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dr aqEnergetic materials 802

dr aqEnergetic materials 802

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Published by Muddassir Ahmad

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Published by: Muddassir Ahmad on Mar 29, 2011
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€ General Introduction: A detonation is a shock

wave with a rapid chemical reaction occurring just behind the shock front .Looking at the detonation process, there are some general phenomena that seem to apply to all explosives.

€ The propagation wave velocity is greater than the

speed of sound of the unreacted material into which the wave is traveling . € The wave velocity is constant in any given specimen of explosive . € The wave velocity is proportional to the density of the explosive material . € The wave velocity is lower in smaller diameter specimens of the same explosive material and propagation completely falls below some minimum critical diameter. € It is also noticed that the diameter above which wave speed no longer increases is different for each explosive.

€ Based on above observations, detonation

phenomena can be divided into two broader categories:
Ideal Detonation :Where the cross section of explosive is large enough to have no diameter effect Non Ideal Detonation: Where the dimension of the charge affects the characteristics of detonation For most of the common military explosives the diameter is quite small from a mm to a few tens of mm For commercial explosives, the diameter may be in the range of several centimeters For blasting agents ,it may be a meter or more

Von Neumann and Deering independently in the early 1940s. may be time dependent and are affected by the surrounding system or boundary conditions . The gaseous reaction products .the wave velocity is constant and the products leaving the e detonation front are at the same state (chemical) regardless of the position of the wave in distance or time. and is called ZND Model .€ € € € € € A simple theory to describe ideal detonation was developed by Zeldovich . The front of the wave is a jump discontinuity/the wave front is discontinuious. It.This implies that wave front is planner and has no lateral (on sides) boundaries and the wave is traveling in a direction normal to the wave front. The reaction product gases leaving the detonation front are in chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium and the chemical reaction is completed The detonation process is steady state .This model is based on the following assumptions: The flow /wave is one dimensional which is the same as the uniaxial assumption used when dealing with nonreactive shock waves .after leaving the detonation front. is handled as the jump discontinuity in simple nonreactive shock waves. therefore.

. chemical reaction and the leading edge of the rarefaction are all in equilibrium and are all moving at the same speed called detonation velocity/velocity of detonation (VOD). This implies that the front of the shock does not change shape (pressure remains constant) with time and the detonation velocity does not change with time. a rarefaction moves forward into the shock The shock front. the gaseous products behind this shock wave are expanding.        In view of constraints placed by above assumptions: The detonation is seen as a shock wave moving through an explosive the shock front compresses and heats the explosive which initiates chemical reaction The exothermic reaction is completed instantly The energy liberated by the reaction feeds the shock front and drives it forward Simultaneously. D.

 The jump condition from the unreacted explosive to the shock compressed reaction product gases is depicted in the pressure specific volume (P-V)plane in the figure It can be seen from the figure that: .


The two scientists independently made this observation at the beginning of the 20th century. .       Wave deals with two materials in a detonation jump condition the unreacted explosives and the completely reacted gaseous detonation products We are jumping from one physical state to another as well to a new chemical state The initial state at A in the figure is for the unreated explosive The state at C relates to the jump condition to the fully shocked but yet unreacted explosive On another Hugoniot (an empirical relationship) describing a curve an P-V plot which connects states that can be attained by a shock transition the state B represents the detonation reactions products The state of the reaction products is at the point where the Raleigh line (a straight line connecting the initial and the final shock states on a P-V plane)is tangent to the Hugoniot of the detonation reaction products The chapman Jouguet state is at the point where the Raleigh line is tangent to the Hugoniot of the detonation-reaction products .

then two states would be possible for the products. If the jump conditions were such that the Rayleigh line intersected the products Hugoniat at a slope greater than that of tangent. are at each of the two points where the Hugoniot is intersected by the dashed line in the figure .


rare faction would be slower than the detonation front .therefore .comparing slopes on this plane is therefore .the slope of the Hugniot and hence the rarefaction wave velocity is lower than that of Raleigh line .making the reaction zone continuously spread out in time. This state is not in equilibrium and therefore is not permissible according to the constraints  The slope of the Hugoniot curve at any point is U2/v2.So this state is not in equilibrium and therefore not permissible under original constraints  At point (E)in figure .  The slope of the Hugoniat curve of the the detonation reaction products at state D in the figure is greater than the slope of the reaction zone and rarefaction would be overtaking the shock front thus violating the statement that these are all at the same velocity .effectively comparing velocities.

The CJ point is the at the state of products behind the detonation front The point C.  The net result of above disscussion is that the only place on the Hugonat of the products where the slope of the Hugoniat equals the slope of the Raleigh line (and therefore the reaction zone . the Rayleigh line interrelation with the Hugoniot of the unreacted explosive is called the Von Neumann spike and is the shock state that initiates reaction. The reaction is so fast that energy involved in this phenomena spike is negligible compared to the energy in fully reacted products . the C-J state .rarefaction front and shock Front are all at the same velocity is at the tangent point. For the purpose of the simple model presented the Von Neumann spike is ignored and the reaction zone thickness is assumed to the zero.

Its profile is shown in the figure.€ The rarefaction wave which brings the products gases from the C-J state to the fully expanded state at ambient pressure is called Taylor wave. .


thus the taylor ware is higher and longer than if the explosive was not confined € when the explosive is very thick (along the detonation axis).Taylor ware is manifested in three profiles as shown in the figure € If the explosive has heavy rear and / or side confirement . The actual shape of the Taylor wave is determined by a combination of factors including expansion of the detonation gasses. the Taylor wave is higher € when the explosive is very thin in the direction of the detonation and there is little rear or side confinement. the charge size and the degree of confinement . the gases cannot expand as freely as unconfined gases. the taylor wave is lower.


D .D is detonation velocity.it is imperative to find or estimate the parameter values at CJ state i. .€ Before doing any design calculation .e PCJ. where :PCJ is the detonation or CJpressure.uCJ and rhoCJ.UCJ .particle velocity at the CJ state & rhoCJ is the density at the CJ state.

D. € It is.Fortunately experimental data for a larger number of explosives and explosive mixtures are available . therefore .€ An abundance of CJ state data is available but seldom at densities of interest to us.These data are tabulated for a few representative explosive /explosive mixtures as. .These data were measured for rhoo& rhocj (density at initial and cj states). VOD and Pcj(Detonation or CJ Pressure)parameters of explosives and explosives mixture in the same experiment for each set of data . Further much of this data is either calculated or estimated and it is not known how accurate these methods are.important to have some real data .

Table .

€ The initial density versus the density at the CJ state for all the explosives. can be plotted on a graph and it is found that the data fit a straight line on a log plot as shown in the figure . where CJ parameters have been determined experimentally .


. a close relationship is observed but it underestimates rhocj at lower densities.386rhoo 0.96 € The equation for estimating this parameter is : € Rho cj=(4/3)rhoo € When the estimated equation is plotted on the experimental graph.€ The equation of this line is : € rhoCJ=1.

€ The mass and momentum equations for the jump from unreacted explosive to the CJ state are: .



This is slightly better than estimate from computer codes which agree with experimental data with in 7 to 9%.estimates PCJ with in 5% of the experimentally measured values . . knowing only rhoo and D for any explosive at any density .€ This equation .


This is similar to the shock wave interactions between inert materials.€ It is needed to know the properties of detonation reaction products at the shock states when an explosive detonates in contact with another material. .

. increases rather slowly and can be considered to be somewhat constant .The shock impedance increases with pressure. It is constant enough to let us differentiate between the low-impedance material and a high impedance material. This product is called the shock impedance and is designed by Z where: Z=rhooU € Rhoo is constant while U is not .€ We know the momentum equation: P=rhoouU € This equation contains an interesting factor rhooU.

then the resulting pressure at the interface will be lower than the CJ pressure The estimation of this Hugoniot can be done by computer codes which are not available to most engineers nor are the large computers that are required to run them. then the resulting pressure at the interface will be greater than the CJ pressure If the adjacent material has a shock impedance lower than that of the detonation reaction products at the C-J state. Experiments can be conducted for a given explosive with a variety of targets ranging from low-to high target shock impedance and thus the Hugoniot of the detonation reaction products can be constructed One such Hugoniot is shown in the figure for a plastic bonded explosive consisting of TATB and a binder. .€ € € € € If the adjacent material has a shock impedance greater than that of the detonation reaction products at the C-J state.


magnesium . and argon gas at various initial pressures ranging from 5 to 705 bar.transacryl (a polymer).target material used in these experiments were copper.comp B etc € The . € This Hugoniot shown in the figure is similar to those for the detonation products Hugoniots spreads across the Jone plots for TNT . water. aluminum .


if we assume Uo=0 is at the P=0. Figure below shows the detonation jump condition. € Just .as with shock waves (non reacting ).u =0 origin on the P-u plane.The difference here is that state zero is the solid HE and the CJ state is on the product Hugoniot. € The initial unreacted state.the detonation is a jump process and is handled the same as shock wave are on the P-u plane € The detonation jump condition from the state of an unreacted explosive to the CJ-state is a straight line joining these two states .


the slope of the jump line for nonreative shocks was rhooU.it is imperative to known the relative shock impendence of the material and the explosive reaction products .The shock impedance of the products is Zdet=rhooD € While . € The major interaction of interest with explosive is the case where an explosive is in contact with another material and the detonation wave interacts at that interface . € In an analogy to nonreactive shock . the slope of the jump line for detonation is rhooD.

This case pertains to a detonation causing a shock into an adjoined material where impedance is higher than that of the detonation products at the CJ state . .The figure below shows the P-x diagram for this interaction.



u=0 & a left going shock wave back into the detonation product gases coming from PCJ.in the in figure produces a shock pressure in material B greater than the CJ pressure of the explosive due to a right going shock wave in material B coming from P=0.€ The interaction shown . uCj .


Example .



Example: S=1.481 .



These phenomena .the same shall be treated at the empirical level.€ So far .It is imperative to explore the phenomena that exists outside the constraints imposed for the study of ideal detonation . .the effects of physical dimensions and temperature are very complex .we have examined ideal detonation .therefore .

the reaction zone length was considered zero but in reality this is not the case . As shown in the next figure .the length of reaction zone is tiny compared to that of a Taylor wave.it is also observed to decrease with increasing initial ambient temperature of the explosive Reaction zone length .Their dimensions are deduced from their effects on other parameters Length vary from as little as a hundredth of a millimeter for some high density high explosives up to several centimeters for same blasting agents Reaction zone length has its importance for being the major parameter controlling detonation velocity in the non ideal detonation region .the reaction zone length appears to increase with decreasing density Further .cannot conveniently be measured directly .€ € € € € € € € In the simple model of detonation . The figure shown an idealized detonation wave whose structure and size of reaction zone are indicated Although finite .

The velocity decreases as the as the diameter of the column decreases . . When the column diameters is large. the losses are small relative to the energy production at the wave front When the column diameters is small . change in VOD is observed with the change of diameters of the column.the energy losses are larger relative to the energy generated at the wave front.€ € € € € On detonating a cylindrical column of explosive. The decrease in the velocity continues until a diameter is reached where the energy losses are so great relative to the energy production that detonation fails to propagate at all.This effect is caused by is caused by energy losses to the site of the column .

The data given in the table are presented in graphical form is the Rigme. cyclotol (60/x0) . a constant. this presentation does not tell us anything about the selective effect in a particular explosive or among different explosives The detonation velocity.limited amount aredata are available for explosives. is different of or different explosives and is different for same explosive at different initial conditions. the linear portion of this relationship is expressed as: = 1. This velocity is called the ideal detonation velocity or the infinite diameter detonation velocity desiganated as either Di or Dos when the save data are plotted in reduced terms in the form of D/Di against 1/d as in the flow in figure . it is seen that the relation become linear in 1/d as diameter increases (as 1/d approaches zero). however asymptotically approaches a constant value as the diameter become larges and larger . temperature. Transient recorders or fiber optics methods A table gives typical data for compB .The experiment for this purpose being rather expensive and time consuming . including density.€ € € € € € € € D Di € € € Measurements to study this effect can be made on long cylinder (sticks) of explosive of different diameters by detonating them from one end The measurements can be made by any one of several techniques including ultra high speed photography.a 1 d The term a the slope of the linear portion. particale size etc. 1/d. The constant a appears to be proportional to section zone length. this behavior is shown in the figure below: when linear portion of the relationship is extra polated to 1/d=0 we find the value of the detonation velocity for an infinite diameter charge. In case the same data are plotted in the form of detonation velocity verses reciprocal diameter. the following table gives data for several different explosives as wall as for several densities of one explosive.


€ € The effect of confinement to an explosive charge .For explosives pressed into steel sleeves .such as housing the charge column in a metal sleeve.Data supporting the relationship are represented into following .the following relationship holds We/Wc is the weight ratio of explosive to casing per unit length . helps to increases the detonation velocity or bring it closer to ideal performance .


€ The result of these two examples demonstrate that all other things being equal the confinement of the explosive tube like in metal sleeve instead of paper has increased its VOD from 5.14km/s .2 Km/s to 6.






7) . Df.At this point detonation fails. € Failure diameter is strongly affected by confinement. initial density and ambient temperature of the unreacted explosive € Failure diameter can be roughly correlated to the velocity diameter constant a as shown in the figure(21. it is also called the critical diameter. it either suddenly slows down to below the sound speed in the unreacted explosive or stops altogether . particle size. € This point is called the failure diameter. Dcrit.Side losses become so dominant with decreasing diameter that a point is reached where steady state detonation cannot be maintained .

. € This effect is true for all explosives.8). It is seen that increasing the initial or ambient temperature decreases Df.€ This effect is exhibited in the following figure(21.


nor at all densities € For most single component HEs such as RDX. This phenomena is indicated in the first figure(21.9 &21. HMX. € The effect of initial density on Df is not the same in all explosives. the Df suddenly jumps to a much higher value. This trend continues until the maximum theoretical density (TMD) or crystal density is approached. .just discussed. that tend to fuze at or near TMD.9) where a plot of Df versus rhoo for two different particle size conditions of TNT is shown.10).The effect is demonstrated in the next two figures (21.TNT etc the Df decreases with increasing density. € For those explosives in the group .


Df increases with increasing density .with a little or no fine voids or pronounced grain boundaries .yields the highest Df for poured clear type Material having grains boundaries in the from of creamed and powder yield the lowest Df .10 .€ € € € € € Casting technique also affects Df .11) pertaining to the behavior of AN and AP for failure diameters. A sudden charge in initiation mechanism.This trend is shown in figures(21. In this techniques that leads to a final material . The trend of decreasing Df with decreasing particle size is same for all explosives as seen in figure 21. primarily those that contain large amounts of AN and AP behave exactly the opposite in respect to density .10 &21.Hence .is perhaps responsible for the sudden charge in Df A second group of explosives. as affected by porosity .


€ Fig 21. The effect of the density of the first group (single molecule like TNT.RDX..predominates the effect in the low density region.HMX etc).12 demonstrates an interesting result for an explosive mixture of each group into identical charges (TNT/AN:50/50). where Df decreases with increasing density dominates in the higher density region.The effect of density for the 2nd group (TNT/AN:50/50).where Df increases with increasing density . .

€ Similar to Df. but for plates or slabs of explosive .there is a failure thickness that can be measured .the experimental set up for this shown in fig 21.13 .

€ € €


Experiments to determine failure thickness are run on tapered explosive wedges initiated at the thicker end The tests are conducted using a brass witness plate to indicate where failure occurred Since the brass affords heavy confinement on one side of the explosive and steel bars confine the sides ,the failure thickness is most likely less than that for an un -confined explosive charge(AN:3.29mm,TNT:1.91mm,comp.B:.94mm& PBX,(HMX based).61--------.41&(RDX based) .52-.30mm Such experimental data are important for the designer to sort out reliability of detonation to minimize size and weight of explosive charge..

€ As seen in the case of ideal detonation ,both PcJ the

detonation pressure ,and D ,the detonation velocity ,are dependent upon the initial density of the unreacted explosive .But if we plot D against rhoo for some given explosive ,we should not expect to get a straight line as exhibited in figure 21.14 for HBX(a mixture of RDX ,TNT and aluminum) € However ,for most explosives over reasonable ranges of density ,D against rhoo graph is very close to linear as seen in the figure 21.15 for PETN and TNT. € Although it is wrong to assume the linear relationship for all explosives ,however, with some very limited data on D and rhoo condition for an explosive ,the relationship can be assumed to be linear in order to extrapolate the known D, rhoo condition.



the explosive is being expanded thereby lowering its density .4x10-3 to-4x10-3 (mm/us/oc) .PcJ and D are also lowered.The reason for this is that in raising the temperature .By lowering density .its D and P should also raise but the opposite is observed . the change in detonation velocity per unit charge in temperature .will be found to be in the range from -o.€ It is expected that on raising the initial temperature of the explosive . ( D/ T). € Typically.

Here R is the radius of curvature of the front .d is the charge diameter and L is the charge length .16 demonstrate this effect for several explosives. € In case the charge is made larger . € Fig 21.the point moves out further but the ratio of radius of curvature to charge diameter remains constant .€ If a cylinder of explosive is initiated from the end by placing a detonator on the center line .The value of this ratio changes from explosive to explosive depending probably on reaction zone length etc.it is expected the detonation to grow out spherically from this point and it does happen at first € But after going some fixed distance the detonation ceases to grow spherically and maintains a constant radius of curvature at detonation front.


17 shows this effect.€ One of the manifestations of geometry effects is that the work done by the pressure at the end of the charge is a function not only of the pressure etc but also of the /d of the charge. L € If S is defined as some work function like depth of dent in a witness plate .degree of L L L L L crushing an adjacent material or ever properties of a jet in shaped charges .then as increases so does S but only upto some maximum € € € € This is called max . The inference drown from This graph is that S/So is approaching a constant for values of /d>2 L .beyond this. Figure 21. S remains constant no matter how long the charge is made At this max there is a corresponding value of S max or So A plote of S/So (the reduced work function) versus L/d (reduced or scaled length) depicts that all there parameters do indecd scale (can be increased or decreased proportionately in size).


The following two major methods /modes of initiation shall be examined during the course of discussion : .it is seen that all methods of initiation are basically thermal in nature .According to existing theories .

.It will be seen that initiation is entirely a thermal phenomena. The initiation of detonation : Here in this case the thermal effects must be coupled with hydrodynamic effects.

explosives generate heat that can accelerate the rate of decomposition leading to a runway or thermal ignition condition. This decomposition can be started merely by allowing an explosive to be exposed to high ambient temperatures or by generating heat mechanically within the explosive i.e through shock waves etc .On decomposition.

aldehydes. This is due to low-temperature kinetics as well as the influence of light .nitamine etc groups in an explosive molecule can slowly break down.ketones .€ € € € € When an explosive slowly decomposes the reaction products are not necessarily formed at maximum oxidation state. decomposition occurs.H2O.infrared and ultraviolet radiation and any other mechanism that can feed energy in to the molecule Upon decomposition products such as NO. nitrate . .NO2 N2.acids etc are formed Large radicals of the parent explosive molecule are left and these react with their neighbors As long as the explosive is at a temperature above absolute zero. The various nitro.

it is found that the rate of weight loss relative to the starting weight is a constant at constant temperature .the decomposition rate increases Although the exact chemical mechanism in thermal decomposition is seldom known .we do know that most explosives in the common use of temperatures decompose at a zero order reaction rate .or the presence of.rate of decomposition is infinitesimally small.This is expressed as : .This implies that the rate of decomposition is usually independent of the composition of . the reaction products The reaction rate can be determined experimentally by holding the explosive at some constant temperature and measuring its weight loss as a function of time .When this is done . As temperature increases .€ € € € At lower temperature .

When log K is plotted against reciprocal temperature . .it is found that the data points from a straight line as shown in figure22.€ € € This experiment can be repeated at a number of different temperatures to obtain values of K at each temperature.1 The equation of a straight line on this type .1/T .



.energy is produced in the from of heat .the greater the rate of heat evolved. € The combination of thermal chemical characteristics of the reaction with the rate of reaction yields an expression for the rate of energy or heat produced . the faster the rate .The term Z is a constant unique to that particular reaction and is often called the pre-exponential factor € With the progress of the decomposition reaction .For a given quantity of explosive.€ This equation is called the Arhenius equation and is used for the determination of the activation energy for a particular chemical reaction .

the heat of reaction . The heat transfer rate is dependent upon :temperature.Q is the rate of heat evolved per unit volume . thermal conductivity . € The heat produced in this manner is transferred to the surrounding explosive material.heat capacity and density € One of the classical three dimensional heat transfer equation is Frank Kamenetskii (FK) equation: . the density and H . .

€ € € This equation relates the rate of heat production to the rate of temperature rise of the reacting material and its surroundings. . In essence . Thus a situation is reached where if the heat transfer rate cannot keep pace with the rate of heat produced .this equation states that if heat is evolved by the reaction faster than it can be transferred away.Increasing temperature increases the reaction rate and hence the heat production rate .then the temperature will continue to rise at a greater and greater rate. then the temperature of the reacting material must increases .

the thicker the material or longer the heat transfer path . Hence for a given size and shape of a given explosive material . that a large sample or charge of explosive conducts internal heat away slower than a smaller one.€ € € € At higher temperatures. The heat transfer rate is also a function of the thickness of the material through which it is being conducted which implies.will lead to a runaway reaction or explosion.the lower the heat transfer rate which means.there must be some maximum initial temperature which if exceeded . Convective heat transfer then also increases along with increasing pressure and the result is an explosion. the reaction results in the increase of H as well as the relative amount of gaseous products in higher oxidation states. The temperature is called the critical temperature TC .

.furnishes the following expressions.where time approaches infinity .The solution of FK equation for critical temperature at the steady state conditions .

3.32 for a sphere. .0.9872cal/mole K). the activation energy in cal/mole.00 for an infinite length cylinder . . Ea. the thermal conductivity in cal/cm sec K. critical temperature in K.is the radius of a sphere . H. the density in g/cm3. Tc. Z.88 for an infinite slab.the shape factor . the universal gas constant (1. the preexponential factor in per second. and S .the heat of decomposition reactions in cal/mole.R. .2.cylinder or half thickness of a slab in cm.

Any increase in ambient temperature above Tc would lead to runaway reaction or explosion with in a finite time. € Some Tc values for explosives are: .€ This solution of FK equation represents the condition where the rate of heat evolved exactly equals the rate at which it is transferred away for a given size and shape of an explosive charge .


€ € € €

Fig22.2 represents a plot of Tc versus radius of several explosives Fig22.3 demonstrates the relationship of thermal conductivity changes with density of TATB The relationship is linear Fig 22.4 shows the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity for AP along with two different compositions of HMX/viton .The slopes of these plots are probably representative for most explosives


These tiny locally heated areas are referred hot spots Bowden etal proposed the following mechanism : .low . Low velocity impact has caused many accidental explosions.€ € € € € € Explosives will be initiated under certain conditions if they are subjected to impact . The phenomena of impact or mechanical initiation is really thermal in nature Bowden and yoffe first proposed this and postulated that any of several mechanical mechanisms could produce heat at tiny local areas and thus raise the local temperature to the ignition point of an explosive. therefore .velocity impact machines are employed to test sensitiveness of explosives.

Intercrystalline friction. Friction of impacting surfaces. Viscous heating of the impacted material as it flows past the edges of impacted surfaces. Plastic deformation of a sharply pointed impacting surface. .adiabatic compression of air or vapour bubbles included in the explosives.

they proposed microjetling in bubbles and particles interstices (small voids/spaces) and /or in elastic (not rubber like) compression of the solid particals was the major cause of the phenomenon.€ € € € € Khoevo and Andreev indicated that the above said mechanisms would not produce sufficiently high temperatures. The explosives (being )particulates . A better proposition by afanas ev and Bobble states that the inelastic flow of explosive under impact would produce the required temperatures. therefore .Local anisotropic behavior can create localized high shear streses where the solids in that area can suddenly break down in to plastic flow relative to the surrounding solid particles Flow in these local shear bands converts the quansistatic stress on the entire bed into heat by various effects. Temperature in these areas is not limited by the normal melting point of the explosive becomes these local areas are at high stress or pressure and. therefore the melting point is raised .

is approximately . coefficient (for most CHNO explosive .and P .the pressure € It is imperative to define a critical temperature Tc. Tom. the normal melting .02oC/atm). which is canceled for times less than 10-5 s being the ignition delay such that: € Tm . similar to Tc. the melting point pressure point at 1 atm. .is the melting point.

the higher the local melting point and lower the critical stress to produce ignition € Based on impact machine experiments it is found that for most explosives Tc are between 400 and 600oC and the critical diameter of a hot spot is between 10-5 and 10-3 cm € The .above relationship implies the higher the local pressure.

In this case the shock front compresses the unreacted explosive material causing local shear failure and inelastic flow . . The difference in the case of detonation is that the ensuring (happening after wards)is completed at a much higher rate.These process create hot spots that grow in to complete reaction. The initiation of chemical reaction in detonation is similar to the low velocity impact.€ In detonation the decomposition reaction is completed at shock velocities in the explosive.

Hence . the shock pressure . the rate at which work is done .When an explosive is shocked with a square wave pulse shock wave .the shock front is u .the the shock has an amplitude P.and a duration t .per unit area .on the explosive compresses by the shock is: .



€ The table 22.3(couper)gives Ec for the explosives under discussion=15.0cal/cm2 which means that this explosive will definitely detonate .

an explosive does not instantly attain full steady state detonation The shock must travel some finite distance into the explosive before achieving steady-state detonation This run distance is not a constant but various with the peak input shock pressure data are approximately straight lines and are known as Pop.€ € € € Although critical energy fluence is a necessary condition for shock initiation of detonation. A very thin flyer plate forms a short or thin pressure pulse . by itself it does not describe the whole process When shocked . plots after al fonse popalents.


free surface and for ensuring rarefaction wave to return to the flyer explosive interface.the explosive will not detonate.6 If this distance X is less than the run distance from popplot data then the run distance from pop-pube condition In case the pulse is very Thin and x is much shorter than the run distance . . The pulse width is determined by the time it to be the impact shock in flyer to reach the flyer srear.€ € € € € The pulse duration or width of the shock wave formed at impact is dependent upon flyer thickness and material as well as upon target explosive. unconfined . The shock maintain constant peak pressure upto the distance X as shown in 22.

€ Putting

the above values in the equation for Xf we get Xf=2.68 mm € These example illustrate that while designing explosive interfaces that utilize gaps and flyers to transfer detonation, the aforesaid conditions must be taken in to account

€ Besides critical fluence and pulse duration and magnitude

conditions for shock initiation of detonation ,it is imperative to consider an additional parameter i.e impact shock parameter € As it is observed that the rarefaction traveling axially in to the rear of the shock pulse in an explosive can attenuates the peak shock pulse in an explosive can attenuates the peak shock pressure and there by cause longer than ideal run distance or even cause failure rare factions traveling radially into the sides or edges of the impact shock wave can do the same. € In fig 22.7 a flyer impacting a slub of explosives is shown such that the shock wave generated at impact travels forward axially in to the explosive .

hence a rarefaction forms at the edge and propagates radially inward .then the actual run distance will be grater than the ideal .the shock is whittled (like cutting wood into small pieces by cutting small pieces )from the edges forming a come shaped zone that defines the only location where the initial impact shock pressure can enclose € The base angle of the cone is that ratio of the radial rarefaction to the velocity is greater than the shock velocity .relering the shock pressure from the sides. € In this manner .the base angle must be less than 45o € If the apex distance of this cone is less than the run distance .€ The edges of the shock are at ambient pressure .therefore .

€ In case the apex distance is small (close to half) . € The net result of above discussion is that for good design work to achieve sure detonation: € Cone angle is approximately 45 at the base € Required run distance is equal to or less than the constant pressure come height € The base or diameter is at least twice the height € Chemistry of all process is the same € ordinary burning and deflagration can be initiated thermally .the explosive will fail to detonate € For design purposes to achieve sure detonation flyer diameter should always be equal to or greater than twice the run distance.

charge diameter and length .partial surfaces area .heat transfer and thermo chemical characteristics of the particular explosive € If the aforesaid conditions are fulfilled then deflagration turns into detonation otherwise explosion takes place.These conditions are: confinement . € If the aforesaid conditions are fulfilled then deflation turns into detonation otherwise explosion takes place.e it .is deflagration under confinement € Direct detonation is initiated by a shock € Deflagration to detonation takes place if conditions necessary to achieve DDT are present . € Explosion takes place in case deflagration is confined i.particle size .packing density. € DDT is utilized intentionally in the design certain detonators where primary explosives cannot be used.

Combustion Ordinary Burning Rate (slow) <mm/s Deflagration (Fast) cm/s Explosion (very fast) m/s Detonation (supersonic) Direct Deflagration to DetonationCDDT .

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