Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

1 Funded

Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

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Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

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Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

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List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

. . . . . . 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 . . . . . . sinc new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xor . . . . uniform pcm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . invmulaw . . PCM Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . Hamming Encode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .6 . . . . . . .1c Figure6. . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . .7 . Example3.29 . . . . . Example3. . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . Figure3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . .9 Figure6. . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Figure6. . . . .8 Figure1.3 3. .2a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. . . . . . . . . . . Example4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. .6 Figure6. . Example2. . . . . .3 . . . . Example2. .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5.4 6. . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . Figure5. . . . . . Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . .2 . . . . .1a .4 3. .1b Figure6. . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1b . . .13b . . . . Example3. . 7 . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 9. . .5 Example7. . . . . . .10 7. . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . .13 7. . .12 7. . . Figure7. . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . .2a . . . .8 7. . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . .1 Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 7.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a . . . . . . Figure7. . .11 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . .5 7. . . . . . . .41a Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 7. . . . . . Figure9. . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Example9. . .12 . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . .2 Figure7. . . . . . .3 7. . . . Figure7. . . . . . Figure9. . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . .41b . .4 . . Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 . . . . . .6b . . . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. . . . . . . . . . . .6a . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . Figure10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . .6 7. . . . Figure7. . . .31 .1b . . . . . . . . . .1c . . . . . . . . Example7.4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2b . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9.

0 .0 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .1 . -2 . a .0 .3] plot (t . -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 .0 . close . x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) .1 .0 . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear .0 . sqrt (2) .2 . clc .0 . dig_data = [0 .0 . .1 .1 .5 .01:1. t = -1:0. a .1 . x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . a .1] // figure a = gca () .0 .0 . -0. -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . -1 .0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 . -3.5 .0 . data_bounds =[ -2 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1.0.2 .0 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .sqrt (2) .

5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 .Figure 1.2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () . dig_data .21 . data_bounds = [0 . plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] .1: Figure1.0. a .5].

2: Figure1.Figure 1.2b 4 .

H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y .01:1.0.5 . 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = . 7 Po = 0:0. 1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear . Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . 6 clc .1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 .Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 .Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 . 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po .2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 . 5 close . 8 H_Po = zeros (1 . length ( Po ) ) .Po ( i )).1) Scilab code Exa 2.Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2.

1: Example2.Figure 2.1 6 .

1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma . 1 . H_Ruo_Square . . H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 . disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . P2 * P0 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) . i = 0 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . P0 * P1 . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . P2 * P2 ]. P0 = 1/4. ’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. P1 * P0 . clc . 8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0. P1 * P2 . P0 * P2 . . disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 . 2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . P1 * P1 . . . P2 * P1 .

2. 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2.1. H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2. ’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 . Average length. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . H_Ruo . ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ .Average length. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3.4 Entropy. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. P0 = 0.Scilab code Exa 2. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .1. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .L .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.((L . A v e r a g e l e n g t h .H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 .2. disp ( sigma_1 .L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3.L ) ^2. A v e r a g e l e n g t h .4.3 Entropy. clc . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0.

// l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. clc .L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .L ) ^2. 6 p = 0. ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 . disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . P0 = 0.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 .5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4.L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 .2.4. H_Ruo .4. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . e ) transition probility 8 disp (p . 4 clc .L . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4. 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) .1. disp ( sigma_2 .p . 5 close .1. // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0.2. 4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.

9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe .p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 . clc . close . 7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 .01:0.C . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.5.p ( i ) ) ) . elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0. 6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear .7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 . C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . end end plot2d (p .5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y . p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y . 1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2. elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1. p = 0:0.6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 . for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 .

2: Example2.6 11 .Figure 2.

’ Code Rate . pe_3 .0. 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r .p ) + p ^7. // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 .p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 .p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 . pe . 15 a .4 clear .p ) + p ^3. // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 .1/5 . Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 . pe_5 . 8 pe_1 = p .p ) + p ^5.01].0. // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 .pe .1/3 . 14 a = gca () . 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r . pe_7 ]. data_bounds =[0 .1/7]. 5 clc . 13 pe = [ pe_1 . r =1/n ’ . ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r .5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e . 16 plot2d (r .1 . Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . 6 close . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 .p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 . 7 p =10^ -2.

7 13 .Figure 2.3: Example2.

0].01:2* T /3.Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3. length ( t3 ) -2) . length ( t2 ) -2) .0]. phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . t2 = 0:0. t4 = 0:0. close . length ( t4 ) -2) .01: T /3.0]. t6 = T /3:0. length ( t1 ) -2) . T = 1. phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .0].01:2* T /3. 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear . ones (1 .0]. phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .01: T . length ( t5 ) -2) .01: T /3. ones (1 . ones (1 . ones (1 . clc .0]. ones (1 .01: T . s3t = [0 . ones (1 . length ( t7 ) -2) . t5 = 0:0.1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 .01: T . s4t = [0 . length ( t6 ) -2) . // 14 . t1 = 0:0. s2t = [0 . t3 = T /3:0.0]. ones (1 . t7 = 2* T /3:0. s1t = [0 .

4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 . plot2d2 ( t1 . data_bounds = [0 . s3t . plot2d2 ( t2 .1 .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a .2) a = gca () .0.4) a = gca () .2]. 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 . s4t . data_bounds = [0 .2].1) a = gca () . phi1t .2 . plot2d2 ( t3 .3) a = gca () .2].1 . data_bounds = [0 .4].2 .2 .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1) a = gca () . a . plot2d2 ( t4 . s1t .0.1 . plot2d2 ( t5 .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . a .2) 15 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . s2t .0.2]. data_bounds = [0 .0.1 . a .0.2 . data_bounds = [0 . a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .

a .2 . phi2t . phi3t . plot2d2 ( t7 .4].0. a .1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 .2 . plot2d2 ( t6 . data_bounds = [0 .1 .4]. data_bounds = [0 .3) a = gca () .1: Example3.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .Figure 3.0.

2: Example3.1b 17 .Figure 3.

0] . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a . 8 ( b ) . -0. s q r t (T) |− a .[0 . 8 ( c ) . -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .0 .2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 . o f meg .(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ]. clc . p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1. a =1. s q r t ( 18 . 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . data_bounds = [ -2 . // Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .5] plot2d ( Si1 . 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear . a . close . a = gca () .0.0 .( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .2 .5.Scilab code Exa 3.

01: T .3: Example3. fc =4.Figure 3. close . 19 . 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear . // c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1. s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 . clc . t1 = 0:0.2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a . s q r t (T) | a .

x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d ( t2 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 . phiot = convol ( phit . a . a . hopt = phit . subplot (2 . phiot ) . hopt ) .2) a = gca () . -1. phit ) . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1 . a .1 .4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 .1 . phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) . data_bounds = [0 . a . 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 .1]. -1.1) a = gca () . t2 = 0:0. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) . 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1]. a . a . data_bounds = [0 .01:2* T . plot2d ( t1 .

4: Example3.Figure 3.3 21 .

1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 . data_bounds = [0 . subplot (2 . a . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) . -1. hopt ) . a . hopt = phit .6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1].1) a = gca () .1 .1 . phit =0. a . a .1* rand (1 . 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. phit ) . clc . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . phi0t = convol ( phit . phi0t ) . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear . data_bounds = [0 .1].1 . ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) . a . plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . close .1 . -1. a .10 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

Figure 3.4 23 .5: Example3.

for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N .^2) / length ( x ) ) .01:1. order = 18. close . 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear . ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X . t =0:0.6].1) . mu = 0.order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) .6 1 0. length ( x ) ) . x_n = x + noise . close . noise = rand (1 . sigma_X = Rxx (2) .29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear .h01 * Rxx (3) . Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) . Rxx = [0. desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) .01*( sum ( x . ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3. h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) . N = length ( x ) . 24 . disp ( sigma_E . // Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) .buffer * w . clc .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 . ref_noise = noise * rand (10) . w = zeros ( order . x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) . clc .

20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 . x_n .3) 29 plot2d (t .4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .1 .2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 .5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 .2) 26 plot2d (t .1 . noise .1) 23 plot2d (t .1 .19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’. x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 .1 .

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

01:0. 5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . E (1) =1.1. 3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc .0.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 . data_bounds = [0 . for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) .01:0.8 . a .8. 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) . end a = gca () .6. 1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 .0.E . T_Ts = 0.2].5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 . close . //E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 . plot2d ( T_Ts .

Figure 4.2: Example4.3 30 .

disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12. 5 clc .1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 .2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 .Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5. 6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) . 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5. M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) . disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 . 7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ). 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear .

k =7.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 . d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y . plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 . line_style = 4. thickness =2.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . 32 . P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30]. 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB . ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5. d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) . children (1) .0. Rb/B . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear .5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . // i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () . close . C_B .10]. // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) . −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) .5) poly1 = a .40 . children (1) . Rb_B . a . poly1 . 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear . // f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m . data_bounds = [ -30 . poly1 . clc .

Figure 5.1: Example5.2 33 .

2. Scilab code Exa 5.5 clc . 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no . 11 disp ( SNRo . a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ). clc . 34 . 16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W. ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n . 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB .5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear . 6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no .7. 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 . ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000. 9 disp (B .

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] . A ( i ) ) .:) . ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) . ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ . Cx (3 . 10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) .2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) .Figure 5. Cx (1 . 5 6 ’ ]) 38 .[ ’A= 8 7 . Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x .:) .:) .13b 9 [ Cx (i .6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ . Cx (2 .:) .3: Figure5.4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) .[ ’A=2 ’ ] .

’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0.alpha ) .647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 . // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1. clc . B = 2* Bo .Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6. 1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 .1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 . disp (B .f1 . Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) .

binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. close . children (1) . 1 Scilab code CF 6. thickness =3. poly1 . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . clc . total_duration = L * L . binary_one ) . children (1) . else plot ([ i *L . U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . binary_zero ) .L +1: i * L ] . poly1 .1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . 1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. poly1 = a . children (1) . children (1) . thickness =3. L1 = length ( binary_zero ) . L * L1 2]. data_bounds =[0 -2. x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1].L +1: i * L ] . binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. a .1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . L = length ( x ) .i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 . poly1 = a .

1a 41 .Figure 6.1: Figure6.

poly1 . poly1 = a . clc . a .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . children (1) .1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . close . poly1 . children (1) . 42 . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . binary_negative ) . poly1 = a . binary_positive ) . children (1) . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . data_bounds =[0 -2. end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . thickness =3. total_duration = L * L1 . 1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] . 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. L * L1 2]. binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. close . else plot ([ i *L . children (1) . L = length ( x ) .L +1: i * L ] .L +1: i * L ] . thickness =3.

1b 43 .2: Figure6.Figure 6.

L +1: i * L ] . L = length ( x ) . thickness =3. thickness =3.7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc . children (1) . thickness =3.0 .L +1: i * L ] . poly1 . 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. L * L1 2].1 . x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6. data_bounds =[0 -2. poly1 = a .2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. poly1 .L +1: i * L ] . binary_zero ) .0]. poly1 . else plot ([ i *L . children (1) . children (1) . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L .1 .0 . 5 b = [0 . children (1) . poly1 = a . children (1) . binary_negative ) . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. children (1) . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 .1 . binary_positive ) . a . elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L . total_duration = L * L1 . poly1 = a .

1c 45 .Figure 6.3: Figure6.

’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 . disp (a . end end a = a ’.b ( k ) ) . if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1. end end b_r = b_r ’. disp (c . if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1.6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 . end c = c ’. b (1) ) . for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) . ’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. else b_r ( k ) = 1. disp ( b_r . end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) . a_volts = a_volts ’. else a_volts ( k ) = -1.

0. − 1. 0. 1. for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) .0 . 0. y = y ’. 47 . x = [0 . 0. // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 . − 2. 0. 4 clc . 0. disp (y .1 . 1. 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 . y_delay = y_delay ’.0 .1 . 1. − 1.1]. 2. // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1.42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 . 0. 1. − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 . ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay . 1. − 1. 0.0 . end z = z ’. 1. − 2. Scilab code Exa 6. : 0. end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) .3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 .0 . d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1.1 . // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 .1 . 1. ’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) .y_delay ( k ) . 0. 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 .y (k -1) ) .

// b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . 1. − 1. if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. 1. 1. Scilab code CF 6. 1. 0. NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . 0. M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . 0. 1.4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . 0. 0. 1. NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] . − 1. 0. 0. clc . // [ 1 ] . 0. ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1. 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. 0. − 1. // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. else 48 . 0. NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . 0. 0. : 0. Tb = 1/ fb . 1. Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . 1. volts 0. 0. 1.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . 1. fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) .

’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . thickness = 2. end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) . children (1) . children (1) . children (1) . Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a . ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) . Sxxf_NRZ_BP . // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. plot2d (f . end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () . children (1) . thickness = 2. plot2d (f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . poly1 . plot2d (f .9) poly1 = a . poly1 . ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . children (1) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) .2) poly1 = a .5) poly1 = a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . poly1 . Sxxf_NRZ_UP . poly1 . 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 . thickness = 2. plot2d (f . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ . thickness = 2. Sxxf_Manch .20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . children (1) .

4 50 .Figure 6.4: Figure6.

i ) = num / den . clc .5) |( t ( i ) == -0.5) ) ) p (j .7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . Bo = rb /2. Tb =1/ rb . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . t = -3:1/100:3. for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0. t = -3:1/100:3. Bo = rb /2. plot (t . Alpha =0.01. x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) . i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) . den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. p (j . 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close . else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) . title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb . ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) . 51 .

Figure 6.5: Figure6.6 52 .

35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . p (1 . 33 poly2 . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . p (3 .:) ) 28 poly1 = a . 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ . line_style = 3. close . foreground =4. 9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0. // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 .5. children (1) . p (2 . children (1) . 26 plot2d (t . 24 end 25 a = gca () .5 ’ . 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) . children (1) .:) ) 27 plot2d (t . children (1) .:) ) 31 poly2 = a . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6.21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0. clc . foreground =2.9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 . Tb =1/ rb . 30 plot2d (t . 29 poly1 . 32 po1y2 .

7 54 .6: Figure6.Figure 6.

children (1) .1) a = gca () .2) poly1 = a . Phase_Response .11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = .5) poly1 = a . Phase_Response = -( %pi * f . children (1) . plot2d (f .* Tb ) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .* Tb ) ) . Amplitude_Response . children (1) . plot2d (f . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . poly1 . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 . a . thickness = 2. a .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . thickness = 2. subplot (2 . 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 . a .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. children (1) . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6.1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () . a . poly1 .

9 56 .Figure 6.7: Figure6.

a . Amplitude_Response . a . children (1) . poly1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .* Tb ) ) . Phase_Response .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear . subplot (2 . Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .1 . thickness = 2.2) poly1 = a .* Tb ) . clc . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) poly1 = a . children (1) .1) a = gca () . // B i t d u r a t i o n f = . a . close . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . poly1 . Tb =1/ rb .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. children (1) .2) a = gca () . plot2d (f . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 . thickness = 2. plot2d (f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f .

8: Figure6.Figure 6.15 58 .

m = [3 . S = [].0 . clc .:) = . i = 1: M .:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 . S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) . s2 (i .Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7. t = 0:0. Input_Sequence =[0 .1 . 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear .1 . close . for i = 1: M s1 (i . end 59 .1 . end S1 =[].1 .0].2]. S2 = []. for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) .0 .:) ].sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . M =4.:) ].1 .0 .001:1.

1) 25 a = gca () . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) . 27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) .1 . l o g 2 (M) ) .2) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e . a .22 S = S1 + S2 . // a . // a . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . −5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) . 1 ] . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) . 1 . 23 figure 24 subplot (3 . 60 . // d i s p ( y . − 1 . // a =g c a ( ) . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) . // a .1 . a .3) a = gca () . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 . 26 a . // a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] .

FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 .1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . ’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] . 1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK.1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ .Figure 7.1: Example7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . 5 ) Scilab code CF 7.

5 clear . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ). I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) . zeros (1 . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . Xask ]. for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 . x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) . 6 clc . for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x . Xask ]. 7 close . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk .sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x2 ]. t = 0:1/512:1. elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . x2 = . x ]. x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = []. length ( x ) ) ]. x1 ]. length ( x ) ) . // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = [].

2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 . 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t .Tb :0.01: Tb . Tb =1.2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 . t1 = . x2 ]. 2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc . 1 . 0 . 0 . close . M =2. 1 . 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7. x1 ]. 0 .42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 1 . x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 . 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 63 .

1a 64 .2: Figure7.Figure 7.

Figure 7.3: Figure7.1b 65 .

1c 66 .4: Figure7.Figure 7.

sin ( . %pi ]. s1 (2) . S2 = []. s2 (2) ]. s2 (1) .sin ( . s2 ( i ) = .1 . s1 (1) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. s2 (2) .0 .%pi /2]. for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) .1 . teta_0 = [0 .01:2* Tb . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. teta_tb = [ %pi /2 .* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) . .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .0 .0 . S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ]. S1 = []. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 . S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ].1) a = gca () .1 .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. s2 (1) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . 67 .01:1.sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. end Input_Sequence =[1 .sin ( . S = [].0]. S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) .sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) . phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) . y = [ s1 (1) .10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0. t = 0:0. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ]. phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].sin ( . s1 (2) . disp (y . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .

2 .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) . a .2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 . 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc . i = 1: M . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . a . a . log2 ( M ) ) . close . annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . M =2. imag ( y (1) ) . data_bounds = [ -2 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . imag ( y (2) ) . -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) .3) a = gca () .1 . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a = gca () .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . -2. ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .2) a = gca () . disp (y . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2]. plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. a . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot .

5: Example7.Figure 7.2 69 .

2 In−Phase ’ ) .Figure 7. title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .5) Scilab code Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] . 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).6: Figure7.

dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) .0 .0 . ’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’. // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1.0 .1 . elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi . 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk . disp ( bk_not . dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) . bk = [1 . // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) . end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) . end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0.( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )). 71 29 30 31 32 . 3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc . dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) . end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .0 . dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) . ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’.1]. else bk_not ( i ) = 1.1 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 .

data_bounds = [ -2 . disp ( dk_radians .y (2 . y = [1 . close . -2.2 .5) 72 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] . a . annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] .2) . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). plot2d ( y (1 . M =2.1) .0 . log2 ( M ) ) .2) . a . a = gca () .33 34 35 36 disp ( dk . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 .0.2]. 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1]. a . -9) plot2d ( y (2 .y (1 . -5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) . ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. disp (y . ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’.1) .

Figure 7.7: Figure 7.4 73 .

i = 1: M . close . a .sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i . -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc . -4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) . y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 . annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) .1]. a = gca () . imag ( y (1) ) .Scilab code CF 7. -1. data_bounds = [ -1 .1 . -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) . M =4. imag ( y (3) ) .5) Scilab code Tab 7. title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure . a .6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . disp (y . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . imag ( y (4) ) . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . imag ( y (2) ) . log2 ( M ) ) . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] . a .

Figure 7.6 75 .8: Figure7.

7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M ./2. ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo . //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) .64]. 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 . clc .4 .32 .32 . //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) . 4 clc ./ M . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7.16 . 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear . M = [2 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 . 5 close . 6 M = [2 . close . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ . 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear .8 .7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 .8 . // Ruo = Ruo ’ . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .64].16 .4 . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .

12 ’) 12 disp (M .Figure 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 . ’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.9: Figure7.

1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . poly1 . 3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . Tb = 1/ rb . f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ . foreground = 6. ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. end a = gca () . 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc . children (1) . SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb . // B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . plot ( f * Tb . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . children (1) .30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals.

Figure 7.10: Figure7.29 79 .

poly1 . f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) . plot ( f * Tb . Tb = 1/ rb . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ .5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) . SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . children (1) . end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2. end a = gca () . plot ( f * Tb . 3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 . else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2. foreground = 3. Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) . // c l c .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r . // b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0. children (1) .31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) . poly1 = a . // c l o s e . ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7.

Figure 7.11: Figure7.30 81 .

’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j .:) /(2* Eb ) . 4 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . clc . 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear . f = 0:1/100: rb . a =2. plot2d ( f * Tb . // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 . h = abs ( convol (g . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ .2) plot2d ( f * Tb .:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb . end end a = gca () .41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 . T +1) . g = 2* ones (1 . SB_PSK (1 . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) .4 . g ) ) .:) /(2* Eb ) .8]. i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) . t = 0: T .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 . SB_PSK (3 . T =4. SB_PSK (2 . Tb = 1/ rb . ’M=4 ’ .

Figure 7.12: Figure7.31 83 .

h .4].6 . end end h = h-T. figure a = gca () .0.5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 .6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 . a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .01) h ( i ) =0. plot2d (t . a . data_bounds = [0 .g .12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0. t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1.

Figure 7.13: Figure7.41a 85 .

41b 86 .Figure 7.14: Figure7.

// b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1. 5 k = 4. disp (x . // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1]. // c o d e word disp (G . ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) . 1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear .k ) . // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 .k ) .* G .2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 . Scilab code Exa 8. clc . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’].n .1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 . ’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m . // b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k . 2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear . disp (H . n =5.n . // m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 . 4 clc .Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. // one b i t m = 1.

// m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . q ] = pdiv (m .:) = modulo ( G (3 . 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) .1 .0 . ’G ’ ) G (3 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. p = coeff ( r ) .0 .1 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . 3 : ( 7 .0.0 . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P . 4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. ’D ’ ) . 20 C = modulo (C .1 .1 .1.1. G (3 . clc .0 .0 . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 .k .1. // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k .:) .0 . // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n .1 . disp (G .0 .0 . g * D ^2.1 . G = coeff ( G ) . 0 .1. 88 .1 . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g .0. ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 .D) . 21 disp (C .1 .1 .0 . ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ].0 .0 . 0 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G . k ) .2) . // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H .1 .0 .1 .:) = G (3 .0 .0.0 . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 .0 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7. disp (r . g * D ^3]. D = poly (0 .k -1) P ’]. g * D .:) .1 18 // 19 C = m * G .:) + G (1 .0 .0 .1]. 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 .3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 .0.1.1 . // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I . ’ Code words o f ( 7 . g ) .1.2) .0.1 .

4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. G (4 .:) . 0 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . D = poly (0 . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4. ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.:) = G (1 . q ] = pdiv (m . disp (G .:) = modulo ( H (1 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 .:) .:) . 4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 .18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 . H (1 .D) . disp (r . g ) . ’D ’ ) . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) .:) = H (1 . 0 .2) . p = coeff ( r ) . disp (H . H (1 . H = coeff ( H_num ) .:) + G (4 . D ^5* h .:) + G (2 .:) = modulo ( G (4 .:) + H (3 . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .:) . 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 . H_D = [ D ^4* h . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 .2) . H_num = numer ( H_D ) . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 . D ^6* h ].4 Encoder for the (7. 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 .

1 ] clc . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. S1 = modulo ( S1 . D = poly (0 . 1 . 0 . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6.18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8. 0 . 1 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 . S1 = coeff ( r1 ) . disp ( r2 .2) . 5 m =2. 1 .5 Syndrome calculator for the(7. 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc . q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 . g ) . q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 . ’D ’ ) . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . //m i t symbol −b 90 . S2 = coeff ( r2 ) .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 .2) .6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 . // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6. g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. S2 = modulo ( S2 . // m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 . disp ( r1 . g ) .

’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t . x2 (N . // c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. clc .2) . 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close . N = length ( x1 ) . m ) ) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r . g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . x2 = modulo ( x2 . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . ’ n ’ ) disp (p .2) . x1 = modulo ( x1 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2.k . // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1. 1 .i +1) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 0 .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 . end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 .:) =[ x1 (N .i +1) ]. // c o d e r a t e disp (n . // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n . m ) ) . 1 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1.7 Convolutional Encoding . 0 . 0 .

disp ( modulo ( x1 . 1. ’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1.2) . 1. ’D ’ ) . 92 . 1. 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4. 1. ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 . 0. // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD . 1. g1D = 1+ D + D ^2. 1. 1.25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8. 0. 1.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 . // bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) .2) . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2. 1. D = poly (0 . 0. x2 = coeff ( x2D ) .

// p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0.2877124 93 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1.7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8.r ) .11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 . 1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc .8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 . // number o f b i t s pe = 0. // c o d e r a t e n =2.pe .04.Scilab code Exa 8. // t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 . r = 1/2. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1.

disp (i .9 . x2 = x1 .Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9. ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 . x3 =0. disp (x . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 . x1 = x0 .19]. 94 .17 .10 .12 . 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc . // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1.11 . x1 = 0.8 . x0 = xor ( x1 .13 . 1 and F i g u r e 9 . x3 ) . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. x2 =0.1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 .

// x= 1. 0. 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc . // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. 8 x1 = 0. Scilab code Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 . 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4. 0. 1. 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1. 95 . // x= 1. // x= 1. // x= 0. 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. // x= 0. 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 . // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. 1. 0. 1. 1. 2 and F i g u r e 9 . 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. 0. // x= 1. 1. 0. 0.22 N = 2^ m -1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. // x= 0.

’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . x0 = xor ( x1 . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0. ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9. t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 . disp (i . zero_count = 0. ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level . 96 . elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1. ’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . x3 =0. end end disp (C . zero_count = zero_count +1.9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0. for i =1: N x3 = x2 . x2 = x1 .5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count . 4 disp ( C_level . one_count = one_count +1. x3 ) . if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. disp (x . // figure a = gca () . N ) . x1 = x0 .

’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG . clc . ’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m .length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .43 a . Tb = 4. //PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) . 3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear .5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9. 50 a . Rc_tuo ] . 51 a . ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 . // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N . // P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG .[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) . PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h . //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc . PN sequence length.095*10^ -3. C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () . close . Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 .[ C_level .3 Processing gain. 44 plot2d (t .0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] . Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6. 52 plot2d ([ .

2a 98 .1: Example9.Figure 9.

2b 99 .2: Example9.Figure 9.

1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9.6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 .4Figure9.5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 . K =2. 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear . // number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . 4 and Example9 .14 Eb_No = 10. // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1. 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 . close . ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 . 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 . // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 . Scilab code Fig 9. // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3. ’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N . ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k . 19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 . // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K . ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 .4Example9. ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095. ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M . clc . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 . // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No .

1 .1].1 . N ) -1* ones (1 .2) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . mt = bt . -1 . 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear . -2.01:1.1 .1]. a . a .2].1 . a . -1 . wt = 0:0.1 . -2.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 . plot2d2 (t .1 .0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . bt .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .1 .1 . clc .1) a = gca () .20 .1 .1 .0 . a . t = 0:13.0 .0 . bt = [1* ones (1 . -1 . N ) ]. data_bounds = [0 .20 . for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ].2]. N = 7. data_bounds = [0 .0 .* ct_polar .1 . close .1 . -1 . ct = [0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . ct_polar = [ -1 . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -1 . st = []. plot2d2 (t . ct_polar . a . Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) . end // figure subplot (3 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 .

plot2d2 (t .35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .2]. data_bounds = [0 .3) a = gca () .1) a = gca () . plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 . a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 .2) a = gca () . a . -2. mt . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . plot2d2 (t .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .2].20 .20 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . a .1 . a .20 . a . data_bounds = [0 .2].2]. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 . -2. -2. a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . mt . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 . a . a .3) a = gca () .20 . a . -2. a . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx . Xmax ] = Alaw (x . A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 .Figure 9.3: Figure9.

6b Figure9.Figure 9.6b 104 .4: Figure9.

5: Figure10.Figure 9.12 105 .

end N = 2* L -1. L ) . end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 . for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ./(1+ log ( A ) ) ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . Rxx = zeros (1 . elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) . for i = 1: L h (L . h = zeros (1 . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax . N ) . // n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’. end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0. endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) .i +1) = x ( i ) . for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0.

x2 (N . m ) ) . x2 = modulo ( x2 . 22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m . 4 clc .i +1) ]. 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 1 ] // x = 107 . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . 0 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 .k +1) * h ( k ) .:) =[ x1 (N .i +1) . 1 . m ) ) . 0 . N = length ( x1 ) . x1 = modulo ( x1 .2) . 0 . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 .2) . 1 . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n .

1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . 1 . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . 0 .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . close . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4. 1 . for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) . 0 . Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . code2 ( i ) ) . 1 . 0 . code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) . ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 . 0 . 1 . 1 . Hamming_Distance = 0. P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . end disp ( Hamming_Distance . clc . 0 . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 .

m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . clc . disp ( ” ”). m1 ( i ) ) ) . b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) . xor ( m1 ( i ) . m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m3 ( i ) ) ) . close . disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 .:) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . xor ( m3 ( i ) . end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 . b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) .:) .:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ]. 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i . ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i . // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . b (i . m2 ( i ) ) ) . xor ( m2 ( i ) .:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ]. end C = [ b m ]. ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”). m (i .:) .

1].1 ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x .0 .1 .0 .0 .0 .1 .1 .1 .0 .1 .[0 .0 .1 .0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 . mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) . c = zeros ( length ( x ) .0 .0 .1 . .1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 .1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1].0 .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) .1 .0 .1 .0 .0 .0 .j ) ) =1.1 .0 .1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 . for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i .1]. end end end disp ( c ) 110 .1 .L .1 .0 .0 . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) .n ) .( n .0 .1 .0 .1 .1 .0 .1 .1].1 .0 . word .1 . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j .0 .0 .1 .0 .1 .0 .0 .1 .1 . . function x = invmulaw (y .1 .1 .0 .0 .

plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . x = sin (2* %pi * t ) . en_code ) . ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) . close . L ) . xq . // S t e p 1 [ SQNR . PCM encoding . t = 0:0. s c e . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc . x ) . 6 endfunction 111 . L = 16.Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m .001:1.5) . // S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x . a . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” ./( %pi * x ) . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . 5 y ( i ) = 1. xq . title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . a = gca () . 3 x ( i ) = 1.L . // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) .

xq . d = 2/ L . end xq = xq * xmax . q = d *[0: L -1]. q ( i ) . else value = 1. B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0. length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) .. L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A . en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) .* ones (1 . en_code = xq . q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d . SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x ..Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR . length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) .xq ) ) . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x .* ones (1 . xq = x / xmax . for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =. end endfunction 112 .

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