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IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 55, No. 1, FEBRUARY 2009
Remote-Controllable and Energy-Saving Room Architecture based on ZigBee Communication
Jinsoo Han, Haeryong Lee, and Kwang-Roh Park
Abstract — This paper proposes remote-controllable and energy-saving room architecture to reduce standby power consumption and to make the room easily controllable with an IR remote control of a home appliance. To realize the proposed room architecture, we proposed and designed the automatic standby power cut-off outlet and a ZigBee controller with IR code learning functionality. The proposed power outlet monitors the power consumption for the predetermined time and completely cuts off the power supply when the monitored power is below the threshold. This power outlet has a function of changing the threshold power, which enables any kinds of home appliances to be applied to the power outlet. To efficiently manage the power outlets and the lights, we proposed the ZigBee controller with IR code learning functionality. The ZigBee controller has several onboard buttons to wake up the power outlets and control the dimming light. By using IR code learning functionality, the ZigBee controller can assign a certain IR code of a remote control of a home appliance to the power outlet or the dimming light. A user can control the power outlets and the dimming light with an IR remote control of any home appliance. Our proposed room architecture provides the remote-controllable and energy-saving room1. Index Terms — ZigBee, Remote Control, IR, Energy-saving, Power Outlet, Standby Power
I. INTRODUCTION As more and more consumer electronics and home appliances are deployed and the size of them is becoming large, power consumption in home area tends to grow. Moreover, useless power consumption occurs when they do not perform the primary function or even when they are turned off. This is called standby power. It is known that average 10 % of a total household power is consumed during standby power state . To reduce the standby power of electrical apparatus less than 1 W, International Energy Agency (IEA) proposed ‘1-watt Plan’ . Several researches were conducted to reduce the standby power in the region of chip, hardware and system -. Although much effort is made to reduce
This work was supported in part by the IT R&D program of Ministry of Knowledge Economy/Institute for Information Technology Advancement, Republic of Korea under Grant no. 2007-S-010-02 “Development of Ubiquitous Home Media Service System based on SMMD”. Jinsoo Han is with the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon, Korea (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Haeryong Lee is with the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon, Korea (e-mail: email@example.com). Kwang-Roh Park is with the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon, Korea (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Manuscript received January 15, 2009
the standby power of consumer devices themselves, efficient power management schemes over a room or home region are greatly required to reduce the total power consumption in home. The controlling and power monitoring capability is indispensable to home power management. The network capability is also required to communicate one another. Several controlling and power monitoring systems have been proposed and implemented -. In these systems, Power Line Communication (PLC), Ethernet, Bluetooth and ZigBee as wired or wireless networks are used to transfer the control information and the measured power. The signal transformation circuit is designed to measure the working power of the electric outlet , . The measured power is recorded and transferred periodically to the remote control unit such as a cell phone, a Personal Computer (PC) and a Personal Digital Assistance (PDA) -. When the measured power is above the maximum load, the power outlet is electrically turned off through the solid state or mechanical relay for safety . The user can also check the power consumption of the home appliances through the remote control unit. However, these previous systems only monitor the consuming power and protect the overload of the power outlet. Efficient power-saving methods are not provided to cut off useless standby power consumption. A central unit such as a PC or a PDA is required not only to monitor and control the power outlet but also to manage the home automation. In this paper, we propose a remote-controllable and energysaving room architecture. To realize our proposed room architecture, the automatic standby power cut-off outlet and the ZigBee controller with IR code learning functionality are described and their operation mechanism is explained. In section II, the proposed automatic standby power cut-off outlet and the ZigBee controller are described in detail. In section III, the proposed room architecture is illustrated and the operation mechanism is explained. Section IV shows the implementation results of the power outlet and the ZigBee controller. Finally, in section V, the conclusion is summarized. II. PROPOSED POWER OUTLET AND ZIGBEE CONTROLLER A. Automatic Standby Power Cut-Off Outlet The proposed power outlet is designed to have the capability of automatic power cut-off in standby power state. Fig.1 shows the architecture of the power outlet, which is composed of an AC/DC conversion, one two port relay, a power monitoring circuit and a microcontroller. The AC input is connected to the two port relay. One output port of the relay is connected directly to the AC output outlet and the other
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Authorized licensed use limited to: SKR Engineering College. Downloaded on July 26, 2009 at 06:49 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
several lights and one dimming light. ZigBee Controller AC Input AC/DC Circuit MCU ZigBee Power Outlet1 Power Outlet2 1 2 N IR Receiver Button Switches Dimming Light Fig. to press the first button wakes up the first power outlet and makes it transit to the on state. it has its own threshold power in the memory of the microcontroller. MCU stands for Micro Controller Unit. Authorized licensed use limited to: SKR Engineering College. Fig. In the normal state. It is the on state. The microcontroller digitizes the voltage and calculates the consumed power. normal and off state. If the first button is assigned to the first power outlet. Initially. The AC/DC conversion circuit supplies the necessary DC power to the microcontroller in which a ZigBee Radio Frequency (RF) module is integrated to communicate with the remote control unit. The ZigBee controller consists of an AC/DC conversion circuit.3.1.J. ZigBee is a wireless network standard which is aimed at remote control and sensor applications requiring for low power consumption and low data rates -. After the guard time elapses. waits for a turn-on command through ZigBee communication. In the standby state.2 shows the state transition diagram. the normal state starts. two minutes. In the normal state. This method can reduce even the standby power of the home appliance because the power outlet completely cuts off the power supplyt. it consumes a small amount of power. a home appliance consumes a large amount of power. Each button switch can be assigned to the power outlets or the dimming light. AC/DC Circuit MCU ZigBee AC Input Relay Monitoring Circuit Power Outlet AC Output Fig.: Remote-Controllable and Energy-Saving Room Architecture based on ZigBee Communication 265 output port is connected to it via the power monitoring circuit. Downloaded on July 26. This state transition repeats continuously. for example. Although some power is consumed in the microcontroller and the AC/DC circuit. on. When the monitored power is below the threshold power for the predetermined time. a microcontroller with ZigBee RF module.3 shows the architecture of the ZigBee controller and the system configuration through ZigBee communication. it is required to completely cut off the power supply at the power outlet in standby power state . To more efficiently reduce total power consumption. In this state. The ZigBee controller plays a role of a coordinator and the power outlets and the lights become end devices. two minutes. Other two buttons can be assigned to the dimming light. the microcontroller monitors the consumed power. The ZigBee controller can control and communicate with the power outlets and the dimming light. the microcontroller turns off the relay to completely cut off the AC power. When it receives the turn-on command. it is necessary to equip the ZigBee controller in the room. Based on the calculated power. the threshold power can be reconfigured by measuring the normal power consumption and the standby power consumption. A usual home appliance has two power state.2. . it controls the relay to cut off the power supply. As the monitored power can have ripples. Boot On Off Normal Fig. he can control the power outlets and the dimming light. With the help of this ZigBee controller. Now the microcontroller does not monitor the consumed power but B. Architecture of the automatic standby power cut-off outlet. there are several power outlets. hundreds of monitored powers are averaged. State transition diagram of four states in the proposed power outlet. When the connected home appliance is changed. Several studies were performed based on ZigBee in home area . This proposed power outlet periodically monitors the power consumption via the power monitoring circuit. for example. one for ‘light’ function and the other for ‘dark’ function. This proposed automatic standby power cut-off outlet can cut off standby power without the central units. several button switches and an IR receiver. The power outlet has four kinds of state: boot. it turns on the relay to supply the AC power to the output port. a user can wake up the power outlets and make the dimming light lighter or darker. If a user comes close to the ZigBee controller and pushes a specific button. the microcontroller goes to the on state. the microcontroller boots and executes the firmware. it is very small compared to the standby power of the home appliance. To control these power outlets and lights. the standby power consumption amounts to 10% of a total household power. Restrictions apply. rectifying diodes and additional components. It converts the measured power consumption into a voltage. normal and standby. Han et al. When the AC power is initially supplied to the power outlet. The power monitoring circuit consists of a transformer. the microcontroller does not monitor the consumed power but turns on the relay and waits for the guard time. Fig. The AC/DC conversion circuit supplies the stable DC power to the microcontroller. Then it goes to the off state. As mentioned above. which is not negligible. Proposed ZigBee controller with IR code learning functionality. After booting. 2009 at 06:49 from IEEE Xplore. ZigBee Controller with IR Code Learning Functionality In the normal room. .
When he releases the button. it is possible to assign many IR codes to one button. He only has to press the power button of the IR remote control of the television toward the ZigBee controller on the wall. the power button of an IR remote control can be assigned to the first button of the ZigBee controller. The core processing unit records the carrier and the baseband signal.5 illustrates our proposed room architecture. 55. For example. When a user wants to watch television connected to the power outlet 1. If he presses the button switch and holds it for a little bit longer time. Likewise. an IR code stream is composed of a carrier and a baseband signal . Then he transmits the IR code of the remote control toward the IR receiving block. another button of the IR remote control of the TV can be assigned to the second power outlet. and stores them at the IR code storage corresponding to that button. The ZigBee controller has two kinds of mode. PD: Photo Diode. 2009 at 06:49 from IEEE Xplore. There are two automatic standby power cut-off outlets and one dimming light. the measured and calculated high and low time can express the carrier signal completely. The carrier signal can be sampled and recorded by measuring the high time and low time of the output signal of the IR PD. And the user should always come close to the ZigBee controller and press the corresponding button to turn on a home appliance. standby power can be different compared to the previous home appliance. A baseband signal has time duration from sub millisecond to a few milliseconds. To make the control more convenient. FEBRUARY 2009 If the home appliance connected to the power outlet is changed. The operating process is done as follows. When a user wants to turn on the home appliance connected to the power outlet. he does not have to press the first button of the ZigBee controller to wake up the first power outlet. but it should be waked up by the user manually. the average of the normal and the standby power can be the threshold power. he turns off the new home appliance. IR code learning functionality is added to the ZigBee controller. the core processing unit can identify the IR code by analyzing these time information. Second. PROPOSED ROOM ARCHITECTURE Fig. BPF: Band Pass Filter. Then. the microcontroller finishes measurement and memorizes the standby power. Various calculation methods can be utilized. In the learning mode. The low time is calculated by measuring the time between the falling edge and the rising edge. a user wakes up the target power outlet and then plugs a new home appliance into it. Downloaded on July 26. a user can assign a specific button to some IR code. Vol. It can be considered as a pulse stream having some high time and low time as shown in Fig. which switches the ZigBee controller to the learning mode. the microcontroller goes to the learning mode and measures the normal power consumption. the threshold power should be reconfigured for proper operation. Therefore. . If the matching code is found during search. He turns on the new home appliance. The third and fourth buttons are assigned to the dimming light. In general. The IR code learning process is done as follows. First.4. If there is enough memory to store the codes. It can be considered as repeated pulse streams having different pulse durations. the core processing unit executes the command corresponding to that button. the microcontroller goes to the learning mode and measures the standby power consumption. So a variety of IR remote control can be recorded for convenience. The power outlet turns off automatically. They are controlled by a ZigBee controller which has four button switches.4. The high time is calculated by measuring the time between the rising edge and the falling Fig. In this case. If a user transmits the IR code of the remote control toward the IR receiving block. 1. the microcontroller finishes measurement and memorizes the normal power. It can be done as follows. This wakes up the power outlet 1. It can also be sampled and recorded by measuring the high and low time of the repeated pulses after rejecting the carrier frequency component via the band pass filter. So it corresponds to the power outlet 1. A carrier frequency normally ranges from 19 kHz to 50 kHz with some duty ratio. No. But it is not a constant pulse stream. the core processing unit records the carrier and the baseband signal. The first button is assigned to the power outlet 1 and the second one to the power outlet 2. A user presses a button twice consecutively. Authorized licensed use limited to: SKR Engineering College. The consecutive inverting pulse times can describe the baseband signal. it turns on the television connected to the power outlet 1. III. Restrictions apply. he needs to wake up the power outlet by pressing the corresponding button and then turn on the home appliance with an IR remote control. When he releases the button. Fig. As the carrier signal is a pulse stream having a constant pulse width.266 IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics. As the ZigBee controller has a function to learn IR codes. Then he presses the button switch corresponding to the target power outlet and holds it.. IR code learning function block for the ZigBee controller. the microcontroller calculates the threshold power by using these two measured powers. if he presses the power button of the same IR remote control toward the television. and then compares the recorded IR code with the stored ones. If he does not release that button for a little bit longer time.4 shows the IR code learning function block in detail. Then. One is a learning mode and the other is an operating mode. Carrier MCU ZigBee IR Code Storage Core Processing Unit BPF Button Switches Baseband IR PD edge. Now he can enjoy watching television.
This test proved the feasibility of the ZigBee controller with IR code learning functionality. a band pass filter and a limiting amplifier. To test its operation. . IV.6. The AC/DC conversion circuit and the power monitoring circuit are located at the rear side of the power board. Implemented automatic standby power cut-off outlet. Next. we connected 37 inch flat panel TV to the power outlet.4 GHz Antenna Fig. The IR receiver is connected to another GPIO of the microcontroller. The control board consists of a microcontroller. Fig. the power outlet waked up because the stored array values and received array values matched within the margin. The carrier signal is removed after the band pass filter and only the baseband signal is input to the microcontroller. a 2.7. It includes an IR photo diode. and a 10 pin connector. the microcontroller turns off the relay. it is sampled at every one hundred millisecond and averaged over ten samplings. six buttons and an IR receiver. a variable resistor. Implemented ZigBee Controller with IR code learning functionality. He can control the dimming light with the IR remote control of the TV. It is composed of a power board and a control board. In this implementation. We selected 38 kHz. we implemented the ZigBee controller with IR code learning functionality and the automatic standby power cut-off outlet. In the operation mode. The power monitoring signal is input to the ADC (Analog to Digital Conversion) port of the microcontroller and is digitized. When the monitored power is below the threshold for two minutes. Authorized licensed use limited to: SKR Engineering College. the power outlet automatically cut off the power supply. Restrictions apply.6. As the illustrated room has energysaving outlets and can be controlled by an IR remote control. Han et al. when we pressed the power button of a TV remote control toward the TV. The power outlet consumes about 140 mW in the standby state. By using a ZigBee controller with IR code learning functionality. AC/DC Circuit MCU ZigBee 2. Downloaded on July 26. In two minutes after we turned off the TV with a remote control. A user can also assign the volume up/down buttons of the IR remote control to the third and fourth button of the ZigBee controller. it deserves a remote-controllable and energy-saving room. The variable resistor is used to calibrate the measured power. So we set the threshold power at 800 mW. 2009 at 06:49 from IEEE Xplore. the TV turned on.J. Six buttons are connected to the GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) of the microcontroller. The implemented power board can be easily deployed by adding this board to Fig. which is a widely used carrier frequency. when we transmitted the same power button of a TV remote control. the power monitoring voltage and the relay control signal are linked through the connector. the microcontroller recorded the times information of the baseband signal and stored them into an array.5. The standby power of this TV is about 550 mW. The power board and the control board are connected through the 10 pin connector. Illustration of the proposed room architecture (Two power outlets and one dimming light are controlled by a ZigBee controller). The implemented automatic standby power cutoff outlet is shown in Fig. a 32 MHz crystal. The relay is under the control board. IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS To confirm the feasibility of our proposed room architecture. Calibrating Resistor MCU ZigBe Relay Power Outlet 1 Power Outlet 2 Monitoring Circuit AC/DC Circuit 10 pin Connector 2.4 GHz RF antenna. In the learning mode. This amount of power consumption is very small compared to the normal standby power target 1 W and the standby power of the tested 37 inch flat panel TV. The ZigBee controller consists of a microcontroller. 32 MHz crystal is used for the microcontroller to guarantee enough sampling rate for the baseband signal of an IR code. The DC power. we used the fixed carrier frequency for simplicity.7 shows the implementation of the ZigBee controller with IR code learning functionality. The band pass filter operates at the frequency of 38 kHz.: Remote-Controllable and Energy-Saving Room Architecture based on ZigBee Communication 267 Power Line Dimming Light ZigBee Controller the general outlet.4 GHz Antenna Six Buttons IR Receive Fig. The ZigBee RF module is integrated into the microcontroller. As the power monitoring voltage fluctuates a little bit. a 2. An AC/DC conversion circuit is on the back side of the board. when we transmitted the power button of a TV remote control to assign it to the power outlet mentioned above.4 GHz antenna. a user can control the dimming light and the power outlets with one IR remote control of a home appliance like a TV. So the volume up/down buttons correspond to the dimming light.
Portugal. and his PhD degree in Computer Science at ChungNam National University. V. degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from KAIST.. This can reduce the wasted standby power consumption. Jinsoo Han received the B. MPEG-4.A. London.1634-1641. Bourgeois. “Design of a TwoStage AC/DC Converter with Standby Power Losses Less Than 1 W.1630-1635. No.. http://www. Joon Heo et al. 2008. vol. Jun Wook Lee.. Chandrakasan A.70-77.” IEEE Network. Yoshiaki Ito. and optical networks. “Low-Power Direct Conversion Transceiver for 915 MHz Band IEEE 802..D. and M. pp..4: A Developing Standard for Low-Power LowCost Wireless Personal Area Networks. pp.606-613.” 2002. As this power outlet can reconfigure the threshold power. Vol. “Reducing Standby Power Waste to Less Than 1 Watt: A Relevant Global Strategy that Delivers. E. 2009 at 06:49 from IEEE Xplore.” IEEE Communications Magazine.15. REFERENCES     IEA. the power outlet automatically cuts off the power supply to the outlet. Aug. 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