this figure is 5-7 years (Rodics 2005), which is actually one of the major challenges the ESCOs are facing: companies engaging in projects with longer PBTs have to be financially stronger and more stable than previously. In parallel to the increasing timeframe of investments, international aid, which was previously very substantial in Hungary, is decreasing or coming to an end (for instance UNDP/GEF Hungary Public Sector Energy Efficiency Project). This – in principle – should not be a problem since they were intended to aid the development and the establishment of the sector. Only a few main barriers are discussed below. Experts have repeatedly highlighted the problems caused by the lack of baseline data. Sites and buildings sometimes do not have detailed billing systems and pay average fees per month, not according to the real consumption. Thus, ESCOs are in a situation where they cannot prove the savings achieved appropriately using this information, or they would have to spend 1-2 years before the project begins on establishing the baseline information. In this situation, the energy saving potential (and whether an EPC project is feasible) could be evaluated only after 1-2 years already were spent on the case54. ESCOs must use different ways to estimate the savings. In addition to this, accepted M&V practices have not been widely introduced. Trust established between an ESCO and the client is needed for the remuneration of an ESCO project.

The program was initiated in 2005 by the Ministry of Education in order to increase energy efficiency and quality of lighting and heating in educational buildings. Further information is available at: http://www.szemunk.fenye.hu/index.html. 53 The Panel Program was launched in 2001, open for housing associations living in block houses. The grant is open for renovation projects and for modernization of heating systems. In the scope of the grant 1/3 of the investments is financed by the national budget, 1/3 is given by the municipality and the residents have to pay only 1/3 of the costs. The Panel Plus Program is a low-interest rate loan for helping residents pay for the 33% of the refurbishment costs. It started in 2005. According to the Ministry of Regional Development until today 87000 apartments have been refurbished using 16.4 billion HUF (ca. 58 million EUR) financial support. Source: www.fejlesztes.gov.hu 54 These circumstances are common in some other countries, where regular data collection is not general. The ESCOs need to find the proper way to evaluate their savings, and one way to do that is to collect data during a certain time to establish the baseline data themselves. However, this can increase transaction costs significantly, and ESCOs often use generalized values instead, which are however not as reliable.

52

46

Availability of financing can cause problems both in the municipal and residential sectors. The municipal borrowing is restricted by a cap on obligations creating debt55. Although, an ESCO project is not a traditional loan because the savings appear every year, in legislative terms there is no difference. It would be especially beneficial to impose different accounting rules on ESCO projects taking into consideration the repayment of the investment. As in many other countries, most local authorities are still not informed about the opportunities ESCOs offer and are often suspicious to the financial schemes. In addition municipal authorities often feel uncomfortable about sharing the financial benefit of their project with a private company and as a result a project gets postponed or never implemented. Procurement difficulties (only cost-related criteria), fear of having redundancies also limit municipalities’ willingness to engage in ESCO projects. The 4year election-cycle-based decisions make it particularly difficult to plan in the long-term and conclude ESCO contracts that are longer than 3-4 years. Finally, split incentives with investment and operational expenses paid by different budget lines are still very significant, and have always been a major obstacle. On the other hand, it must be highlighted that many positive examples have been seen, where personal commitment of energy managers at municipalities has been a significant catalyst for ESCO projects. Also, the importance of the UNDP/GEF Hungary Public Sector Energy Efficiency Project is usually highlighted, which has played an important role in the ESCO project development in this sector. The residential sector could play a much bigger role in practically all CEE countries, especially with rational utilisation of new state support programs (see above). However, decision making and concluding a long-term contract is very hard in the case of a large block house, where the law requires the consensus of all apartment owners. Some projects (façade renovations) may be done with the agreement of only the concerned apartment owners, or renovations can be carried out only on the apartments which agree to it (and finance it), but this is not possible with for instance hot water, heating, or insulation renovations. Furthermore, ownership of certain objects (the water tubes, walls) is not clear (not stipulated in the housing association contract) and can cause a stalemate. Some of the above barriers are found in the industrial sector, too. The lack of baseline data and the difficulty of defining the scope of the projects because of the complex structure of the plant systems is the most important. Revision of problematic legislation (ownership-related issues) is therefore desirable, while proper enforcement of other existing laws (notably the obligation for renovation fund in the residential sector) could also help for stronger involvement of ESCOs in the residential sector. Dissemination of information remains to be important. Although there is a growing understanding in the way ESCOs work and the benefits they deliver, the level of acceptance and trust is still considered as one of the major (if not the most important) impediments. Well-disseminated demonstration projects, establishment of an ESCO
According to the Act on Local Governments (Act LXV of 1990), the limit is set at the annual target of the so-called adjusted own revenue, which represents 70% of the local government’s own current revenue (such as local taxes, local fees, interest revenues, environmental fines and other specific revenues of the local government) reduced by short-term commitments (which include capital repayment, interest payment and lease fees) (Rezessy et al. 2006).
55

47

In 2004 the State Energy Policy was adopted. and be combined with extensive and innovative information campaigns. which highlights the role of energy efficiency. HVAC.Association and finding ways of explaining the short and long term benefits for decision makers would serve the ESCO industry well. Accordingly the National Programme for Energy Effective Management was accepted. The first project was the renovation of the thermal energy handling system. Financing of ESCO projects by banks is not a problem. of “Na Bulovce University Hospital” (Zidek 2005). 56 According to the Act No. 406/2000 Coll. Summary of basic data of the Hungarian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 30 local and MNC no 150-200 million EUR stable. It is crucial that governmental action be based on a combination of appropriate legislation.cz/epc/ 48 . Action should be taken to overcome the long-standing barriers to ESCO projects by finding ways to support the market itself and not individual companies or groups of companies. The EPC concept was unknown in the Czech Republic until 1993. and 2 other companies working as ESPCs. monitoring and enforcement. Banks are particularly open to participate in performance contracting. 57 http://www. Table 20.ceacr. yet in the next two years the country saw a rapid takeoff of ESCO activity with a 3 million EUR investment in public healthcare (Zeman and Dasek 2005). In addition. where EPC is recognized as one of the support mechanisms for energy saving (Zidek 2005). automation Czech Republic The Czech Republic is another ESCO frontrunner among the New EU Member States. and on the other hand third-party financing is a well accepted and widespread scheme. This decision has meant a strong push for energy efficiency investments. A new law was passed and energy audits were made obligatory for large consumers56. and for other consumers of more than 35000 GJ consumption are obliged to prepare energy audits of their premises. However. According to the Czech ESCO database57 managed by the Czech Energy Agency. even though the market is still considered as in its initial period (Zidek 2005). Until 2001 the development was slow due to numerous barriers and obstacles. on Energy Management consumers with a demand higher than 1500 GJ in the public sector. but in 2001 the Czech ESCO market reached a turning point because of important changes in legal circumstances (Zidek 2005). there are currently 5 companies in the Czech Republic that are focused on providing services according to the EPC concept. On the one hand. regulation. maybe decreasing CHP. some (mainly multinational) ESCOs have sufficient financial means. authorities should play a demonstration role and an obligation of municipal and governmental buildings and/or the largest industries to effectuate energy saving measures would be a significant driving force.

The ease of project implementation partially depends on the owner of the building. Middle sized cities are very active in working with ESCOs bundling tens of buildings into project pools. Besides. The healthcare sector is the primary focus for ESCOs. there are about a dozen companies providing long-term energy delivery contracts. Zeman and Dasek 2005). which is economically attractive. putting the market of EPC projects in the public sector at around 10-15 million EUR/year (based on tenders until today. In 2005 alone two new companies were created for the provision of ESCO services. while educational buildings. but over 30% of these have been done by one ESCO. between 10 and 15 (based on the database of SEVEn58).com. the private sector (typically industry) is also on track regarding energy efficiency investments (EC DG JRC 2005. where the ESCOs’ own lobbying activity was deemed particularly valuable. but the interest is high due to the high energy saving potential (Zeman and Dasek 2005). mainly in education. which will probably grow up to 7-10 million EUR in the future. The rough division between ESCO investment categories is shown in Figure 2. Military refurbishment projects are complicated with special legal conditions. ESCOs’ successes across sectors are varied. 2006 from Dasek pers.) approximates that the market size currently is only 2-5 million EUR.).svn. healthcare and public transport sectors). but they are in the range of 10-20 million EUR/year59. Until now about 70 projects have been realized through EPC (Zidek 2005).com. Distribution of EPC in investment categories. 3% 5% 3% 3% 37% education district heating hospitals 22% residential sport facilities hotels others 27% Figure 2.cz Helenova (pers. too. Dasek predicts a similar size. is about 100 million EUR. The most effective tool to promote ESCOs in the Czech republic has been large scale awareness raising. Apart from the public sector. 1995-2005 (GreenMaxCapital Advisors for IFC.com. military and other state owned sectors are appealing projects.experts estimate that the number of ESCOs is higher than this. The potential of energy savings through EPC.) www. and at around 5-10 million EUR/year in the private sector (Dasek pers. This number is increasing. Available estimations of the market potential vary slightly. 59 58 49 .

Scepticism by management towards energy efficiency investments and EPC still lingers (Zeman and Dasek 2005). there is 50 . pipes insulation. However. Financial institutions. Attention has to be given to appropriate project implementation and especially monitoring and verification of savings. including mostly local banks. On the ESCOs side. and the country can already present success stories and areas of well-developed energy efficiency focus. fuel switching). contracts are individualized as a result of negotiating between the ESCO and the client. However. boilers replacement. It is considered too risky to invest in long contracts in the private sector because of the unpredictable financial future of potential clients. are available and are ready to participate in TPF. detailed. longer projects are already starting to gain importance in the public sector.The most common contracting form is the guaranteed savings. reliable information on present energy consumption and condition of buildings is lacking. as a result of earlier unclear definitions. To a lesser extent. Correct understanding of the benefits and conditions of ESCOs and EPC has grown. while Energy Contracting schemes are more common with customers seeking a guaranteed in the price of energy supplied. However. Typical projects are 4-6 years long. but multinational ESCOs often use their own corporate financing. Standardization of public tenders and verification of EPC contract evaluation procedures is vital (Zeman and Dasek 2005. companies are not (yet) ready to take projects with a long pay-back period. some barriers still exist. Standardization of EPC project procedure would be particularly beneficial to avoid dissatisfaction. the same fear is present towards the public institutions. Similarly to many NMSs. piping. In the last few years. Governmental support for EPC in the public sector would be necessary thorough providing guarantees of long-term standing of potential clients. insulation and other building renovation measures have a long-term pay-back period (more than 10 years) and therefore are excluded from the current scope of attention. public administration is usually unable to effectively compare these two different types of proposals. The International Financial Corporation is running its Commercialization Energy Efficiency Facility. and unwillingness to start the process and to help ensure completion of successful projects. Despite some consolidation and a steady increase of the market in recent years. The responses to calls for tenders often include both EPC and EC. confusing concepts and some failed contracts (Zeman 2005). but as the market is diversifying and consolidating. the role of EPC has been decreasing. providing loan guarantees for ESCOs and end-users. On the other hand. but prejudices against complex solutions remain strong. especially for street lighting and energy delivery. There is also limited governmental support for ESCOs thorough the Czech Energy Agency. and the majority of ESCO investment interest is for heating equipment (heat delivery regulation. Zeman 2005). Increasing effective information dissemination. or power factor management. Nevertheless. The ESCO sector is moving in the right direction. which hinders the easy set up of energy efficiency targets. Legislative barriers have largely been removed both in the public and private sector. which causes confusion (Zeman 2005). most industrial end-users have already installed such equipment. raising awareness and education related to energy efficiency is still essential to overcome this problem.

while the number of companies able and willing to participate in the bidding may be lower (ECB n. They have their own capital. The second group comprises foreign based companies whose main profile is not energy efficiency service provision. Local ESCOs in Slovakia are in the third group. ESCOs normally participate in building renovation. At the same time 70% of the building stock is in need of renovation (Murajda 2005. though with some important issues still open for change (procurement). but are focused mainly on small energy systems where the costs of reconstruction are feasible with a limited budget. The Energy Center Bratislava divided companies providing EPC into 4 categories according to their orientation and potential to offer ESCO services.d. in general in the form of joint ventures of private companies with municipalities. energy saving potentials are extremely high.d. the lack of data to construct baselines. ESCO contracting in the municipal sector is hard to carry out administratively because public spending requires tendering and comparison of at least 3 offers. ESCO clientele has until now included municipal buildings.a and n. Finally. Summary of basic data of the Czech ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 10-15 local and MNC no €10-20 M/year increasing heating Slovakia ESCO-type companies appeared early in Slovakia. which are not (yet) able to offer financial services due to their small equity size and the lack of good financing through banks (ECB n. but the need for certain legal.still room to develop. As of 2006. and some sectors with high saving potential have hardly been tapped (such as the military). 51 . Similar to other countries with formerly planned economies. The legislative background has become exemplary (obligatory audit) and has advanced the sector significantly. Energy service companies starting in beginning of 1990s did not perform very well at the beginning. DH and public lighting projects (Murajda 2005). Therefore. and private tertiary is more and more popular.d. there are about 30 ESCOs and ESCO-type companies. equipment and engineering companies. including ESCO equity financing. banks. Foreign companies offering a full range of solutions. institutional and social adjustments is obvious. Husarik 2004). subsidized energy prices.).b). energy system operators. In many cases they apply the BOOT scheme. such as district heating operators. expertise and know-how.b. and 2003 could be considered as the real starting point (Murajda 2005). the fourth group includes potential ESCOs. poor management/operation of buildings are common. and hospitals. Table 21. These are not genuine ESCOs and most of them are Public-PrivatePartnerships (PPP). Furthermore. schools. but energy systems operation. are the most active and successful in the traditionally defined ESCO business. while outsourcing in the industry.

and could limit the growth of the sector on the medium term. In addition. which results in lending terms that may not be acceptable for ESCO project developers This limits ESCO activity to the large ESCOs that can financially support their own activity (ECB n. This policy identified many tools promoting EE. In addition. there is a limited level of ESCO activity. public lighting Poland Experts agree that Energy Service Companies in the traditional meaning have not proved successful in Poland. including municipal buildings and universities. but mainly joint ventures including MNC no n. such as minimal requirements for energy efficiency of new and large existing buildings as required by the EPBD. Experts believe that the main reason behind this is that the Polish market is not suitable for exactly what ESCOs offer. First of all. Most EPC contracts have been concluded in the public sector. and thus perceives such projects as risky. The volume of ESCO contracts is around 10 million EUR/year. too. with only a few (up to 5) specialized companies. in line with the general energy conservation and energy efficiency requirements as the Governmental commitments have been emphasized in the 2005 National Energy Policy. and can already make investment decisions based on that. The guarantee represents costs for clients (a service from the ESCO) that the facility owners/managers are not willing to pay for. and ESCOs still have not been able to significantly enter the market.d. clients are not interested in the EPC guarantee. and prisons. These customers have the necessary inhouse expertise the ESCO is trying to sell. and the introduction of energy certification for buildings (as required by the EPBD) and so on (Murajda 2005). and they do not require a guarantee because they understand the meaning of an audit. ESCOs’ opportunities are expected to grow. Table 22. some energy utilities offer ESCO-type services since the market is being opened.The Slovak banking sector still has limited understanding of and experience with EE project financing. Increasing.d. Even today. building renovation. orientation changing district heating. ESCOs are typically subsidiaries of foreign companies. public lighting. Summary of basic data of the Slovak ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies ~30 Local. In a typical ESCO project heating systems (DH). Earlier ESCO failures have significantly hindered development. indeed many other employees have an engineering background. the introduction of regular controls of boilers and air conditioning systems of certain buildings. 52 . Polish municipal and industrial sites have well-trained energy managers as a positive legacy from the previous planned economy system.a.). and buildings have been refurbished. housing cooperatives have been targeted. complex renovations have also been carried out. In a few cases. military bases.

It is only the equipment supply that clients are interested in. but there are two major barriers to it. the ESCO who did the first audit might lose the opportunity in which they invested. In the public sector it is obligatory to go through a tendering process. ESCOs without the appropriate capital basis are unable to get unlimited TPF through the bank (after 1-2 projects. Funding is available in the form of loans. If the client agrees to the suggested measures. which operates in conjunction with Poland’s Environmental Protection Bank. identifies potential savings and the appropriate extent of these savings. and are not available in an attractive format (financing). the other ESCOs participating in the bid will already have a ready feasibility study from their potential competitors so they can propose a lower price and the municipality will have to choose the cheapest and not the “greenest” bid. in principle the ESCO can be requested to make a more detailed audit. First of all. which are still in the starting phase. 53 . the essential parts of an ESCO solution are not needed (guarantee. There is also an ecological fund. 60 61 earmarked from the environmental taxes and penalties. engineering expertise). the ESCOs are not particularly interested in focusing purely on financing services because they do not have the appropriate capital basis. and adds the rest of the investment for commercial loan. Timely repayment of 75% of the loan is rewarded by granting the remaining 25%. The NFOS provides investment support to – among others – energy saving projects at national. hospitals). Secondly. Indeed. First. The Thermo-Modernization Fund requires at least 20% own funding. These and other barriers make the guarantee based and/or financing oriented ESCO business unsuitable for the Polish market. procurement rules create a “catch 21” situation for ESCOs. which is paid back from the savings. and later the Structural Funds. thus the ESCO cannot offer it for free. joint funding. These can finance as much as 75% of the EE investments. regional and municipal level60. However in this case the municipality must open a call for tender. TPF could be attractive. For blockhouses and some public buildings (schools. Secondly.On the other hand. credits and project subsidies. banks are not willing to give more credit). which however is more costly. potential ESCO clients can attain a number of other sources of financing because the government has had a number of different schemes that were available for energy efficiency projects during the last 15 years. In such circumstances. The loan repayment period is capped at 7 years. For potential energy efficiency investments the ESCO offers a free “walk-through” site visit to the potential municipal client. There has been funding from the Structural and Cohesion Funds and EEA funds from the EU. called an investment grade audit. The biggest one is the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (NFOS). the Thermo-Modernization Fund was established in 1998 that can finance up to 20% of the modernization investment61. Although banks in Poland are interested in investing in energy efficiency. An ESCO cannot compete with such strong funding. Finally. energy efficient equipment is sold through lots of consulting companies and equipment suppliers. which has two consequences.

and many small companies remained. 2 of which were financed by the plants’ own equity and two by the Eco Fund. complicated administrative burdens. but mainly joint ventures including MNC no 10 million EUR/year stagnation. After the first project was implemented in 2001. the public sector was addressed by the successful pilot ESCO project mentioned above. Other barriers included public procurement rules. The sectors attracted to EPC are primarily industry and the public sector. restricting the highest burden on the state budget to 60% of the total budget of goods. The main driving force in industry is that when the country separated from Yugoslavia industry was broken apart. it was not yet the real launch of the ESCO business in Slovenia The Ministry of Finance has shown its support for EPC in Slovenia. mostly with no in-house energy management expertise. The buildings were bundled together in order to reduce transaction costs. in spite of an early pilot initiative by German ESCOs. the ESCO market has not yet deployed in Slovenia. it was found that ESCO-type projects had failed earlier in Slovenia because project sizes were too small. 2006). So far 4 projects have been implemented in lighting in the steel industry. the ESCO business is not yet established in Slovenia. EPC contracts are an exception (Geissler et al. Summary of basic data of the Polish ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies Few (~5) Local. 54 . Some small projects were also implemented in the public sector. During the preparation of the present report a small Austrian-Slovene company is entering into the EPC market. Thus solutions for outsourcing or external energy management are attractive. On the other hand. and lack of expertise and experience. the principal procedure was elaborated. public lighting Slovenia The first ESCO contract for upgrading 14 municipal buildings using the Energy Saving Partnership model was concluded in Slovenia in November 2001 (Geissler 2004). Indeed. the large potential. Unfortunately no significant move has been seen since then.Table 23. was essential for the development of the ESCO industry (Geissler 2004). and two energy companies have been planning the same. However. While a law for the use of public budget has been issued. insulation. Nevertheless. maybe small growth district heating. which were all financed by companies that acted as an ESCO. In addition. mainly in primary schools and in one hospital. and transaction costs were thus large. Scepticism on the side of potential clients is extremely large. In summary. and the need for outsourcing in industry. Industry has shown an interest in energy efficiency investments and solutions through ESCOs. services and transfers to be carried over to the following accounting years. especially for public projects. it has been concluded that capacity building and establishing local contact points for assistance.

which have been intended to raise awareness of the energy-efficient label on appliances. and the EPC concept has not taken root. Summary of basic data of the Slovenian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 1-2 Local and 1 foreign no n. did not get off the ground n. Also some companies offer energy efficient technologies and energy management systems. grants have been introduced for the purchase of solar water heaters and photovoltaics. the huge potential of RES (solar) is acknowledged and the increase of renewable energy sources is considered to be a priority (Xichilos 2004).2. The best technological opportunities are expected in water heating and HVAC of buildings. ESCOs have still not spread into Cyprus and no company is preparing yet either (Xichilos 2004). Furthermore. which could be particularly beneficial for the country and would be in line with recent efforts for energy efficiency. Efficiency improvements have been taken in desalination of sea-water (Fsadni and Ghirlando 2004). 2. The government could facilitate the market for ESCOs in particular by introducing relevant legislation. though there are a few energy advisors and consultant companies offering advice for energy savings in buildings and industry. 55 . and some examples of successful energy efficiency investments can be found in governmental buildings and in the brewery sector (Fsadni and Ghirlando 2004).d. Some companies are providing building management. Summary of basic data of the Maltese ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 0 no No change - Cyprus As of 2007. The water tariff system has been revised. At the same time.Table 24. inducing large savings). and financial incentives are given to consumers when buying energyefficient appliances. At the same time. Table 25.d. During 2006-2007 the government has taken important steps to improve energy efficiency in Malta. regulations and measures.3 Mediterranean New EU Member States Malta As yet there are no ESCOs on the Island of Malta. no significant coordination or uptake of the ESCO concept has so far taken place. Stagnation.

accreditation and certification schemes for energy service providers and energy auditors. which is manifested in the form of the available “Grant Scheme For Energy Conservation”. solar thermal. TPF of EE is strictly limited because banks are not willing to enter the EE financing field.000-130. Table 26. Governmental commitment for EE has been increasing during the last few years. which is in the order of 2. USAID. Facilities owners are seeking fast pay-back periods and prefer investments in their core business. The lack of qualification. and the investments are expected in waste heat recovery.Energy efficiency improvements could result in a 20-25% demand decrease. FREE. Since the market is not yet developed only an expert estimation on the market potential is available. therefore interest in ESCOs is low. World Bank/GEF and UNDP/GEF) have also been active in the development of energy efficiency financing. public buildings. and office buildings) and industry (mainly food industry). but energy performance contracting is perceived to be risky. Further actions to promote energy efficiency and ESCOs are deemed essential. The Romanian Energy Efficiency Law (Law Number 199/2000) was passed in 2000.000 EUR. frequency inverters for motors. power factor correction. which puts forward a number of measures to support energy efficiency. The clients of future ESCOs are anticipated to be from the tertiary sector (hotels.000 EUR. and HVAC offer the largest opportunities (Xichilos 2004). However. Industry and Tourism (Xichilos 2004). complicated measurement and verification methodologies which are not harmonized among players. there is no national legislation regarding the development of energy services in conformity with the Energy Service Directive62. energy management systems. with few companies willing to enter the market. and the lack of competition on the electricity market are seen as major barriers.000. A typical ESCO type project from the tertiary or industry sector is expected to be in the range of 15. International agencies (EBRD. Promotion of the Utilization of RES. TPF exists for small scale RES investments. and the Action Plan for Energy Conservation in Buildings. such as CHP. and some areas. due to limited understanding of energy efficiency. Significant effort and external assistance is seen as necessary by the Ministry of Commerce. Summary of basic data of the Cypress ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 0 no 2 million EUR No change - 2.3 New EU Member States 2007 Romania The Romanian ESCO market is in an embryonic state. and efficient lighting. insulation. Financial incentives include direct grants and feed-in tariffs. 62 56 . Currently. the Romanian Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC.

operation and further engineering projects. while the ESCO investment is not a traditional loan. ESCOs also do boiler renovation and operation of residential district heating.ro. The program assists energy efficiency investment in various ways. and it is not seen as part of the core target market. The ESCO is also unable to claim the investment on its own balance sheet. local banks have started to move into the energy efficiency market. there is one ESCO-type company chiefly working with CHP projects. Audits are obligatory above a certain size. technical assistance is offered to the public and private sector through feasibility studies. UNOPS65. the concept of repaying from the savings cannot be realized yet as a consequence of the above. The UNDP/GEF Energy Efficiency Project was launched in 2005 as a collaboration of four partners: ARCE64. including ESCO projects. 64 57 . Banks still lack the internal expertise to evaluate energy efficiency projects. In addition. banks are not yet ready to finance energy efficiency projects based on the credibility of the investment and the prospects of the savings.Energy Efficiency Fund63. The other ESCO was founded in 2004 as a Romanian-Canadian Joint Venture. however they have not yet fully acknowledged the potentials lying in energy efficiency. equipment installation. auditing. Agentia Romana pentru Conservarea Energiei. The industry is also a likely client of ESCOs and in fact some EPC is implemented here. the ESCO market has not been able to get off the ground because of a number of strong barriers. Unfortunately. 65 UN Office for Project Services (executing agency). Thus.free. In spite of these efforts. In the municipal sector the lack of off-balance sheet solutions is the major obstacle. The municipality cannot take the investment of the energy efficiency equipment on its balance sheet because it would often override the maximum lease credit (given in percentage of total budget). First of all. was established by the World Bank and financed by the GEF and the Romanian Government to increase energy conservation activities and implement measures in the country. penalties are so small that plants prefer to pay them than comply with 63 www. and this should make the EPC market more active. but still use the traditional asset based financing. the so called “deal building” brings together energy efficiency investors and financers and offers advise when needed. Finally. There are a few MNC and regional ESCOs active in Romania offering Energy Supply Contracting. This problem also appears to a smaller or larger extent in many other European countries. thus becoming the first Romanian Energy Service Company. Besides international financial institutions. and it has 100% local Romanian ownership. For the public sector a direct contribution to equipment purchase is also available of up to 20% of the investment. These support activities have been able to catalyze large-value energy efficiency projects – over 20 million USD investment so far and about 7 million USD in the pipeline (Racolta 2005). UNDP and GEF.org. and evaluate the client’s creditworthiness. because after a few projects no bank would lend to it. so it should be treated differently. These companies offer a wide range of services. but not more than 50 000 Euro. Currently there are two companies – one specialized in electricity and the other in thermal services – which qualify as private ESCOs that offer pure EPC solutions. they are not completely familiar with the ESCO concept. Fondul Roman Pentru Eficienta Energiei. One of them was set up in 1996. However.

barriers are too strong DH. ESCOs have not yet worked in governmental buildings. one of the most important barriers. while electricity intensity is outstanding even in the region. Sometimes. Energy intensity is twice that of the EU average. A major obstacle is the large size of housing associations. is the poor understanding of the concept. 40% of DH. Furthermore there is a lot of activity in energy efficiency auditing and certification. industries are also reluctant to give out data about their sites. Saving potential is estimated to be up to 50% of the energy demand of the building stock. including mostly boiler and steam equipment modernization. public lighting. Summary of basic data of the Romanian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 2 + some MNCs Local and subsidiaries of MNC no n. heating modernization. Clients often believe that an ESCO is just a type of bank. This number has been largely steady for the last few years. The most widely used contracting format is the shared savings model. there are few more companies working in the field of energy efficiency offering investment repayment schemes for a period of 3-5 years. No significant change. industrial processes Bulgaria The energy service company market has still not been deployed in Bulgaria. commercial banks are eager to lend for energy efficiency investments under the so called KIDSF67 EBRD credit 66 67 see above on page 45. in the commercial sector. Projects finance fuel switch. Table 27. but their returns are not based on the generated savings. Besides these. mostly contracted for improving heating systems. Kozloduy International Decommissioning Support Fund 58 . 4 times higher than in Hungary or Turkey (Zachariev 2005). and 30% in industry (Zachariev 2005). Finally. where decision making is virtually impossible. On the other hand. Small and medium sized industrial companies also tend to contract ESCOs for energy efficiency investment solutions. financing is not a problem. The domestic sector mainly offers investment opportunities in DH. ESCOs work primarily in the public sector (schools and other educational buildings).this regulation. like in most countries. Information on the current market size or even on market potential is unavailable. At the same time. Currently there are 1-3 ESCO companies offering guarantees on savings. The number of companies offering consultancy and auditing in energy efficiency is dynamically changing from year to year. large industries and in households. municipal projects are bundled in order to increase profitability and decrease transaction costs. and industrial processes. While the market has not taken it up.d. heating. lighting. The economic potential for energy savings is believed to be especially high in Bulgaria. The government plans to launch something similar to the Hungarian Panel Program66.

Table 28. Nevertheless. still slow growth Heating. it is crucial to drastically change people’s thinking about the need for energy efficiency together with information dissemination on the opportunities opened up by ESCOs. The BEEF offers three types of help: partial credit guarantee. though recently there has been a significant improvement in the legal and regulatory environment of municipalities (USAID 2005).line to companies and municipalities. frequent changes in administrative structures. The level of energy prices – even if steadily growing over recent years and not that low when compared to other European countries on purchasing power parities basis – is still limiting the profitability of energy efficiency investments.d.4 Candidate Countries Croatia There is only one Energy Service Company in Croatia offering EPC (Steko pers.). but in 2006 only one ESCO applied. This is exacerbated by a lack of motivation on part of end-users to undertake EE improvements. the available loan was 15 million USD. which is even complicated by. including ESCO investments (USAID 2005). fuel switch. The lack of reliable baseline data increases transaction costs often to a level that can endanger profits and while there have been plenty of projects that can demonstrate the feasibility of the ESCO concept. and is a recipient of financial support from the GEF and World Bank loans (Fanjek and Steko 2005). which was established in 2003. for instance. joint crediting with commercial banks and technical assistance for project development. It often happens that energy efficiency investments do not realize in real savings of energy. Summary of basic data of the Bulgarian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 1-3 (12) Local (energy utilities) no n. The Facility for Municipal Energy Efficiency under the USAID is more than just financial help. In 2005. but rather in an increased comfort (at an unchanged cost). Since 2006 the Bulgarian Energy Efficiency Fund (BEEF) is operational. There is a specific law on energy efficiency (Zachariev 2005). providing financing for ESCOs as well. public lighting. The estimated potential for energy savings in Croatia exceeds 400 million EUR. There are new companies that are attempting to enter 59 . To overcome most of the barriers.com. there is still a legal ambiguity about the ownership transfer of equipment installed through ESCOs (Zachariev 2005). No significant change. as technical support is also provided for clients. The use of partial credit guarantees in Bulgaria is supported by USAID through EBRD and the World Bank to increase the availability and access to credit for municipalities through a commercial bank. industrial process modernization 2. 13% of which was used for energy infrastructure improvement. Juridical and institutional barriers limit the spread of energy service companies. understanding the idea is still lagging behind (Zachariev 2005).

the market and have carried out several projects. which may jeopardize the profits. Table 29. these have been focussed on public lighting and system improvements in educational buildings. Similarly to many other countries. and the ESCO’s own equity is being used for project implementation. The “first out” contract model has been used in past projects. HVAC. Connecting CHP plants to the grid is also difficult. Besides international aid and loans (World Bank. primary attention is not on large profits. public procurement is complicated. Secondary legislation on energy efficiency has not been developed. but on supporting national interests. and there are many energy efficiency provider companies that do not provide a guarantee. co-generation. GEF). especially in 60 . insulation Turkey ESCOs have not yet appeared in Turkey as of 2007. Therefore. The legislative framework is not particularly supportive of the ESCO concept. although it is expected that in the near future some companies will be able to tap the large saving potential. steam-system recovery. The total amount of ESCO investment has been increasing in the last few years. HVAC. Summary of basic data of the Croat ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 1-(2) Public (established by WB) no n. The result of this situation is that ESCOs cannot invoice their services as a package. co-generation. such as the Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency (in the form of subsidies) and the UNDP program (grant for feasibility studies). and insulation. find sustainable project financing mechanisms. and VAT must be paid for the equipment installed for the client. has not deployed yet as expected public lighting. Consumers show a lack of interest in energy efficiency (Fanjek and Steko 2005). The sources of financing are various. Education and awareness raising about the existence of the opportunity offered by ESCOs and more dedicated experts would be one of the most helpful measures for energy efficiency project development and implementation in Croatia. and develop consumer demand (Fanjek and Steko 2005). the objectives of the company when it was set up were to develop capacity and know-how. and the ESCO model is not recognized by the authorities as an individual business model. There are further funds and programs in Croatia for energy efficiency. steam-system recovery. These are focused on a number of technologies: public lighting.d. mainly energy efficiency and environmental protection (Fanjek and Steko 2005). So far 3 projects have been completed in the country. More than 40 projects are in the preparation or implementation phase. probably due to the little knowledge in the country about ESCO benefits and the concept in principle. Some important barriers have been identified (Fanjek and Steko 2005). local financial institutions have proved to be interested. Since the ESCO that is working in Croatia is a state-owned company.

There are 5-10 companies in the country that offer energy services. A rapid uptake of energy efficiency by ESCOs (both locally established companies and MNCs) is expected by experts (Caglar 2006). Table 30. and energy and heating supply contracts dominate the market. oversee and coordinate energy efficiency activities by the relevant organizations around the country. The Energy Efficiency Coordination Board will be also responsible for the authorization and quality verification of ESCOs. There are no ESCOs offering EPC (PEEREA 2006b). Around 100 so-called “Energy Contractors” form an association. and there are also local Swiss companies. The Law is considered very progressive and up-to-date. The most important barrier is probably the lack of information on the side of the clients about the possibility of investing in energy efficiency using the ESCO concept and its benefits. such as obligatory audits. long-term purchase agreements for gas and oil also limit the potential for EPC and energy savings. Saffet Bora 2007).RES installations and heat and cooling services. (Caglar 2006. The energy contracting market is facilitated by the existence of organizations whose mission is to give advice to market 61 . a large portion of which could be captured through ESCOs. Demand side energy saving potential is estimated to be around 2. Swisscontractor. engineering expertise. as well as companies that provide financing.5 billion EUR/year. However.1 Other Western Europe Switzerland Information on the level of the ESCO business in Switzerland is rather limited. or facility management. Furthermore. These companies include many energy efficiency consultants. Facility management. Most of these are actually offered by leading electricity companies. Whether this potential will be tapped by ESCOs providing EPC depends on creating appropriate conditions for the take-off of this business model. operation management. according to the law. building codes. but the enactment took several years. Turkey has passed an Energy Efficiency Law in February 2007 which stipulates the role of ESCOs. Summary of basic data of the Turkish ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years 0 no Expected to increase rapidly with the introduction of the new Energy Efficiency Law - Most popular technologies 2. etc. Some of these companies are subsidiaries of multinational ESCOs. obligation to employ energy managers. together with a number of supportive provisions.5. to execute.5 Other European countries 2. Turkey plans to establish a coordinating body. currently there are no companies offering this service at all (Caglar 2006).

70 for industry www. It should be possible to guarantee the quality of EPC projects with appropriate standards (Vegel 2006. for the public sector www. biomass and other renewable energy plants. In terms of numbers of projects. or HVAC and lighting system renovations in the buildings. and add guidelines and standard documents.69 or EnAW70). Usual clients include public and commercial buildings. Also there are too few potential contractors (Norsk Enok og Energi AS 2005). Companies offer solutions for heating and cooling systems. EPC with TFP has proven to be the most suitable scheme in Norway. Financing ESCO projects has not been a problem in Norway. This makes the decision difficult. Public procurement procedures do not consider the benefits of an EPC other than economic factors.energy-efficiency. ESCO projects cover heat recovery from HV systems. Vegel 2006).ch. Summary of basic data of the Swiss ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association 5-10 ESPC Private + Energy Contractors No (Swisscontractor is an association for “Energy Contractors”) Not known Not known HVAC. and realization of local alternative heat production. CHP. Nevertheless so far only a few contracts have been concluded and activity is moderate (Vegel 2006). RES Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies Norway The ESCO industry in Norway is still at an early market stage (Norsk Enok og Energi AS 2005.A. control system installation. Development of good national standards. most are realized in the residential sector. ESCO financing is quite often set up by a bank loan given to the ESCO. which is finally not always for the best offer.ch. Norsk Enok og Energi AS 2005). There are however vital barriers. installation of heat-pumps. There is an urgent need to redesign legislation on public budgeting. According to experts the ESCO sector turnover is about 30-40 million EUR. as well as standards for setting the baseline of every project is of great importance.E.enaw. 69 68 62 . Projects include complex refurbishment. The number of ESCOs is 10-15 as of year 2006.F. dealing with electricity www.actors and potential or actual clients (for instance Energho68 and energy agencies such as S. Another major problem is that the contracts used are not in line with the National Standards (NS/EN). which outstrip industrial and residential sectors in market value.ch. and install CHP. up from 7 companies identified in 2002 (NVE 2002).energho. Table 31.

heat-pumps. ongoing privatization processes. bringing energy efficiency projects and participating in ESCO establishment in the region. 63 . HVAC. equipment suppliers. In fact.). rather consultancy companies. and measurement of the effects of energy efficiency programs is thus difficult. This situation is often seen to end in a vicious circle. 2006). These countries were left with highly inefficient economies. the attitudes are rather negative as other priorities take precedence (Chistyakova et al. consultants.d. described below. Ukraine and Moldova). can be considered as a set of successful examples of ESCO penetration into transition economies in spite of the sometimes extreme obstacles. their benefit from increasing energy efficiency and potentially from ESCOs could be even larger than that of the rest of the continent.5. are eased.Table 32. although the ESCO markets are in an embryonic state. but nevertheless many gaps and inconsistencies remain. lighting. Furthermore general awareness of the positive effect of energy efficiency and energy saving is very low. Thus an ESCO industry boom can be expected after some basic barriers. One of the biggest barriers is that “low” energy prices jeopardize the profitability of investing in energy efficient equipment. where the lack of financial (and other) resources that could be spent on upgrading energy systems causes higher risks and more finances needed to overcome urgent repairs (ASE n. which is dealt with in this report (including Russia. below-market priced but rising and socially burdensome energy costs.a.2 Other Eastern Europe Commonwealth of Independent States The European region of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). such as the lack of clearly defined ownership statuses. statistical data (especially historic data) is frequently lacking. The legal systems have mostly been updated after the fall of the Soviet Union. Energy Service Companies or ESCO-like companies have appeared in all of these countries71. See the country overview below. To aid this process IFIs have been particularly active. As a result. electric utilities and oil companies No €30-40 M (turnover) No change control system. and collapsed industries after the fall of the Soviet Union. 71 ESCO activity is restricted in Moldova to ESCO-like. Belarus. coupled with the inability of the consumers and the energy providers to overcome energy arrears. Information that decision makers depend upon is insufficient. heat recovery. Summary of basic data of the Norwegian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs 10-15 Private. The most important common barriers to energy efficiency and energy efficiency services lie with the legacies of the former planned economic system. local alternative heat production ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 2.

The market potential is large as a result of 72 http://www.html 64 . sponsored by the Western NIS Enterprise Fund and ESCO-Rivne was set up with UNDP support as a joint-stock public company (Olshanskaya 2006). It came into existence in 1998 based on a sovereign loan of USD 30 million from the EBRD and aided by a grant from the European Union’s technical assistance program (TACIS) (Evans 2000). Since then a few new companies have been established and a few existing ones have ventured into the energy efficiency business: in particular the Energy Alliance was started up in 2004.UkrESCO72 was the first commercially viable ESCO in Ukraine and one of the first ones in the CIS region (EBRD 1998). and the Energy Alliance was created as the first private ESCO in 2004. Figure 3. which joined under the national Association of ESCOs.com/index_e. Financial scheme applied by UkrESCO. ESCO-type companies had already existed in the country. The size of the Ukrainian ESCO market is unknown to the authors and the interviewed experts. There have been a number of local ESCOs aided by USAID. but are expected to be privatized shortly. UkrESCO and ESCORivne are publicly owned companies. however the BOOT concept is also known. Among the three companies considered as traditional ESCOs. The first EPC contract was signed in 2000 between UkrESCO and Gostomel Glass Plant (Evans 2000). The exact number of such companies engaged in energy saving activities is unknown. however without the use of EPC and without providing guarantees and financial solutions (Evans 2000).ukresco. Other similar companies can be described more as consultancies and do not coincide with the traditional ESCO definition due to limited access to capital. Before UkrESCO. UkrESCO has been implementing projects using the TPF scheme with ESCO borrowing. AESCO (Evans 2000). and is not available in the literature.

and due to high interest rates on loan funds which hamper profitability. the tariff system should be improved and restructured. capacity building. chemical. The Energy Alliance has been created to focus on leasing CHP engines to industrial clients. 65 . such as the State Committee for Energy Conservation for instance (UNDP n.org. information on ESCOs is very scarce and thus the concept is little if at all known. In addition. glass. In the current situation Ukrainian ESCOs and their supporters need to concentrate on eliminating erroneous ideas about energy efficiency and launch wide-scale information campaigns about energy saving opportunities. are missing. porcelain and pottery. while many others. According to experts. Finally. and with municipal heating and lighting. food processing. establishing key institutions. and ESCO partnership development. the above barriers. However. local banks are not particularly open to ESCO project financing because on the one hand they are willing to enter only short-term projects and on the other hand their interest rates are not suitable for energy saving projects. construction. in fact the energy intensity of Ukraine is one of the highest in the world.d.the highly inefficient infrastructure inherited from the Soviet Union (PePs n. The targets of ESCOs in Ukraine are typically industrial sites. The Ukrainian government has taken important steps to fight high energy intensity with the help of energy conservation by participating in UkrESCO. SMEs and municipal energy efficiency. while investments are perceived too risky for Ukrainian companies that are often in a difficult financial position. some of the barriers are the following: the ESCO market is hindered financially. except if they are financed from outside.).ase. The lack of a liberalized energy market with market-driven prices is also seen as a basic limiting factor on the profitability of energy efficiency projects. such as tax exemptions. In the current circumstances. The main aims must be to assist the creation of market competition in the sphere of energy generation and supply. including UNDP and ASE73 are active in information dissemination. and the development of an appropriate price policy. in agriculture.d. 73 Alliance to Save Energy. Legislative incentives. 2006). Most projects have taken place in machine building. www.). There is a need for significant adjustments in policies in order to create a supportive ESCO market in Ukraine and to overcome. Incentives for energy saving should be introduced. among others. because their own funds are insufficient to carry out many successful projects. although with insufficient staffing and finances (Chistyakova et al. and power engineering industries. IFIs are very active and supportive of this sector. including tax privileges on profit from energy saving measures. EBRD and the Western NIS Enterprise Fund provide direct financing to ESCOs. funding regional and local energy efficiency programs (Evans 2000).

but need rigorous adaptation to the Russian circumstances (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006).Table 33. The barriers are often similar to other Economies in Transition in the region. plus a few dozen of national and local ESCO-like consultancies both private and public yes. Nevertheless. AESCO not known 1 new ESCO aided by EBRD. 2004) and they are concentrated around Moscow. which are not yet able to provide well-developed turn-key energy saving offers (Efremov et al.com. the 66 . is relatively new in the country and is not yet well known (Efremov et al. The ESCO concept. According to the Russian Energy Strategy 2020. Earlier a number of US. energy consumption in Russia could be lowered by 40% to 48% by 2020 through effective energy efficiency measures and structural change in the Russian economy. however some unsuccessful stories discouraged further projects (Evans 2000). Thus. often initiated by foreign companies or implemented with the assistance of foreign investors and financial institutions. In spite of the expected strong appetite for energy efficiency and its financing. and other local and international initiatives. heat generation. ESCOs appear and disappear. cooling. 2004). There are only a small number of local ESCO-type companies in Russia. mostly even more pronounced. ESCO activity is restricted to several pilot projects. ESCO companies that offer EPC guarantees have not yet been set up according to international experts (for instance Woellert and Ligot pers.). together with a harsh climate and energy intensive economy results in an energy intensity of 3-5 times higher than that of Western Europe (Ketting 2006). and are discussed below. The Russian government recognizes the problem that while they aim at rapid economic growth and increased living standards more efficient production and use of energy is an important goal (Ketting 2006). distribution and consumption. Experience shows that European and American models cannot simply be transposed. Yet the continuing low level of EE in all aspects of energy generation. Summary of basic data of the Ukrainian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years 3. 2004) and activities in relation to energy conservation are slowly developing in Russia. compressed air production and distribution system Most popular technologies Russia has vast potentials of both RES (the economic potential is estimated at about 270 million tons of coal equivalent (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2004) and EE (IEA 2003). Nevertheless. as a tool to that. the energy efficiency market has not deployed as yet. Legislation for energy saving has been growing since the late 1990s (Efremov et al.and European-based ESCO companies were identified to start up projects in Russia. the first ESCO-type companies date back to 1996 (Administration of Seversk 2006).

which aims at studying the possibilities and potential of ESCO business in Northwest Russia. and the changes in the ESCO industry. Russia has taken steps on a number of other platforms to increase energy efficiency. installation of new economizers. Guarantees could be established by international finance institutions or by guarantees of governments of Russian regions (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006). establishing co-operation strategy for promotion of optional energy source utilization and Finnish technology export. but when compared together with labour costs. Low energy tariffs challenge incentives for energy conservation and an “energy wasting attitude” is inherited from the Soviet-system (Honkanen 2006)75. while from a social point of view residential prices are too high compared to the household income. 75 There has been a hot debate whether energy prices are actually low. utilization of local boilers for DH systems. (http://www2. clear. installation of new pre-furnace for utilization of bio-fuels.fi/fresco/index_eng. too. and some experts estimate that there has been a moderate growth in the ESCO-like market during the last 1-2 years. combined with technical assistance (Ligot 2006). installation of Variable Speed Controlling systems for DH pumps. The size of the market is unknown and none of the experts interviewed for the present report could estimate the current potential.et. a pay-back time not longer than 67 years prevails. South-East Finland-Russia "FRESCO" project is an Interreg III A initiative. and Russia may see a change in this as a result of WTO accession (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006). Besides the work done on introducing the ESCOs (by for instance Finnish companies under the FRESCO project74). There are very many and serious barriers to ESCOs in Russia. Besides. complete and supportive legislation and predictable taxes (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006).htm). the ratio of energy spending is much higher than that in Western countries (Bashmakov 2000). and automation of centralized compressed air production facility to be likely good projects for ESCOs (Enprima 2004). Financing for ESCO projects through IFIs is starting up.lut. A reliable system of energy tariffs whose changes are possible to foresee combined with the creation of realistic energy prices free from subsidies has been pushed by the international community. ESCOs in Russia would require appropriate. and finally the project prepared a model for ESCO business in Northwest Russia.breakthrough point is believed to be close. 2004) and the tradition of a centrally planned economic system. Bureaucratic and rather slow decision making process. and vague ownership issues make it hard to identify and start off ESCO projects (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006. Ensuring guarantees for pay-back would be essential because control over risks is a major problem at all levels. OECD 2006). and found boiler automation upgrade. concept dissemination and exchange of technology and know-how expertise (for instance under the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre). often embedded in the unstable environment for SMEs (Efremov et al. the project targets at building the contact network for Finnish energy enterprises in the destination area. Banks should be approached and informed widely about the business opportunity offered by energy conservation financing (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006). 74 67 . It is probably due to the changing market conditions. Awareness raising in regard to both energy saving and ESCOs as a tool needs to be a top priority. According to the experience of ESCO projects to date. For instance Bashmakov explains that Russian energy prices seem low only if compared directly to Western European prices. in the framework of the FRESCO project analyzed the feasibility of potential projects in Russia. A study conducted by Enprima Ltd.

the ESCO executes a turn-key project. Since the ESCO market started recently. compressed air systems. This is also referred to as BOOT contract (EC DG JRC 2005). steam distribution and electric load management mainly in private and public industries. The first ESCO contract followed the UK Energy Management Contract model. and low interest and success in the last years. thus an expansion of the market is expected. The existing ESCO project in Belarus implemented a co-generation plant in a large industry. the potential of the energy efficiency market for ESCOs is much larger. automation. It is projected that in the short term 5 such projects can be implemented annually. However. consulting companies private no not known. potential ESCOs are expecting to deal with boilers. The ESCO project is financed from foreign bank loans through the ESCO. compressed air systems. which started its operations in early 2005. Table 34. probably between 4-15 ESCO-type and 100s of engineering. In this. this is compensated by the enormous potential of “low hanging fruit” projects (EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre 2006). making for a market worth 50 million EUR per year.Though the Russian environment for ESCOs is less favourable than in many European countries. The ESCO owns the installation during the timeframe of the project. though external finances will be necessary for this. It is calculated that at least 20-25% of the current energy demand can be saved in the industrial and municipal sectors. and it is expected that upon successful project completion several others would follow suit. with first upheaval and decline in 1990s. According to market surveys. The residential and tertiary sectors are not attracting ESCO interest at this point. installation and operation of a CHP plant or other energy efficiency installation. HVAC systems. EE potential is 40-48% of current energy consumption ESCO market has been changing a lot. the installation is handed over to the client. while an expected growth for the near future is seen HVAC. heating control systems. heating. but when the project ends. and which was a 10 million EUR investment. control systems. Summary of basic data of the Russian ESCO market Number of ESCOs no precise number. including the delivery. DH (supply side) Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies There is one ESCO company in Belarus. and a guarantee by a local bank or EU stakeholders is provided. and is selling the service (electricity and heat) at a lower price than the local supplier. 68 . a market size estimate only covers one project that has been implemented so far.

). the banking sector is also limited and faces a number of barriers. such as regarding banks. according to which all energy tariffs include a component that is collected in an Energy Efficiency Fund which can be used for various energy saving measures (UNDP n. difficulties in legal. Institutional barriers in the industrial sector embrace the hierarchical system of the still largely state-owned industries when officials on several levels have to be fully informed and convinced about the benefits of an ESCO contract. Also. In spite of the difficulties. Nevertheless. it is a good sign that ESCOs have already appeared. the Government’s pricing policy has been introduced. the Government has been pronouncedly in favour of EE. the adoption of a model ESCO contract is strongly needed. Finally. Most potential ESCO projects are long term. in spite of the legacies from Soviet times.Local banks are not yet open to take part of the ESCO market. At the same time. the public sector procurement and tendering rules should be reconsidered to allow ESCO operation. which endorsed a clear system for power transmission tariffs and charges. ESCOs are starting to gain a foothold in Belarus. CHP installations on the other hand do not have secured prices. which can help ESCO projects to a great extent. Successful pilot projects are expected to be able to demonstrate the feasibility of the ESCO concept for all stakeholders. In May 2006 presidential Decree No 93 was passed. and the interest rate is relatively high. rather discouraging energy conservation. Barriers to ESCO operations are numerous and essentially overcoming them would require changes at all levels. and mechanisms should be developed that allow companies to monitor and verify energy savings and separate those from overall company cashflow. The most significant barrier is the fixed rates for electricity and heating prices. administrative and ownership issues. Finally. In summary.d. and a boom may be seen shortly. which should be allowed to finance longer projects than 7 years. On the other hand. 69 .d. however foreign investors do finance the ESCO activities. In the industrial sector the rigid and complicated accounting rules and taxation system results in immediate loss of the benefits from energy savings in the overall cashflow of the company. while commercial bank loans are only available for up to 7 years. It is suggested that to tackle the above obstacles still much political work needs to be done. and has created relevant institutions. Legal changes on a number of issues are necessary. The interest rates mentioned above have been steadily going down lately. In the public sector certain aspects of bureaucratic rules for procurement and tendering hinder the effectiveness of setting up an ESCO agreement. and has already engaged in the 3rd National Energy saving Program since 1996 (UNDP n.). with which CHP projects implemented by ESCOs are eased. positive changes can been seen.

d.d. The country has got into a vicious circle in the sense that some of the disasters could be avoided and debts could be repaid if energy demand levels were optimized.a.Table 35. Measures on energy efficiency improvement are nevertheless being carried out on a commercial basis by both local and foreign firms and organizations. 2006). the district heating system has simply been dismantled. The work is prepaid by the customer and no guarantee on energy savings is involved. Most important investments include the installation of heat-meters. high debt levels. ESCOs offering the classical EPC have not appeared yet.d. as well as much of the residential sector have been disconnected from the energy supply and district heating systems due to non-payment and increasing prices. Massive energy arrears characterize the energy system. The most important barrier to energy efficiency investments is that they are still considered as luxury spendings that can be only afforded by wealthier countries. Due to the economic recession. Due to the economic crisis and slow transition to a market economy Moldova’s development has been seriously endangered since the fall of the Soviet Union (ASE n. both state and private decision-makers’ attention is focussed on urgent priorities and pressing issues. USAID n.. In spite of this situation.b.). This is the result of the huge national budget share (20% of annual GDP) subject to cover natural disaster recovery (Chistyakova et al.). This has resulted in both a local production that was created by necessity and an extremely inefficient supply system.). partially related to the energy sector. while the concentration of attention and funds on disaster mitigation limits the country’s ability to improve energy efficiency. CHP Change in recent years Most popular technologies Information on energy efficiency and ESCOs or their potential in Moldova is rather limited.a. and replaced by electric heaters or building-level gas boilers. In many parts of the capital. The authors were informed that there are a few ESCO-type companies working in Moldova.a.d. The opportunities energy conservation can offer are little understood. and out-dated institutional arrangements. Moldova does have a particularly 70 . thermal insulation of buildings. including the exchange of windows and doors in public and residential buildings. which is now in poor condition (ASE n. and there has been activity in the energy efficiency field that points towards the probable emergence of an ESCO market in the country. Summary of basic data of the Belarusian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market 1 Private with mainly foreign shareholders no potential of around 20-25% of energy demand in industrial and public sector first ESCO was set up in 2005 industrial systems. However. the installation of modern highefficiency boilers in industrial sites. rather than on energy efficiency (ASE n. Chisinau. and large industrial sites. In particular the energy sector has been deeply affected by the recession. and the application of new industrial high-efficiency technologies.

though the separation of the Republic of Serbia Municipal Network for Energy Efficiency. not only on the concept but to increase trust is very important. International agencies have not been particularly active in Moldova.d.). trainings. forums. The problems with bureaucracy are similar to those described in the case of Russia.d. installation of heat-meters. Profit tax exemptions were also planned for ESCOs. as borders keep changing.progressive Law on Energy Conservation that was adopted in 2000. It is interesting. no n. that the Energy Strategy stipulates the need for promotion of ESCOs (PEEREA 2004). combined with an originally poor performance on energy intensity. thermal insulation in public and residential buildings. new industrial highefficient technologies Non-EU South-East Europe The region can be characterized by rapidy growing economies as a result of reconstruction after the war period that impacted most of the SEE countries seriously. To exhibit the best results of the energy efficiency measures and disseminate positive experiences. directly or indirectly. Table 36. which partially serves to help the ESCOs’ operation.d. newspaper articles. Information dissemination. This can serve well for ESCO market development and to show the feasibility of ESCO projects. giving technical assistance for DH Strategy and know-how sharing in reviewing energy legislation (PEEREA 2004). The relative instability of the economic situation at both macro and micro level affects potential ESCOs’ trust and willingness to engage in a guaranteed long-term contract. such as information dissemination and training of municipalities and housing associations. Summary of basic data of the Moldavian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies few n. although unfortunately there is no real mechanism to provide for incentives for conservation that could make the Law effective (Surugiu n. supported by the USAID and managed by the Alliance to Save Energy 76 71 . This change is accompanied by rapidly rising energy demands. The region is still a little turbid. installation of high-efficiency boilers in industry. however in the end this was not included in the legislation (PEEREA 2004). ESCO as a tool stipulated in legislation DH. A Revolving Fund has been created. study tours for stakeholders. awareness raising through national broadcasts. however. Activities include various tools (though not related to ESCOs). the MUNEE Network76 conducted several demonstration projects in Moldova between 2001 and 2004. though USAID and the Alliance to Save Energy have done significant work in the energy conservation field.

combined with low energy consumption per capita. and no EPC contract has been signed up to 2006 according to the knowledge of the authors. Chabchoub 2005). but highlighting any significant differences if necessary. As a result of the referendum held in Montenegro on 21 May 2006. due to the economic lag (SEENERGY n. Pavlovic 2005).d. energy strategic planning and establishment of local energy markets (BISE 2005).d. The New Energy Law of 2004 in Serbia foresees new responsibilities for municipalities: energy balancing. Heating with electricity is typical. and IFIs are active in the area of rational energy systems..and the Republic of Montenegro is considered as the end of former Yugoslavia. In this report they are discussed together because of the common development history. nevertheless prices are still subsidized. The war and economic crises resulted in the collapse of the energy supply systems and the decline of the industry. not the high energy use of the people (ASE n. the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro77 have not seen an active ESCO industry (Chabchoub 2005). Most activity has been oriented towards preparing business plans and disseminating the concept up to now (Chabchoub 2005). There are only a few isolated actions related to private companies. Energy price liberalization has started.d. According to experts. high interest rates and lack of examples. Important local changes have already occurred which can be supportive of a potentially emerging ESCO market. A few ESCO type projects have been carried out. Legislative systems must be strengthened in most cases. The World Bank is in the process of establishing one public ESCO in Macedonia. SEENERGY n. The reconstruction is fortified by a strong emphasis on legislative modernization that also takes into consideration the harmonization with European Union Directives and International Agreements. 77 72 .b.).b. which is critically high and is a consequence of the above.d.). which is however increasing steadily. A strong focus on energy efficiency and rational use of energy is needed and is apparent on many other platforms in the countries (ASE n. and an institutional framework has been created.. putting people in economic difficulties. resembling the other Eastern European countries and even surpassing them. The residential sector is responsible for 70% of the energy demand today. while the institutional framework already involves a number of energy and energy efficiency agencies. The countries saw serious blackouts of supply around 2000. and the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro became two countries. On the other hand. Energy efficiency is definitely a priority in all SEE countries as a means to address environmental. Serbia and Montenegro can be characterized as having extremely high energy intensity (6 times that of EU15 (Pavlovic 2005)). Energy prices were soaring in the beginning of the 2000s. The most important barriers to the kick-start of the ESCO market have been listed by local experts as low awareness and knowledge of the concept. The most critical issue for the uptake of this sector is claimed to be wide-scale awareness raising and capacity building which are necessary to overcome the very primary hurdles to the ESCO sector foundation (Pavlovic 2005. and ESCOs can be expected to add to the energy efficiency solutions tool-kit in the coming years. economic and social problems. though ESCOs have not yet really get going in SEE. the two entities separated as of 3 June 2006.

n.V.d. Summary of basic data of the Serbian and Montenegrin ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO Association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies few ESCO oriented activities n. after the concept precipitates to both clients and potential companies. As a result. improvement of street lighting and DH. as well as by giving technical assistance. According to experts.d. It is hoped that these efforts have prepared the ground for the introduction of energy service companies.).a. Furthermore. and carried out a large-scale assistance effort designed to demonstrate the potential savings from energy efficiency projects in schools. and fiscal policy are dealt with by the central government. USAID focused on awareness raising. Chabchoub 2005). These have focused on refurbishment of municipal buildings.a. while the World Bank has launched the Serbian Energy Efficiency Project with 21 million USD (Pavlovic 2005). according to the MUNEE Network78. and the Republika Srpska and District Brcko.A. Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is extensively decentralized and consists of two statelike entities.. numerous projects have been implemented. belong to the Entities’ governments (USAID n. although not absolutely unknown. setting the stage for ESCOs. several bilateral agreements have been made. and the improvement of energy statistics (USAID n. energy decisions and directions in Bosnia and Herzegovina can be characterized to some extent by “unclear authority over energy issues”.d. Regrettably.). hospitals and other buildings and to educate people about the inevitable rise in electricity prices (USAID n. the need for a “long-term energy strategy on the state level”. The World Bank support enabled investments to replace existing room and water heating facilities in clinical centers and social service facilities. including energy.a. as well as RES. economic. and international grants have been established for Serbia. Chabchoub 2005).000 EUR annually).). while internal affairs.d. though Municipal Network for Energy Efficiency. E. There are no ESCOs offering EPC in BiH (Prašović and Knežević 2005. Consequently. 300. supported by the USAID and managed by the Alliance to Save Energy 78 73 . According to the Dayton Agreement in 1995. thus supporting the promotion of energy efficiency efforts (Chabchoub 2005). no not known opening towards energy efficiency n.a. for instance Norway is supporting energy efficiency improvements in the area by financial means (ca. ESCO activity is limited. foreign. The European Union helped the establishment of the Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency (SEEA) via the European Agency for Reconstruction (EAR) (Pavlovic 2005.International financial institutions have shown great interest in financing energy efficiency after the war-period.a. Table 37. The EU has been actively supporting and giving technical assistance to modernization projects and training of industrial personnel and municipalities about energy management systems (Pavlovic 2005). the compound authority and political situation results in a lack of overarching energy strategy or policy (Chabchoub 2005). the Federation of BiH.c. and the Federation of BiH entity is further divided into regions (cantons).

A. since a large amount of money is allocated for electricity and heating costs in public buildings. incorporating a special chapter “Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy” was passed in May 2006. n. E. as already mentioned.). the new Energy Law.A. heating systems. which can improve economic and environmental performance and their interplay (Sehovic 2005a. n. and the simple payback time has been less than 5 years. Though the establishment of an Energy Efficiency Fund is stipulated in the Energy 74 . Technical aid from more experienced countries in the form of project development and feasibility studies could have a multiplier effect. based on which a Strategy for Energy Efficiency until 2020 was developed by 2004 with the financial support of USAID (PEEREA 2006a. The exemplar projects have involved guarantees on energy savings by an ESCO-type private company. First of all. and a few ESCO projects n. and a number of other ESCO projects have taken place.V. no not known not known CHP. independent since 1991. international aid and programs. thus third party financing scheme is considered as an appropriate means to seize energy saving opportunities (Sehovic 2005b). Demonstrational projects could be useful to bring these opportunities closer to both clients and financers. Besides the above mentioned strong structural barriers. Furthermore. A Programme on Efficient Energy Use in the Republic of Macedonia until 2020 was adopted in 1999. in-depth analysis and research on the ESCO market potentials in BiH is badly needed in order to attract ESCOs from other countries as well as to communicate the rationale for setting up ESCO companies to the SMEs in BiH. in order to prepare a possible accession to the EU (E. ESCO projects range from installation of mini heating systems. Finally. including unclear authority. In addition. Traditional financing in developing countries. Summary of basic data of the Bosnian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO Association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 1 ESCO-like company.b. establishment of overall energy efficiency legislation and the institutional framework is regarded as essential (Chabchoub 2005). lack of data and legislation. and leasing companies. Capacity building of the municipal officials regarding the possibilities of ESCO financing could be especially effective.d. is limited (Chabchoub 2005). is in an economic transition with some setbacks and major economic.b. training and information dissemination are strongly needed in order to raise awareness of the potential offered by energy efficiency. biomass The Republic of Macedonia. such as the national budget. Chabchoub 2005).V. state and local capacity and general awareness raising would be desirable. Table 38. through boiler exchanges to the establishment of tri-generation plants.there is at least one company using the ESCO concept in implementing a small scale boiler biomass heating project.). Policy-making has been influenced by harmonization with European Union legislation. but also the banks should be encouraged towards financing (Sehovic 2005b).d.d. financial and social difficulties complemented with following economic growth and stabilization.

ELEM79 and TOPLIFIKACIJA AD80. in 2004 EBRD extended a syndicated loan of 20 million EUR to a Macedonian bank (EBRD n. GEF 2004).d. the creation of the Sustainable Energy Financing Facility is designed to provide a loan guarantee facility and a debt fund. As of 2006. which supports the start of the ESCO market on the basis of 3 pillars. Macedonian Power Plants – 100% owned by the State District heating company. but the World Bank has identified financial restraints as the most urgent and effective to deal with in the case of Macedonia. and low awareness. and in the municipal and residential sectors. on a co-financing basis with commercial institutions and the Macedonian Bank for Development Promotion (MBDP) (PEEREA 2006a). Secondly. including IBRD/GEF. On the other hand. and this has a good service all over Macedonia.). n. For instance. especially in heating. 80 79 75 .V. energy is not as deeply subsidized as in other countries of the region. and trust in energy efficiency investment are also a major hindrance. The ESCO will provide turnkey and performance-based contracting for energy efficiency.V. First of all. nonetheless they seriously lack sufficient capital even for the transaction costs to get off the ground in this area. Energy intensity is 50% higher than in neighbouring countries (E. There are a number of important traditional barriers to energy efficiency investments and to the development of the ESCO sector.). Thirdly. owner of the heat energy production (boiler houses) and manager of the district heating distribution pipelines in Skopje. support is given to establish the market framework through technical assistance to develop and implement secondary legislation set out in the Energy Efficiency Strategy. It is estimated that there are 2-3 national engineering companies with good technical skills and personnel. the World Bank (similarly to the system in Croatia) establishes a public utility-based ESCO under the umbrella of the Macedonian Market and Transmission System Operator (MEPSO). In order to overcome this obstacle. which would like to widen their services as ESCOs.Efficiency Strategy.d. The potential for energy savings is significant in industry.A. n.b. where electric heating prevails. the World Bank has a currently operational project in the country through the GEF. The resistance of the banking sector to getting involved in the energy efficiency business until now is being addressed by programs of the EBRD. The launch of the ESCO is expected by March 2007.d. Procedural hindrances to procurement are experienced.A. lack of information. The state of the ESCO market in Macedonia is in an early embryonic phase.b. in particular on the part of former Yugoslav countries. there is one ESCO-type company working with heating units and heat pumps on geothermal energy. and will demonstrate the financial performance of such projects using third-party financing for publicly-owned buildings. which is dominated by the metal processing industry (E. There is local interest in the ESCO business. In addition. it had not occurred by the end of 2006 and energy efficiency funding is not allocated from the national budget. Besides financial constraints and the low involvement of the banking sector. USAID and EBRD and private European funding (PEEREA 2006a). but is based on international cooperation. (PEEREA 2006a. there is also interest from regional companies. barriers are similar to other Central and South-Eastern countries.). to get into the Macedonian energy efficiency market.

has engaged in energy audits (AEEC n. with some attention to traditional start-off areas. which is regarded by the country as a priority (Fida 2005). too. which has important implications for energy saving opportunities. The NSE also projects the investment need in energy efficiency. the Energy Efficiency Law has also been created and passed. expected take off from 2007 geothermal heat pumps. and is establishing the ground for ESCOs. and may have the potential to serve as an ESCO. To overcome these to some extent.d.d. the Energy Charter Treaty or for instance the South-East European Stability Pact (NSE 2005). Raising awareness and information dissemination is also regarded as a priority area for dealing with increasing energy consumption. the Center has been carrying out international and national programs for energy conservation. Table 39.The new utility-based ESCO is planned to focus primarily on educational buildings and hospitals. such as public lighting. and the establishment of the Energy Efficiency Fund. Summary of basic data of the Macedonian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO Association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies 1.). nor have ESCO-type projects been implemented in Albania. The National Strategy for Energy adopted in 2005 is a comprehensive document that has a special chapter just dedicated to energy efficiency. Some of the remaining obstacles listed by experts are the further improvement of the legal and regulatory framework. Albania is still considered a few steps away from a successful ESCO launch by experts. Energy Service Companies and Third Party Financing are also specifically highlighted in the National Energy Strategy as useful tools for capturing energy efficiency potentials (NSE 2005). and the institutional framework is rather developed as of 2006. planned targets are educational buildings and hospitals As of 2006.). The country has emphasized the priority of energy efficiency on a number of platforms though. Regional Energy Offices in certain Albanian municipalities are being established as of 76 . industrial and tertiary sectors by 2010 (NSE 2005). the lack of appropriate and accessible financial resources and still low awareness. Albania has an Albanian-EU Energy Efficiency Centre (AEEC n. Besides awareness raising. interest and international help. there are no companies dedicated to energy efficiency investments. and 1 is to be launched in 2007 Private (the new one will be public) no not known increased interest. and given the local potential. such as the Kyoto Protocol. Macedonia is in the introductory phase of the energy service company market. which is around 40 million USD including the residential. Nevertheless. Furthermore. based on local experts’ reports. Albania has been modernizing the national energy policy in order to harmonize with EU directives and international commitments. the next two years should see the results of recent efforts. Energy investment-friendly measures in the Law include for instance an obligation to conduct energy audits for some consumers. the national evaluation of energy saving potentials.

a. Table 40. These will have a profile for energy related data collection.a. energy efficiency promotion. Summary of basic data of the Albanian ESCO market Number of ESCOs Type of ESCOs ESCO Association Size of the market Change in recent years Most popular technologies none n. 77 . no not known not known n. and so on. assessment of energy saving potentials.the end of 2006.

78 .

org/ 85 http://re. This is especially impressive in the Swedish environment where lack of credibility in ESCOs plagued the market after earlier failures once at the end of 1970s. Germany.europa. the basis of the present Update report. programs such as the GreenLight84. The introduction and enforcement 81 Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC.ec. some countries have seen a spectacular increase in ESCO activity in the last few years: Sweden is an example in this respect. many national governments have placed the promotion of energy savings through ESCOs on their priority list. and introduced measures that are beneficial for ESCO businesses. A general observation is that the ESCO market across Europe is growing rapidly. followed by a short discussion on common barriers and selected enabling factors seen across the EU and the neighbouring countries. In addition to this. The general trends of European ESCO markets are discussed below.htm 86 such as the EUROCONTRACT. The Czech Republic has significantly strengthened the ESCO industry by concerted efforts on part of the government. There are also some countries where the market has been remained stable. capacity building. ST-ESCOs) project among others 87 Intelligent Energy Europe Program.1 Changes compared to the beginning of the millennium Most of the ESCO markets have expanded since 2004-2005.3 CONCLUSIONS The Energy Service Companies market in the European Union and New Candidate States has been developing swiftly in the last two decades. For instance. the IFC and the industry itself. EuroWhiteCert.eu/energy/intelligent/index_en. when the European ESCO Status Report. The current status of national ESCO industries shows noteworthy differences and their recent development paths have been diverse.eu/energyefficiency/greenbuilding/index. was prepared. carrying out demonstration activities.eu-greenlight. 82 Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on the energy performance of buildings 83 Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market and amending Directive 92/42/EEC 84 http://www. 3. ESCOs took off the ground in many countries as early as the beginning of the 90s. http://ec. and developing guidelines and model contracts). A focused and comprehensive strategy that was designed for the local circumstances has led to a significant market rise. the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive82 and the CHP Directive83. Examples range from single measures (for instance establishment of one or more public ESCO) to complex targeted strategies (combining wide-scale information collection and dissemination. agencies. and then in the early 1990s.jrc.html. At the same time. 79 . even if it is stagnant or even slowly declining in some countries. The European Union and some national governments have taken important steps to promote ESCO and EPC markets. Motor Challenge and GreenBuilding85 and a number of European projects86 most of them supported by the IEE87. Strategies include policy instruments.europa. France and Spain have maintained their leading positions in the ‘premier league’ of ESCO countries (see European ESCO Status Report). such as the Energy Service Directive81. the UK.

Primarily in the CEE countries. The effect of the introduction of a White Certificate scheme in some countries is debated. dissemination of information is still important and could further enlarge the market. Finally. Meanwhile. and further changes can be expected. EU projects. In general. the EPC scheme is being overtaken by more Energy Contracting and complex facility. the Netherlands. capital funding or willingness to borrow for EE projects. it seems well-developed and even growing during the last years. ESCOs are progressing on the Estonian market. Cyprus). but without ESCO contribution (Denmark. Lithuania). manpower or management time to deal with energy efficiency. offering all or part of a complex energy saving investment. and no change has been seen (Turkey. but they are not the only available and possible solution. and it is hoped that a current EU project will be able to get the industry off the ground. understanding of risk in EE. but it has been an important instrument to promote Italian ESCOs. A similar result is expected in France. TPF has become an accepted tool. although there are new companies coming into the French market using EPC. there are a number of countries which have a very successful energy efficiency market.of obligatory audits have an important role in making the Czech ESCO market one of the European frontrunners. operation management and heat and electricity supply contracts. The Hungarian situation is more complex because by simply looking at the industry. The French market is dominated by a few actors and their role has not significantly altered. but the present research has shown that other sectors are overtaking in some countries. The White Certificates can increase the cost efficiency of project by allowing ESCOs to gain an additional revenue stream from selling verified and certified energy savings. too. too. The savings or performance guarantee is sometimes seen by the client as unnecessary and costly. This clearly proves that ESCOs are a useful and very cost effective tool to achieve energy efficiency goals. which has been a major focus of many European-wide activities. and maybe the tool will become popular in other EU Member States. Other countries with strong and consolidated markets have seen no significant change during the last few years. the residential sector is becoming attractive for ESCOs in some countries. Interestingly. and the ESCO contracts are more and more suited to the needs of the clients. this sector was 80 . There are countries where the first ESCOs appeared in the last two years. the ESCO concept is more developed and more spread. also thanks to the preparations related to the Energy Service Directive. in spite of the significant saving potential. There are also countries where ESCOs and EPC are unknown until today. Malta. and/or technology information. Nevertheless. however some ESCOs argue that the market is shrinking and ESCOs have to change their orientation and sometimes even their core activities in order to keep profits. The public sector has been the most important customer of ESCOs. which could be because the traditional ESCO offer does not correspond to the market needs and peculiarities in these countries. Slovenia) do not seem to be getting into the ESCO business significantly in spite of various attempts. Model contracts are available in more countries than in 2005. ESCOs offer the means to deliver infrastructure improvements to facilities that lack energy engineering skills. Greece has been lagging behind other EU-15 countries. some countries (Poland.

believed to be a difficult market for ESCOs before because of its complexity in decision making. often the key to success lies in combining the ESCO guarantee with a national subsidy or other support program for domestic buildings. ESCOs are able to deal with these problems. 81 . although. The following table summarizes the basic characteristics and data of the EPC markets of the European Union Member States as discussed within the present report. small project sizes and large transaction costs. Apparently.

82 .d. market potential: €50-110M/year until 2020 3 major ESCOs + 100 €3Bln/year (turnover) small ones Germany 50 €2Bln (market potential) Austria ~30 €500M investment opportunity 88 Only includes the biggest company. Summary of basic data of the Energy Service Companies markets in the European Union Member States as of 2006-2007. commercial and public sectors Primary: industry Secondary: commercial and public sector Traditionally: public sector and industry Lately: industry and residential sector Primary and traditional client: public buildings Secondary: private buildings Expected entry: industry. ~€8M (market value)88 Main clients Primary: public sector Secondary: industry Primary: large and medium sized industries Secondary: large tertiary buildings Traditionally: public sector Secondary: commercial sector. Countries are listed following the order they appear in the present report. Country Spain Number of ESCOs 10-15 private companies + several public ESCOs 7-8 Market size/Market value n. industry Thirdly: residential sector Project focus: governmental buildings Traditionally: industry Lately: Industry.Table 41. offices Primary: public buildings Expected uptake: private sector buildings Portugal Italy Several dozen ~€95M (investment for CHP only) Greece UK 0-3 (sporadic projects) 20-24 ~0 ~€860-940M (annual turnover) Ireland 2 France ~0.a.

Primary: industry and public sector 0 0 - 83 .d.) Country Belgium Number of ESCOs ~30 Market size/Market value n. €220M (investment value Primary: industrial sector between 1998 and 2004) €40-60M (turnover) Primary: public buildings €5M/year Primary: industry and public sector buildings €175M Primary: residential and private buildings Secondary: industry n. Primary: municipal and some commercial buildings Secondary: industry €10M/year Primary: public sector Secondary: building cooperatives n. n.d.d.d.d. (cont.b.d.Table 41. Primary: public sector n.d. Summary of basic data of the Energy Service Companies markets in the European Union Member States as of 2006-2007. Primary: public sector (lighting) Secondary: municipal (non-stateowned) buildings n. Expected uptake in the residential sector €150-200M Traditionally: public sector and public buildings Secondary: industry Lately: commercial and residential buildings €10-20M/year Primary: healthcare sector + other public sectors n. Main clients The Netherlands Luxembourg Finland Sweden Denmark Lithuania very few 3-4 9-11 ~10 2-4 6 Latvia Estonia Hungary 2 0-2 ~30 Czech Republic Slovakia 10-15 ~10-30 Poland ~5 Slovenia Malta Cyprus 1-2 0 0 Primary: public sector Secondary: industrial sites Expected uptake: residential sector n.d.

2 of whose development is close to that of EU15. or because ESCOs are setting foot currently. but the residential clients are gaining importance. although some start is seen. Candidate Countries European CIS Non-EU SEE Public sector if any Primarily industry. n. either because EE is targeted with different tools. 0-30 A few developed markets.d. 0-1 In some countries the market is setting up currently. while some have no ESCOs at al. too. Main clients Very diverse among countries.d.c. Industry and public sector are the most important clients in general EU12 Mostly the public sector is the main client. (cont. 0-1 ESCOs have not yet set foot. Summary of basic data of the Energy Service Companies markets in the regions dealt with in the present report as of 2006-2007. Summary of basic data of the Energy Service Companies markets in the European Union Member States as of 2006-2007. Mainly the public sector is interested.) Country Romania Bulgaria Number of ESCOs 2 1-3 Market size/Market value n. 1-5 ESCO (several There is some ESCO dozen ESPC) activity at least in every country. Region EU15 Number of ESCOs (range) 0-50 (and even 1000 ESPC) Development of the market Many of the ESCO markets are very well developed.Table 41. but projects could be implemented well in industry and the residential sector. 84 . while some projects for public clients. while in others no or hardly any activity is seen. while some markets have not even started.d. Main clients Primary: municipal sector and industry Primary: public sector Table 41. too.

and other legal and regulatory frameworks incompatible with energy efficiency investments in many countries. For instance in Poland. who often suspect that there is a piece in the contract that will make the agreement unfavourable for them. using the analysis in the European ESCO Status Report 2005: 1. especially if the ESCO industry has already failed in the past (Slovakia. The results of the analysis of the research in 20062007 indicate that this remains the most pressing obstacle to the ESCO market expansion across Europe. EPC and TPF. Pubic budgeting rules can also be an obstacle to ESCOs indirectly because these induce a lack of interest in energy cost saving. there are countries where even the guarantee constituting an essential part of an EPC is seen as unnecessary. Sweden). The most important barrier that hinders the evolution of ESCOs is believed to be that potential clients are not aware of this solution and/or are little interested because their attention is on their core business (private clients) or main mission (public bodies) and energy constitutes a small part of their expenses. especially in the buildings sector and in case of SMEs. in order to avoid being cut the following year. If a municipality saves money. although there are a few countries with progressive public procurement system (for instance the Czech Republic. In the CEE countries this is particularly an issue because of over -suspiciousness in EPC offers on the side of some types of clients. 3. Slovakia and Germany. but also in Germany. 85 . The development of the obstacles is also discussed. among others). Thus increasing awareness and dissemination of information about ESCOs still need significant attention even in countries with highly developed ESCO markets such as Germany. 2. too. This is often the result of limited understanding of energy efficiency opportunities.3. Trust and scepticism on the clients’ side in the ESCO offer is another long standing obstacle that has not changed significantly in most countries. and indeed. A list of most common and most significant obstacles is given below. it may loose all financial savings by getting a smaller allocation for subsequent years.2 Common barriers Barriers to EPC and ESCOs have been discussed in the case of every country. ESCO projects are actually limited partially because clients with high technical expertise in energy management do not require a guarantee. large energy users usually have in-house expertise. There is a strong “pressure” on local decision makers to spend the annual municipal budget instead of saving on it. The European ESCO Status Report 2005 emphasized low awareness and lack of information about the ESCO concept as the most important barrier to the widespread use of the ESCO offer. Restricted levels of public sector investments were blamed on non-supportive procurement rules. 4. On the other hand. This problem has not been possible to solve in practically any of the countries in our focus. business risk can be an important hindrance in several countries. Some of the clients are afraid that the guarantee would not function as expected. Furthermore. depending on the calibration of the subsidy allocating formula in the country. Technical risk perception has not been highlighted by informants to the present research. High perceived risk of the ESCO investment goes along with the above barriers. Lack of off-balance sheet solutions is important in some CEE countries.

lending is asset-based. but also keep ESCOs away. It has been highlighted in almost all countries that financing institutions are interested in participating in energy efficiency investments. The French market has actually been built on this interest from the clients. In asset-based lending the bank requires a collateral (which can even be 200% of the value of the loan). In many CEE countries there is a high level of aversion to outsource energy management tasks and allowing an outsider (the ESCO) to intervene in common practices and/or change equipment that the users are used to. but the landlord is responsible for renovations because he controls the property. In the public sector there is a fear of layoff if energy management is outsourced. with which a lot of good projects are excluded from financing. 6. it is exactly the interest to outsource that may trigger the ESCO markets. In the CEE region. Neither side has the incentive to invest in energy saving measures and equipment because the owner would have to bear the costs. 8. thus there is a significant need for contractors willing to take this task from the clients. Slovenia has seen similar changes and evolution of interest. the resistance is even higher when an intervention would affect the core business. and the development of the British and Belgian industry is also based on this incentive. in more developed countries. as a general rule. 9. In addition. The need to solve this issue was again highlighted by the interviewees in the present research. and on the other hand. neutral and reliable standard is believed to have the potential to significantly add to the success of the EPC market in almost all countries. however sometimes the financing solutions offered are not advantageous and high perceived risks often hinder the availability of good offers. so the client is required to offer some property to serve as a 86 . while the savings would appear on the tenants’ bills. and not cash flowbased. which decreases both risk and transaction costs. Small project size was also highlighted in the European ESCO Status Report 2005. mainly in the public and residential sector. however in an EE project there is often nothing that can serve as a collateral. In the industrial sector the client may be reserved in allowing the ESCOs in its processes and sometimes fear for data or patent protection may be the reason. Problems with the availability of financing that matches the specifics of EE projects have been quoted in many countries. Lack of and limited understanding of established measurement and verification protocols for assuring performance was also discussed in the European ESCO Status Report 2005. One of the problems with financing is that banks often assess the creditworthiness of the client instead of the project itself. As the industries have been cut into smaller units in Slovenia. An example is the “renter-owner” division. Administrative hurdles and high transaction costs limit willingness to participate. In certain countries these barriers are still serious. the energy management knowledge is missing in most of the offspring companies. On the other hand. Secondly. The development of a proper. The tenants pay the energy bills. These not only limit the clients’ interest. the tenant can never be sure whether he/she will use the property long enough to cover the pay-back time of the investment. although the significance of this barrier has drastically decreased since 2004-2005. split incentives are still extremely important in the building and the public sector. 7. but many have started to pool projects. On the other hand.5.

that ESCOs work with industries whose energy costs represent a large share of their expenditures. Energy Services Directive) 87 . In addition. In such cases small ESCOs face difficulties to convince both the clients and the financial institutions to start up a different type of EPC contract and borrow from the financial markets. and Germany). In the public sector ESCO projects may often have a difficult start if at all. In many markets large ESCOs dominate because they can afford to invest own equity. because energy use is more and more expensive and consumers are now forced to revise their energy spendings. Some of the most important individual factors are discussed below. It has been highlighted. commercial financial institutions are only interested in the “low hanging”. 10. Some ESCOs consider energy taxes as one of the most effective political measures for energy efficiency. Czech Republic). while in others some specific measures have been introduced or the environment became susceptible for this business (for instance in Spain. 2. easy projects. 3. This may be partially due to increasing European-level attention and policies. and/or the removal or rationalization of subsidies. but which seem to have eroded at least to some extent. In some countries. In contrast. (However. Forfeiting has become a tool to remedy the “lack of cash-flow” problems. where the bank would accept the stream of revenue coming from savings as a collateral. Governmental support pointed at as an important missing factor in the European ESCO Status Report 2005. for instance in Finland. As it has been shown in the present report. There are certain barriers that were significant in 2004-2005 (and are listed in the European ESCO Status Report 2005). thus limiting activity with longer projects and in some client segments (for instance in the residential sector). such as the legislation (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive. This might often be so in the private sector. High energy costs ensure the profitability of investing in energy saving for both the customer and the ESCO. Sweden. maybe because other “more important” priorities often override these. stricter environmental regulation. cash-flow based financing would be the appropriate solution for EE projects. there are a few success stories emerging across Europe also currently that can be attributed to intended or unconscious facilitation of these markets. and little credit is given to the immense local co-benefits of energy efficiency. too. a sharp increase in the price of gas can have dramatic effect on CHP investments and decrease or erode its profitability). Energy prices have been rising in almost all countries due to global market price increase and as a result of subsidy removal and/or rationalization especially in many CEE countries. This has significantly increased interest in energy efficiency and EPC. is more appreciative now for ESCOs. Energy prices have been going up significantly in almost all countries as a result of increasing world energy prices. because typically little attention is (possible to be) given to energy issues in local decision making. the ESCO market has been developed strategically (for instance in Austria.collateral. 1.3 Success factors The long history of ESCOs in certain countries is a result of the presence of various enabling factors and/or the ability of the market to overcome the most important barriers.

V. for instance Hungary and Estonia. Subsidies are peculiar. while the so called eco-label denotes the quality of ESCO services and the compliance with standards (E. The Thermoprofit quality label guarantees reliable high quality proposals by ESCOs using the label. because these documents are produced by a neutral body. Liberalization has unclear effect on the ESCO market. competition induces new services offered by the energy utilities. In Germany for instance. In Portugal. 9. On the one hand. as a result of market opening. however on the one hand different solutions have been applied (such as pooling. Templates and protocols are usually useful for embryonic markets and for building trust in the ESCO business in general. The case of Sweden and Austria has shown that introducing the ESCO concept and its basics to potential customers formed an essential part of their ESCO development strategy. 7. This is still an important issue. knowledge and understanding of the ESCO concept in South-East Europe where the ESCO industry is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Much attention is paid to increasing trust. since they are designed to help the ESCO industry by offering an additional 5 percentage points subsidy besides the 15-20% subsidy of the energy efficiency investment costs. however not widely used. or give a successful procedure protocol for carrying out parts or all of the ESCO operations. Small project sizes were also important barriers to energy saving investments in 2004-2005. 8. Among many others. There are some countries across Europe.A. 5. 6. Several quality labels have been set up for ESCOs and ESCO services. 2005). including ESCO servicing. The Directive 2006/32/EC of the European 88 . however. and on the other hand rising energy prices improved the economics of previously snubbed projects. where ESCOs have been able to combine their offers with state funds (Panel Program in Hungary) and make the sector an interesting area for investment. such as the residential sector could not take up much energy efficiency investment because the transaction costs are too high for ESCOs. the national energy supplier opened new business areas. competition has pushed prices down (especially in case of electricity). 4. some areas. Improving legislation and supportive regulatory background have been often emphasized to be especially important. Austria is a unique and very successful example of this. Dissemination of information and capacity building has been particularly successful in many countries if done effectively and for the appropriate audience. The Czech market is another example of successful ESCO development largely because of the successes of information distribution. thus decreasing the incentive to save energy. Some experts have been particularly favouring standard documents that help ESCO businesses by providing a template of the contract. such as an energy agency or NGO.3. obligatory audits. On the other hand. but very helpful of ESCOs in Finland. and often also due to liberalization of the electricity market. the British energy facilities also offer energy services in order to attract more customers or keep old ones. Accreditation of ESCOs has been referred to as one of the most effective tools to increase trust in the quality of ESCO work. It has been repeatedly expressed in the country reports that financing is not a problem in general. energy prices dropped significantly between 1999 and 2001 as a result of liberalization. grants).

in Romania penalties are so small that plants prefer to pay them than comply with the regulation. maintenance and management of other expenses related to energy-using equipment. However. 90 Electricity produced from renewable energy sources 89 89 . compared to the projections. For instance. the EU established obligations for its Member States towards more rational use of energy. the “RES-E Directive” (Directive 77/2001/EC) aims at increasing the share of green electricity (RES-E90) from 14% to 22. White Certificates acquired by ESCOs can be sold to distributors. 12. The most important and successful push for energy efficiency and for ESCO contracting in Finland has been the voluntary agreement with the industry. the same mixture might not have a start up value for ESCOs in another country. Obligatory audits have also been found effective to facilitate the ESCO markets.e. In the beginning of 2007. In addition. Under the Kyoto Protocol. as proven by the Italian experience. The role of the public sector in Member States is underlined. the Directive also aims at increasing incentives for the demand side. 10. the total energy consumption should be decreased by 20% by 2020. Another reason for the failure of the mandatory audits can be if the industries are reluctant to give out data about their sites. the increasing level of obligations related to Climate Change Politics. Energy saving measures implemented by ESCOs must be certified and verified. Strategies to develop the energy efficiency markets must consider the Distributors and their subsidiaries or associated companies are also eligible for White Certificates if they carry out energy conservation measures for the benefit of end-users. Industries that have joined the voluntary agreement are eligible for 15-20% subsidy of the energy efficiency investment costs from the government. Besides further supporting the supply side of energy services. because they are afraid that they get in the hands of their competitors. is also largely due to the increased climate consciousness. To this aim. 11. investments. who can cover their end-use energy conservation obligations with these. Energy Efficiency Certificates (White Certificates)89 are considered as a significant enabling factor for ESCOs. the European Union is committed to reducing GHG emissions by 8% between 2008 and 2012 relative to 1990 levels. 13. The public sector is requested to act as a role model for the private sector concerning energy efficiency measures such as energy services. For instance. The growing success of ESCOs. companies delivering carbon savings for obliged parties and/or obliged nation states.1% and to double the share of renewable energy in the total primary energy supply from 6% to 12% by 2010. too. in other cases. the EU endorsed a unilateral plan to reduce GHG emissions by 20% by 2020 as a binding target regardless of international climate negotiations.Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services is probably one of the most important pillars for the promotion of the ESCO industry. It is a complex set of indications and obligations on how to increase energy efficiency through energy services. While there is no “magic carpet” and a mixture of factors might work for the benefit of ESCOs in one country. i. It is believed that the introduction of mandatory audits in the Czech Republic has been a keystone in the development of the Czech ESCO industry. this connection is not seen. These targets increase the need for complex RUE solutions at project level.

Non-EU South-East Europe: Serbia and Montenegro. barriers are numerous and the establishment and penetration of ESCOs in these countries has been slow until today. and the World Bank is launching an ESCO in Macedonia in 2007. and thus lower the interest in ESCO business. However. which could create a stable background for ESCO projects. Even the most careful market development strategy might fail for unknown or unexpected reasons. their relatively high development must be acknowledged. Both the CIS and SEE countries feature inefficient industrial and buildings sectors. Nevertheless. ESCOs and EPC have no history yet in Non-EU South-East Europe. Belarus. and European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States: Ukraine. Russia. Countries of the Non-EU South-East Europe (SEE) region also show significant energy saving potential that could support a successful ESCO sector. and Moldova. Bosnia and Herzegovina. and sometimes the lack of a proper business environment is an important obstacle. ESCOs in other countries. and in many cases quickly growing economies. Nevertheless. Nevertheless. for instance another issue. energy efficient equipment suppliers and local companies are increasingly interested in starting up ESCO work there. The ESCO markets of the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States have a rather long history. 91 90 . further enhancing an ESCO friendly environment. prices are going up and economic growth forecasts indicate a large increase in energy demand. However. due to the EU-orientation of these countries. such as terrorism can draw attention away from energy savings. IFIs. the significant amount of untapped potential. and Albania. but rapid expansion and growth is expected. it is possible that energy efficiency will be an increasingly important priority. The energy saving potential is also large in their public sectors.4 New countries The review of the national ESCO markets of countries that have previously been omitted from systematic ESCO research91 is a special feature of the present report. there are several factors that have been able to significantly increase the ESCO industry across Europe. especially of SEE. Regulatory and legal barriers are significant. Macedonia. and therefore there is a primary need to combine entrepreneur sprit and understanding of risk. These markets offer a large business opportunity for Energy Service Companies because of the highly inefficient economies. 3. Energy prices tend to be low and limit the profitability of an ESCO project.local circumstances and combine interventions most appropriate there. The first ESCOs were set up already in the 1990s in Russia and Ukraine. ESCOs are businesses – that is companies that need to make profit –. Although the ESCO markets in the CIS cannot be regarded as particularly successful compared to some EU countries or the USA. as indicated above.

Countries: Serbia and Montenegro. 2006. V. Brochure.b. P. URL: www.38622). Country Overview.A. I. Development of Pilot Solar Thermal Energy Service Companies (ST-ESCOs) with High Replication Potential.. Andrea Köhnen. Countries: Moldova. Eds: Bertoldi. Ispra.b. European Energy Service Award 2005.at/(en)/enercee/mk/index.org/section/country/moldova [consulted 19 December 2006]. M.d. URL: http://ase.d. Energy Efficiency 27: AprilJune 2000. "White certificates" market ready for January debut: 2005 conservation targets set for electricity and gas distributors.shtml [consulted 5 August 2006].a.eva. Associazione Imprese di Facility Management ed Energia (AGESI). P. URL: http://www. Bashmakov. 91 . Energy Profile Bosnia and Herzegovina. and Markoginnakis.d. EIE/04/059/S07. London. Energy Profile Macedonia. Press release. How are EU ESCOs behaving and how to create a real ESCO market? In: Proceedings of the Summer Study Conference. Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie (ADEME). and Vine.4 REFERENCES Administration of Seversk. S. One hundred sixty-two firms accredited as energy service companies. Hinnells. based on information from Berliner Energieagentur GmbH. B.it (partially only in Italian). A Berlin Success Story. Ed: Stockholm: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. Berliner Energieagentur GmbH. ________. de Renzio. Liberating the power of energy services and ESCOs in a liberalised energy market. Austrian Energy Agency (E. E. ________. 21-23 June 2006. Atanasiu. EUROCONTRACT project. 2004. Annex II. 2006. n. (Project Report of no. G. Bertoldi. 2005..d. n. website. Berrutto. Aidonis. Project “Providing heat to municipalities”. Kiss...). Program of the regional development for administration unit of Seversk 2006-2009. Performance Contracting. Current situation of the Energy Efficiency Services market in France. France. 2006.al [consulted 10 November 2006]. Italy: European Commission.ase. webpage. and Rezessy. Adnot.org. Energy Subsidies and “Right Prices”. The analysis of projects under investments of international financial organizations (in Russian).htm [consulted 10 December 2006].de/archiv-2004/3446. ________. In: Proceeding of the International Energy Efficient Domestic Appliances and Lighting Conference (EEDAL`06).ac. DG Joint Research Center.htm [consulted 10 December 2006].d.V. J.berlinews.agesi. 2-7 June 2003. 2003. n. Saint Raphaël. n. BerliNews 17 May 2005. 2005. (in German) URL: http://www. Albanian-EU Energy Efficiency Centre (AEEC) n. ________.. B. URL: http://www. A. Alliance to Save Energy (ASE). P. ST-ESCOs Market Analysis: Hellas. M. ECEEE. Bertoldi. Country Overview. 2006.at/enercee/bih/index.eec. Autorità per l'energia elettrica e il gas (AEEG). URL: http://www. Press release.d. n. Energy Saving Partnership.a. EUROCONTRACT project..org/section/country/serbmont [consulted 19 December 2006].energyagency.. URL: http://www. 2000. 2006a.

Small-scale CHP Fact Sheet Spain. Acceding and Candidate Countries” Budapest. ________. De Groote. DG Joint Research Center. A. Country Report – Italy.pdf [consulted 5 August 2006]. A.H. De Almeida. Vienna. Small-scale CHP Fact Sheet Lithuania. ________. Small-scale CHP Fact Sheet Portugal. Morin Allen. Small-scale CHP Fact Sheet Greece. Förderung des Contracting ist gesamtpolitische Aufgabe. In: Proceedings of the First Pan-European Conference on Energy Service Companies. A. 2005. (German association of private ESCOs). Bundesverband Privatwirtschaftlicher Energie-Contracting-Unternehmen (PECU) e. Rezessy. PECU fordert Bundesregierung zur Erleichterung von Contracting-Massnahmen auf (Support of Contracting is a societal task. 2006c. [consulted 25 July 2006]. In: From Electricity Supply to Energy Services: Prospects for Active Energy Services in the EU. 2006. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development. Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES).Bertoldi. Reports by Countries: Development of Municipal Energy Efficiency Networking Activities. 2000. 2003. P. A. O. Hungary. 2006b. 2005b. EUROCONTRACT project. Ceresi. PECU asks government to facilitate contracting maeasures). URL: http://www. Performance Contracting. Energy efficiency and financial availability for energy efficiency project in Turkey.C. and Vine.html. 2006a. 2005. Small-scale CHP Fact Sheet Ireland. electricity market and ecology 16: 9-15. Working Paper of IEA DSM Task X. Kiev. ________t. Presentation at the JRC Workshop on End-Use Efficiency: “Financing of energy efficiency in New Member States. ESCO`s for households: a New Phenomena in Europe? In: Proceeding of the International Energy Efficient Domestic Appliances and 92 .. 2005a. and Pasoyan.. M. Country Overview. A.htm [consulted 28 August 2006]. Brussels: Eurelectric and European Commission. Removing Barriers to Residential Energy Efficiency in Southeast Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. 2006.org/IMG/pdf/National_reports_Bise.stescos. Ukraine: Alliance to Save Energy. 2005b.pecu. Country Summaries (Part 2) The Environment for Energy Performance Contracting in Central Europe. 22-23 May 2003. and Carvalho. ________. Role of ESCO in the industrial marketing in Italy: Siram experience. Chabchoub. 2005.V.de/index_aktu. URL: http://www. EPC in Greece: Current Situation. Monthly Balkan Energy Solutions Team (BEST) e-mail bulletin in power systems. 2006. renewable energy sources. J. Caglar. COGENchallenge project. Capozza.Chesshire..org/index. J.. W. Presentation at ESCO Europe Conference 2005.bise-europe. Italy: European Commission. ST-ESCOs newsletter. Innovations in CHP and lighting: best practice in the public & building sector. Energy Policy 34: 1818-1832. ed.T. Better Integration of Sustainable Energy (BISE). G. Lagos. S. P. Energy Services in Portugal.N. A. Ispra. (in German) URL: http://www. Ed: Bertoldi. Chistyakova. 2006b. Issue 4. 4-5 October 2005. 16-17 October 2006. Milan. 2006. ________. E. 2005a. Brand and Geissler 2003.

. Trends in energy and energy efficiency policies. and Girardin. Atanasiu. Slovakia: ECB. Italy: European Commission. Muligheder og barrierer for internationalt agerende ESCOs med base I Danmark. EPC in Sweden. 2006b. Frankfurt (Germany). Investigation of actual energy efficiency content of ”energy services” in France. 22-23 April 2004. J. n. Energy Charter Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects (PEEREA).. Eds: Bertoldi. Brussels: Energy Charter. Switzerland: Regular Review of Energy Efficiency Policies 93 .energiecites. 30 January 2003. Eds. Brussels: Energy Charter. Stockholm. Part I. In-Depth Review of Energy Efficiency Policies and Programmes..d.d. Dietrich. and Adnot. “Energy Managers”. 21-22 April 2004. n.pdf [consulted 31 July 2006].d. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Improving Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings (IEECB’04). H.b.. London. Ispra. P. M.Lighting Conference (EEDAL`06). B. B.. De Renzio.. 2006. Coppi. Workshop report. 2004. Discussion Papers No.. Germany. Smirnyagin. Energikontor Sydost. 2004. Performance contracting. Energy Charter Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects (PEEREA). Energy Charter Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects (PEEREA). D. Slovakia: ECB. Riga: Ekodoma.org/db/stuttgart_136_de. Danish Offshore Industry. 2004. N. Valerianova. Presentation at IEA/DSM TaskX “Performance Contracting” seminar. Efremov. Experiences in Italy: energy efficiency certificates. 2004. Switzerland. and Hernesniemi. [Opportunities and barriers for international action for ESCOs based in Denmark]. Ekodoma. P. The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy. Energie-Cités.. n. In: Proceedings of Annual Conference of Energie-Cités: Working in Synergy with the Private Sector? Martigny. International Business Development for Energy Industries (DI) and Dansk Energi – Net (PSO). Energy Center Bratislava (ECB). In: Proceedings of International Conference on Improving Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings (IEECB’04). 2002. 21-23 June 2006. R. Italy: European Commission. Ispra. 21-22 April 2004. instruments and actors. D. Bratislava. EUROCONTRACT project. O. Potentials for Energy Performance Contracting and Delivery Contracting in Public Buildings – Latvia (CLEARCONTRACT project). Kiss. Energy Service Companies. Potentials for Energy Performance Contracting and Delivery Contracting in Public Buildings – Slovakia (CLEARCONTRACT project). Intracting. M. B. and Atanasiu. Bratislava. 2004. Stuttgart. Frankfurt (Germany). URL: http://www. Moldova. Alessio. 2006a. Helsinki: ETLA. Bertoldi. PFC project in Italy. 2005. I. DG Joint Research Center. Republic of Macedonia: Regular Review of Energy Efficiency Policies 2006. Energie-Cités.a. 2003. DG Joint Research Center. ESCO Companies in Northwest Russia Legal Issues and Organizational Schemes. Energy Center Bratislava (ECB). Framework Conditions for Energy Performance Contracting and Delivery Contracting in Public Buildings – Slovakia (CLEARCONTRACT project). 912. J. Dupont.

Energy efficiency project in Croatia. E. Dublin: Sustainable Energy Ireland.C: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.. and Šteko. n. Italy: EC DG JRC. and Rezessy. Assessment of the Potential for ESCOs in Ireland.htm [consulted on 10 December 2006]. Renewable energy sources potential in the Russian Federation and available technologies. Summary of the the Seminar on ESCOs and Gas Flaring In the Framework of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Moscow. Review of EPC and applied technologies in eight European countries. and Future Technological Trends. B. 29. 2000.2004. 2004. 31. S.K. V. In: Proceedings of First European Conference of Municipal Energy Managers. DG Joint Research Center (EC DG JRC). European Commission.net/cms/_wcms_editor/front_content. D. Lins. V. Basque Country. Russia.ON. EBRD Press Release 24 May 2006.. A. Estrela. Evans.ebrd. EBRD and EU encourage energy saving in Ukrainian small and medium-sized enterprises through loan to country's first Energy Service Company (ESCO). URL: http://www. Presentation at ESCO Europe Conference 2005. European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). URL: http://www. Main authors: Kargiev. FEA-15. Authors: Bertoldi. M.php?idcat=25&idart=217 [consulted 20 July 2006].d. FRESCO: Applied Technology in Energy Production. 26 October 2006. P. A. 2004.com/new/pressrel/1998/24may9.M. Murugov. Pinov. 4-5 October 2005. 2006. EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre.opetbuilding-epc-lcca. A. Final Report. 2005. Pacific Grove.8. J.technologycentre. European Network for the Promotion of Energy Technologies in the Building Sector (OPET). Stuttgart. p. Country Profiles: Spain. instruments and actors. In: Proceedings of the ACEEE 2000 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Distribution and End-Use. 2000. CA. Tapping the Potential for Energy Efficiency: The Role of ESCOs in the Czech Republic.2006. ENVIROS Consulting Limited (ENVIROS). 1-2 July 2004. Enprima Ltd. Projects in FYR Macedonia.org/upload_files/Report_RE_English_. 2005.pdf EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Technology Centre. C. URL: http://www. European Network for the Promotion of Energy Technologies in the Building Sector (OPET). European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD).ebrd. Germany. Also available on-line at URL: http://www.. Brussels: Energy Charter.B. Vienna. 2006. 2004a.org/country/country/mace/showcase. Trends in energy and energy efficiency policies. Ruhrgas gazette 3-06. 2004b. Ispra. 94 . 1998.P. The Promotion of Finnish Energy Business in North-West Russia. August. 2004. Fanjek. Washington. Part I.. European Energy Service Companies Status Report 2005. and Sokolsky. Ukraine and Russia. Analytical Review for the workpackage #4 of the contract NNE5/2002/76.htm [consulted on 10 December 2006]. Efficient street lighting: integration of information technologies in energy management. 2005.

Flauger. forthcoming. Waldmann. DG Joint Research Center. General advise on contracting issues. Slovak Republic country report: Status of electricity end-use efficiency in buildings and energy services. Ispra. Bertoldi. Energy Policy in Ireland. M. Presentation at ESCO Europe Conference 2005. M and Ghirlando. In: 2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings . How to kick start a market for EPC – Lessons learned from a mix of measures in Sweden. In: Proceedings of the European Council for Energy Efficient Economy 2007 Summer Study. Kiss. Italy: European Commission. Fsadni. E. B. Bonn. URL: http://thegef. In: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Electricity End-Use Efficiency in Buildings and Energy Services in New Member States and Candidate Countries. Lopes. 2004 Malta country report: Status of electricity end-use efficiency in buildings and energy services. 2006. Washington DC: ACEEE Publications. In: Proceedings of Annual Conference of Energie-Cités: Working in Synergy with the Private Sector? Martigny. Ispra. CA. 2003. Switzerland.. C. In: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Electricity End-Use Efficiency in Buildings and Energy Services in New Member States and Candidate Countries.Fida. Atanasiu. 2006. 2004. A and Goldmann. EUROCONTRACT – Guaranteed Energy Performance.a tool for mainstreaming climate change into national policy and planning. Eds. M. 5 December 2005.F. Standardised Energy Services for Europe‘s buildings. USA. Dublin: The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI). Graz Energy Agency. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Improving Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings (IEECB’06). Brussles. Eds: Bertoldi. Forsberg. R. National Communication exercise . Hinnells. Asilomar. Mit eigener Kraft die Stromkosten senken [Decreasing electricity costs on your own]. Sustainable Energy Program: Project Executive Summary (ID P089656). Frankfurt (Germany). Belgium 9-10 December 2004. Aiming at a 60% reduction in CO2: implications for residential lights and appliances and micro-generation. 14-18 August 2006. London. 2005. Stockholm: European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. 2005. B. DG Joint Research Center. 4-5 October 2005. The Austrian programme for private service buildings: ecofacility. 22-23 April 2004. Gerald. Geissler. DG Joint Research Center. 2004. Geissler. M. Brussles. A."Less is More: En Route to Zero Energy Buildings". Germany. Handelsblatt 235.. Husarik. Working Paper 160. 2005. Market development for energy services in the European Union. Italy: European Commission. P. Case Study Paper of IEA DSM Task IX. J. Global Environment Facility (GEF).. 26-27 April 2006. 2006. Italy: European Commission. 16-17 May 2005. J. P. R.. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. 2003. Geissler. Presentation at the “Seminar of the Governmental Officials”. E. Thermoprofit: Marketing Performance Contracting. In: Proceeding of the International Energy Efficient Domestic Appliances and Lighting Conference (EEDAL`06). and Öfverholm. B. Vienna.org/documents/Work_Programs/ [consulted on 10 December 2006]. 95 . and Atanasiu. M. Grim. M.. 21-23 June 2006. M. Ispra. 2004.

4.Belgium 9-10 December 2004. Plan de Accion 2005-2007.motiva. W. Acceding and Candidate Countries” Budapest. Potentials for Energy Performance Contracting and Delivery Contracting in Public Buildings – Lithuania (CLEARCONTRACT project). Wuppertal. Presentation at the JRC Workshop on End-Use Efficiency: “Financing of energy efficiency in New Member States. and Benke. 2006. Ligot. Ochoa. Framework Conditions for Energy Performance Contracting and Delivery Contracting in Public Buildings – Lithuania (CLEARCONTRACT project). J.. N. A. 2005. Budapest. Aktueller Stand des Contracting in Deutschland [Current contracting scene in Germany]. Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI). 2003b. EUROCONTRACT project. S. Döppersberg. Lithuania: LEI. Figorski. 96 . Köln. Stuttgart. Italy: European Commission. S. SAVE Contract No. Pindar. Pamplona solar thermal ordinance – how does it work in practice? In: Proceedings of First European Conference of Municipal Energy Managers.d. P.. Attali.. Paris: OECD/IEA. Estrategia de Ahorro y Efficiencia energetica en Espana 2004-2012.. ________. Resumen. PICOLight project.d. Country Overview: Finland. Martinez. Ispra. Ketting.idae. G. Germany: Wuppertal Institut. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Improving Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings (IEECB’06).. Presentation at the EUROFORUM-Konferenz “EnergieContracting”. Internal performance commitments enabling a continuous flow of energy efficiency measures. Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI). Eds. Italy: European Commission. G. Kaunas.d.a. Hungary. EBRD’s Financing Mechanisms for Energy Efficiency Projects. Irrek. 26-27 April 2006. Estrategia de Ahorro y Efficiencia energetica en Espana 2004-2012. World Energy Outlook 2003.b. Irrek.. Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía (IDAE). DG Joint Research Center. 2005.. Lithuania: LEI. S. Frankfurt (Germany). URL: www. URL: www. DG Joint Research Center. 2003. 4-5 June 2002.T. 16-17 October 2006. W. Thomas. Plan de Accion 2005-2007. International Energy Agency (IEA). Turismo y Comercio and Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía (IDAE). Kristof.es (in Spanish) [consulted 16 July 2006]. Ministerio de Industria. website. 2002. S. M. MOTIVA Oy. 2006. Borg. M.fi (information on ESCOs is in Finish).. Turismo y Comercio and IDEA. Paris: OECD/IEA. n. n. 2006. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. MOTIVA Oy. Germany. 2006. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Belgium 2005 Review. n. Bertoldi. 2003a. 1-2 July 2004.1031/Z/02038/2002 – Final Report. Presentation at the European Conference on Developing the Energy Efficiency Market (DEEM). 2004. Kaunas. 2005. [consulted 30 January 2007]. B. Resumen. and Thomas.. Boosting efficiency with ESCO service. A. Benke. Ministerio de Industria. 2122 September 2006. A. n. Energy Efficiency in Russia: A Chance to Excel or a Hard Lesson to Learn? Russia Investment Review 4: 94-95.d. K. J. webpage. and Atanasiu. Ispra. Hyponnen. Filipowicz.

Rezessy.pepsonline.mure2. Presentation at the Workshop on Energy services companies (ESCO) and energy efficiency measures opportunities. 2006. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Energy Efficiency Profile: Luxembourg. T. Country Report – Norway. MURE-Odyssee. 2004. Ispra.H. 2005. 2005. Barriers and Ways to Finance Projects in New Member States and Candidate Countries. In: Proceedings of Annual Conference of Energie-Cités: Working in Synergy with the Private Sector? Martigny. s. DG Joint Research Center. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Pavlovic. 16-17 October 2006. Italy: European Commission.com.Norway. International Programs.mure2. T. Presentation at the JRC Workshop on End-Use Efficiency: “Financing of energy efficiency in New Member States. M. 2002. Prašović.d. Main authors: Magnussen. Development of ESCO (Energy Service Company) Companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Pujol. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Available in English at URL: Norsk Enok og Energi AS.. In: Proceedings of the Energy Efficiency Potential in Buildings. DG Joint Research Center. 2005. Italy: European Commission. 2006. H. A. and Birkeland. Review of factors that determine municipal involvement in the markets for energy services and energy efficient 97 . 21 April 2005. Energy Efficiency Profile: Spain. Also available on-line: www. Tallin. National Strategy for Energy of Albania (NSE). S. Olshanskaya. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Dimitrov. n. Tallin. Energy efficiency contract in district heating domain – Elementary schools in Petrzalka by C-TERM spol.html [consulted on 1 December 2006]. Estonia July 2005. Improvement of energy efficiency in Serbia. Ispra. Improving the quality of public administration (Chapter 3). Barriers and Ways to Finance Projects in New Member States and Candidate Countries.o. 22-23 April 2004. Sarajevo Promoting an Energy Efficient Public Sector (PePs). 2006a. Municipalities and energy efficiency in countries in transition. Racolta. I. Italy: European Commission. 2005. Performance Contracting. 2005. Estonia July 2005. Acceding and Candidate Countries” Budapest.. The UNDP/GEF Energy Efficiency Financing Team in Romania. Hungary. DG Joint Research Center. Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). and Baruch. S and Knežević. EUROCONTRACT project. In Economic survey of the Russian Federation 2006. Estonia July 2005. Switzerland. Available at URL: http://www. Working Paper of IEA DSM Task X. MURE-Odyssee. Tallin. In: Proceedings of the Energy Efficiency Potential in Buildings. N.r. S.org/programs. Ispra. S.. In: Proceedings of the Energy Efficiency Potential in Buildings.Murajda. D. Country Overview. 2006b. Urge-Vorsatz. 2006. The Barcelona solar thermal ordinance.com. 2005. Also available on-line: www. Barriers and Ways to Finance Projects in New Member States and Candidate Countries. Paris: OECD. K.

BISE. Sehovic.seenergy.org/index.pdf [consulted 5 March 2007]. Tallin. Energy Performance Contracting – success in Austria and Germany – dead end for Europe? In: Proceedings of the European Council for Energy Efficient Economy 2003 Summer Study. C. 2003. URL: http://europeandcis. Belgium Rodics. In: Proceedings of the Energy Efficiency Potential in Buildings. EIE/04/059/S07. ST-ESCOs Market Analysis: Spain. 2005. 2005a.d. Energy Policy 34(2): 223-237.undp. A New Era in Energy Efficiency in Turkey. URL: http://www.equipment.turkishweekly. n. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. ST-ESCO project. URL:http://www. ESCOs in Ireland: Investigation of Energy Service Companies in 2000. “Bankable Energy Efficiency Projects – BEEP” National Report: Framework Conditions for Financing Energy Efficiency Projects in Slovakia. n. Working Paper 155. S. Saffet Bora. European Conference on Local Energy Action: Optimising local action to drive sustainable energy and transport in the Europe of Twenty-Five. Opinion: Energy-Saving Resources not yet depleted. South-East Europe Multi-country Energy Website for the Athens Process (SEENERGY). S. 2003. Switzerland. Rochas. or how to augment the role of municipalities as market players. Brussels.php?/countries&stat=5&type=3&col=2124 [consulted 10 December 2006]. Office.rusdem. Energy Review 9:2-4. Barriers and Ways to Finance Projects in New Member States and Candidate Countries. Project no.d. F. Project Document. F. 1-2 December 2005. 2006a. Ispra. n. Tyndall Centre Working Paper. Country profile: Serbia and Montenegro. Presentation at the Energy Efficiency Investment for Climate Change Mitigation Seminar of UNECE. 2004. Project no. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). BiH Experience in Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency Financing.htm [consulted 17 November 2006].net/energyreview/TurkishWeeklyEnergyReview9. 98 .38622. Sorrel.com/Pages/index. 2006b.38622. Project Document.d. n. EIE/04/059/S07.d. Geneva. SAVE project. Scott. ESCOs in the Hungarian Energy Market. URL: http://www. H. ST-ESCOs Market Analysis: Austria. Financing Energy Efficiency in Belorus. The Contribution of Energy Services Contracting to a Low Carbon Economy. Italy: European Commission. BISE Energy Efficiency Networking Activities: Bosnia and Herzegovina. Dublin: The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).org/?wspc=HowToGuide_EE_Financing_23 [consulted 15 December 2006]. 2007. H. Surugiu. Slovak Energy Agency (SEA). 2005. Seefeldt. Environment & Energy Programme SPRU (Science & Technology Policy Research). 2005b. Estonia July 2005. G. DG Joint Research Center. Freeman Centre. 2004. Sehovic. 20-21 October 2004. Russian Energy Efficiency Demonstration Zones (Rusdem). website. Interview by Valentina Piantkovskaya. R. ST-ESCO project. Stockholm: European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.

World Energy Efficiency Association (WEEA). Year Review 2005. In: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Electricity End-Use Efficiency in Buildings and Energy Services in New Member States and Candidate Countries. barrier.munee.idecs?i=340 [consulted 15 December 2006]. P.org/go. USAID. Vine. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Municipal Network for Energy Efficiency (Munee): Country Program: Bosnia and Herzegovina. Xichilos. 1999. URL: http://www. Belgium 9-10 December 2004.idecs?i=8 [consulted 15 December 2006]. Italy: European Commission. Barriers and Ways to Finance Projects in New Member States and Candidate Countries.munee. D. Estonia July 2005.b. J. ESCO in Czech Republic: projects.d. Hungary: a success story. ESCOs in countries in transition. 2006. Tallin. September 2006. Ürge-Vorsatz. Italy: European Commission. Italy. 2004. ESCO in Bulgaria: Projects. Eurocontract.c. Estonia 99 .a. Vegel.org/go. Ispra. F. S. And Rezessy. Washington DC: ACEEE Publications. URL: http://www. Tallin. barriers. 2004. How policy can promote energy performance contracting – lessons from the Austrian experience. USAID. In: Proceedings of the Energy Efficiency Potential in Buildings. C. Energy Policy 33: 691-704. In: Proceedings of the Energy Efficiency Potential in Buildings.idecs?i=57 [consulted 15 December 2006]. D. 2003. Presentation at ESCO Europe Conference 2005. Editor: V. Municipal Network for Energy Efficiency (Munee): Country Program: Moldova. Vienna. USA.. CA. Barriers and Ways to Finance Projects in New Member States and Candidate Countries. 2005. M. Prague. S. Zeman. Ürge-Vorsatz. Zeman. 2005. Credit Guarantees Promoting Private Investment in Development.org/go. Public tenders for EPC. n. An international survey of the energy service company (ESCO) industry. European Platform for the Promotion of Energy Performance Contracting. J. 2005. 4-5 October 2005. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop “Electricity EndUse Efficiency in Buildings in Candidate Countries”. Washington: WEEA."Breaking Out of the Box". 2005. market. Ispra. 26-27.d.Unterpertinger. USAID. Presentation at the ESCO Europe 2006 International Conference. DG Joint Research Center. Berrutto..d. Briefing paper on Energy Service Companies with directory of active companies. Lazarova. 2005. n. Zachariev. market. Municipal Network for Energy Efficiency (Munee): Country Program: Serbia and Montenegro. Brussles. DG Joint Research Center. Langlois. E. Ispra. Asilomar. 4-5 October 2005. and Dasek. Presentation at ESCO Europe Conference 2005.munee. Cyprus country report: Status of electricity end-use efficiency in buildings and energy services. URL: http://www. B. 22-27 August 2006. D. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. Washington: USAID. n. Vienna. Italy: European Commission. Ispra. 2005. October 2003. USAID. In: 2004 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings . DG Joint Research Center. Why Hungary? Lessons Learned from the Success of the Hungarian ESCO Industry.

July 2005. Italy: European Commission. DG Joint Research Center.history. 100 . Presentation at ESCO Europe Conference 2005. 4-5 October 2005. Energy Performance Contracting in the Czech Republic . 2005. O. Vienna. Ispra. Eds: Paolo Bertoldi and Bogdan Atanasiu. present and future development. Žídek.

October 2006. ̇ Matias. ̇ de Almeida. srl.. Telephone and personal communication. ̇ Tavares. (A. Email correspondence. Agenzia Regionale per l'Energia). ̇ Caroli.A. ̇ Escobar. (Hellenic Center for Investment). (University of Coimbra). Email correspondence. Email correspondence. Email correspondence. (University of Sussex). Email correspondence. Email correspondence.Gruppo MPES). 101 . and Mouratidis. 15 March 2007.A. J. and Conceição. P. S. F.l. E. (Generele Energia). (ASSOESCo). Email correspondence. 20 July 2006 Email correspondence. (ADENE). Email correspondence. Personal communication. ̇ Sorrell. E. Email correspondence. The experts. D. (AMI).5 PERSONAL COMMUNICATION AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors of the present report would like to express their greatest gratitude to all persons who have kindly answered or reacted to our emails.E. ̇ Johansen. A. 27 June 2006. 22 August 2006. Telephone interview.. A. ̇ Siguenza. P. ̇ De Renzio. phone calls or personal invitations to discuss about ESCOs across Europe. M. 2006. 7 July 2006. 27 September 2006. Italy ̇ Marchetti. (Heat & Power SRL). P. 27 June 2006. Email correspondence. Fonseca. (National Technical University of Athens). ̇ Alonso. ̇ Lombotessi. 28 June 2006. 26 September 2006.R. (Caroli Giovanni Energy Service Company Srl. Email correspondence. P. S. M.D. 14 November 2006. Email correspondence. 22 November 2006. L.) . (Reverberi Enetec s. Portugal ̇ Beirao. 25 August 2006. ̇ Patlitzianas. ̇ Tomaselli. 7 July 2006. Greece ̇ Psomadellis. J. 4 September 2006. H. K. P. Spain ̇ De Molina. (World Bank). G.). Email correspondence. (ANCO S.Gest. 27 September 2006. M (La Federazione Italiana per l'uso Razionale dell'Energia). ̇ Graziotti. ̇ de Almeida. 5 December 2006. (Geyca). Phone interview. (Consorzio Sinergia Nuoro). 27 November 2006. ̇ Piantoni. practitioners and professionals supplying direct information for the country reviews are listed below. October 2006. 3 July 2006. Email correspondence. (Siemens). M. (University of Coimbra). Personal communication. (AEDIE). and Moura. J.r. G.A. A. (Selfenergy). (Pro. S.).10 July 2006. Personal communication. C. Email correspondence. ̇ Fabionelli. (Elyo). ̇ Boemio. 28 November 2006. (EDP). Europe in general ̇ Dietrich. 19 December 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Di Lecce. Email correspondence.

̇

Markogiannakis, G. (CRES). 8 December 2006. Email correspondence.

UK ̇ Sorrell, S. (University of Sussex). The UK. 7 July 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Hargreaves, C. (OFGEM). The UK. 26 September 2006. Personal communication. ̇ Lees, E. (Eoin Lees Energy). The UK. 26 September 2006. Personal communication. Ireland ̇ O’Hanlon, A. (Sustainable Energy Ireland). 17 July 2006. Email correspondence. France ̇ Jullian, P. (Schneider Electric, Services Division). 21 November 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ de Beaurepaire, P. (FG3E). 18 December 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Adnot, J. (Center Energétique et Procédés). 2005. Email correspondence. Germany ̇ Diehl, O. (Axima GmbH). July 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Brickmann, U. (Siemens Building Technology). Germany. 6 March 2007. ̇ Ratzmer, B. (Tesign Consulting). July 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Anastassacos, T. (Dalkia). July 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Irrek, W. (Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy). 6 March 2007. ̇ Waldmann, A and Goldmann, R. (Berliner Energieagentur). 30 August 2006. Email and personal correspondence. ̇ Honcamp, S. (BBT Thermotechnik GmbH). 16 November 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Groeger, J. (Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH). 16 February 2007. Email correspondence. Austria ̇ Mihatsch, H. (AXIMA Gebäudetechnik GmbH). 20 July correspondence. ̇ Lutmer, E. (Austrian Energy Agency). 2005. Email correspondence.

2006.

Email

Belgium ̇ Kathleen Markey (Fines). July 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ van Isterdael, M. (Axima Services Suez). 27 September 2006. Personal communication. The Netherlands ̇ van Dril, A.W.V (ECN, Energy Research Foundation Department). 28 June 2006. ̇ Klinkenberg, F. (Klinkenberg consultants). 17 October 2006. Personal communication. Finland ̇ Koski, P. (MOTIVA Oy). 5 July 2006. Email correspondence.

102

̇

Hypponen, S. and Siitonen, E. (Inesco Oy). 26 Sept. 2006. Personal communication.

Sweden ̇ Sward, M. (Energy Agency of Southeast Sweden). 28 November 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Mundaca, L. (International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics). 2005. Email correspondence. Denmark ̇ Holst-Nielsen, J, (Danish Offshore Industry). 15 Sept 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Christensen. U. (Birch & Krogboe A/S). 21 November 2006. Email correspondence. Lithuania ̇ Skema, R. (Lithuanian Energy Institute). 24 July 2006. Email correspondence. Latvia ̇ Rochas, C. (Ekodoma). 5 July 2006. Email correspondence. Estonia ̇ Vabamägi, A. (Regional Energy Centers). 28 June and 21 September 2006. Email and personal communication. ̇ Laaniste, M. (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, Energy Department). 7 August 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Tepp, J. (Energy Saving Bureau). 17 October 2006. Personal communication. Hungary ̇ Giczi, I (F táv-Komfort Épületenergetikai Szolgáltató és F vállalkozó Kft). 12 June 2006. Personal communication. ̇ Nemeth, L. (ENSI Kft.). 14 June 2006. Personal communication. ̇ Makra, J. (Regionalis Fejlesztesi, Beruhazo, Termelo es Szolgaltato Zrt.). 14. August 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Szoo, Z. (OMIKK). 12 June 2006. Personal communication. ̇ Kovacsics, I. (EGI). 13 June 2006. Telephone interview. ̇ Weores, B. (EnergoBanking). 13. June 2006. Telephone interview. ̇ Polczman, A. (Kipcalor Plc.) 14 August 2006.Personal communication. ̇ Beres, A. (Energy Center). 1 February 2007. Personal communication. Czech Republic ̇ Dasek, M. (International Financing Corporation - CEEF). 25 July 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Chadim, T. and Vorisek, T. (Seven). 12 July 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Helenova, V. (Enviros). 4 August and 21 September 2006. Email and personal communication. Poland ̇ Szajner, A. (Sigma Termodinamik Ltd.). 26 June 2006. Email correspondence.

103

̇ ̇ ̇

Gula, A. (University of Science and Technology). 7 July 2006. Email correspondence. Aron, C. (GreenMax Capital Advisors). 27 September 2006. Personal communication. Johansen, P. (World Bank). 22 November 2006. Phone interview.

Slovenia ̇ Perpar, B.P. (Eltec Mulej). 17 October 2006. Personal communication. Malta ̇ Ghirlando, R. (University of Malta). 16 October 2006. Personal communication. Cyprus ̇ Riza, E. (CRM Europe). 16 October 2006. Personal communication. ̇ Kitsios, K. (Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism, department of Energy). 3 may 2007. Email correspondence. Romania ̇ Dragostin, C. (Energy-Serv). 26 June 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Pop, F. (EnergoEco). 27 September. 2006. Prague, Personal communication. ̇ Ligot, J. (EBRD). 24 October 2006. Email correspondence. Bulgaria ̇ Zhechkov, N. (Brunata). 18 September 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Doukov, D. (EnEffect). 8 September 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Kolio, K. (EEA). 2005 and 28 June 2006. Email correspondence. Croatia ̇ Šteko, B. (HEP). 24 July 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Uran, V. (expert). 24 June 2005. Email correspondence. Turkey ̇ Uyar, T.S. (Marmara University). 8 September 2006. Email correspondence. Switzerland ̇ Brunner, C. (S.A.F.E.). 17 December 2006. Email correspondence. Norway ̇ Hagen, L. A. (Research Council of Norway). 2005. Email correspondence. ̇ Mjos, T. (Norconsult AS). 17 December 2006. Email correspondence. Ukraine ̇ Mitskevych, M. (UkrESCO). 20 October 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Petkov, B. (Nexant Limited). 18 October 2006. Email correspondence. ̇ Ligot, J. (EBRD). 24 October 2006. Email correspondence.

104

7 February 2007. V. Email correspondence. Email correspondence. J. (Alliance to Save Energy). ̇ Lujanskaya. 30 December 2006. 29. In addition. A. 4 January 2007. 19 December 2006.Russia ̇ Honkanen. (Toplifikacija AD). (Energy Regulatory Commission). (Maicon Associates Ltd. or have hosted conferences and workshops which provided forums for information collection. Email correspondence. ̇ Misiuchenka. Albania ̇ Saraçi. P. Email correspondence. 30 December 2006. (Center for Energy Efficiency). 18 February 2007. Cyril and Methodius University). ̇ Dimoska. (Regional Environmental Center. E. Macedonia ̇ Johansen. Z. Email and telephone communication. Email correspondence. 18 January 2007. Email correspondence. Phone interview. 22 December 2006. 5 December 2006. ̇ Stefanovski. Email correspondence. (DG TREN. Russia. Delegation of the European Commission to Russia). (EBRD). ̇ Ligot. Email correspondence. ̇ Dimitrov. Bosnia and Herzegovina ̇ Bratic. A. Email correspondence. I. ̇ Woellert. T. 17 November 2006. Moldova ̇ Coseru. (National Energy Agency). (Ss. Email correspondence. Moldova). L. or helped the publication of this report in any other way. 16 November 2006. ̇ Hido. November 2006. the authors would also like to thank those who have not given particular information but have directed us to the relevant people. ̇ Gutu. (expert). D. Email correspondence. K. (Lighthouse Business Management Russia BV). (Institute of Power Engineering of the Moldavian Academy of Science). Email correspondence. H. ̇ Ketting. T. C. (World Bank). J. 24 October 2006b.).M. (Lappeenranta University of Technology). 19 December 2006. 31 October 2006. J. Belarus ̇ Iqbal. (Albania-EU Energy Efficiency Centre). 105 . Email correspondence. Email correspondence. 22 November 2006.

106 .

Association of Facility Management and Energy Services Companies Automatic Monitoring and Targeting Asociación Espanola de Empresas de Mantenimiento Integral de Edificios. the Spanish National Energy Agency 107 ADEME AEEG AGESI aM&T AMI ARCE ASSOESCo BEEF BiH CEM CHP CIS CO2 CRES DH EAR EBRD EDP EE EFIEES EPBD EPC ESCO ESCP ESP ESTA eva FG3E FOGIME FREE GEF HVAC IBRD ICO IDEA . Energy and the Environmen Crediting System in Favour of Energy Management Romanian Energy Efficiency Fund Global Environmental Fund Heating. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas Associazione Imprese di Facility Management ed Energia. Infrastructures and Industries Agentia Romana pentru Conservarea Energiei. French Federation of Companies Providing Services to Facilities. KAPE) district heating European Agency for Reconstruction European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Electricidade de Portugal. the French Environment and Energy Management Agency Autorità per l'Energia Elettrica e il Gas. Institute for Diversification and Energy Saving. and Air-Conditioning International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Spanish Association of Enterprises of Complex Maintenance of Buildings. Romanian Energy Conservation Agency Associanziaone Nazionale Societi Servizi Energetici Bulgarian Energy Efficiency Fund Bosnia and Herzegovina Contract Energy Management combined-heat-and-power Commonwealth of Independent States carbon-dioxide Center for Renewable Energy Sources ( . Infraestructuras e Industrias. see WB Instituto de Crédito Oficial Instituto para la Diversificacion y Ahorro de la Energia. à l'Energie et à l'Environnement. Ventilation.6 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie. Portuguese Electricity Company energy efficiency European Federation of Intelligent Energy Efficiency Services EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings Energy Performance Contracting Energy Service Company Energy Service Provider Companies Energy Saving Partnership Energy Services and Technology Association Austrian Energy Agenvy La Fédération Française des Entreprises Gestionnaires de services aux Equipements.

SSEE Energy Efficiency Service Companies (France) TPF Third Party Financing TACIS European Union’s technical assistance program UkrESCO Ukrainian ESCO UNOPS United Nations Office for Project Services USAID United States Agency for International Development VfW Verband für Wärmelieferung.international financial institution Kozloduy International Decommissioning Support Fund (Bulgaria) 1000 tonne of oil equivalent monitoring and verification multinational company Finnish Energy Agency National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (Poland) OPET European Network for the Promotion of Energy Technologies in the Building Sector PBT pay-back time PECU Bundesverband Privatwirtschaftlicher Energie-Contracting-Unternehmen PePS Promoting an Energy Efficient Public Sector (program) PPP Public-Private-Partnership RES renewable energy sources RUE rational use of energy SEE South-East Europe SEEA Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency SEI Sustainable Energy Ireland SME small and medium sized enterprises SS2E.und Elektronikindustrie e. IFI KIDSF Ktoe M&V MNC MOTIVA NFOS 108 .V. Association for Heat Supply WB World Bank ZVEI Zentralverband Elektrotechnik.

Paolo Bertoldi.European Commission EUR 22927 EN – Joint Research Centre Title: Latest development of energy service companies across Europe — A European ESCO update Author(s): Benigna Boza-Kiss. and especially since 2004. and in particular to investigate the specific situation in every country in more detail. the authors sketch the current status of national markets. Specific barriers are identified and potential interventions to increase energy efficiency investments and to exploit energy saving potentials through ESCOs across Europe are discussed.7 cm EUR – Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593 ISBN 978-92-79-06965-9 DOI 10. which was published by the European Commission DG Joint Research Center in 2005. In addition. Silvia Rezessy Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 2007 – 108 pp. The primary scope of the report is the enlarged European Union (EU-27). To this end.2788/19481 Abstract The present report is an update of the “Energy Service Companies in Europe – Status Report 2005”. and identify changes that have occurred during recent years. The aim of the present report is to update and expand the scope of the Status Report 2005. The European ESCO Status Report gave an overview of the ESCO concept and key definitions. . however special attention has been given to examining the ESCO markets in countries that have usually been ignored by research. and thus the report is the first of its kind to scrutinize almost every country in Europe. the development of the energy service companies market across Europe. – 21 x 29. the reasons behind the changes are investigated. and a concise synopsis of the state-of-the-art in the European Union Member States and the Candidate Countries in 2004.

whether private or national. As a service of the European Commission. the JRC functions as a reference centre of science and technology for the Union. development. while being independent of special interests.22927.EN. it serves the common interest of the Member States.C The mission of the JRC is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception. implementation and monitoring of EU policies.NA.LB. Close to the policy-making process. .

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->