BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE

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BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE

The organs of the urinary system include the following:(a) kidneys (b) ureters (c) bladder (d) urethra
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BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE

kidney ~ You have two kidneys in your body. They are located towards your back, near your waist. Your kidneys are the site of urine formation.

Ureters ~ These are muscular tubes which transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

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BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE

Bladder ~ This is a hollow muscular structure which stores urine. It is capable of great distention and can contract with considerable force. Urethra ~ This is a muscular tube that transports urine from the bladder to the outside.

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BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE

Label the organs in a human urinary system
1. Label the organs in a 2. v human urinary system 3.

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Urethra 6 . Bladder 4.Ureter human urinary system 3.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Label the organs in a human urinary system Label the organsKidney in a 2.

Bladder 4. Urethra 7 .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Label the organs in a human urinary system Label the organsKidney in a Ureter human urinary system 3.

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Label the organs in a human urinary system Label the organsKidney in a Ureter human urinary system Bladder 4. Urethra 8 .

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Label the organs in a human urinary system Label the organsKidney in a Ureter human urinary system Bladder Urethra 9 .

10 . help to regulate the balance of water and salts in the body by excreting more or less salt and increasing the intake or loss of water.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE The functions of the kidneys are:- 1.

regulate osmotic pressure and ionic levels in the blood. excrete waste products. 11 .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE 2. regulate of blood pH. 4. 3.

Renal pelvis artery vein 1.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE 5.Cortex 3. Renal 6. Renal Label the structure of a kidney 12 . Medulla 4.Ureter 2.

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE The structure of a kidney The kidney has 2 internal layers. a) renal cortex ~ an outer lightred region b) renal medulla ~ an inner darker red-brown region 13 .

renal vein carries away filtered blood to the body. 14 .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE renal artery supplies oxygenated blood and nutrients to the kidney.

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE renal pelvis urine formed in the kidney drains into the renal pelvis 15 .

Renal 6. Renal 16 .Cortex 3.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE 5. Renal pelvis artery vein Ureter Label the structure of a kidney 2. Medulla 4.

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE 5.Cortex 3. Renal 6. Renal pelvis artery Renal vein Ureter Label the structure of a kidney 17 . Medulla 4.

Renal pelvis Renal artery Renal vein Ureter Label the structure of a kidney 18 . Medulla 4.Cortex 6.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE 5.

Medulla 6. Renal pelvis Cortex Renal artery Renal vein Ureter Label the structure of a kidney 19 .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE 5.

Renal pelvis Label the structure of a kidney 20 .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Medulla Cortex Renal artery Renal vein Ureter 6.

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Medulla Cortex Renal artery Renal vein Ureter Renal pelvis Label the structure of a kidney 21 .

Each human kidney consists of about one million nephrons. 22 . A nephron consists of three major partsa) the glomerulus b) Bowman¶s capsule c) the distal convoluted tubule.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE The Nephron The functional unit of the kidney is called the nephron.

within the kidney. each nephron is supplied with blood by an afferent arteriole which is a branch of the renal artery.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE (a) The glomerulus . .each afferent arteriole divides further into a tangled capillary network called the glomerulus. 23 .

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE The capillaries of the glomerulus reunite to from an efferent arteriole. 24 . Each efferent arteriole divides to from a network of blood capillaries surrounding the kidney tubules. These blood capillaries are called peritubular capillaries which eventually reunite into the renal vein.

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Efferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries To renal vein Tubule Bowman¶s capsule Afferent arteriole Glomerulus To bladder and external environment 25 .

The space between the two layer of cells is called the capsular space. 26 .The Bowman¶s capsule is made up of two layers of cells that surround the glomerulus. .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE (b)Bowman¶s capsule .

The podocytes adhere closely to the endothelial cells of the glomerulus.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE The cells that make up the inner wall of the Bowman¶s capsule are called podocytes. 27 .

28 .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE The renal tubule is made up of the a) proximal convoluted tubule b) the loop of Henle T. c) the distal convoluted tubule The distal convoluted tubules of several nephrons join to a common collecting duct.

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE . Glomerulus Tubule Bowman¶s capsule Collecting duct Blood from renal artery Blood to renal vein Loop of Henle 29 .

capsule 1. Glomerulus 4.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE 3. Loop of Henle Collecting 5. Renal tubule Bowman¶s 2. tubule Label the structure of a nephron 30 .

capsule Loop of Henle Collecting 5. Glomerulus 4. Renal tubule Bowman¶s 2.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE 3. tubule Label the structure of a nephron 31 .

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE 3. Renal tubule Bowman¶s capsule Loop of Henle Collecting 5. tubule Label the structure of a nephron 32 . Glomerulus 4.

Renal tubule Collecting 5. tubule Label the structure of a nephron 33 .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Glomerulus Bowman¶s capsule Loop of Henle 4.

tubule Label the structure of a nephron 34 .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Glomerulus Bowman¶s capsule Loop of Henle Renal tubule Collecting 5.

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Glomerulus Bowman¶s capsule Loop of Henle Renal tubule Collecting tubule Label the structure of a nephron 35 .

36 . The kidney filter blood and produce urine which exits the body through the :a)ureters b) urinary bladder c) urethra.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE The kidneys excrete waste through urine.

the urethra exits through the penis in males and through the vulva in females. 37 .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE All these structures are found in both males and females. However.

urea and other dissolved wastes.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE What is urine? rine is a fluid which consists of water. and some excess nutrients. 38 .

reabsorpton c. ultrafiltration b. secretion 39 .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE The formation of urine The formation of urine involves 3 stages:a.

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE (a) Ultrafiltration Blood containing urea and other waste products are brought into kidneys via the renal arteries. Filtration occurs across the glomerular walls. 40 .

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE (b) Reabsorption Selective reabsorption takes place when substances move across the walls of the renal tubule into the capillary network. 41 .It occurs at the proximal convoluted tubule.

ammonia. Hydrogen ion. 42 . creatine and certain drugs. potassium.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE (c) Secretion substances are actively secreted from the blood into the nephron tubule.

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Urination is the elimination of urine from the bladder. the stretch receptors located in the bladder wall will become activated. 43 . Once a sufficient quantity of urine has accumulated in the bladder.

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE The internal sphincter in the urethra must be relaxed by conscious thought before the urine can pass from the body. 44 .

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Clean Blood Renal vein Blood with waste products Renal artery Ureter Waste products (urine) to the bladder Nephron Tubule 45 .

(i) In your diagram. outline the arteriole from the renal artery red to show that it carries oxygenated blood.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE Exercise 1 (a) Draw and label the functional unit of the kidney. 46 .

BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE (ii) Outline the branch of the renal vein blue to show that it carries deoxygenated blood. 47 . (iii) Outline the capillaries intertwine the loop of Henle purple to show that they carry a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.

trace the direction of oxygenatedand deoxygenated blood flow through the unit.BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE (iv) Using red. blue and purple arrows. 48 .

49 .BIOLOGY FORM 5 : CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION AND RESPONSE (v) Using yellow arrows. trace the direction of filtrate as it flows through the unit beginning at the glomerulus.

.The End... MysLkc2009@smk aminuddin baki chemor. Thank you.

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