Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

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Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

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Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

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Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

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List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . invmulaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sinc new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Encoding . . . . uniform pcm . Hamming Encode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xor . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . . . . . . . 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . .

. . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2b . . . . . .1 . .3 . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. . . . . . Figure6.1b Figure6. . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13a . .1 1. . .1c Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . .4 Figure6. . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example5. . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . Example3. . . .2 5.2 . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . Example2. . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . .1 6. . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure5.1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . Example3. . . . .8 Figure1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1b . . .2 2. . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . .3 6. . . Example4.13b . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . .2 . .1a . . . . . . . . Figure5.3 3. . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . Figure1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Figure6. . . . . . . . .6 6. . Figure3. . . Example3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2b . . . Example7. . . . . . . . .41b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. .5 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Example7. . . . . Figure7. . .2 Figure7.4 .2 . . . . . . . . . .31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . Figure7. . .29 .6a . . . . . . . . .41a Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 7. . . .2 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 7. . .6 . . . . . . . . . . . 1 .4 7. .1b . . . . . . . .10 7. . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 9. Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure10. .8 7. . . Figure7. . . . . . . . Figure9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . .13 7. . . .1c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. .1 Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example9. . . .1 7. . . Figure7.3 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 7. .12 . . . . . . . . . . . .1a .2a . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6b . . . . . . Figure9. . .30 .

1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . dig_data = [0 .1 . sqrt (2) .5 .0 .0 .2 . data_bounds =[ -2 .0 .3] plot (t . a .5 .Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1.1 . -3.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 . clc .0 . -2 . t = -1:0.0 . -1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -0.0 . a . -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 .2 .1] // figure a = gca () .sqrt (2) .0 .1 .0 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . close . .1 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 . x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 .0 .0 . x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) .01:1.1 . a .0. -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear .0 .

0. a .2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 .21 . dig_data . plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] .1: Figure1.Figure 1.5].5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 .

Figure 1.2: Figure1.2b 4 .

5 .Po ( i )).Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2. length ( Po ) ) . 7 Po = 0:0.Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 . 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po .01:1. 6 clc . H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y .0.2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 .1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 . 5 close .Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 . 8 H_Po = zeros (1 . 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = . 1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear . Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .1) Scilab code Exa 2.

Figure 2.1 6 .1: Example2.

// p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 . 2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) . P0 = 1/4. 1 . P0 * P1 . P1 * P1 . P2 * P2 ]. clc . P2 * P1 . 1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma . 8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0. P2 * P0 . H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 . . P1 * P2 . . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. i = 0 . . end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . . P0 * P2 . H_Ruo_Square . P1 * P0 . ’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) .

disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) .((L . Average length.L . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0.2.1.4.Average length. A v e r a g e l e n g t h . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. clc . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2.L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 .1.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 . disp ( sigma_1 . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ .4 Entropy. A v e r a g e l e n g t h .Scilab code Exa 2.H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 . P0 = 0. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 .L ) ^2. ’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3. H_Ruo . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2.3 Entropy. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3.

// p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1. ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4.1.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 . ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 .5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4. 4 clc .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0.2.L ) ^2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0.4.4. H_Ruo . P0 = 0. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2. 6 p = 0. disp ( sigma_2 .2.L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 .L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . e ) transition probility 8 disp (p .1. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 . clc .L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 .p . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i . 5 close . disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3.L . 4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.

9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe .p ( i ) ) ) .01:0.p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 . for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 . close . 6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear .C . p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1. C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 .6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 . 7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 . end end plot2d (p . 1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2.7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 . clc . p = 0:0. elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0.5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y .5.

Figure 2.2: Example2.6 11 .

5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e .1/3 . 14 a = gca () .p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 . data_bounds =[0 .p ) + p ^7. 8 pe_1 = p . 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r .01].0. 6 close . r =1/n ’ .1/7].p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 .pe . ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 . 16 plot2d (r . 7 p =10^ -2.p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 . 13 pe = [ pe_1 .p ) + p ^5. 5 clc .4 clear . Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 .1/5 . // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 . 15 a . pe .0. // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 . pe_7 ]. 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 . pe_3 . pe_5 . r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 . ’ Code Rate .p ) + p ^3.1 .

3: Example2.7 13 .Figure 2.

// 14 . s2t = [0 .0].0]. close . length ( t4 ) -2) . s3t = [0 .Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3. t2 = 0:0. t7 = 2* T /3:0.1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 .0]. clc . T = 1. length ( t3 ) -2) . phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .01:2* T /3.0]. ones (1 . s1t = [0 . ones (1 .01: T . ones (1 . t1 = 0:0. s4t = [0 . ones (1 . ones (1 .0]. ones (1 . ones (1 . t4 = 0:0. length ( t6 ) -2) . length ( t2 ) -2) . t5 = 0:0.0].01:2* T /3. length ( t7 ) -2) .01: T . phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . t6 = T /3:0.0]. length ( t1 ) -2) . t3 = T /3:0.01: T . phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . length ( t5 ) -2) . 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear .01: T /3.01: T /3.

4]. s3t .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1) a = gca () .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a .2]. data_bounds = [0 .0.2]. s1t .2) 15 . s4t . plot2d2 ( t5 . a .2) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . plot2d2 ( t4 .2 . phi1t .0. a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . data_bounds = [0 .3) a = gca () .1) a = gca () .2].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .0.4) a = gca () . a .1 . a . data_bounds = [0 .1 . plot2d2 ( t3 . 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 . s2t .2 .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . plot2d2 ( t1 .0. 4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 .2 .2 .1 .1 . data_bounds = [0 .0.1 .2 . data_bounds = [0 . plot2d2 ( t2 .2].

2 .1: Example3.Figure 3.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 . a .4]. data_bounds = [0 .0. a .2 . phi3t .1 . data_bounds = [0 . plot2d2 ( t6 .1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () .4]. phi2t .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .3) a = gca () . plot2d2 ( t7 .0.

1b 17 .2: Example3.Figure 3.

s q r t ( 18 . s q r t (T) |− a . p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .5.2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 . 8 ( b ) . 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear . o f meg .0 .(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc . -0. clc . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a .0 . a = gca () . -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2 .0] .[0 . a =1. a .(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ]. // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1.0. close . // Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . 8 ( c ) . data_bounds = [ -2 .5] plot2d ( Si1 .Scilab code Exa 3.

3: Example3. s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a .01: T . s q r t (T) | a . close .3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 . fc =4. // c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1. t1 = 0:0. 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear . clc . 19 .Figure 3.

phit ) . -1. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . subplot (2 . a . hopt = phit . phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) . hopt ) . phiot ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1]. plot2d ( t2 .2) a = gca () . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . plot2d ( t1 .1 . -1.1 . t2 = 0:0. 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.1 .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) . data_bounds = [0 .4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 .1) a = gca () .1]. 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 . a . a . 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 .1 .01:2* T . a . phiot = convol ( phit .

3 21 .4: Example3.Figure 3.

data_bounds = [0 . phi0t = convol ( phit . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () .1) a = gca () . 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.1 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . close . hopt ) . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] . a . 1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 .1* rand (1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 . hopt = phit . ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear .1 . data_bounds = [0 .1]. phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) . subplot (2 . a . phit =0. phi0t ) . -1. a .1 .1]. -1. a . clc . a . a .10 . plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . phit ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

4 23 .5: Example3.Figure 3.

// Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 . sigma_X = Rxx (2) . Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) .6]. for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N . ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X . close . disp ( sigma_E .1) . desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) . w = zeros ( order . order = 18. clc . Rxx = [0. x_n = x + noise . ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3. 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear .order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) . close . length ( x ) ) .buffer * w . 24 .01:1.29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear . t =0:0. mu = 0.^2) / length ( x ) ) . x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) .01*( sum ( x . N = length ( x ) .h01 * Rxx (3) .6 1 0. ref_noise = noise * rand (10) . h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) . noise = rand (1 . clc .

4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’.1 .1) 23 plot2d (t .1 .1 .3) 29 plot2d (t .2) 26 plot2d (t .2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 . x_n . noise .1 . x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 . 20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 .5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 .

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc .5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 . data_bounds = [0 . 1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 . for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) . 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) . end a = gca () .E . plot2d ( T_Ts . T_Ts = 0.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 . close .8.01:0. E (1) =1.8 .6.01:0.2].0. a .0.1. //E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 .

3 30 .Figure 4.2: Example4.

2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 . 5 clc . disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12.Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5. 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5. 6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) . 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear . disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 . M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) .1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 . 7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ).

line_style = 4. 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ . d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) .5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . children (1) . poly1 .40 . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear . poly1 . ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5. 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear .5) poly1 = a . 32 .0. plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . Rb_B . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 . a .3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y . // f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m . close . k =7. children (1) . C_B . −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) .10]. clc . data_bounds = [ -30 . // i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB . Rb/B . thickness =2.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 . // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) . P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30].

2 33 .1: Example5.Figure 5.

5 clc .7. a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ). o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W. Scilab code Exa 5. o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000. 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 . 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no . 9 disp (B . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 . 11 disp ( SNRo . 34 . ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n . 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB . 16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 . clc .5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear .2. 6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no . ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no .

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] .:) . Cx (3 . 5 6 ’ ]) 38 .:) .[ ’A=2 ’ ] . ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ .13b 9 [ Cx (i . Cx (1 .[ ’A= 8 7 .2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) .3: Figure5.6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ .Figure 5. ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) . Cx (2 .:) . Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x . A ( i ) ) .4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) . 10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) .:) .

clc . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 .Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6. 1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear .f1 . ’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0. // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1. Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) .1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 .647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 .alpha ) . B = 2* Bo . disp (B .

// p l o t t i n g a = gca () . 1 Scilab code CF 6. binary_zero ) . children (1) . L1 = length ( binary_zero ) . 1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. poly1 . clc .i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 . children (1) . binary_one ) . poly1 . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. a . binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. thickness =3. poly1 = a . close . else plot ([ i *L . poly1 = a . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L .1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . L * L1 2]. data_bounds =[0 -2. total_duration = L * L . children (1) . U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 .L +1: i * L ] . L = length ( x ) . thickness =3. children (1) .L +1: i * L ] .

Figure 6.1a 41 .1: Figure6.

close . B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . poly1 .L +1: i * L ] . L * L1 2]. for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. poly1 = a . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . binary_negative ) . 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] . a . 42 . thickness =3. total_duration = L * L1 . binary_positive ) . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . children (1) .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 . close . L = length ( x ) .L +1: i * L ] . children (1) . 1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] . else plot ([ i *L . poly1 = a .1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . children (1) . data_bounds =[0 -2. poly1 . children (1) . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. clc . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. thickness =3.

1b 43 .2: Figure6.Figure 6.

thickness =3. children (1) . binary_zero ) . poly1 = a . thickness =3. children (1) . 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . L = length ( x ) .0 .L +1: i * L ] . poly1 .1 . L * L1 2]. binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1].L +1: i * L ] .0]. thickness =3. children (1) . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1].L +1: i * L ] . binary_negative ) . x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. a . children (1) . else plot ([ i *L . poly1 . total_duration = L * L1 . poly1 = a . 5 b = [0 . poly1 = a .1 . children (1) . children (1) . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . binary_positive ) .7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc .1 . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . data_bounds =[0 -2. poly1 . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6. elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L .2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 .0 .

Figure 6.3: Figure6.1c 45 .

’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 . b (1) ) . end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) .b ( k ) ) . end c = c ’. if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1. disp ( b_r . end end b_r = b_r ’. for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . disp (c . end end a = a ’. disp (a . else a_volts ( k ) = -1. else b_r ( k ) = 1.6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 . ’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. a_volts = a_volts ’. ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts . if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1.

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 . 1. − 2.0 . d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1. Scilab code Exa 6. 0. end z = z ’. for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) . ’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) . y = y ’. − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 . 0.1 . − 1. : 0. x = [0 . // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 .3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 . − 2. disp (y . 4 clc . 1.1 . 0. end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) . 1. 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 . 0. 2. 1. − 1.1 . − 1. 0. 1.0 . 1.y_delay ( k ) . ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay . 47 .0 . 0.1 . 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 . y_delay = y_delay ’.0 . 0.1].y (k -1) ) . 0. // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1. 0. 1. // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 .

M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . Tb = 1/ fb . 0. : 0. 0. clc . 0. 0. 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . 0. NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] . 1. 1. for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . Scilab code CF 6. 1.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . 1. 0. − 1. − 1. 0. // b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . 1. ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1.4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . 1. // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. 1. 1. volts 0. NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . else 48 . 0. NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . 1. − 1. 0. // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. // [ 1 ] . fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . 0. 1. 0. Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . 0. 0.

// t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) . children (1) . thickness = 2.9) poly1 = a . end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . poly1 .6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 . children (1) . 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 .5) poly1 = a . Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a . children (1) . thickness = 2. Sxxf_NRZ_BP . thickness = 2. plot2d (f . xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) . children (1) . plot2d (f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . plot2d (f . Sxxf_NRZ_UP .2) poly1 = a .20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . thickness = 2. ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . ’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . children (1) . children (1) . plot2d (f . Sxxf_Manch . poly1 . // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. children (1) . poly1 . poly1 .

4: Figure6.Figure 6.4 50 .

x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) . for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0. i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) . Alpha =0. Tb =1/ rb .7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 . 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close . // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb . ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . 51 . i ) = num / den . Bo = rb /2. title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. p (j . Bo = rb /2. x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) . else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . plot (t . den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) .5) |( t ( i ) == -0.5) ) ) p (j .01. t = -3:1/100:3. clc . t = -3:1/100:3.

5: Figure6.Figure 6.6 52 .

rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . 35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . 26 plot2d (t . 30 plot2d (t . children (1) . foreground =2. children (1) . children (1) . // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 .5 ’ . clc .:) ) 28 poly1 = a . 32 po1y2 . p (1 .:) ) 31 poly2 = a . p (2 . 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ . Tb =1/ rb .9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 . 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. 29 poly1 . 24 end 25 a = gca () . 33 poly2 .:) ) 27 plot2d (t . close . foreground =4. line_style = 3. children (1) . 9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear . p (3 .5.21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0. ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0.

6: Figure6.7 54 .Figure 6.

a .* Tb ) . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Phase_Response = -( %pi * f . Phase_Response .* Tb ) ) . thickness = 2. subplot (2 . plot2d (f . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 . a . children (1) .1 .2) a = gca () . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f .2) poly1 = a . poly1 .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . thickness = 2.5) poly1 = a . children (1) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . poly1 .1) a = gca () . 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Amplitude_Response .rb /2:1/100: rb /2.11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = .1 . plot2d (f . a . children (1) .

Figure 6.9 56 .7: Figure6.

// B i t d u r a t i o n f = . Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f . a .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear . thickness = 2. poly1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . thickness = 2. a .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. poly1 . children (1) . clc . plot2d (f .* Tb ) . children (1) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . a .1 . close .5) poly1 = a . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f . children (1) . Amplitude_Response . Tb =1/ rb . plot2d (f .1) a = gca () . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 . Phase_Response . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .2) poly1 = a . a .1 .* Tb ) ) . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . subplot (2 .

8: Figure6.15 58 .Figure 6.

end S1 =[]. t = 0:0. M =4.1 . for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) .1 .:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 .1 . S2 = [].1 .0 . S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) . for i = 1: M s1 (i .sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .0].001:1.1 . S = [].Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7. Input_Sequence =[0 .2].:) = . s2 (i . 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear .:) ]. i = 1: M . end 59 .0 . close . m = [3 . clc .0 .:) ].

// a . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . −5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) . 1 .1 .2) a = gca () .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . // a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . // a . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e . // a . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 23 figure 24 subplot (3 . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 . 1 ] . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot .1 . − 1 . l o g 2 (M) ) . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) .3) a = gca () . 60 . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 . // d i s p ( y . a . 26 a .22 S = S1 + S2 . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) .1) 25 a = gca () . // a =g c a ( ) . 27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 .

FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 . ’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] .1: Example7.1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ .1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 . 5 ) Scilab code CF 7.Figure 7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . 1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK.

sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. length ( x ) ) . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . 6 clc . x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . Xask ]. elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 .5 clear . elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . length ( x ) ) ]. x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . t = 0:1/512:1. I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) . 7 close . // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = []. x2 ]. Xask ]. zeros (1 . x1 ]. 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ). for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = []. x ]. x2 = . for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x .

M =2. Tb =1. x1 ].Tb :0. 63 . 1 .42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . x2 ]. 1 . close . 0 . 0 . 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 0 . 1 .01: Tb . 2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc . t1 = . x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 . 2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 . 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7. 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t .2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 .

2: Figure7.1a 64 .Figure 7.

1b 65 .3: Figure7.Figure 7.

4: Figure7.1c 66 .Figure 7.

S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].1 .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. %pi ]. s1 (2) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .%pi /2]. s2 (2) .* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) . S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ]. S = [].0].1 .0 . y = [ s1 (1) .sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) . teta_tb = [ %pi /2 .0 . s1 (1) . s2 (1) .sin ( .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ]. S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ]. end Input_Sequence =[1 .1) a = gca () . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 .sin ( . phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S2 = [].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) .01:2* Tb . disp (y . end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].sin ( .1 . teta_0 = [0 . s1 (2) . . s2 ( i ) = .0 . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S1 = [].sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. t = 0:0. s2 (1) .sin ( . for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) . 67 . s2 (2) ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .01:1.%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].

M =2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. log2 ( M ) ) . 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . imag ( y (1) ) . close . -2.2 .2]. a . annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . imag ( y (2) ) . -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . a .2) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . a . i = 1: M . a = gca () . a .3) a = gca () . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) . data_bounds = [ -2 .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a . disp (y . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . a .

5: Example7.Figure 7.2 69 .

3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 .6: Figure7.Figure 7.2 In−Phase ’ ) . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ . 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).5) Scilab code Tab 7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .

0 . disp ( bk_not . dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) . 3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 . dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) . // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) . 71 29 30 31 32 .1]. end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0. bk = [1 .1 .( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )).0 . end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . else bk_not ( i ) = 1. ’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’. ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’. // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1.1 .0 . 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk . end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) . elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi . dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) .0 . dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) .

a . a .33 34 35 36 disp ( dk . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). -9) plot2d ( y (2 . disp (y . plot2d ( y (1 . -2.2].2 .1) . annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] .0 . 20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ . data_bounds = [ -2 .2) . ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’.y (2 . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure . a = gca () . close . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . log2 ( M ) ) .y (1 .0.2) . disp ( dk_radians .5) 72 . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot .1]. M =2. -5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) . ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.1) . 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc . y = [1 .4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 .

Figure 7.7: Figure 7.4 73 .

1]. 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] . a . a = gca () . M =4. log2 ( M ) ) .sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i .Scilab code CF 7. a . imag ( y (2) ) . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . imag ( y (3) ) . disp (y . imag ( y (1) ) . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . close . imag ( y (4) ) . -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) . a . data_bounds = [ -1 . -1. ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) .6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 . -4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) Scilab code Tab 7. i = 1: M . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) .6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 .1 . y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .

6 75 .Figure 7.8: Figure7.

clc ./2.16 . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M .64]. close .8 .4 . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .8 . 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear ./ M . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ .32 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 . 6 M = [2 .7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 . //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) . ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo . //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) . M = [2 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7. 4 clc . 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear .16 .4 . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .64]. // Ruo = Ruo ’ . 5 close .32 .

9: Figure7. ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. ’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo .29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 .Figure 7.12 ’) 12 disp (M .

// B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb . children (1) . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . 3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . foreground = 6. Tb = 1/ rb . else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) . 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc . end a = gca () . poly1 . SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. plot ( f * Tb . 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . children (1) .30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals.

29 79 .10: Figure7.Figure 7.

Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) . f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) .5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) . ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ . foreground = 3. end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) . 3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 . else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2.3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r . // c l c . children (1) .31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 . end a = gca () . poly1 . Tb = 1/ rb . children (1) . // c l o s e . // b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0. plot ( f * Tb . poly1 = a . plot ( f * Tb .

11: Figure7.30 81 .Figure 7.

t = 0: T . clc .41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 . Tb = 1/ rb .2) plot2d ( f * Tb . end end a = gca () . 4 . f = 0:1/100: rb . g ) ) . h = abs ( convol (g .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .4 .8]. plot2d ( f * Tb . // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 . SB_PSK (2 . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 . g = 2* ones (1 . a =2. SB_PSK (1 . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ . 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear . i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) .:) /(2* Eb ) . for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j . T =4. T +1) . ’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. ’M=4 ’ . SB_PSK (3 .:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) .:) /(2* Eb ) .

12: Figure7.31 83 .Figure 7.

01) h ( i ) =0.12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0.4].6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 . figure a = gca () .6 . a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .g . end end h = h-T. a .0.h . data_bounds = [0 . t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1.5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 . plot2d (t .

Figure 7.13: Figure7.41a 85 .

Figure 7.41b 86 .14: Figure7.

1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’]. 2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear . // b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) . ’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) .* G .1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 . // b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1. Scilab code Exa 8. // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 . n =5.n . // m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 . clc . // c o d e word disp (G .2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 .n . 5 k = 4. ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) .Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. disp (H . // one b i t m = 1. 4 clc .k ) . disp (x .k ) . // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1].

disp (G .1 .0 .D) . g * D ^2. g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.1 . G = coeff ( G ) .0 .3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 . ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ].0 .:) = G (3 . disp (r .0. 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 .1 .k . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . G (3 .0 . clc . ’D ’ ) .0 .:) = modulo ( G (3 .0 .0 .1 . g * D ^3]. g * D .0.:) .1 .1.1 . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 .:) . g ) .1.1 .1 .0 . q ] = pdiv (m . 4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. 88 . p = coeff ( r ) . ’G ’ ) G (3 .k -1) P ’]. // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) .0.1 . k ) . // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I . // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k .:) + G (1 .1.0.0. 21 disp (C .1.1 18 // 19 C = m * G .2) .0 .1 .0 . ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 .1 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7.0 .0 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 . 0 . // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H .0 .0 . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g .0 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G .2) .1 . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . 3 : ( 7 .1 .0 .1]. 0 . 20 C = modulo (C . ’ Code words o f ( 7 . D = poly (0 .0 .1.1.

4 Encoder for the (7. g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 .:) . p = coeff ( r ) . H_num = numer ( H_D ) . G (4 .:) = modulo ( H (1 . ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . g ) . D ^6* h ]. disp (H . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) . disp (G . D ^5* h . 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . disp (r .:) . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 . H (1 . H (1 .2) . q ] = pdiv (m .:) + G (4 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) .2) .:) + H (3 .:) = H (1 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . ’D ’ ) .:) + G (2 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . D = poly (0 .:) .:) = G (1 . H_D = [ D ^4* h . 0 . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . 4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . H = coeff ( H_num ) . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4.:) .:) = modulo ( G (4 .D) . 0 .

// m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6. disp ( r1 . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6. 1 . S2 = modulo ( S2 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 . g ) . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 . disp ( r2 . q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 . g ) . S1 = modulo ( S1 . ’D ’ ) .2) . //m i t symbol −b 90 . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . 1 .2) . D = poly (0 .6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 . 0 . S1 = coeff ( r1 ) . 1 . q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 . 5 m =2. 0 . S2 = coeff ( r2 ) .5 Syndrome calculator for the(7.18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8. g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc . 1 ] clc .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 .

g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2. 1 . // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r . x1 = modulo ( x1 .i +1) .2) . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . 0 .:) =[ x1 (N . ’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t .k . 1 . 0 . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. m ) ) . ’ n ’ ) disp (p . 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close . x2 (N . N = length ( x1 ) . x2 = modulo ( x2 . // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1. // c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .i +1) ].2) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 .7 Convolutional Encoding . // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1. x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . 0 . end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . m ) ) . // c o d e r a t e disp (n . clc .

0. disp ( modulo ( x1 . 1.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 . 1. 0. ’D ’ ) . 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc .25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8.2) . 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. D = poly (0 . 0. 92 . // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4. // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. ’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . 1. ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 . 1. // bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) .2) . x2 = coeff ( x2D ) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2. g1D = 1+ D + D ^2.

// t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 . 1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc .r ) . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0. r = 1/2.7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8.2877124 93 .pe . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1.04. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 .8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1. // number o f b i t s pe = 0.Scilab code Exa 8. // c o d e r a t e n =2.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 .

x1 = x0 . x3 ) .19]. ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. disp (i .1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 .10 . x3 =0.9 .12 . x2 = x1 .17 . x2 =0.13 .Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9. // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1. 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc . disp (x . 94 . 1 and F i g u r e 9 . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 .8 . x0 = xor ( x1 .11 . x1 = 0.

0. 95 . 1. 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. 0. // x= 1. 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1. 0. // x= 1. 0. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. // x= 1. 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. 1. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. // x= 0. 1. 0.2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 .22 N = 2^ m -1. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4. 1. 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 . // x= 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. 8 x1 = 0. 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc . 1. Scilab code Exa 9. 2 and F i g u r e 9 . // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5. // x= 0. // x= 1.

disp (x . if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. end end disp (C . disp (i . 4 disp ( C_level . x3 ) . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 . ’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . one_count = one_count +1. N ) . x2 = x1 . ’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9. for i =1: N x3 = x2 . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0. zero_count = 0.5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count . x0 = xor ( x1 . x3 =0. 96 . ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level . zero_count = zero_count +1. t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . x1 = x0 . // figure a = gca () . elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1.9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0.

’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m . Tb = 4. Rc_tuo ] . PN sequence length.[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) . ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 . //PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) . 51 a . C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () . 52 plot2d ([ . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N .length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 .0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] . //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc . 44 plot2d (t . ’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG . 3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear . Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n . // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6.3 Processing gain. clc . Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 .[ C_level .43 a .095*10^ -3. // P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 50 a .5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9. close . PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h .

1: Example9.2a 98 .Figure 9.

2: Example9.2b 99 .Figure 9.

// P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3. ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M . Scilab code Fig 9. // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 . ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095. ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 . 1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9. ’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N . 19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 .14 Eb_No = 10. clc .4Figure9. // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 .4Example9. 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear .6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 . 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 . // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1. K =2. 4 and Example9 . ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k . close . // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) . 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 .5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 . ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 . // number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K .

1]. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear . -1 . bt . a . bt = [1* ones (1 .1 . plot2d2 (t .0 . a . -2. wt = 0:0.1 .01:1.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 .1 .1 .1 . a . mt = bt .1 . Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) . N ) ]. -1 .2].0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .20 .2].0 . t = 0:13. for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ]. -1 .1 .0 . -2. close . clc . a . st = []. N ) -1* ones (1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . end // figure subplot (3 .2) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . N = 7.1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 . ct_polar = [ -1 .1].20 . ct = [0 . -1 .* ct_polar .0 . data_bounds = [0 .1 .1 . ct_polar . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -1 . plot2d2 (t .1 . a . a .1) a = gca () .1 .1 .

a . data_bounds = [0 .20 .20 .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . -2.35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . mt . a . -2. plot2d2 (t .20 . -2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () . 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 . a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 .3) a = gca () .1 . a . a . -2. data_bounds = [0 . data_bounds = [0 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . a .2]. a .20 .2]. a . data_bounds = [0 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1) a = gca () .2].2]. a . mt .3) a = gca () . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d2 (t .

6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx . Xmax ] = Alaw (x .Figure 9.3: Figure9. A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 .

4: Figure9.6b Figure9.Figure 9.6b 104 .

12 105 .Figure 9.5: Figure10.

for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) . for i = 1: L h (L . Rxx = zeros (1 . L ) . elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) . h = zeros (1 . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax .i +1) = x ( i ) ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0. // n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’./(1+ log ( A ) ) . N ) . end N = 2* L -1. for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0.

1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .k +1) * h ( k ) .i +1) . m ) ) . 1 . 0 . 4 clc . 22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m . m ) ) . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .2) .i +1) ]. 0 . x1 = modulo ( x1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .:) =[ x1 (N . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . x2 (N . N = length ( x1 ) .2) . 1 ] // x = 107 . 0 . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . 1 . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close . x2 = modulo ( x2 .21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n .

for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . close . Hamming_Distance = 0. Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4. 0 . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . 1 . 0 . 1 . 0 . 0 .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . 1 . 0 . code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) . 1 . clc . code2 ( i ) ) . 1 . ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 . end disp ( Hamming_Distance .

:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ]. close . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 .:) . b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) . // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . end C = [ b m ].1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 .:) . disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i . b (i . b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . m2 ( i ) ) ) . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . m1 ( i ) ) ) . clc . m (i .:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ]. m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m3 ( i ) ) ) . ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”). disp ( ” ”). // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . xor ( m3 ( i ) . xor ( m2 ( i ) . ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . xor ( m1 ( i ) . end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 . m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i .:) .

0 .0 .0 .L . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) .0 . function x = invmulaw (y .0 .1 .1 .0 . for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i .0 .1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 .1 . .0 .1 . . end end end disp ( c ) 110 . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j .0 .1 .1].0 .1 .1 .1 .0 ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x .1 .0 .1].1 .0 .1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .0 .0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 .( n .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) .1].1].1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1 .n ) .0 .1 .0 .1 .0 .0 .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 .1 . word .0 .0 . c = zeros ( length ( x ) .[0 .0 .1 .j ) ) =1.1 .0 .1 .1 .1 .0 .1 . mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) .1 .0 .1 .1 .

5) . x = sin (2* %pi * t ) . 3 x ( i ) = 1. L = 16. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) . // S t e p 1 [ SQNR . xq . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . a . xq . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) . 6 endfunction 111 . PCM encoding .001:1. t = 0:0. a ./( %pi * x ) . x ) . close . title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ .Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m . 5 y ( i ) = 1. en_code ) . L ) . a = gca () . s c e . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . // S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x .L . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc .

. xq = x / xmax . en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) . length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) .Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR . q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d . L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . d = 2/ L . xq .* ones (1 .xq ) ) . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0. else value = 1. endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A .. q = d *[0: L -1]. SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x . end endfunction 112 . en_code = xq . for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =. length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) . q ( i ) .* ones (1 . end xq = xq * xmax .

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