Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

1 Funded

Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

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Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

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Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

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List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . xor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . invmulaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 . . . . uniform pcm . . . . . PCM Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hamming Encode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sinc new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . .1a . . . . . . . Example3. . .1c Figure6. . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2b . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2.1 5. . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . . . Figure1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure5. . . .13a . . . .1a Figure6. Figure5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . .29 . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Figure6. . . . . . . . . Example3. .2 3.4 . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . .1 3. .7 Figure6. . . . . . . Figure3. . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . .1b Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . .3 3. . . . . . . .2a . . . .1 6. . . . .15 . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . Example3. . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . .3 3. . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . Example4. . .1 4. . . . . .1b . . . . . .13b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example5. . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. . . . .9 Figure6. . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . .1 2.1 . . . . . . . .4 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Figure1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure6. Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example9. . . . . . . . .6b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . .5 7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure10. . . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. . . . . . .2a . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . Figure 7. Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . .11 7. . . . .14 9. .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . .7 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . .2b . .31 . . . . . . . . . . .1c .7. . . . . . . .1 Figure7. . . . . .41a Figure7.6a . . .30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Figure7. . .6 7. . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . .3 7. . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . .8 7. . . . .5 Example7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure9. . . . . . .41b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . Figure7. . .13 7. . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 .2 .2 7. . .1 9. . .12 7. . . . . .

sqrt (2) .2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 . x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .2 . clc .0 .1 .0 . -2 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . dig_data = [0 . a .0 .1 .0 .1 . . x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) .0 . close . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear . -0.Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1.3] plot (t .0.1] // figure a = gca () . sqrt (2) .0 .01:1.0 .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .0 . a .2 .5 .5 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . data_bounds =[ -2 . a .0 .0 . -3. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . t = -1:0.0 .0 . -1 . -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 .

plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] .5]. a .1: Figure1. dig_data .2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () .Figure 1.5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 .0. data_bounds = [0 .21 .

2: Figure1.2b 4 .Figure 1.

1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear .Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 . H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y . 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = . 8 H_Po = zeros (1 . 5 close .1) Scilab code Exa 2. length ( Po ) ) .Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 .0.1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 .Po ( i )).Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2.01:1. 6 clc .5 . Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . 7 Po = 0:0.2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 . 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po .

1: Example2.1 6 .Figure 2.

. end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) . P0 * P2 . P2 * P0 . P1 * P0 . P1 * P2 . H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. . i = 0 . . P2 * P2 ]. 2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . P1 * P1 . 8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0. 1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma . P0 * P1 . clc . ’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . P0 = 1/4. . 1 . H_Ruo_Square . disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . P2 * P1 . ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 .

Average length.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 .1. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0.4 Entropy.3 Entropy. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 . A v e r a g e l e n g t h . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .((L . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. clc . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2.L .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 .4. 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear . disp ( sigma_1 . A v e r a g e l e n g t h . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) .2. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ .L ) ^2.2.1. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3. ’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 .Average length. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3. H_Ruo . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 .L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 .Scilab code Exa 2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . P0 = 0. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2.

’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 . 4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear .1. ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 .5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 . disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1. 4 clc .L . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. e ) transition probility 8 disp (p .2.p . clc .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .1.4. H_Ruo .4. // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i . disp ( sigma_2 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2. ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. 5 close .2.L ) ^2.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear . P0 = 0. 6 p = 0.

p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. end end plot2d (p .p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 . C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 .5. 7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 . p = 0:0. 1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2. clc . close .01:0.9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe .7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 . elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0.C . elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1. for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 .6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 .5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y .p ( i ) ) ) . 6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear .

6 11 .Figure 2.2: Example2.

data_bounds =[0 . pe_7 ]. 8 pe_1 = p . // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 .pe . r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r . r =1/n ’ .4 clear . pe . ’ Code Rate .0. 13 pe = [ pe_1 . 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . 5 clc .5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e . 15 a .p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 .0.p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 . Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 . 7 p =10^ -2. pe_5 . 14 a = gca () . 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r .01]. 6 close .1/5 .1/7].1 . Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . pe_3 .p ) + p ^7. 16 plot2d (r . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 .p ) + p ^5. // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 . ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r .1/3 .p ) + p ^3.p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 .

Figure 2.7 13 .3: Example2.

length ( t7 ) -2) . t6 = T /3:0.0].01: T /3. ones (1 . s3t = [0 . length ( t6 ) -2) .01: T . length ( t5 ) -2) .0]. t2 = 0:0. s4t = [0 .1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 .0]. t7 = 2* T /3:0. ones (1 .0]. ones (1 .0].01: T .01: T .Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3. t5 = 0:0.01:2* T /3. t3 = T /3:0. s1t = [0 . phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . ones (1 . t1 = 0:0.01:2* T /3.0]. length ( t1 ) -2) . ones (1 . close . phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .01: T /3. clc . T = 1.0]. t4 = 0:0. // 14 . 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear . length ( t3 ) -2) . s2t = [0 . ones (1 . length ( t4 ) -2) . length ( t2 ) -2) . phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . ones (1 .

1 . a .2 .2 . data_bounds = [0 . 4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 . data_bounds = [0 .2].1 .1) a = gca () .0.3) a = gca () .2].1 . s1t .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .0.0.2 .2 .4) a = gca () .2]. data_bounds = [0 .2) a = gca () . plot2d2 ( t3 .4].1 .2) 15 . s2t . plot2d2 ( t5 . s3t .2 . plot2d2 ( t1 . data_bounds = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .0. 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . plot2d2 ( t4 . a .1) a = gca () . a . s4t . data_bounds = [0 . a .2]. a . phi1t .1 . plot2d2 ( t2 .0.1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .

a .1: Example3.1 .0.2 . phi3t . phi2t . data_bounds = [0 .Figure 3. data_bounds = [0 . plot2d2 ( t7 .4]. a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 .1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . plot2d2 ( t6 .2 .0.4].3) a = gca () .

Figure 3.2: Example3.1b 17 .

5. p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . -0. // Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . close .0 .( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .0 .5] plot2d ( Si1 .(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ]. a = gca () . 8 ( b ) .(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .Scilab code Exa 3. o f meg . 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc . data_bounds = [ -2 . 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a .[0 .0. // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1.2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 . s q r t ( 18 . 8 ( c ) .2 . a =1.0] . s q r t (T) |− a . -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . clc .

// c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1. s q r t (T) | a . s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.Figure 3. clc . 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear . t1 = 0:0.01: T . close . fc =4. 19 .3: Example3.2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a .3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 .

a . phiot = convol ( phit .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) . a . a . t2 = 0:0.1 . phiot ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . subplot (2 . 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 .01:2* T . 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1]. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 . -1. -1. plot2d ( t1 . a . a . data_bounds = [0 .1 .1 .1) a = gca () .1 . 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 . hopt ) . hopt = phit . plot2d ( t2 . phit ) .2) a = gca () .1]. phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) . data_bounds = [0 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .

Figure 3.3 21 .4: Example3.

2) a = gca () .1 .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] . -1. phit ) .1) a = gca () .1* rand (1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1]. data_bounds = [0 . a . close .1 . 1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 . a . a . phit =0. phi0t ) . subplot (2 .1 . -1.1]. clc . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . phi0t = convol ( phit .6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 . phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) . hopt ) . hopt = phit . 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. a .10 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a . plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

4 23 .5: Example3.Figure 3.

x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) . 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear . sigma_X = Rxx (2) . // Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) . length ( x ) ) . for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N .29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear . mu = 0.buffer * w . ref_noise = noise * rand (10) . Rxx = [0.6 1 0. ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X . order = 18. desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) . Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) . N = length ( x ) . w = zeros ( order .6]. disp ( sigma_E . ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 . clc .01*( sum ( x . 24 . t =0:0. clc . close . close .1) .order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) . x_n = x + noise .01:1. h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) . noise = rand (1 .^2) / length ( x ) ) .h01 * Rxx (3) .

5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 . noise .2) 26 plot2d (t .1 .3) 29 plot2d (t . x_n .4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .1 .1 .19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’. x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 .1) 23 plot2d (t .1 . 20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 .2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 .

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

a . //E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 .1.8.6. data_bounds = [0 . for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) .E .01:0. 5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . end a = gca () .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 .8 .0. 3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc .2]. plot2d ( T_Ts . 1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 . T_Ts = 0.5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 . E (1) =1. 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) .01:0. close .0.

Figure 4.3 30 .2: Example4.

5 clc .1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 . 7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ). 6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) . 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5. M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) . disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12. 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear . disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 .Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5.2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 .

0. 32 . children (1) . 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB . plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . a .10]. // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 . C_B . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 . children (1) . data_bounds = [ -30 . clc . −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) . poly1 . Rb/B . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB .3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear . ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5. k =7. Rb_B . // i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () . close . poly1 . P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30]. 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear . thickness =2.40 . // f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m . d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) .5) poly1 = a . d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y .5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . line_style = 4.

Figure 5.1: Example5.2 33 .

5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear . 9 disp (B . 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 . ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no . a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ). 34 . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W. 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no .5 clc . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000. o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 . 16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 .7. Scilab code Exa 5. clc . 6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no .2. 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB . ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n . 11 disp ( SNRo .

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

:) .[ ’A= 8 7 .2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) .:) . ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) .3: Figure5. 5 6 ’ ]) 38 . ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ .13b 9 [ Cx (i . 15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] .:) .Figure 5. Cx (2 . Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x .[ ’A=2 ’ ] . A ( i ) ) . Cx (3 .4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) .6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ . 10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) .:) . Cx (1 .

Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6. Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) . B = 2* Bo .alpha ) . ’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0. clc . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 .647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 . disp (B . 1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear . // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 .f1 .

poly1 .i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 . children (1) . binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. binary_one ) . poly1 = a . 1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . L1 = length ( binary_zero ) . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. data_bounds =[0 -2.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . children (1) . 1 Scilab code CF 6. U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . children (1) . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1].L +1: i * L ] . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0].1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . poly1 = a . L * L1 2]. else plot ([ i *L . poly1 . children (1) . thickness =3. clc . close . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . thickness =3. // p l o t t i n g a = gca () .L +1: i * L ] . L = length ( x ) . a . total_duration = L * L . binary_zero ) .

1a 41 .1: Figure6.Figure 6.

1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] . a . data_bounds =[0 -2. L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . poly1 = a . 42 . poly1 . poly1 = a . close . total_duration = L * L1 . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . poly1 .L +1: i * L ] . L * L1 2]. clc . binary_positive ) .L +1: i * L ] . children (1) . L = length ( x ) . children (1) . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . close . B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear .1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . thickness =3. children (1) . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. binary_negative ) . children (1) . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. else plot ([ i *L . thickness =3. // p l o t t i n g a = gca () .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] .

2: Figure6.1b 43 .Figure 6.

L = length ( x ) . x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. children (1) . poly1 = a . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. // p l o t t i n g a = gca () .1 . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L .0 . thickness =3.1 . binary_positive ) . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . children (1) .0 . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 . children (1) .L +1: i * L ] .L +1: i * L ] . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1].0]. 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc .1 . total_duration = L * L1 . binary_negative ) . binary_zero ) . thickness =3.L +1: i * L ] . poly1 . poly1 = a . children (1) . L * L1 2]. thickness =3. poly1 . a . data_bounds =[0 -2.2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 . children (1) . poly1 = a . 5 b = [0 . children (1) . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L .7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6. else plot ([ i *L . poly1 .

Figure 6.3: Figure6.1c 45 .

if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1.6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) . end end b_r = b_r ’.b ( k ) ) . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts . ’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. disp ( b_r . end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) . b (1) ) . end end a = a ’. disp (c . else a_volts ( k ) = -1. disp (a . if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1. end c = c ’. else b_r ( k ) = 1. a_volts = a_volts ’. for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . ’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 .

3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 . 0. ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay . 1. 0. 1. − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 .0 . x = [0 .y (k -1) ) .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 . 0. 1.0 . ’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) . for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) . 1. 0. 0. 47 . − 1.1 . 1. : 0. 0. 0. y = y ’. 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 .0 . − 2. 0.1 . disp (y . y_delay = y_delay ’. // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1. end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) . − 1. 4 clc . 1. end z = z ’.0 .1].1 . Scilab code Exa 6. 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 . 0. // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 .y_delay ( k ) . − 1. 1. − 2. 2.1 . d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1.

0. 1. 0. Scilab code CF 6. 1. 0. 0. // b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1. − 1. 1. − 1. 1. // [ 1 ] . 1. if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. 0. else 48 . 0. Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . 0. volts 0. NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] . fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . 0. // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . 0. − 1.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . 1. // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. Tb = 1/ fb . clc . 1.4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . 0. 0. M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . 1. 1. 0. NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . 1. : 0. 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . 0.

// R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 . Sxxf_NRZ_UP . plot2d (f .20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . thickness = 2. plot2d (f . children (1) . plot2d (f . Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a . poly1 . thickness = 2. poly1 . poly1 . children (1) . poly1 . plot2d (f . Sxxf_Manch . children (1) . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ . end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) . Sxxf_NRZ_BP . ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ .6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 . ’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) .5) poly1 = a .2) poly1 = a . children (1) . children (1) . thickness = 2. end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .9) poly1 = a . children (1) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . thickness = 2. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .

4 50 .Figure 6.4: Figure6.

x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) . ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) .5) |( t ( i ) == -0. Bo = rb /2. title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb . p (j . t = -3:1/100:3.7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 . 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close . else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) . i ) = num / den . den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. plot (t . i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) . Tb =1/ rb . x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) . for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0. Alpha =0. Bo = rb /2. clc .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . 51 .01. t = -3:1/100:3.5) ) ) p (j .

6 52 .Figure 6.5: Figure6.

’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0. 9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear . 33 poly2 . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. clc . 32 po1y2 . p (1 .21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0. // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 . children (1) . foreground =4. 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) . 30 plot2d (t . 29 poly1 . line_style = 3. foreground =2. children (1) . 26 plot2d (t .:) ) 31 poly2 = a .5 ’ . children (1) .:) ) 27 plot2d (t .:) ) 28 poly1 = a . Tb =1/ rb . p (3 .5. p (2 . close . 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . 35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) .9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 . 24 end 25 a = gca () . children (1) .

6: Figure6.7 54 .Figure 6.

Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f . a . children (1) . Amplitude_Response . a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . children (1) . plot2d (f .* Tb ) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . thickness = 2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 . poly1 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .2) poly1 = a .2) a = gca () . subplot (2 . poly1 . Phase_Response = -( %pi * f . Phase_Response . 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 .11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = .1 .5) poly1 = a . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 .* Tb ) . plot2d (f . thickness = 2. xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6.1) a = gca () . a .rb /2:1/100: rb /2.

Figure 6.9 56 .7: Figure6.

* Tb ) .1 .2) a = gca () .1) a = gca () . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . thickness = 2. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d (f . clc . Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f . Tb =1/ rb . poly1 . thickness = 2. children (1) .2) poly1 = a . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // B i t d u r a t i o n f = . close . a . subplot (2 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . children (1) .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. plot2d (f . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 .* Tb ) ) . children (1) . Phase_Response .5) poly1 = a . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . children (1) . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f . a .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Amplitude_Response .1 . poly1 . a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .

8: Figure6.15 58 .Figure 6.

1 .0 .:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear . clc .:) ]. end 59 . i = 1: M . M =4.:) = . t = 0:0.0]. for i = 1: M s1 (i . close . end S1 =[]. Input_Sequence =[0 .1 .001:1.1 . for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) .1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 .2]. S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) . S = [].sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .0 .1 .0 .Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7. s2 (i .1 .:) ]. m = [3 . S2 = [].

−5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) . a . 26 a . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” .1) 25 a = gca () . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) . // a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] . 1 ] . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . 1 .1 .3) a = gca () . // a . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) .1 . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) .1 . − 1 .2) a = gca () . 60 . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i . // a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . l o g 2 (M) ) . a . 27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) . 23 figure 24 subplot (3 . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) .22 S = S1 + S2 . // d i s p ( y . // a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot . // a =g c a ( ) .

5 ) Scilab code CF 7.Figure 7. 1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 .1: Example7.1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . ’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] .

elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ). Xask ].5 clear . length ( x ) ) . x2 ]. elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . x2 = . x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x ]. Xask ]. I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) . length ( x ) ) ]. x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . t = 0:1/512:1. // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = [].sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . 7 close . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = []. elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x1 ]. for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x . x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) . zeros (1 . 6 clc . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 .

2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc .01: Tb .Tb :0. x2 ]. close . 0 .2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 . 0 . 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t . x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 . 1 . x1 ]. 63 . 0 . 1 . 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . Tb =1.42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 . 1 . t1 = . M =2. 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7.

1a 64 .Figure 7.2: Figure7.

1b 65 .Figure 7.3: Figure7.

4: Figure7.1c 66 .Figure 7.

s2 (2) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .0]. phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) . . phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S2 = [].sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) .sin ( . %pi ].1 .01:1.%pi /2]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S1 = []. 67 . S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ].sin ( . s2 (1) .0 . s2 ( i ) = .0 .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. s2 (1) . s2 (2) ].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. teta_tb = [ %pi /2 .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. y = [ s1 (1) . for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .1 .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].1) a = gca () .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . t = 0:0. s1 (2) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) .0 . S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) . S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .1 . s1 (1) .01:2* Tb . end Input_Sequence =[1 . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 .sin ( . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [].10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0. s1 (2) . disp (y . teta_0 = [0 .sin ( .

plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) . -2.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 . log2 ( M ) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . data_bounds = [ -2 . a = gca () . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . i = 1: M . imag ( y (2) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .3) a = gca () . imag ( y (1) ) . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a .2 . annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . a .2) a = gca () . disp (y . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc . close . plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) .2]. M =2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .

5: Example7.2 69 .Figure 7.

3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 .2 In−Phase ’ ) .Figure 7.5) Scilab code Tab 7.6: Figure7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ . 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).

else bk_not ( i ) = 1. 71 29 30 31 32 . end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0. dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) .1].0 .1 . elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 . end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . ’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’. 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk . dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) .0 .( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )). // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) . dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) . 3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc . disp ( bk_not .0 . end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) . // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1. dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) . ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’.1 . bk = [1 .0 .

disp ( dk_radians . 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc .y (1 .33 34 35 36 disp ( dk . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 .2) .0. plot2d ( y (1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .y (2 . a .1) . disp (y . M =2. close .5) 72 . ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. -2.1) . -5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) . y = [1 .2 . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). -9) plot2d ( y (2 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .1]. a . a = gca () .2) .2]. log2 ( M ) ) .0 . ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’. a . data_bounds = [ -2 . annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] . 20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .

4 73 .Figure 7.7: Figure 7.

6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 . a = gca () . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).Scilab code CF 7. y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . i = 1: M .5) Scilab code Tab 7. 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . imag ( y (1) ) . -4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) . imag ( y (2) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] . -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) . -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . disp (y . imag ( y (3) ) . -1. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . log2 ( M ) ) . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . close . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . a . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure .sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i .1]. imag ( y (4) ) . annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] . a . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ .6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 . data_bounds = [ -1 . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) .1 . M =4. a .

6 75 .Figure 7.8: Figure7.

// Ruo = Ruo ’ ./2.64]. //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) .8 . 6 M = [2 . 4 clc . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 .32 .8 .4 .4 . //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo . close . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear . clc .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 .32 .64].7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 . M = [2 . 5 close ./ M .16 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7.16 . 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear .

’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo .29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 .Figure 7.9: Figure7.12 ’) 12 disp (M . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.

xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . children (1) . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb . end a = gca () . 3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a . foreground = 6. Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . plot ( f * Tb . ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. children (1) .30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals. poly1 . 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . // B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc . else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) . Tb = 1/ rb .

10: Figure7.29 79 .Figure 7.

3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 . poly1 . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . Tb = 1/ rb . end a = gca () . // c l c .31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 . else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2. xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) . SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r . plot ( f * Tb . poly1 = a . // c l o s e . f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) . children (1) . children (1) . // b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0. ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2. plot ( f * Tb .5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) . foreground = 3.

Figure 7.30 81 .11: Figure7.

Tb = 1/ rb . g ) ) . T +1) . i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) . // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 . T =4. 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear . ’M=4 ’ . h = abs ( convol (g . clc . plot2d ( f * Tb .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 .2) plot2d ( f * Tb . 4 . end end a = gca () .:) /(2* Eb ) .:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . SB_PSK (3 . for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j .:) /(2* Eb ) . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ . a =2.8].41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 . SB_PSK (1 . f = 0:1/100: rb . SB_PSK (2 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . g = 2* ones (1 . t = 0: T . ’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7.4 .

12: Figure7.Figure 7.31 83 .

0. figure a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 .01) h ( i ) =0. plot2d (t .h .4]. end end h = h-T.12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0. a . a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 . t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1.g .6 .6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 .

41a 85 .13: Figure7.Figure 7.

41b 86 .14: Figure7.Figure 7.

4 clc .1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 .Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. disp (H . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m .* G .n . 5 k = 4. ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) .2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 . // b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k .k ) . ’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’]. n =5. // b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1.n . // one b i t m = 1.k ) . Scilab code Exa 8. ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) . disp (x . clc . // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 . 1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear . // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1]. 2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear . // c o d e word disp (G . // m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 .

0 .1.:) + G (1 .k -1) P ’].0 . disp (r .0 .0 .2) .1 .1 .D) .0 . // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n . clc .1.:) .3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 .0 .0 .0.0.0 . 0 . q ] = pdiv (m .:) .1 . 88 . ’D ’ ) . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.1 . disp (G . // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k .0.0 .0 .0 .1 . 20 C = modulo (C . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g .0 . 21 disp (C .1.0 .0.0 . 4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.:) = G (3 .1 .2) . 3 : ( 7 . ’ Code words o f ( 7 .1]. // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G . ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ].1 .1 18 // 19 C = m * G . ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 . p = coeff ( r ) . 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . g * D ^2.0 .1. // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 .1 . g * D . G (3 .1 . g ) .0 .1 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .1.1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . k ) .:) = modulo ( G (3 . 0 . D = poly (0 .1. // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I . g * D ^3].0 . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 .1 .1 . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 .k .0. ’G ’ ) G (3 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7. G = coeff ( G ) .

H = coeff ( H_num ) .:) + G (2 . 0 . disp (r . D ^5* h . ’D ’ ) .:) = G (1 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 .:) + H (3 . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .:) . 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 . 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.:) . D = poly (0 .2) . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) .:) = H (1 .:) + G (4 . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . 4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.:) = modulo ( G (4 .4 Encoder for the (7. disp (H . H (1 .2) . D ^6* h ]. // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . disp (G . G (4 . H_D = [ D ^4* h .:) = modulo ( H (1 . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4. g ) .18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 . q ] = pdiv (m . 0 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . H (1 .D) . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . p = coeff ( r ) .:) . H_num = numer ( H_D ) .:) .

g ) . S2 = modulo ( S2 . S2 = coeff ( r2 ) . disp ( r2 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6. //m i t symbol −b 90 . 0 . // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6. 1 . D = poly (0 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7. 1 . // m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 . 1 ] clc . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc . 5 m =2. ’D ’ ) . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . S1 = coeff ( r1 ) . 1 . g ) . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 .2) . S1 = modulo ( S1 . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 .2) .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 .6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 . disp ( r1 . 0 . q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 . q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 .18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8.

1 .2) . m ) ) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . clc . x1 = modulo ( x1 . 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 .k . 0 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2. // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1. 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close . // c o d e r a t e disp (n .i +1) . 0 .2) . // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n . 1 . x2 = modulo ( x2 . x2 (N . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r .i +1) ]. 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .:) =[ x1 (N .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 . g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . // c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding . N = length ( x1 ) . // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1. for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . 0 . ’ n ’ ) disp (p . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . ’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t . m ) ) .

// g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4. x2 = coeff ( x2D ) . ’D ’ ) . 0. // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 . ’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. 1. // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . 1. disp ( modulo ( x1 . 0. // bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) . 92 . 1. 1. 1. 1. 0. g1D = 1+ D + D ^2. 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc .8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 . 1. // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD . 1. // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2.2) . D = poly (0 .25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8. 1.2) .

1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 .Scilab code Exa 8.04.8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3.r ) .pe .7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 .2877124 93 . // number o f b i t s pe = 0.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 . // c o d e r a t e n =2. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 . r = 1/2. // t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1.

disp (x . x3 ) . disp (i .13 . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 .9 . x2 =0. x1 = 0.1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 . 1 and F i g u r e 9 . x1 = x0 . 94 .12 . ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 . // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1. x0 = xor ( x1 .8 . x2 = x1 .Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9.11 .17 . x3 =0.19].10 . 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ].

// The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. Scilab code Exa 9. 1. // x= 0. 0. 1. 2 and F i g u r e 9 . 1. 1. 0. 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1. 0. // x= 1. // x= 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. // x= 0. 1. 8 x1 = 0. 1. 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5. 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 . 95 . 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. 1. 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc . // x= 1. // x= 1. 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. 0. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4. // x= 1.22 N = 2^ m -1.2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 .

’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . zero_count = 0. end end disp (C .5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count . elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1. x3 ) . one_count = one_count +1. N ) . x0 = xor ( x1 . x2 = x1 . ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level . t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9. ’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . // figure a = gca () . if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. disp (x . x1 = x0 . for i =1: N x3 = x2 . zero_count = zero_count +1. ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. disp (i . 4 disp ( C_level . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0.9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0. 96 . x3 =0.

C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () . PN sequence length. 52 plot2d ([ . ’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG . // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6. //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc . Rc_tuo ] .length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 . close . ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 . 50 a .[ C_level .[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) . Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n . // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N . //PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) .43 a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Tb = 4.5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9. 44 plot2d (t .3 Processing gain. ’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m . // P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG . 3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear . Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 . PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h . 51 a .0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] . clc .095*10^ -3. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

1: Example9.Figure 9.2a 98 .

Figure 9.2: Example9.2b 99 .

close . ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k . 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear . 4 and Example9 . 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 . // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No . ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095. Scilab code Fig 9. 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 .14 Eb_No = 10. // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K . ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 .6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 . ’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N . 1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9.5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 . K =2. // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) . // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 .4Figure9. // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 .4Example9. // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3. // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 . 19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1. ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k . // number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K . clc . ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M .

N = 7.20 . a .1 . a .1 . bt = [1* ones (1 . N ) -1* ones (1 .1 .1) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . close .1 . data_bounds = [0 .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ]. ct_polar = [ -1 .0 . clc . -1 .01:1. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . -2.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 .1 . Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) .1 .0 .0 . t = 0:13. plot2d2 (t . bt . ct = [0 . mt = bt . a .1 . -1 .2) a = gca () . -2. plot2d2 (t .1 .1 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 .2].1]. a . end // figure subplot (3 . data_bounds = [0 .2].20 .1 .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear . wt = 0:0. a . ct_polar .1]. -1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .0 . a .* ct_polar . -1 . N ) ]. -1 .1 . st = [].0 .

a . a . a .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .3) a = gca () .20 . data_bounds = [0 . a . data_bounds = [0 .1 .1 .2]. a . plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . mt . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . plot2d2 (t . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2.20 .3) a = gca () .20 . a . plot2d2 (t . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .2) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 .2]. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2]. -2. data_bounds = [0 .35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . -2. mt . a .20 .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2]. a . a . a . data_bounds = [0 . a .1) a = gca () .

Xmax ] = Alaw (x .Figure 9. A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 .3: Figure9.6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx .

6b 104 .Figure 9.4: Figure9.6b Figure9.

12 105 .Figure 9.5: Figure10.

/(1+ log ( A ) ) . h = zeros (1 . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax . N ) . for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) . Rxx = zeros (1 . for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0. elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) . L ) .i +1) = x ( i ) . end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 . end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0. // n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . end N = 2* L -1. for i = 1: L h (L . endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) .

2) . 1 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . 0 .k +1) * h ( k ) . m ) ) . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . 4 clc .2) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .i +1) ]. m ) ) . N = length ( x1 ) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 0 . x2 (N .:) =[ x1 (N . 1 .i +1) . 0 . 1 ] // x = 107 . 22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m . x1 = modulo ( x1 .21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n . x2 = modulo ( x2 . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close .

code2 ( i ) ) . 1 . 1 . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4. code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) . 1 . 1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . close . 1 . ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 . 0 . 0 . Hamming_Distance = 0. Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . end disp ( Hamming_Distance . 0 . 0 .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . clc . // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . 0 . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 .

m3 ( i ) ) ) . xor ( m3 ( i ) . m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 . end C = [ b m ]. m2 ( i ) ) ) . close . b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) . xor ( m2 ( i ) . b (i . ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i . disp ( ” ”). b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i . ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”). m (i . // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 . m1 ( i ) ) ) .:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ]. clc .:) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . xor ( m1 ( i ) . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i . m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) .:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ].:) .:) . // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) .

L . function x = invmulaw (y .1 .0 . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x .1 .1 .1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .0 .1 .1].1 . c = zeros ( length ( x ) .1 .1].1 .1 .0 .1 .0 .1 .0 .0 .j ) ) =1.1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1 .0 .0 .0 . mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1].1 . word .1 .0 .[0 .0 . for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i .0 . .1 .( n .0 . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j .1 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1 .1 .0 .0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 .1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 .1 .1 .1 .n ) .1].1 .1 .0 .0 .0 . end end end disp ( c ) 110 . .1 .1 .1 .

// S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x .L . 6 endfunction 111 . ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m . x = sin (2* %pi * t ) . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc . s c e . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . 3 x ( i ) = 1. // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) . en_code ) . xq . title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ .001:1. L ) ./( %pi * x ) . a . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . xq . L = 16. x ) . // S t e p 1 [ SQNR . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . close . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi .5) . t = 0:0. a = gca () . 5 y ( i ) = 1. PCM encoding .

SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x . L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . q ( i ) .xq ) ) .Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR . xq . length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A .* ones (1 . for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =. en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) . else value = 1. end xq = xq * xmax . d = 2/ L . en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) . end endfunction 112 .. en_code = xq .* ones (1 . q = d *[0: L -1]. B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0.. xq = x / xmax . q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d .

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