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beam-column

beam-column

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11/25/2014

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Members subjected to bending and axial compression (beam-column

)
Outlines

Basic principles of steel structures

Introduction Section capacity of beam-column Overall stability of beam-column

Dr. Xianzhong ZHAO x.zhao@mail.tongji.edu.cn www.sals.org.cn

Local buckling of plate element in beam-clomn Rigidity of compression members

Beam-column
introduction Beam-column members in structures
- column in frame structure - rafter in portal frame - longitudinal girder of cable-stayed bridge - members in truss structures

Beam-column
introduction Structural shapes used in beam-column

Selection of cross-section
Loading status cross-section used - major in compression, plus minor bending doubly symmetric section - major in bending about one axis singly symmetric section - bi-axial beam-column

Beam-column
introduction: failure modes strength failure (section capacity)
yield, fracture, fatigue, connection

Beam-column
section capacity of beam-column Section capacity: normal stress dominated — yield at compressive fiber

stability failure (buckling resistance) of beam-column
Overall stability: in-plane buckling and flexural-torsional buckling Local buckling of plates in beam-column Chord buckling in built-up beam-column

N Mx + ≤ fy A Wx1
— yield at tensile fiber
− N Mx + ≤ fy A Wx2

Less rigidity of beam-column
excessive deflection, loss of rigidity

— plastic failure

A(

N M + n )α + B ( x + m ) β = 1 Np M px

1

Beam-column section capacity of beam-column Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column In-plane overall stability Mx Mx v practical design equations (net section) Criteria of elasticity My N Mx ± ± ≤ fd An W xn W yn My N Mx ± ± ≤ fd An W xn W yn Mx :0 → N Mx Mx v N Criteria of partial plasticity My N Mx ± ± ≤ fd An γ xW xn γ yW yn My N Mx ± ± ≤ fd An γ xW xn γ yW yn N :0→ N Np N M px M pcx NE Criteria of full plasticity (bending about one axis) if if N ≤ 0 . cos α 2 ⇒ cos = 0 2 π M max Ney N M max N + = + ≤ fy A Wx A Wx cos(α / 2) Aey N [1 + sec(α / 2)] ≤ f y A Wx fy N σ= ≤ A 1 + ε 0y sec(α / 2) Ae where. 13 An f d M M x ≤ W pnx f d ≤ 1 . pp85 v )W pnx f d v N An f d > 0 . 15 (1 − N An f d Equ.(4.18). the differential equation will be differential equation while subjected to bending EI x v' '+ Nv = − Ney [cos(α / 2 − αz ) − cos(α / 2)] cos(α /2) eyα 2 v' ' = − cos(α / 2 − αz ) cos(α /2) v= solution satisfy the boundary condition: v0 = v = 0 ' v0' = v '' = − ey we got. EI x v' '+M x = 0 Mx EI x Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column curves for differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column Mx N Mx Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column criteria of yielding at extreme fiber for beam-column Mx Mx N v= ey y v z N N NE N y v z N NE yield at extreme fiber 1 vmax = ey [ − 1] cos(α /2) Ney Mx M max = = cos(α /2) cos(α /2) cos(α /2) [cos(α / 2 − αz ) − cos(α / 2)] v max N NE N ⇒ NE = π 2 EIx 2 . 13 x Why in-plane buckle s of beam-column? Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column Mx N Mx N Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column solution for differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column Mx N Mx y v z y v z N EI x v' '+ Nv = − Ney bending equilibrium about x-axis for all types section if M x = Ney let α = N / EI x EI x v' ' = −( M x + Nv) EI x v' '+ Nv + M x = 0 For all types sections with illustrated supports. ε 0 y = y Wx v max 2 .

8 ' ⎟ partially ⎜ ⎟ N EX ⎠ plasticity ⎝ ϕx A β mx M x ⎜ γ xWx1 ⎜1 − 0.0 3 .0 Beam-column without sideway in the plane of bending — no any transverse load vo = M x — moment based on first-order analysis N Wx1 ( Af y − N ox )( N EX − N ox ) AN ox N EX + 0.N/N E amplification factor considering second-order effect in elasticity: v max λ = 120 vmax / N / Np 1 .0 N v0 v z N NE ultimate capacity yield at extreme fiber Nu λ = 20 λ = 40 λ = 80 ε 0y = 1 EI x v ' ' + Nv = Nv 0 v 0 = v 0 m sin( π z / ) v0 m πz sin( ) v= 1− N / NE Nv0m M max = 1 . load-deflection curve is nonlinear due to second-order effect Criteria of yield at extreme fiber of in-plane buckling of beam-column is strength problem considering second-order effect.N/N E curves of axial force – max.35 — with end moment and transverse load M2 M1 ϕ x Af y 0. considering the development of plasticity β mx M x =1 ⎛ N ⎞ yield at ⎟ Wx1 f y ⎜1 − ϕ x ⎜ extreme fiber N EX ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ N + 1 . but having transverse load 1 .0 Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column design formula for in-plane buckling resistance of solidweb beam-column N M x + Nvo + =1 N P M (1 − N ) ex N EX N + Af y M x + Nvo =1 ⎛ N ⎞ ⎟ Wx1 f y ⎜1 − ⎜ N EX ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Mx = 0 Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column End moment factor (pp196) Beam-column with sideway in the plane of bending 1 .85 N Formula applied to “member” ϕx A + β mx M x = fy ⎛ N ⎞ γ xWx1 ⎜1 − 0.8 — factor obtained from test and numerical results.Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column second-order effects ( P − Δ effects) M x = Ne y N N Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column ultimate capacity of beam-column M x = Ne y N Mx v N Mx v y z N yield at extreme fiber z N ultimate capacity N u yield at extreme fiber first-order moment: M1 = Ney second-order moment: v max M 2 = Ney (sec α 2 − 1) Before yield at extreme fiber.0 0.8 ⎝ ⎛ N ⎞ ⎟ ' N EX ⎟ ⎠ = fy — no end moment. moment of beam-column while buckles (slenderness as parameter) In-plane stability ultimate capacity 1 .0 λ = 0 section capacity 20 80 120 M / Mp criteria of yield at extreme fiber: N Nv 0m + ≤ fy A W x (1 − N / N E ) 1 1 . but it is not a section capacity problem due to its pertaining to the deflection of the whole member amplification factor considering second-order effect in elasticity: sec α 2 — develop plasticity after yielding at extreme fiber — the increase of load effect (moment) is nonlinear — the difference of increase between moment and section resistance leads to decrease of loads to maintain the bending equilibrium v max In-plane buckling of beam-column performs → extreme value of load-deflection curve → second-order effect of compression and deflection → In-plane buckling is not section capacity (strength) problem Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column (beam-)column with initial imperfection N Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column numerical algorithm to obtain the ultimate capacity of beamcolumn considering material nonlinearity.65 + 0. pp191-193 axial force – deflection curves (slenderness as parameter) obtained by numerical algorithm N / Np 1 .

Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column design formula for in-plane buckling resistance of unsymmetric solid-web beam-column with larger flange in compression N − N + A Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column Characteristic of flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column (out-of-plane buckling) Mx Mx N β mx M x γ xWx2 ⎜1 − 1.θ z z N N EI y u IV + Nu '' + M xθ '' = 0 2 '' EI ωθ IV − GI tθ '' + M x u '' + ( Nr0 − R)θ = 0 Solution Procedure refers to pp197 N N M2 )(1 − ) − 2x = 0 Solution: (1 − N Ey Nθ M crx where.(7-18) is the critical FTB force Discussion: beam-column buckles when compression reach N Ey . Nθ ? EI ωθ ''' − GI tθ ' + M x u ' = 0 Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column illustration of critical flexural-torsional-buckling resistance of beam-column Solution: (1 − N / N Ey 1 .2 0 . (7-18) EI y u '' + M xθ = 0 EI y u EI y u IV + Nu '' + M xθ '' = 0 IV + Nu = 0 '' EI ωθ IV − GI tθ '' + M x u '' + ( Nr02 − R)θ '' = 0 2 '' EI ωθ IV − GI tθ '' + ( Nr0 − R)θ = 0 N Ey = π 2 EI y / 2 Nθ = (π EIω / 2 oy 2 oθ + GIt + R) / r02 Axial force satisfying Equ.0 design formula: N M x / M crx 1 .θ N Similarity with overall buckling of beam: occur flexural and torsion deformation out-of-plane design formula for in-plane buckling resistance of built-up section about virtual axis N β mx M x + ≤ fy ⎛ ϕx A N ⎞ Wx1 ⎜1 − ϕ x ' ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ N EX ⎠ Difference with overall bucking of beam: FTB occur under the combined axial force and moment Difference with the FTB of axial compression member: occur flexural and torsional deformation simultaneously for doubly symmetric section Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column Mx N Mx doubly symmetric section simply-support at ends subjected to equal end moments Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column solution for differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column y N x v u. N M + x =1 N Ey M crx It is the lower limit for flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column Comparison between theoretical formula and real steelwork: — not doubly-symmetric section — elasto-plastic period — coupling of differential equation due to initial imperfection 0.0 Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column design formula for flexural-torsional buckling resistance of beam-column Theoretical value (lower limit) for beam-column without imperfection: N N M2 )(1 − ) − 2x = 0 N Ey Nθ M crx For most members in real structures: N M + x =1 NEy Mcrx Nθ / NEy = 5 2 1 Nθ / NEy > 1 That is .5 0.25 ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ N ⎞ ⎟ ' N EX ⎟ ⎠ y ≤ fy v z z N x u.0 ϕy ⋅ A + β tx ⋅ M x ≤ fd ϕ b ⋅ Wx 4 .

Segments of member: in-plane: M along the member out-of-plane: max.Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column design formula for flexural-torsional buckling resistance of beam-column β ⋅Mx N + tx ≤ fd ϕ y ⋅ A ϕ b ⋅ Wx — buckling out-of-plane (out-of-plane stability factor φy) — moment used is the max.0 for open section + η tx ≤ fd 0. ( Af d / 85) f y / 235} y x y λ1 = l1 i1 V acts to each chord. Effective length: in-plane (beam-column): length of adjacent battening out-of-plane (compression member): lateral supported length out-of-plane: lateral supported length 3. Each chord withstands the local bending moment and shear force.199 — stability factor of beam should be calculated as beam subjected to equal bending moment Beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column design formula of in-plane buckling resistance of beam-column about virtual axis N ϕx A + β mx M x ≤ fy ⎛ N ⎞ Wx1 ⎜1 − ϕ x ' ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ N EX ⎠ ⎝ β mx M x γ xWx1 ⎜1 − 0.7 for closed section ϕ b ⋅ Wx ϕy ⋅ A W x1 = I x / y 0 y0 y0 y0 Beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column design formula of out-of-plane buckling resistance of beam-column subjected to bending about virtual axis No need if chord stability is ok Beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column buckling resistance of chord in built-up beam-column: axial force loaded on each chord e= M N N e y2 + e y1 + y 2 e N design formula of in-plane buckling resistance of beam-column subjected to bending about actual axis Same as that of solid-web beam-column M is the max. moment in member N1 = N N 2 = N − N1 design formula of out-of-plane buckling resistance of beam-column subjected to bending about actual axis Same as that of solid-web beam-column. Shear force: shear force in battened beam-column V = max{ΔM x / ΔH . Each chord performs as member pinned at two ends and withstands the force N 1 or N 2 2. moment in segment to be checked — end moment factor for FTB has the same meaning as that in-plane buckling pp. but…. in addition to axial force N 1 or N 2 2. generating M 3. N2 y 2 y1 y 2 y1 N1 N2 N1 Beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column buckling resistance of chord in laced beam-column x Beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column buckling resistance of chord in battened beam-column x y 1.8 ⎜ ⎛ N ⎞ ⎟ ' N EX ⎟ ⎠ ≤ fy comparison with solid-web beam-column N ϕx A + ⎝ How to calculate the section modulus (compression)? design formula for flexural-torsional buckling resistance of beam-column with closed section β ⋅Mx N η −1. M in each segment Q/A: shall we consider the shear force in beam-column? N 2 y 2 y1 N1 y 2 y1 N1 5 . Effective length: in-plane: length of adjacent joints ϕA1 N1 ≤ fd y x 1.

2 ) tw fy λ is in-plane slenderness. 1 . 5 λ + 25 ) tw fy hw 235 ≤ ( 48α 0 + 0 .2 λ ) tw fy 235 hw ≤ (13 + 0.Beam-column local buckling of plates in beam-column Flange subjected to compression (limit of width-to-thickness ratio while no local buckling allowed) outstand flange: b 235 ≤ 15 t fy Beam-column local buckling of plates in beam-column Web (limit of height-to-thickness ratio while no local buckling allowed) I-shape section: 0 ≤ α 0 ≤ 1 . local buckling and ease to connect In-plane deflection for beam-column Lateral displacement Strength: cross-section resistance Overall buckling resistance Solid-web compression members: in-plane and out-of-plane Laced or battened compression members: about virtual axis chord stability: laced beam-column. ranged 30~100 edge-supported flange: b 235 ≤ 40 t fy T-shape section: web in tension: 235 hw ≤ (15 + 0. 0 .17 λ ) tw fy (hot rolled W split) (welded T section) web in compression: h 235 α 0 ≤ 1 . slenderness is 150~200 Design procedure of beam-column summary Selection of member section Section: requirement of overall stability. hw 235 ≤ (16 α 0 + 0 . w ≤ 15 tw fy α 0 > 1 .6. max.5λ − 26 .0. battened beam-column in-plane and out-of-plane Ascertain of slenderness in real steelwork local buckling resistance Allowable ratio of width to thickness rigidity of beam-column 6 .6 < α 0 ≤ 2. hw 235 ≤ 18 tw fy Beam-column stiffness of beam-column slenderness As compression member.

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