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beam-column|Views: 211|Likes: 10

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/51771123/beam-column

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Basic principles of steel structures

Introduction Section capacity of beam-column Overall stability of beam-column

Dr. Xianzhong ZHAO x.zhao@mail.tongji.edu.cn www.sals.org.cn

Local buckling of plate element in beam-clomn Rigidity of compression members

Beam-column

introduction Beam-column members in structures

- column in frame structure - rafter in portal frame - longitudinal girder of cable-stayed bridge - members in truss structures

Beam-column

introduction Structural shapes used in beam-column

**Selection of cross-section
**

Loading status cross-section used - major in compression, plus minor bending doubly symmetric section - major in bending about one axis singly symmetric section - bi-axial beam-column

Beam-column

introduction: failure modes strength failure (section capacity)

yield, fracture, fatigue, connection

Beam-column

section capacity of beam-column Section capacity: normal stress dominated — yield at compressive fiber

**stability failure (buckling resistance) of beam-column
**

Overall stability: in-plane buckling and flexural-torsional buckling Local buckling of plates in beam-column Chord buckling in built-up beam-column

N Mx + ≤ fy A Wx1

— yield at tensile fiber

− N Mx + ≤ fy A Wx2

**Less rigidity of beam-column
**

excessive deflection, loss of rigidity

— plastic failure

A(

N M + n )α + B ( x + m ) β = 1 Np M px

1

Beam-column section capacity of beam-column Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column In-plane overall stability Mx Mx v practical design equations (net section) Criteria of elasticity My N Mx ± ± ≤ fd An W xn W yn My N Mx ± ± ≤ fd An W xn W yn Mx :0 → N Mx Mx v N Criteria of partial plasticity My N Mx ± ± ≤ fd An γ xW xn γ yW yn My N Mx ± ± ≤ fd An γ xW xn γ yW yn N :0→ N Np N M px M pcx NE Criteria of full plasticity (bending about one axis) if if N ≤ 0 . cos α 2 ⇒ cos = 0 2 π M max Ney N M max N + = + ≤ fy A Wx A Wx cos(α / 2) Aey N [1 + sec(α / 2)] ≤ f y A Wx fy N σ= ≤ A 1 + ε 0y sec(α / 2) Ae where. 13 An f d M M x ≤ W pnx f d ≤ 1 . pp85 v )W pnx f d v N An f d > 0 . 15 (1 − N An f d Equ.(4.18). the differential equation will be differential equation while subjected to bending EI x v' '+ Nv = − Ney [cos(α / 2 − αz ) − cos(α / 2)] cos(α /2) eyα 2 v' ' = − cos(α / 2 − αz ) cos(α /2) v= solution satisfy the boundary condition: v0 = v = 0 ' v0' = v '' = − ey we got. EI x v' '+M x = 0 Mx EI x Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column curves for differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column Mx N Mx Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column criteria of yielding at extreme fiber for beam-column Mx Mx N v= ey y v z N N NE N y v z N NE yield at extreme fiber 1 vmax = ey [ − 1] cos(α /2) Ney Mx M max = = cos(α /2) cos(α /2) cos(α /2) [cos(α / 2 − αz ) − cos(α / 2)] v max N NE N ⇒ NE = π 2 EIx 2 . 13 x Why in-plane buckle s of beam-column? Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column Mx N Mx N Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column solution for differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column Mx N Mx y v z y v z N EI x v' '+ Nv = − Ney bending equilibrium about x-axis for all types section if M x = Ney let α = N / EI x EI x v' ' = −( M x + Nv) EI x v' '+ Nv + M x = 0 For all types sections with illustrated supports. ε 0 y = y Wx v max 2 .

8 ' ⎟ partially ⎜ ⎟ N EX ⎠ plasticity ⎝ ϕx A β mx M x ⎜ γ xWx1 ⎜1 − 0.0 3 .0 Beam-column without sideway in the plane of bending — no any transverse load vo = M x — moment based on first-order analysis N Wx1 ( Af y − N ox )( N EX − N ox ) AN ox N EX + 0.N/N E amplification factor considering second-order effect in elasticity: v max λ = 120 vmax / N / Np 1 .0 N v0 v z N NE ultimate capacity yield at extreme fiber Nu λ = 20 λ = 40 λ = 80 ε 0y = 1 EI x v ' ' + Nv = Nv 0 v 0 = v 0 m sin( π z / ) v0 m πz sin( ) v= 1− N / NE Nv0m M max = 1 . load-deflection curve is nonlinear due to second-order effect Criteria of yield at extreme fiber of in-plane buckling of beam-column is strength problem considering second-order effect.N/N E curves of axial force – max.35 — with end moment and transverse load M2 M1 ϕ x Af y 0. considering the development of plasticity β mx M x =1 ⎛ N ⎞ yield at ⎟ Wx1 f y ⎜1 − ϕ x ⎜ extreme fiber N EX ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ N + 1 . but having transverse load 1 .0 Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column design formula for in-plane buckling resistance of solidweb beam-column N M x + Nvo + =1 N P M (1 − N ) ex N EX N + Af y M x + Nvo =1 ⎛ N ⎞ ⎟ Wx1 f y ⎜1 − ⎜ N EX ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Mx = 0 Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column End moment factor (pp196) Beam-column with sideway in the plane of bending 1 .85 N Formula applied to “member” ϕx A + β mx M x = fy ⎛ N ⎞ γ xWx1 ⎜1 − 0.8 — factor obtained from test and numerical results.Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column second-order effects ( P − Δ effects) M x = Ne y N N Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column ultimate capacity of beam-column M x = Ne y N Mx v N Mx v y z N yield at extreme fiber z N ultimate capacity N u yield at extreme fiber first-order moment: M1 = Ney second-order moment: v max M 2 = Ney (sec α 2 − 1) Before yield at extreme fiber.0 0.8 ⎝ ⎛ N ⎞ ⎟ ' N EX ⎟ ⎠ = fy — no end moment. moment of beam-column while buckles (slenderness as parameter) In-plane stability ultimate capacity 1 .0 λ = 0 section capacity 20 80 120 M / Mp criteria of yield at extreme fiber: N Nv 0m + ≤ fy A W x (1 − N / N E ) 1 1 . but it is not a section capacity problem due to its pertaining to the deflection of the whole member amplification factor considering second-order effect in elasticity: sec α 2 — develop plasticity after yielding at extreme fiber — the increase of load effect (moment) is nonlinear — the difference of increase between moment and section resistance leads to decrease of loads to maintain the bending equilibrium v max In-plane buckling of beam-column performs → extreme value of load-deflection curve → second-order effect of compression and deflection → In-plane buckling is not section capacity (strength) problem Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column (beam-)column with initial imperfection N Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column numerical algorithm to obtain the ultimate capacity of beamcolumn considering material nonlinearity.65 + 0. pp191-193 axial force – deflection curves (slenderness as parameter) obtained by numerical algorithm N / Np 1 .

Beam-column In-plane buckling of beam-column design formula for in-plane buckling resistance of unsymmetric solid-web beam-column with larger flange in compression N − N + A Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column Characteristic of flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column (out-of-plane buckling) Mx Mx N β mx M x γ xWx2 ⎜1 − 1.θ z z N N EI y u IV + Nu '' + M xθ '' = 0 2 '' EI ωθ IV − GI tθ '' + M x u '' + ( Nr0 − R)θ = 0 Solution Procedure refers to pp197 N N M2 )(1 − ) − 2x = 0 Solution: (1 − N Ey Nθ M crx where.(7-18) is the critical FTB force Discussion: beam-column buckles when compression reach N Ey . Nθ ? EI ωθ ''' − GI tθ ' + M x u ' = 0 Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column illustration of critical flexural-torsional-buckling resistance of beam-column Solution: (1 − N / N Ey 1 .2 0 . (7-18) EI y u '' + M xθ = 0 EI y u EI y u IV + Nu '' + M xθ '' = 0 IV + Nu = 0 '' EI ωθ IV − GI tθ '' + M x u '' + ( Nr02 − R)θ '' = 0 2 '' EI ωθ IV − GI tθ '' + ( Nr0 − R)θ = 0 N Ey = π 2 EI y / 2 Nθ = (π EIω / 2 oy 2 oθ + GIt + R) / r02 Axial force satisfying Equ.0 design formula: N M x / M crx 1 .θ N Similarity with overall buckling of beam： occur flexural and torsion deformation out-of-plane design formula for in-plane buckling resistance of built-up section about virtual axis N β mx M x + ≤ fy ⎛ ϕx A N ⎞ Wx1 ⎜1 − ϕ x ' ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ N EX ⎠ Difference with overall bucking of beam： FTB occur under the combined axial force and moment Difference with the FTB of axial compression member： occur flexural and torsional deformation simultaneously for doubly symmetric section Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column Mx N Mx doubly symmetric section simply-support at ends subjected to equal end moments Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column solution for differential equation of elastic buckling of beam-column y N x v u. N M + x =1 N Ey M crx It is the lower limit for flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column Comparison between theoretical formula and real steelwork： — not doubly-symmetric section — elasto-plastic period — coupling of differential equation due to initial imperfection 0.0 Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column design formula for flexural-torsional buckling resistance of beam-column Theoretical value (lower limit) for beam-column without imperfection: N N M2 )(1 − ) − 2x = 0 N Ey Nθ M crx For most members in real structures: N M + x =1 NEy Mcrx Nθ / NEy = 5 2 1 Nθ / NEy > 1 That is .5 0.25 ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ N ⎞ ⎟ ' N EX ⎟ ⎠ y ≤ fy v z z N x u.0 ϕy ⋅ A + β tx ⋅ M x ≤ fd ϕ b ⋅ Wx 4 .

Segments of member: in-plane: M along the member out-of-plane: max.Beam-column flexural-torsional buckling of beam-column design formula for flexural-torsional buckling resistance of beam-column β ⋅Mx N + tx ≤ fd ϕ y ⋅ A ϕ b ⋅ Wx — buckling out-of-plane (out-of-plane stability factor φy) — moment used is the max.0 for open section + η tx ≤ fd 0. ( Af d / 85) f y / 235} y x y λ1 = l1 i1 V acts to each chord. Effective length: in-plane (beam-column): length of adjacent battening out-of-plane (compression member): lateral supported length out-of-plane: lateral supported length 3. Each chord withstands the local bending moment and shear force.199 — stability factor of beam should be calculated as beam subjected to equal bending moment Beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column design formula of in-plane buckling resistance of beam-column about virtual axis N ϕx A + β mx M x ≤ fy ⎛ N ⎞ Wx1 ⎜1 − ϕ x ' ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ N EX ⎠ ⎝ β mx M x γ xWx1 ⎜1 − 0.7 for closed section ϕ b ⋅ Wx ϕy ⋅ A W x1 = I x / y 0 y0 y0 y0 Beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column design formula of out-of-plane buckling resistance of beam-column subjected to bending about virtual axis No need if chord stability is ok Beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column buckling resistance of chord in built-up beam-column: axial force loaded on each chord e= M N N e y2 + e y1 + y 2 e N design formula of in-plane buckling resistance of beam-column subjected to bending about actual axis Same as that of solid-web beam-column M is the max. moment in member N1 = N N 2 = N − N1 design formula of out-of-plane buckling resistance of beam-column subjected to bending about actual axis Same as that of solid-web beam-column. Shear force: shear force in battened beam-column V = max{ΔM x / ΔH . Each chord performs as member pinned at two ends and withstands the force N 1 or N 2 2. moment in segment to be checked — end moment factor for FTB has the same meaning as that in-plane buckling pp. but…. in addition to axial force N 1 or N 2 2. generating M 3. N2 y 2 y1 y 2 y1 N1 N2 N1 Beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column buckling resistance of chord in laced beam-column x Beam-column overall stability of built-up beam-column buckling resistance of chord in battened beam-column x y 1.8 ⎜ ⎛ N ⎞ ⎟ ' N EX ⎟ ⎠ ≤ fy comparison with solid-web beam-column N ϕx A + ⎝ How to calculate the section modulus (compression)? design formula for flexural-torsional buckling resistance of beam-column with closed section β ⋅Mx N η −1. M in each segment Q/A: shall we consider the shear force in beam-column? N 2 y 2 y1 N1 y 2 y1 N1 5 . Effective length: in-plane: length of adjacent joints ϕA1 N1 ≤ fd y x 1.

2 ) tw fy λ is in-plane slenderness. 1 . 5 λ + 25 ) tw fy hw 235 ≤ ( 48α 0 + 0 .2 λ ) tw fy 235 hw ≤ (13 + 0.Beam-column local buckling of plates in beam-column Flange subjected to compression (limit of width-to-thickness ratio while no local buckling allowed) outstand flange: b 235 ≤ 15 t fy Beam-column local buckling of plates in beam-column Web (limit of height-to-thickness ratio while no local buckling allowed) I-shape section: 0 ≤ α 0 ≤ 1 . local buckling and ease to connect In-plane deflection for beam-column Lateral displacement Strength: cross-section resistance Overall buckling resistance Solid-web compression members: in-plane and out-of-plane Laced or battened compression members: about virtual axis chord stability: laced beam-column. ranged 30~100 edge-supported flange: b 235 ≤ 40 t fy T-shape section: web in tension: 235 hw ≤ (15 + 0. 0 .17 λ ) tw fy (hot rolled W split) (welded T section) web in compression: h 235 α 0 ≤ 1 . slenderness is 150~200 Design procedure of beam-column summary Selection of member section Section: requirement of overall stability. hw 235 ≤ (16 α 0 + 0 . w ≤ 15 tw fy α 0 > 1 .6. max.5λ − 26 .0. battened beam-column in-plane and out-of-plane Ascertain of slenderness in real steelwork local buckling resistance Allowable ratio of width to thickness rigidity of beam-column 6 .6 < α 0 ≤ 2. hw 235 ≤ 18 tw fy Beam-column stiffness of beam-column slenderness As compression member.

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