Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

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Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

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Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

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Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

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List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . . . . . . .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . uniform pcm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sinc new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Encoding . . . . . . . . invmulaw . . . . . . . . Hamming Encode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .1c Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example3.9 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure5. .6 4. . . . . . . . .13a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13b .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . .3 6. . . . . .2 6.2b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . Figure1. . . . . . . . .6 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . Example2. . . . . . .4 . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . 7 . . . . . . . Example5. . . . . . Example4. . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . .6 . . . .2 2. . Figure6. . .8 Figure1. . . . . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure5. . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Figure6. . . . . . . . .1 6. . .4 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . .5 6.1b .2 3. .3 6. . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . .1a Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. .1 4. . .15 . . . . . . . . . .1 . . .2 5. .7 . . . . Example2.2 5. . . Figure3. . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . .1b Figure6. . . . .1a . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2a . . . .

. . . . .6 . . . . .5 7. . . . . . . . . . .1a . . . . . . . . . . . .12 7. . . . . . . . Figure10. . . Figure9. . . .1 Figure7. . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . .5 Example7. . 1 . . . . . . . Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. . . . Figure7. . .1b . . . . . . . . . .1c . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 . . . . . . . Example9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41a Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 7. . .14 9. . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . .9 7. . .4 9. . . .1 9.13 7. .7 7. . . . .2 . . . . . . . .31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. Figure7. . .41b . . . . . . . . .6 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . Example7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . .29 . . . .3 9. . . . . . .3 7. Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2a . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure9. . . . . . . . . . .2 Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2b . . . .12 . . . .11 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . .6b . . . . . . . . . . .

1 .sqrt (2) . a .0 . x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .1 .0 .0 . sqrt (2) . a .0 .0 . -1 . dig_data = [0 .5 . a . x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .0 .2 .2 .0 . close .0 .0 . . -3. -2 .1 .0 . data_bounds =[ -2 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .3] plot (t .1 . -0. -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . clc . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear .1 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 . -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 . t = -1:0.0 .1] // figure a = gca () .5 .Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1.0.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .0 .01:1.

Figure 1. data_bounds = [0 . a . dig_data .21 .2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () .5]. plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] .1: Figure1.0.5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 .

2b 4 .2: Figure1.Figure 1.

Po ( i )). 7 Po = 0:0. H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y . length ( Po ) ) .2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 .Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2. Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .5 . 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = . 1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear .Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 .1) Scilab code Exa 2.Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 . 5 close . 8 H_Po = zeros (1 .0. 6 clc .1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 .01:1. 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po .

Figure 2.1: Example2.1 6 .

// p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) . P2 * P1 . i = 0 . . P0 = 1/4. ’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) . . P2 * P0 . 8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0. disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . P1 * P1 . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . P1 * P0 . H_Ruo_Square . disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . P0 * P2 . P0 * P1 . 2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . clc . ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 . . 1 . H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 . P2 * P2 ]. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. P1 * P2 . 1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma .

A v e r a g e l e n g t h . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. Average length.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear .3 Entropy. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. H_Ruo . A v e r a g e l e n g t h . clc .4.L ) ^2.Average length.1.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. ’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 .1.L . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . disp ( sigma_1 .2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .2.((L . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3. V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 .Scilab code Exa 2. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2. P0 = 0. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2.4 Entropy.

’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2. ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4.1. H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . clc . e ) transition probility 8 disp (p . 4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1.p . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4. 5 close . 4 clc . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3. // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 .2.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 .L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 .2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. P0 = 0.4. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .4. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0.1. disp ( sigma_2 . 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear . disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .L ) ^2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 . 6 p = 0. H_Ruo .L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 .L .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 .

9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe .7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 . p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y .5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y . 6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear . 7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 . elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0.p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 . elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1. end end plot2d (p . 1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2. ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. p = 0:0. for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 . clc .5.C .p ( i ) ) ) . close . C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 .6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 .01:0.

2: Example2.Figure 2.6 11 .

p ) + p ^3.01]. 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . 15 a . pe_5 . pe_7 ]. pe_3 . r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r .0. ’ Code Rate . ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r .p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 . 7 p =10^ -2. // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 .5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e . Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . 6 close .1/3 .4 clear . pe .p ) + p ^7. r =1/n ’ .p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 .1/5 . 14 a = gca () . 5 clc .pe . Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 . 13 pe = [ pe_1 . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 .1/7]. 8 pe_1 = p . 16 plot2d (r . data_bounds =[0 .0.p ) + p ^5.p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 .1 . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 . 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r . // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 .

Figure 2.7 13 .3: Example2.

phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . t6 = T /3:0. ones (1 . length ( t7 ) -2) . t5 = 0:0. t4 = 0:0.01: T . ones (1 . ones (1 . ones (1 . phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3.0]. ones (1 . close .0].01: T /3. 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear . // 14 . length ( t2 ) -2) .01: T .0]. s1t = [0 . ones (1 .0].01:2* T /3. T = 1. s3t = [0 . phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . clc .01: T . length ( t5 ) -2) .0]. ones (1 . length ( t3 ) -2) .0]. t7 = 2* T /3:0.01:2* T /3. t2 = 0:0. t1 = 0:0.1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 . t3 = T /3:0. length ( t1 ) -2) . length ( t4 ) -2) . length ( t6 ) -2) . s4t = [0 .01: T /3.0]. s2t = [0 .

3) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .2].1) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 . 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . 4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 .2]. a .0. a . a .2].0.0.2 . data_bounds = [0 .1 .2) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2 . s1t .1 . plot2d2 ( t3 .0.1) a = gca () .4]. plot2d2 ( t5 . phi1t . data_bounds = [0 .1 . data_bounds = [0 .4) a = gca () .2 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .2) 15 .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1 . s3t .2 . s4t .2].0.1 .2 . a . s2t . plot2d2 ( t2 . plot2d2 ( t4 . plot2d2 ( t1 . a .

data_bounds = [0 . a . phi3t .1: Example3.1 .2 .4]. phi2t .3) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 .Figure 3. a .4].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . plot2d2 ( t7 .2 . plot2d2 ( t6 . data_bounds = [0 .1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () .0.0.

1b 17 .2: Example3.Figure 3.

5] plot2d ( Si1 .0 .2 .[0 . 8 ( c ) . a =1.5. 8 ( b ) . clc . s q r t ( 18 .0] .( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . close . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a . // Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . data_bounds = [ -2 . 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear . s q r t (T) |− a .0 .Scilab code Exa 3.0. a .2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 . o f meg . a = gca () . 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1.(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ]. -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . -0. R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc .

fc =4.Figure 3.3: Example3. s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. // c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1.3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 . clc . s q r t (T) | a . close .2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a .01: T . 19 . 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear . t1 = 0:0.

a .4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 . hopt ) . 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 . 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . phit ) .2) a = gca () . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . hopt = phit . a .01:2* T . data_bounds = [0 . -1. data_bounds = [0 . plot2d ( t1 . t2 = 0:0. 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) . a .1 . phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) . -1.1 . phiot = convol ( phit . plot2d ( t2 .1]. xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1 .1) a = gca () .1]. a .1 . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . subplot (2 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . phiot ) .

Figure 3.4: Example3.3 21 .

xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .10 .1 .1* rand (1 . -1. a . phi0t ) . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] . data_bounds = [0 . 1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 .6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 . phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) . -1.1 . plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1]. 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.1 . close .1]. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . phit ) . a .1) a = gca () . clc . a . hopt ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . hopt = phit . a . phi0t = convol ( phit .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear . ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) . phit =0. data_bounds = [0 . subplot (2 .2) a = gca () .

Figure 3.5: Example3.4 23 .

buffer * w . close . x_n = x + noise . close .6 1 0. clc . Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) .6]. clc . ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3.01:1.1) .29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear .^2) / length ( x ) ) . N = length ( x ) . ref_noise = noise * rand (10) . noise = rand (1 . disp ( sigma_E .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 . order = 18. length ( x ) ) . Rxx = [0. sigma_X = Rxx (2) . for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N . mu = 0.h01 * Rxx (3) . w = zeros ( order .order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) . // Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) . t =0:0. desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) .01*( sum ( x . ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X . x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) . 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear . h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) . 24 .

20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 .2) 26 plot2d (t . noise .4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .1 .1 .5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 .1 . x_n .3) 29 plot2d (t .2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 .19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’.1 . x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 .1) 23 plot2d (t .

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 .8. data_bounds = [0 . end a = gca () . 3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc .0. for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) .1. //E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 .E .01:0. E (1) =1. a . 1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 .0. T_Ts = 0.6. 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) .5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 .8 . plot2d ( T_Ts .2]. close . 5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 .01:0.

Figure 4.2: Example4.3 30 .

M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) . 5 clc .Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5. 6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) .1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 .2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 . 7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ). disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 . 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5. disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12. 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear .

d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) . close . poly1 . line_style = 4. // f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m . children (1) . a . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear . 32 . children (1) . C_B . plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y .5) poly1 = a . 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear . ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5. poly1 . clc .40 . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 . −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) .5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB .3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30]. Rb_B . 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ .0. thickness =2.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 . // i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB . Rb/B . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB . k =7.10]. // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) . data_bounds = [ -30 .

Figure 5.1: Example5.2 33 .

6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no . 9 disp (B . 34 . ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W. 11 disp ( SNRo .2. 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000. Scilab code Exa 5. ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n .5 clc .7.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear . 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no . 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB . 16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 . a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ). o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 . clc .

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

Figure 5.:) . ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ . 15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] .3: Figure5.:) .13b 9 [ Cx (i . 5 6 ’ ]) 38 .2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) .:) . 10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) .[ ’A= 8 7 .6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ . ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) . A ( i ) ) .4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) . Cx (1 .[ ’A=2 ’ ] . Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x .:) . Cx (2 . Cx (3 .

f1 . clc .alpha ) . Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) .Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6. // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1. ’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0.647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 . disp (B .1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 . B = 2* Bo . 1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear .

children (1) . total_duration = L * L . else plot ([ i *L . poly1 = a .1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L .i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 . binary_one ) . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . 1 Scilab code CF 6. a . L = length ( x ) . U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . children (1) . poly1 . binary_zero ) . L * L1 2]. binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. poly1 . close . data_bounds =[0 -2. 1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1].1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . thickness =3. children (1) . thickness =3.L +1: i * L ] . clc . poly1 = a .L +1: i * L ] . L1 = length ( binary_zero ) . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. children (1) .

1a 41 .Figure 6.1: Figure6.

children (1) . L * L1 2]. 42 . close . else plot ([ i *L . poly1 . 1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 . L = length ( x ) . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . children (1) . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. poly1 . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L .1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. total_duration = L * L1 . children (1) . 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] . binary_positive ) . poly1 = a .L +1: i * L ] . a . close . poly1 = a . B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . binary_negative ) . thickness =3.L +1: i * L ] . data_bounds =[0 -2. children (1) . thickness =3. clc . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6.

2: Figure6.1b 43 .Figure 6.

0 . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6. // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 . children (1) .2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 . children (1) . children (1) . children (1) .0 . x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. L = length ( x ) .L +1: i * L ] . 5 b = [0 . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . children (1) .1 .7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc . binary_zero ) . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . binary_positive ) . else plot ([ i *L . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . thickness =3. poly1 . poly1 = a . elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L . 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc . poly1 . data_bounds =[0 -2.L +1: i * L ] . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. total_duration = L * L1 . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. poly1 = a . L * L1 2]. binary_negative ) . poly1 = a . thickness =3. poly1 . children (1) . thickness =3.0]. a .1 .L +1: i * L ] .1 .

1c 45 .Figure 6.3: Figure6.

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 . disp (a . end end a = a ’. end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) . end c = c ’. if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1.b ( k ) ) . else b_r ( k ) = 1. ’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 . for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . else a_volts ( k ) = -1. b (1) ) . a_volts = a_volts ’. if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1. disp (c . end end b_r = b_r ’. ’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts . disp ( b_r .

end z = z ’. ’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) .0 . 1. 2.y (k -1) ) .0 . − 1. 1. disp (y .1 . ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 .y_delay ( k ) . end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) . 1. 0. 0. : 0. 0. − 2. d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1. 47 . y = y ’. 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 .1 . 1. 4 clc . 0. 0. 0. // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1.1]. − 2. x = [0 . Scilab code Exa 6.0 . // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 .3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 . − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 .1 . 1.1 . 0. for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) . 1.0 . − 1. // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 . 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 . 0. y_delay = y_delay ’. − 1. 0. 1.

else 48 . 0. 0. 0. 0. 1. ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1.4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . 1. 0. // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . 1. clc . − 1. 1. 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. // [ 1 ] . − 1. 0. 0. NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . 0. fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . 1. NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . 1. 1. 0. 0. 0. // b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] . for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . Scilab code CF 6. // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. 1. Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . 1. NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . 0. volts 0. Tb = 1/ fb . − 1. : 0.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . 0. 1.

plot2d (f . thickness = 2. children (1) . end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) . 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 . // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. plot2d (f . end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () . children (1) . poly1 . plot2d (f . children (1) . children (1) . plot2d (f . Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a . poly1 . poly1 .5) poly1 = a . ’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . children (1) . thickness = 2. children (1) . poly1 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . thickness = 2. Sxxf_NRZ_UP . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ .20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . Sxxf_Manch .2) poly1 = a . children (1) .9) poly1 = a . ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 . Sxxf_NRZ_BP . thickness = 2. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .

4: Figure6.Figure 6.4 50 .

Tb =1/ rb . else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) . // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb .5) |( t ( i ) == -0.01. ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . i ) = num / den . Bo = rb /2. clc . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) . i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) . p (j . t = -3:1/100:3. plot (t . title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. 51 . 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . t = -3:1/100:3.5) ) ) p (j . Alpha =0.7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 . x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) . for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0. den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. Bo = rb /2.

6 52 .5: Figure6.Figure 6.

24 end 25 a = gca () . 29 poly1 . p (2 . 9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear . close . clc . p (1 . line_style = 3.5 ’ . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0. foreground =2.:) ) 27 plot2d (t . p (3 . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. Tb =1/ rb .5. // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 . 30 plot2d (t . 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) . foreground =4.:) ) 28 poly1 = a . children (1) . 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ . children (1) . 33 poly2 . 35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . 32 po1y2 . children (1) .:) ) 31 poly2 = a . children (1) . 26 plot2d (t . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0.9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 .

6: Figure6.Figure 6.7 54 .

children (1) .2) a = gca () . plot2d (f .* Tb ) ) .5) poly1 = a . poly1 .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. a . children (1) . 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 . a . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . Phase_Response = -( %pi * f . children (1) . thickness = 2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .1 .11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = . children (1) .1) a = gca () . a . subplot (2 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . Phase_Response .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 . poly1 . thickness = 2. plot2d (f . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) poly1 = a . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f . Amplitude_Response .* Tb ) . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6.

7: Figure6.Figure 6.9 56 .

poly1 . // B i t d u r a t i o n f = . poly1 .2) a = gca () . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 .5) poly1 = a . a .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear . plot2d (f . children (1) . thickness = 2. plot2d (f .1 . children (1) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . close . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . a . Tb =1/ rb . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. children (1) .1) a = gca () . a .* Tb ) ) . thickness = 2. subplot (2 . Phase_Response . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .2) poly1 = a .1 . Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . clc . Amplitude_Response . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . children (1) .* Tb ) .

15 58 .Figure 6.8: Figure6.

001:1.:) ].:) = . i = 1: M . end S1 =[].Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7.0 .0]. M =4.1 .:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . s2 (i .sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . m = [3 .2]. for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) .0 . 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear .1 .0 .:) ].1 . end 59 . for i = 1: M s1 (i . close .1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 .1 . clc . S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) . S = []. S2 = [].1 . Input_Sequence =[0 . t = 0:0.

’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e . 60 .22 S = S1 + S2 . l o g 2 (M) ) . // a . −5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) . 1 ] . // d i s p ( y . − 1 . 23 figure 24 subplot (3 . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) .2) a = gca () . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . 1 . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) . // a . // a .1 . 26 a . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) .1 . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i .3) a = gca () . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 . // a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) . // a =g c a ( ) .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1) 25 a = gca () . 27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 . a . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .

1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ .1: Example7. 5 ) Scilab code CF 7. ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ .Figure 7. 1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 . ’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] .

x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . 7 close . 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ). end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = []. x1 ]. zeros (1 . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) .5 clear . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) . elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk .sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . length ( x ) ) . x ]. x2 = . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 . // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = []. x2 ]. I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) . x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . 6 clc . Xask ]. elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x . Xask ]. t = 0:1/512:1. length ( x ) ) ]. elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 .

1 . x2 ]. close . 0 . 1 . x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 . M =2. 1 . x1 ].01: Tb . 0 .Tb :0. 2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 .42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc . 63 . Tb =1. 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7. t1 = .2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 . 0 . 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t .

Figure 7.2: Figure7.1a 64 .

3: Figure7.1b 65 .Figure 7.

4: Figure7.1c 66 .Figure 7.

sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].1 . S2 = []. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ]. end Input_Sequence =[1 . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . 67 . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .sin ( . t = 0:0. S1 = [].01:2* Tb . teta_0 = [0 .sin ( .1 . y = [ s1 (1) . end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ]. S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S = []. s2 (2) . disp (y . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . . s1 (1) .sin ( . s2 (1) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) . S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ]. phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) .* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].0 . s1 (2) . s2 (2) ].1) a = gca () .sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) .* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) . s1 (2) . %pi ]. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 . s2 ( i ) = .10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0. S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].0].sin ( .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. teta_tb = [ %pi /2 . s2 (1) . for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .1 .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].%pi /2].0 .0 .01:1.

plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . imag ( y (1) ) .2]. annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . imag ( y (2) ) . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . M =2.2) a = gca () .3) a = gca () . -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . disp (y . i = 1: M . data_bounds = [ -2 . a . a = gca () .1 . log2 ( M ) ) . -2. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a .2 . 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc . close . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure . a .2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 .

5: Example7.Figure 7.2 69 .

5) Scilab code Tab 7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .Figure 7. 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).2 In−Phase ’ ) .6: Figure7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 .

dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) .( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )).0 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 . 71 29 30 31 32 . 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk .0 . else bk_not ( i ) = 1. disp ( bk_not . ’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’.1]. end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .1 .0 . // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1. dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) . end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0. 3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc .1 . dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) . ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’. // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) . elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi . bk = [1 . end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) . dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) .0 .

-5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) . -2. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . disp ( dk_radians . a . annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] .2].2) . plot2d ( y (1 . -9) plot2d ( y (2 . 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc .y (1 . a .5) 72 .1) . y = [1 . data_bounds = [ -2 .2) . 20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .1) . log2 ( M ) ) .1]. M =2.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .33 34 35 36 disp ( dk .y (2 . disp (y .0. a . ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.2 . ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’.0 . close . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). a = gca () .

4 73 .Figure 7.7: Figure 7.

a . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ .6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 .1 . imag ( y (1) ) . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] . annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . close . -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . imag ( y (4) ) . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . log2 ( M ) ) . -1. title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . -4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . disp (y .1]. a . imag ( y (3) ) .6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 . y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc . -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) .5) Scilab code Tab 7. M =4. data_bounds = [ -1 . -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) . a = gca () .Scilab code CF 7. imag ( y (2) ) . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . i = 1: M .

Figure 7.6 75 .8: Figure7.

6 M = [2 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7. // Ruo = Ruo ’ .8 . 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear .64].16 . //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) . 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear .32 .8 . //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) . clc .64].16 . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . 5 close .32 .4 . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . 4 clc . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 . M = [2 ./2. close ./ M .4 . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ . ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo .7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 .

29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.9: Figure7. ’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo .12 ’) 12 disp (M .Figure 7.

poly1 . 3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . // B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a . f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . children (1) . else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . Tb = 1/ rb . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals. foreground = 6. Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . end a = gca () . 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . plot ( f * Tb . SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb . ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 .

29 79 .10: Figure7.Figure 7.

end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2. end a = gca () . foreground = 3. // b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0. Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) . poly1 = a . Tb = 1/ rb .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r . plot ( f * Tb . SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) . ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. children (1) . f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) . // c l o s e . else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2. poly1 . plot ( f * Tb .31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ . 3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 . // c l c . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . children (1) . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) .5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) .

11: Figure7.Figure 7.30 81 .

t = 0: T . g = 2* ones (1 .8]. // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . SB_PSK (3 . f = 0:1/100: rb . g ) ) . 4 . T +1) . Tb = 1/ rb . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) .2) plot2d ( f * Tb . clc . plot2d ( f * Tb . a =2. SB_PSK (1 .4 .41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 . T =4. h = abs ( convol (g . ’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. end end a = gca () .:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb . 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear . for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j .:) /(2* Eb ) .:) /(2* Eb ) . ’M=4 ’ . i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) . SB_PSK (2 . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 .

12: Figure7.31 83 .Figure 7.

plot2d (t .5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 . end end h = h-T.6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 . t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1.h . figure a = gca () . a .12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0.0.01) h ( i ) =0.g . data_bounds = [0 . a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .6 .4].

13: Figure7.Figure 7.41a 85 .

Figure 7.41b 86 .14: Figure7.

Scilab code Exa 8. 2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear . disp (x .2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 . // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 . // b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1.* G .n . // c o d e word disp (G .k ) . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m . // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1]. // b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k .Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. 1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear . ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) . ’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) . 4 clc . clc . // m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) .k ) . disp (H .1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’]. n =5. // one b i t m = 1.n . 5 k = 4.

0 . 21 disp (C .0 .:) = modulo ( G (3 .1 . // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I .1 .0 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G .1.0 . 3 : ( 7 .1 18 // 19 C = m * G . g * D ^2. disp (r .0 . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P .0 . ’ Code words o f ( 7 .3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 . G = coeff ( G ) .k -1) P ’]. // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H .1. ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . q ] = pdiv (m . 0 .1].0 . 88 .1 .:) . ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ].1 .1 .2) .:) = G (3 .:) + G (1 .0. ’D ’ ) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) .1 . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . g ) .2) . // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k . g * D ^3].0 . k ) .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7.:) .0 . 20 C = modulo (C . g * D .0 .1. 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 .1 . clc . p = coeff ( r ) .1 .1.0 .D) . ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 .0. ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . ’G ’ ) G (3 . 4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. G (3 .1 .0.0 . disp (G .0 .0.k .0 .0.1.0 .1 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.1 .1 . D = poly (0 .1 . 0 .0 .1.0 .

’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 .:) . D ^5* h . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . H (1 . disp (r .:) . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4.:) = G (1 . g ) .:) = modulo ( G (4 . 4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . H_D = [ D ^4* h .:) .:) + H (3 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 .D) .:) = H (1 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. D ^6* h ]. ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . disp (G . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .:) . D = poly (0 . p = coeff ( r ) .:) + G (2 . H = coeff ( H_num ) . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) . H (1 .18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 . 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 . 0 . 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . H_num = numer ( H_D ) . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.:) + G (4 . G (4 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . q ] = pdiv (m .2) . 0 . ’D ’ ) .:) = modulo ( H (1 .2) .4 Encoder for the (7. disp (H .

’D ’ ) . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 . 1 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 . S2 = modulo ( S2 . 1 ] clc . // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6. ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 .2) . D = poly (0 . 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 . 0 . //m i t symbol −b 90 .5 Syndrome calculator for the(7. 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6.2) . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 . g ) . disp ( r1 . g ) . S2 = coeff ( r2 ) . 5 m =2. 1 . S1 = coeff ( r1 ) . // m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 .6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 . 1 . disp ( r2 . 0 . S1 = modulo ( S1 .18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8.

x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . ’ n ’ ) disp (p . N = length ( x1 ) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . m ) ) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2. x1 = modulo ( x1 . g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . x2 = modulo ( x2 .2) . // c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . // c o d e r a t e disp (n .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 . 0 . 1 . m ) ) .2) .7 Convolutional Encoding . end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . clc .i +1) . x2 (N .:) =[ x1 (N . // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i .i +1) ]. // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1. 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close . 0 . 0 . 1 . 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.k . // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1. ’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t .

2) . 0. // bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4.25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8. // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. 1. 1. 92 . 1. 1. // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD .2) . 1. x2 = coeff ( x2D ) .8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 . 1. // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . 0. ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 . g1D = 1+ D + D ^2. ’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. 1. 1. D = poly (0 . 1. ’D ’ ) . disp ( modulo ( x1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2. 0. 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc .

Scilab code Exa 8. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 . // t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 .r ) .pe . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1.7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8. // number o f b i t s pe = 0.8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3.2877124 93 .04.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 . 1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1. // c o d e r a t e n =2. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 . r = 1/2.

8 .19]. x2 =0. ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. x0 = xor ( x1 . ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 .13 . 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc .9 . x3 ) .17 .Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9. disp (x . x2 = x1 .12 .1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 . x1 = 0. N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 . x1 = x0 . 1 and F i g u r e 9 . // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1. disp (i .11 . x3 =0. 94 .10 .

// The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. 2 and F i g u r e 9 . // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. // x= 1. 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5. 0. 0. // x= 1. Scilab code Exa 9. 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc .2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 . 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1. 1. // x= 1. 1. 1. 0. // x= 0. 8 x1 = 0. 1. 95 . // x= 0. 1. 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. 1. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 . // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. 0. // x= 1. 0. // x= 0. 1.22 N = 2^ m -1.

’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. for i =1: N x3 = x2 . ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level . disp (x . ’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1. // figure a = gca () . 96 . one_count = one_count +1. x3 =0. ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9. t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . end end disp (C . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0. 4 disp ( C_level . ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 .5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0. N ) . x3 ) . x2 = x1 . ’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. disp (i . x0 = xor ( x1 . x1 = x0 . zero_count = 0. zero_count = zero_count +1.

Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n .[ C_level . //PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) . 50 a .[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) . close . Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 . C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () .3 Processing gain. Tb = 4. Rc_tuo ] . // P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .095*10^ -3.43 a .0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 51 a . // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6. 44 plot2d (t . 52 plot2d ([ . PN sequence length. ’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG . clc . ’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m . ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 . //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc .length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 . // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N . 3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear .5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9.

1: Example9.Figure 9.2a 98 .

2: Example9.2b 99 .Figure 9.

// number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K . K =2.4Figure9. Scilab code Fig 9. // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3. // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1. ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095. ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 . 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K . ’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N . ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M .14 Eb_No = 10. 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 . 19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 . ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . clc . 1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9. close . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 .6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 . // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 . 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 .4Example9. 4 and Example9 .5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 . ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k . // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No .

1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () .0 . a .1 . data_bounds = [0 . wt = 0:0. a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . close .1 . -1 .1 .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . -1 . for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ].* ct_polar . t = 0:13. ct = [0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear .0 .1 . -1 . N = 7.1 .0 .20 .2]. data_bounds = [0 . N ) -1* ones (1 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 .1 . a .1 . mt = bt . plot2d2 (t .0 . -1 .1 . -2. Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) . bt . st = []. bt = [1* ones (1 . N ) ].0 .1 .1 .1 .1]. a . end // figure subplot (3 . a . clc . -2.1 .20 .01:1. a .1) a = gca () . plot2d2 (t . -1 .1]. ct_polar . ct_polar = [ -1 .1 .2].

mt . plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 .20 . a . mt .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2].1 . plot2d2 (t . -2.2]. plot2d2 (t . a . a . data_bounds = [0 .3) a = gca () .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 . a . data_bounds = [0 . a .2]. data_bounds = [0 . 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 . -2. -2.1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 .20 . a .1) a = gca () .1 . a .20 .3) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .2) a = gca () . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .20 . a . a . a . a . a .2]. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

Xmax ] = Alaw (x .Figure 9.3: Figure9.6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx . A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 .

Figure 9.4: Figure9.6b Figure9.6b 104 .

Figure 9.5: Figure10.12 105 .

// n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’. end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 . L ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) . for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax . for i = 1: L h (L . h = zeros (1 ./(1+ log ( A ) ) .i +1) = x ( i ) . elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) . for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0. end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0. N ) .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . end N = 2* L -1. Rxx = zeros (1 .

m ) ) . 0 . 22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . 1 . 1 . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 .2) .:) =[ x1 (N .21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .i +1) ]. 4 clc . N = length ( x1 ) . 0 . x1 = modulo ( x1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 0 . 1 ] // x = 107 .i +1) .2) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . x2 = modulo ( x2 . x2 (N .k +1) * h ( k ) . m ) ) .

0 .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . Hamming_Distance = 0. 1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . 1 . Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 . // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) . clc . 1 . 0 . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4. 1 . close . code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) . code2 ( i ) ) . 0 . end disp ( Hamming_Distance . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . 1 . 0 . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . 0 .

xor ( m2 ( i ) . m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m1 ( i ) ) ) .:) .:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ]. 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . xor ( m1 ( i ) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . b (i . ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”). m3 ( i ) ) ) . b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) . xor ( m3 ( i ) . m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . m2 ( i ) ) ) . end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 . end C = [ b m ]. disp ( ” ”). ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i . m (i . m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) .:) . clc . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i . close .:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ].:) . disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i .

1 .0 .1].0 .1 .j ) ) =1. c = zeros ( length ( x ) . .1 .1].1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .0 .1 .1 .0 . for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i .0 .1 .1 .L .[0 .0 .0 .0 . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) .0 .0 .1].0 .0 .1 . .1 .0 .1 .0 .n ) .1 .0 .1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .0 .0 .1 .1 .1 .0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 . end end end disp ( c ) 110 .1 .1 . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j .1 .1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1 .( n .1 ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x . word .1 .1].0 . mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) .1 .0 .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 . function x = invmulaw (y .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) .

t = 0:0. L = 16. // S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x ./( %pi * x ) . 3 x ( i ) = 1. en_code ) . xq . a . // S t e p 1 [ SQNR . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc .L . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . close . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . 5 y ( i ) = 1. 6 endfunction 111 . a = gca () . ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) .001:1. plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi .Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m . s c e . L ) .5) . xq . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . PCM encoding . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) . a . title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ . x ) . x = sin (2* %pi * t ) .

. L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . d = 2/ L . SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x .xq ) ) . q = d *[0: L -1]. q ( i ) . else value = 1. for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =.Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR . end xq = xq * xmax . endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A . en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) .* ones (1 . length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) . B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0. xq . end endfunction 112 . length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) . q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d . xq = x / xmax .* ones (1 . en_code = xq ..

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