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AJWP-1: The Academy of Jerusalem Working Paper #1
REALIZING The HEAVENLY JERUSALEM
.(Yitzhak I. Hayutman, B.Arch, M.CRP, Ph.D (Cybernetics
The issues of the Middle East conflict are complex and psychologically loaded, pertaining to questions of identities. They include questions of the future of Zionism, which has become ossified in a political mold (sec. 2.1). The complexities of Israeli society are connected to major world divisions and its own divisions can be exacerbated, rather than relieved, by a partial peace process (sec. 2.2). Examining peacemaking, we can distinguish between piecemeal peace, concerned only with political factors and territorial issues (sec. 3.1) and comprehensive or "Holistic Peace" concerned also with cultural issues and encompassing psychological and cultural change, in other terms with "Human Recon-struction" (sec. 3.2). Examining the possible means for such peace making, we examine various forms of Conversion (sec. 3.3) and techniques of Conversation that build understandings (sec. 3.4), drawing implications from the cybernetic .Conversation Theory By exploring the implications of the symbol of the Heavenly Jerusalem in relation to Zionism (sec. 4) we come to the possibility of redefining Zionism as the movement for the Actualization of the Heavenly Jerusalem. The history, and potency, of this symbol is presented in twelve "gates" or stages from Genesis to our times (sec. 4.1 - 4.12). Utilizing some Kabbalistic and cybernetic insights, the "Heavenly City" is then defined as the "City of .(Understandings" (sec. 5 Following the Psalmist's description of the pilgrim's aim, the implications of the symbol are defined in terms of the ideals of learning, peace, civilization and systemic comprehension of the world (sec. 6). These ideals, in turn, are applied to some concrete problems of the Middle East and to placing Zionism in a universal context (sec. 7). An illustration of a possible old-new mythology, based on the image of the Heavenly Jerusalem, is then drawn (sec. 8), leading to a "redemptive scenario" that illustrates how the problems of Israel could be solved by a new enlightened Zionism aspiring for the Heavenly Jerusalem (sec. 9). (There is a detailed list of .(contents at the end of the paper
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CONTENTS: Abstract. Acknowledgment Introduction. .1
2 The Problem. .2 3 Mental Conflict and Identity Crises. 2.1 5 Complexity and Interdependence. 2.2 6 Peace-Making and Human Reconstruction. .3 6 Piecemeal Peace-Making in the Middle East. 3.1 7 Comprehensive Peace, Holistic Peace and Healing. 3.2 7 Conversion. 3.3 7 Conversion - The Jews. .3.3.1 8 Counter-Conversion - The Palestinians. .3.3.2 9 Double Conversion and "Passing Over". - 3.3.3 10 Conversation. - 3.4 Conversational Methodologies and Conversation Theory.10 - 3.4.1 Ideological Reorientation and Symbolic Construction. 12 - 3.4.2 .12 3.4.3 - Conversation-supporting Environments. 13 Heavenly Jerusalem and the Old-New Zion. .4 14 4.1. Heavenly Jerusalem and the story of Genesis. 15 4.2. Heavenly Jerusalem and the Kingdom of David. 15 4.3. Heavenly Jerusalem and the Prophets. 15 Heavenly Jerusalem and the Second Temple. .4.4 16 4.5. Heavenly Jerusalem and Early Christianity. 17 4.6. Heavenly Jerusalem in the Talmud. 17 4.7. Heavenly Jerusalem and Islam. 18 Heavenly Jerusalem and the Kabbalah. .4.8 19 4.9. Heavenly Jerusalem and Shambhala. 19 Heavenly Jerusalem and Marxism. .4.10 20 4.11. Heavenly Jerusalem in early Modern Zionism. 22 4.12. Heavenly Jerusalem, Holism and the Whole Earth. 24 The New Heavenly Jerusalem - Heaven, Havannah and Bniyah. .5 25 The Heavenly Jerusalem and Future Zionism. .6 26 The Heavenly Orientation and Aliyah. 6.1 6.2 (Torah & Shalem) Teaching wholeness - A New Torah from Zion. 27 27 Shalom, Bniyah & Havannah) - Building Bridges to Peace.) 6.3 28 Bniyah & Ir) - City Building and Urban Living.) 6.4 29 6.5 (Hibur & Yahad) joining together - Mosaic Patterns. 29 Consequent Implications of the symbols. .7 Teaching Wholeness & City Building) - Designing Civilization. 30) 7.1
Building Bridges to Peace & Joining Together) - Encouraging Federalism. 30) 7.2 City Building and Urban Living & Joining Together) - The Earthly Jerusalem.31) 7.3 31 Yahadut & Teaching Wholeness) Israel and the World.) 7.4 38 References. 39 Notes. 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 Appendix "A". A Future Mythology. The meta-historical frame. 1 The Drama. 2 The Dramatic Characters. 3 The Jerusalem Global Stages. 4 Concerns: The Crises and the Christalization. 5 The Palestinian special concern of the Messaye'a. 6 The Jerusalem Dramatization. 7 The Twin gates 8 The Yishmael/El HEJERA Gate. 8.1 The Yitzhak Gate. 8.2 Epilogue 9 Appendix "B" - A Redemptive Scenario for the HEJERA The HEJERA Design. 1 The New Jerusalem in Action. 2
Appendix "C" - Conversation Theory.
The initial insight for this essay came from a book by John Michell, and it was his positive response to the first and later versions that encouraged me to continue through many revisions and improvements. Indirectly, this work was much inspired by my two great teachers, Buckminster Fuller and cybernetician Gordon Pask. Many friends helped through the many versions, notably Prof. Joseph Ben-Dak (who commissioned the original paper), Dr. Morgan Thomas and Dr. Itil Asmon. Thorough editorial help was given, in earlier stages, by David Justman and by Elizabeth Pask. This final version was edited, improved while also translated to Hebrew by Tirtsa Arzi. I thank them all and take the sole responsibility for the remaining obscurities, which would have been tenfold if not for their kind help.
This paper is a revision of a paper presented at an International Workshop on "Peace Thinking and the Middle East Conflict" held at the University of Haifa, 19-24 June 1978 (between the Sadat visit and the conclusion of the protracted peace process with Egypt). The original paper set forth proposals for the ideological reorientations necessary for securing peace in the Middle East, together with a methodology for achieving these reorientations. The approach advocated is cultural rather than political. This has become even more pertinent now that the agreement with the Palestinians has been signed, thus concluding the Camp David accord. Now that the political process has entailed most of what would be expected of it, it is becoming more apparent that the cultural problems have not been resolved. An equally grave issue is the survival of Zionism, and of ideology altogether, among Israeli Jews - because this is the ultimate question of Israel's survival. The military and political struggle against the Arabs, and with it the difficulty for winning recognition for Israel worldwide, has ossified Zionist thinking and tied it to the narrow mold of "Political Zionism" which the current conclusion of the political process has made no longer relevant. Yet while Zionism has become ossified through the Arab-Israeli struggle, the world has changed greatly. Communism has disappeared, religious fundamentalism has increased, nationalism has revived in a threatening way, and the ecological threat has grown, stimulating a new world ideology, combined, in the more affluent places, with a "New Age" ideology. This paper shows that all these developments have a profound meaning for Zionism, calling for a new type of "Cultural Zionism" (literally, "Spiritual Zionism") which can bring a new age for Zionism as a leading global ideology. Also unresolved is the problem of Jerusalem, and this problem is likely to increase, becoming the tinder box that may explode and shatter the fragile peace agreements. In the current step-by-step, piecemeal, peace process, Jerusalem has been left as the last issue. Our holistic approach takes Jerusalem as the starting point and elevates her to be the kingpin of Zionism as a global ideology.
2. The Problem.
It is an old and ongoing debate whether the Arab-Israeli conflict is essentially territorial or religious and cultural-psychological. Rationalists portray it as a mere territorial struggle to which "land for peace" transactions can bring a settlement. (This position implies not just that people are more important than land but often that land issues/fixations are old-fashioned, fit only for "backward" people like Arabs or religious-"messianic" eccentrics). But the issues are never separate. For example, the late Anwar Sadat, who repeatedly stated that the problems of the Middle East conflict are "70% psychological", has regained 100% of the Sinai by asserting that "every inch of the Sinai is sacred". The issue of land sanctity, which was weak in the expanses of Sinai, strengthens in the area of "the territories" and is becoming focused in Jerusalem. This issue will have to be admitted both in inner Israeli debate and in international negotiations. It will become apparent that symbolic factors are as important as economic or territorial factors and, hence, that there will be need for symbolic transactions and construction, and even ideological reorientations, for the resolution of the conflict. It is also possible, even common, to recognize cultural or psychological issues, but to
1 Mental Conflict and Identity Crises. as they continue. Even scientists commonly divide the psychological factors into mutually exclusive cognitive and affective domains. The peace with Egypt. The point is that we are not detached observers. 2) Levi's self-image which he wants Shim'on to have of him. In our view. even in Egypt and certainly where Iranian or Iraqi influence is strong. has proved to be "a cold peace". achieved by a territorial deal. whose positions are now outmoded. A Palestinian State or other entity may thus tend to keep opposing Israel in order to maintain its own social cohesion. requires the eradication of Zionism and of Jewish sovereignty in order to save Islam. are actually threatened with the conclusion of their agreement. it is claimed. or "Israeli" and "Palestinian". and 3) the image that Levi assumes that Shim'on has of him. Meanwhile.advocate separation of the "rational" and "emotional" (or "mythological") sides of individuals or nations and between them. Let us call the figures Ishmael and Israel. they are still separated by these six specters. except through the negation of others (by negating the labels that have been placed on the images of other groups). It should be realized that the identities of Israelis. Conversation Theory) which views the psychological field as made of interdependent systems of (syntactic) concepts. controlled by (semantic) social memories. The integration of the culturally separate Israeli Jewish groups has not always been . And there are three more such in Shim'on's mind. The continuation of the current political process is likely to produce a crisis within the two conflicting schools of Zionism which were active in the last two decades . Israel. which are themselves controlled by perspectives of identities. and especially of the Palestinians. 3. A conflict arises when two of the images held by the two sides are seen as contradictory or even mutually-negating. we actually identify with some party to the problem. Meanwhile the inner Arab conflict between secularism and "fundamentalism" turns the Arab struggle with Israel increasingly into a religious war of Islam against Judaism which. 2. and thus themselves. In a classical essay on inter-human contact. When we say that the conflict is too complex or irrational. and which can all get changed through structured conversation (see sec.e. This identification keeps us at a level in which no meta-systemic observations are possible and an overall perspective cannot be gained. The self-image (the identity) of the Palestinians is especially fragile as it has been defined in terms of the struggle with Israel and with Zionism. and especially Zionism are still portrayed. We can then discuss problems of rationality and of identities as being not mutually exclusive but complementary.4. as inherently evil and even devilish. When they come to accept the legitimacy of Israel.1). Buber (1957) showed that two individuals who meet are surrounded by six "specters": 1) the image of Shim'on in the eyes of Levi. it would be more useful to use a system-theoretic perspective (i. that Jews. we find ourselves incapable of seeing solutions. their own shaky selfidentity may come into question. or even of viewing the problem as a whole. for example. There are people and groups that cannot properly define their own group identify. Each assumed character is a threat to the integrity of the other assumed character. this may mean that from the level that we are compelled (even by ourselves) to look at it. threaten to explode and break Israeli solidarity.not just in the "settlement camp" on the right but also in the "peace camp" on the left 1. their past mutual recriminations. It is known.
which can cause deviance or disintegration. Historical processes have narrowed the ideals of modern Zionism. the Zionist ideology and identity are increasingly problematic. brought about by the attacks on Zionism from outsiders. and also among leftist groups in Europe. a notion used also in psychology to explain schizogenesis. Gordon and many others have been pushed away. Modern sociology has offered a "labelling theory" (Gove. If.strengthened by the outside threat (as sometimes claimed). the return to the soil. the perceived threat is from Islamic fundamentalism.the Jewish State . The hundred years of struggle with the Arabs have tended to freeze the Zionist vision. the Rav Kuk. It has been lumped with such hated labels as colonialism and racism. and even the UN used to ratify this libel. The defence of Zionism has taken the form of re-adoption of traditional Zionist settlement practices. and the former dreams of Ahad Ha'am. The more religious aspects of Zionism are on the upsurge. collective. It is apparently also possible for social. and the religious and fundamentalist tendencies within the nation are rejected to the point of national schism. focusing on the interaction of those who label deviations and those who are labeled as deviant. full of problems and in fact highly urbanized.has been achieved.2 Complexity and Interdependence. This is partly because they have become a liability in the eyes of the world.) 2. the label "Zionism" is derogatory. Zionism is seen as a discriminatory and exploitative practice. the romance of small agricultural communities. Though the overt goal of Zionism . We have the Jewish State. In this state Zionism becomes backward-oriented. western.have become obsolete. The old symbols and goals . the state has neither reformulated nor reflected upon the ideals of Zionism. and can be damaged by threats from the outside and the images put on them by other nations (see next section). the question of its survival is bound up with the ultimate question of Israel's survival. D. which is now clearly becoming obsolete. the Moslem countries and many third world countries. Pinsker. In as much as Zionism created Israeli society and has held it together. (There has also been some upsurge in secular Zionism. This theory is related to the cybernetic concept of feedback. 1975) of deviance. .the Jewish State. entities to fall into a trapping state. liberal self-image. and makes deviance an instance of the more general systemic notion of a "trapping state" 2. then the Israelis prefer a secular. as well as a flight into the perception of inevitable persecution of Jews by the outside world. they may combine in a self-destructive trapping state. and with it the difficulty for winning recognition for Israel worldwide. These two tendencies were originally contradictory. For many Israelis. After forty five years. This is largely because the military and political struggle against the Arabs. but now. however. but it seems clear that the nation is not going to embrace the Halacha as its way of life. and the settlement of the land as a combined religious-Zionist mission has now been blocked. . A. In the Arab world. for example. etc. losing touch with global concerns and the spiritual movements of the end of the twentieth century. has ossified Zionist thinking and tied it to the narrow mold of "Political Zionism". For many who are nominally Zionist. the word Zionism has lost its meaning. hardly anyone has realized that this calls for renewing the Zionist vision.
. the inner divisions of Israeli society are intimately connected with major world divisions and problems in complex ways. and this is connected to the complexities of relations with other nations. are strongly represented within Israeli society. and possibly increasingly so. It is also hardly noticed by secular Western Israelis that the Western countries are still religiously Christian. To this there are further subdivisions involving the Arabs who are Israeli citizens (and who can vote to the Knesset) who are a clear minority. to use psychological terms. Gush Emunim). In short. and in general divided between Western. Traditional diaspora Judaism lived on the Talmud and related but slightly to the Bible. Thereby the differences and conflicts of "the West" versus "the East" (but actually the South) which are splitting the whole world. Traditionally Moslem countries are still very much Moslem countries. while the Palestinian movement has become a shadow of Zionism. and they makes it difficult for the experts and scholars who analyze the problem to come up with agreed solutions which will satisfy the minds of those involved in the problem. following it with a considerable time lag. with the need to negotiate their status and thus to redefine their identity in Israeli eyes. Jewish return to Israel brought a resurgence of the Bible by both secular Israeli Jewish society (for whom the Bible is the only Jewish scriptures they know) and religious Jews (esp. So. Containing representatives of almost all humankind. This allows a connection with the Bible-based Christian Fundamentalist resurgence and may have effects on Israeli religious and political affairs. is a confrontation with one's shadow. Such formulations must be opposed if one seriously desires conflict-resolution. Overriding the divisions among Jews is the major division of Israeli society . Most people demand clear symbols to identify with and simplistic heroand-villain formulations of their problems. the Arabs of Israeli Jerusalem who have some rights (including barely-used municipal vote but no vote to the Knesset) and the Arabs under military rule. Formerly it might have helped the integration of the very complex and diverse Israeli Jewish population. and this trend may influence their connections with the Jews of Israel. Israel draws upon itself the conflicts of the world. the Arab Israelis have been relatively "invisible men" in Israeli society. The conflict of traditional religious with secular technological society is very critical in the Middle East. or "Sephardi" Jews 3. In fact. This mold is now likely to change. Western countries on the one hand and the Arabs on the other. not least by Israeli Arab votes which helped to make the agreement with the Palestinians. which is likely to bring crisis .but possibly also the onset of healing. it is likely that the questions of Jewish-Arab relations will come into the open. Another major division of the Israeli Jewish population is between secular and religious Israelis. is connected with inner Israeli conflicts. Secularity is prevalent in this century in traditionally Christian countries. Following this agreement. The consequence is that the Middle East conflict appears to be too complex for the cognitive capacities of the parties involved in it. the agreement with the Palestinians. Israeli Jewish society is divided by the hundred or more lands of origin that contributed to the return to Zion.The complexity is exacerbated in that the conflict with the Arabs (which is becoming increasingly a religious conflict). But it has also become an invisible shadow entity over Jewish-Israeli identity. or "Ashkenazi" Jews and Oriental.between Jews and Arab. Thus the "peace agreements" may result in more strains and differences within Israeli society and even in identity crises for both Jews and Arabs.
Holistic Peace and Healing. Yet this approach has not changed the cultural attitudes and even the greatest achievement. . Jerusalem. Camp David accord. to isolating pressing dangers and neutralizing them. The English word "Peace" is a homonym of "Piece" and is more likely to be associated with a piecemeal approach of peacemaking and to regarding peace as merely the cessation of hostilities (what some term "negative peace"). This is the approach that passes under the more dignified name of "the rational approach". it brought results and set the stage for the further.1 Piecemeal Peace-Making in the Middle East. two skills required for the handling of complex situations. And while the "peacemeal" approach can be likened to mine clearance. The Semitic words "Shalom" and "Salaam". 3. politically it has been sloganized to "comprehensive peace". Significantly. on the other hand.2 Comprehensive Peace. ensures that our values and ideals will be associated not with a paradise-like simplicity but with the actual complexity of this city. 3. We are speaking here of "positive peace".Cyberneticians show that the Law of Requisite Variety 4 (Ashby. and it is proper to think here fully what are peace and peace-thinking. have the connotations of "whole" (shalem in Hebrew) and of contact with the holy (as in the Arabic word "Islam" connoting the religious ideal of alignment with the divine will). Kissinger had the justification. 1956) posits that complex problems demand equally complex solutions. 3. We can readily appreciate that the very word used in different languages carry different meanings. The very complexity of Jerusalem. In practice it tries to avoid the tangled issues of culture. The original study was for a conference on "Peace Thinking". ideology or religion and to isolate areas where bargaining can take place and obvious interests can be reconciled. for his piecemeal peacemaking approach. and to examine what is peace of mind on the level of nations and cultures. it does not appear effective against systemic syndromes. Though hated by the ideologues of the various parties. Meanwhile the growing religious fundamentalism. both as problem and as solution. this symbolic Jerusalem is traditionally associated with learning and understanding. the Camp David accord (which was far more comprehensive than the Kissinger agreements) brought but a "cold peace" between Israel and Egypt. but in light of the semantic insights above we may also call it "holistic peace". Peace-Making and Human Reconstruction. Being both a statesman and an academician. cultural and religious factors. against the formation of trapping states through a complex of factors of various types. which the piecemeal approach has no answer to. and also that the appropriate solutions must be formulated in a symbolic meta-language. The partial or piecemeal approach for peace-making was forcefully introduced to the Middle East by Henry Kissinger with the interim agreements between Israel and Egypt and Syria. which is discussed at length below as an appropriate solution to the problem (a problem which is also centered upon Jerusalem) is a meta-language symbol par-excellence. by theory and by results. including psychological. and more comprehensive. has increased the hatred and the conflict.
including the very issue of understanding. But other new intellectual developments (see sec. But it is used only in the political sense of all the Arab parties dealing with Israel at once (which makes it practically almost impossible). 3. In the following we shall discuss the forms and implications of the two options as they apply to social entities in general and to Arabs and Israelis in particular. So we shall discuss healing processes and "Redemptive Scenarios" and treat the question of actualizing utopia. which applies concepts from personal therapy to public and social issues. into or especially out of their group. used to claim that the resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict will only come about through the socalled "dezionization" of the State of Israel (e. But the term may apply also to change of ethnic or ideological identity.3. which is a sort of conversion. There is a current intellectual revulsion from such idealism (including utopias. Yet underlying the thesis of dezionization is the realization that ideology and symbols are crucial. applying to processes and not just to static pictures. I prefer to use the term "Holistic Peace". 1968).g. "Holistic" connotes visions of wholeness. We may term a scientific approach to these issues as "Human Reconstruction" (Khayutman. Many antagonists of Zionism called for "dezionization" of the State of Israel. but at present religious conversion is a fairly rare. It may be impractical partly because Jews have a singularly long tradition of resisting conversion. for it is against the rules of the game.1. Avnery. This possibility tends to be disregarded. 1981). The main issues in this approach would entail inducing psychological change (both cognitive and emotional) and the diffusion of the new images throughout societies. Thus the concept of conversion can be appreciated as an experience that entails both renunciation and affirmation. the "dezionization strategy" may be both impractical and undesirable. rather than by interim agreements.3 Conversion. and b) "Conversation". religious conversion was often pushed by the changing masters of this land 5. In the distant past. We shall try here to present approaches that avoid naivety and view wholes as complex rather than unitary entities. However. 5) view holism as a feasible and necessary. that they affect even the most pragmatic leaders. . Various antagonists of Zionism. which may be conveniently termed: a) "Conversion". made mostly by individuals who choose this move carefully. ideologies and "myths") issuing from the disasters of Nazism and communism. "Holistic Peace" entails the Semitic-semantic consideration above to mean the "Shalom" or "Salaam" that people aspire to as an ideal. namely understanding. Psychology knows two ways of release from mental (& cultural) trapping states. 3. both the extremely secular and orthodox Jews.The term "Comprehensive Peace" is much used in discussions of the Middle East as the contrast to piecemeal peace. even holiness. rather than a peace as a grim necessity just to stop the worst horrors. The Conversion of the Jews. So to signify the inclusion of these factors. cultural and religious aspects of peace and not even the intrinsic meaning of "comprehensive" in the sense of "involving comprehension". It does not comprehend the psychological. as reflected in the name "Realizing the Heavenly Jerusalem". and also health and healing. which can exercise and enliven values and beliefs which are often forgotten or taken for granted in everyday life.
not in Arab society). in which the Jews were willing to exercise those responsibilities that they were able to obtain. 1977) Zionism has become our method of retaining Jewishness independent of religious traditions. Of course some Arabs have long claimed that the Israeli Jews aught to forsake Zionism and be assimilated into the Arab world. has subsequently been strengthened by Zionism. where many of the PLO functionaries hope to emulate Israel and obtain similar benefits. when considered in the light of the Zionist impact on Arab nationalism. This romantic Arab notion harps back to the young and glorious days of Islam. Counter-Conversion . There exists a symmetrically opposite question: can the conflict be overcome through the conversion of the Palestinian Arabs? This question is very rarely asked by Israelis. resilience and resistance to conversion are explicable by the great coherence of the traditional living-and-belief system. hoping to succeed in precisely the same fields as their Jewish rivals.O. there is as yet . Since 1978 I have had occasions to learn of P. although generally unaware of it. Similarly. which has historically weakened with increasing secularization.and the expression above is an old Christian expression for a vain hope. as the effort to regain or maintain sovereignty on this land. Unfortunately.L. If one takes "Zion" to mean a particular geographical area. until at the end of 93 came the interim agreement to a staged program of "Gaza and Jericho First". The current (early 94) peace process may be regarded by some of its Zionist opponents as being the result of a dezionization of Israel.and especially the area of Jerusalem . I have found enough examples to come to the rather startling realization that this process has been going on for quite a while and is amplifying. when indeed many Jews have converted to Islam. First came the emulation of "Political Zionism" with the success of the PLO in getting international recognition and in institution building. which also entailed the Jews' conviction that their distinct survival has an ultimate importance for the entire world. even conversion to Judaism. Jews have converted from orthodox Judaism to Zionism rather than to Christianity or to assimilation in gentile society. and especially over Jerusalem. perhaps because of the traditional Jewish exclusiveness and negative attitude towards conversion. Elam.and take Zionism (as it is indeed taken by most Israelis). As some Israelis have pointed out (e. the same area that an Arab is likely to call "Palestine" . 3. many Israelis still feel that Zionism is somehow important to the future world and should not be discarded or traded for some fashionable doctrine. theoreticians who became disenchanted with emulating the Cuban or Vietnamese or Algerian social model and have started to study the history of Zionism.g. then the PLO is the shadow of the Zionist organization. European Judaism.2. But once I came to reflect upon the "Zionization" of the Palestinians. and the "cure" of dezionization may become worse than the disease of the Arab-Israeli conflict in its effects on Israeli society and possible loss for the world. This sentiment which we shall present and substantiate in the main part of the essay.3. The famous Jewish stiff-neckedness. Over the years there appeared trends comparable to the "practical Zionism". But dezionization is more likely to be the result than the cause of this process. or because of Israeli ambivalence to Judaism.The Palestinians. But nowadays there is no perceived attraction in Islam or Arab culture for most Israeli Jews (the extremely few Jews who convert to Islam do it in the West. is perhaps particularly interesting here.
the radical Palestinian may seek to avoid those manifestations of Zionism which he detests and to find a way of bypassing the mistakes of Zionism. which demands that this effort be a gift to the world. and an eminent contemporary Catholic theologian. because his aspiration to gain a state in PalestineZion for his exiled and dispersed nation is in fact a sort of Zionism. rather than the present negative. the highest commander of the Fatah in Southern Lebanon (and husband of King Hussain's former wife) who became a prisoner in the 1982 war in Lebanon and has gone through just such an experience (Barne'a. back to one's original faith (Dunne.Conversation. I assume that only few people can pass over like that. and the method forms a junction between conversion and conversation.little evidence of something like a Palestinian "spiritual Zionism". This lack is lamentable among the Palestinian just as is the weakening of Spiritual Zionism among Israelis. It means that the Palestinian movement has found no viable alternative to the terrorism which originally gave it power.3 . He would not become a Jew. 3.Double Conversion and "Passing Over". The current motive of regaining Palestinian rights does not suffice to transcend the problems.and a good partner to an Israeli who seeks a way out of the entrapment of Zionism. In some "no-exit" states (like in Sartre's famous play. He certainly has not betrayed his fellow Arabs. It is the "I" passing over from one culture to another. 1972). and eventually became their commander in the Antzar POW camp. The effect of this is to promote understanding. Conversion is typically a Christian concept based on the perception of Saint Paul. having understood and mastered that new creed. without his former peers and with repeated confrontation with this contention) a severe stress is likely to develop which may result in resolution by a partial conversion experience. but they could become bridge-builders who may later help others to reach intercultural understanding.4 .3. In this stage a discovery of a more sublime spiritual Zionism may lead him to a conversion-like experience. forsaking military for the sake of cultural work and even planning a World Congress of the Palestinian diaspora in the same building in Basle where Herzel convened the first Zionist congress. yet his imagery and aspirations have become strikingly Zionist. but then I have learned of the experience of Salah Ta'amari. an Israeli or a formal Zionist. 3. and becoming well informed of the history of Zionism. A more edifying. fanatical and fundamentalist stance. but an Arab who seeks his own role in forming a new type of "Spiritual Zionism" . even messianic.the overpassing pilgrim experiences the "otherness" of the other culture. but does not necessarily contact the Other people. 1989). has advocated a method of "Passing Over" that is like a double conversion: first from one's original creed to another one and then. yet probably remaining locked within the self. All these were literary imaginations. Over these years I have imagined literary situations in which a Palestinian radical may be made to face the claim that he is a Zionist. As the Palestinian seek to move to another course they will need a coherent and appealing ideology and image of peace. . not necessarily a genuine meeting with the "Thou" which may build something new between them. Yet this is not a true conversation or genuine dialogue . John Dunne. orientation is needed. Christian theology has developed from those times. all the more so because of the feuds among their many factions. Seeing himself as destined to become Zionist-like.
And in spite of Buber's important work on dialogical philosophy and on education. As Buber showed (sec. Several P-Individuals. schools of thought.and other. the conversing parties. such as Rosenzweig. In the process. systems of belief and . which are on a higher logical and existential level. The author has done such a survey (Khayutman. must use self. 1976). such as the Arab-Jewish dialogue and the Israeli-World Jewry dialogue. 1981) that shows many of the developing paradigms in the social sciences as partial forms of Cybernetician Gordon Pask's "Conversation Theory" (Pask 1975. in the case of an Arab and an Israeli. Buber and Heschel. in order to talk about their concepts and to explain them.references. as stratified into concepts of different logical levels. which are named identities. Conversation Theory (CT) regards the cognitive domain. but must use conversational languages that refer to self. People use a practical. "object" language (often non-verbal) to activate concepts and demonstrate them.for psychological-) Individuals with individual brains but defines them as coherent systems of belief which are entertained in brains as well as in other suitable media ("Language Processors"). then there are all their images that mingle in many ways in the conversation between them. Types of P-Individuals include human personalities. and its general systemic construction allows generalizations to inter-cultural (symbolic) interactions (see appendix on Conversation Theory). he did not succeed in making remedial applications. and not just "I-IT". whereas a single P-Individual can "reside" in several. some of the intercultural dialogues that are vital for the future of humankind. transactions. It seems thus right to explore this mode as a way of bringing Zionism out of its present isolation and reorienting it to become a participant in.Conversational Methodologies and Conversation Theory. brains and their extensions in various media.4. characterized the process of dialogue as basic for the Jewish world-view and theology. To reach understandings. All these suggest that there is a pressing need for a general cultural orientation for sustaining dialogues and for a methodology towards learning the art of fruitful conversation. CT does not equate the conversing (P. Conversation Theory (hence "CT") specifies requisites for initiating and maintaining a conversation that leads to understandings between two individuals. theatrical and social roles.The great Jewish philosophers-theologians of the last generation. and an initiator of. be it personal or cultural. Jewish-Moslem dialogues and even the "Whole Earth Dialogue" of all humankind and the (living) Earth. even if there is any genuine attempt at conversation between an "Ishmael" and an "Isaac" (which. 3. While there are dialogues that are immediately important for our survival. even conflicting ones. even many. and communications between individuals are thus conducted on several logical levels and require different types of language. which are not just shared concepts but coherent systems of beliefs. leaving little room for genuine inter-human contact and reaching understanding.1 . 2. which is a rigorous and comprehensive conversational (and thus "dialogical") methodology. and to others. People often live in a conventional world of agreements. but they have the potential of also reaching understandings. is quite rare). This is the case of cultural entities. Understandings require answering "why" questions and producing explanations both of one's own and of the other's explanations. the conversants must engage in an "I-You". The ongoing development toward dialogical paradigms in sociology and psychology cannot be surveyed here.1). there are also important broader dialogues such as the JewishChristian. can "reside" in one brain.
2 . The implication is that ideological reorientation would require work of "Symbolic Construction" and the synthesis of cultural symbols. Symbols can be understood as cognitive keys that can organize and condense whole world-views into single. and further. We can claim that the cultural. It is thus important to identify symbolic topics for the redemption that are common for parties which are otherwise in conflict and which can connect with their current issues. and will need the agreement of other social science disciplines to win currency.g. for the emergence of new composite P-Individuals from "potentially conscious systems" (Pask. The above examples give further indications that symbols provide the entry points for the reorientation of ideologies. This may at first be a pioneering effort for a cultural elite. but there is yet hardly any science on the synthesis of cultural symbols. of the written Torah has been treated as a sacred symbol that has many additional and hidden meanings. and thus people have instinctive revulsion from entering such dangerous waters). immutable principles as shelter against the relativistic confusion of everyday existence. given by their relevant "myths" 6. but after these pioneers reach their innovative understandings. It is by their functions as one-to-many and many-to-one mappings that they fulfill for the mythologies the role that analogy relations fulfill in an entailment mesh. such as of "condensed symbols" (e. but done in a way that can secure the reproduction of its insights by the public. . to the myths of the parties. The elaboration of such Redemptive Scenarios is work for the pioneers of the new Zionism discussed here. seem to be useful for such work. The following suggestions are extensions of CT.4. 1981). even every letter. 1973. and many of its concepts. So what appeal is there in an ideology that changes or gets reoriented? Yet they must change to survive and to be pertinent in changing situations. 1952) that are still consistent with the traditions and myths of the culture.Ideological Reorientation and Symbolic Construction.69). The author has attempted to draw further suggestions from CT for this work (Khayutman. explanations of one's own and other cultures are. CT specifies the requisites. albeit manyvalued. in the conduct of the transactions and the design of the supporting media. even fatal. references. Every word. that deficient conversations are often dangerous. 3.ostensibly out of the original written Torah scriptures. Such items might be expanded to enormous structures that yield rulings on practical affairs or even cosmological insights which are quite new in terms of social practice. Douglas. The appeal of religions and ideologies is that they promise contact with eternal. We also claim that full conversations between cultures are possible. One suggested concept is of "Redemptive Scenarios" which combine topics pertaining to current existential problems of the parties with the symbolic topics which describe the Redemption according to pertinent cultural traditions and myths 7. and need be.human cultures. These symbolic goals can then be posited as the "aim topics" for such social discourse of the conflicting parties. though they need supporting environment and fortunate casting of the PIndividuals. There exists vast analytical literature about cultural symbols. however. This conflict is overcome through their use of symbols as the "topic names" of an ideology-cum-mythology.the Talmud and the Zohar . that such successful conversations can breed cultural innovations (Barnett. Examples to such changes are the developments in Judaism that produced two additional canonical scriptures . Further. p. (Note. 1981). which are what gives them selfidentity. their insights can be reproduced by suitable media for more general interest. meta-linguistic.
on enhancing capabilities for inter-cultural conversation. and this task is a part of the proposed orientation. to the general population. But rather than being the detached object of scientists or the passioned denounced objects of artists. which allows the exteriorization of complex cognitive processes and the detection of understanding (see appendix on CT).4. CT defines Conversation as being mediated by "Language Processors" that allow selfand other-references. The insights from CT could be applied to make the occasional sincere dialogues which do take place in the Middle East. Given the processed protocols of fruitful conversations. which is a coherent network of such symbols is. information structures for workshops. as noted above. using a gamut of supportive media and informational environments where the myths are enacted and productive conversations take place and the innovations they breed can be transferred. novel media for conversation can be developed. essentially a "mythology". into reproducible understandings that can be experienced by wider publics. The information gleaned from the various sources could then be subjected to analysis and careful resynthesis that would process the images.Conversation-supporting Environments. Further generalizations applied to modern societies may be very worthwhile. There are still likely to be large gaps. etc. could build appropriate conversational domains with their tasks and modelling facilities. especially where there are deep-seated difficulties and obstacles to dialogue. From these. and on other geopolitical stages. dramatic productions for stage or touring groups. 1972) from their culture to another one and then back again. We may say that cities have been the L-Processors in which civilization was embodied and has evolved. The meta-linguistic level. for example. situations and understandings into topics which could be assembled into coherent structures that are much more comprehensive than the cognition of any particular individual. becoming media for teaching individuals the limitations of their current identifications and techniques for selecting their paths towards mutual understandings. dramatists and game designers. a special type of Language Processor called "Conversational Domain" was devised. The resulting educational/entertainment materials would allow any person wider learning and experience. We may assert that the analogues to the topic names in a curriculum or individual conversation are the cultural symbols. . we can envisage a "meta-mythical" methodology how our myths can be improved. These might be filled through dramatist's skills and the employment of projective techniques with special individuals and groups. such as movies.3. Trying to proceed from these specialized small-scale media to media that could effect the processes happening within society at large. to help transfer the experiences of people who have "passed over" (Dunne. While current mass-media are hardly suitable for reproducing understandings. who would exploit the dramatic potential of the original encounter material. role-playing games. To secure and nurture the production of understandings in an educational context.3 . They can be used. and on designing programs for training people to overcome cultural incompatibilities. some insights from anthropological studies of whole (primitive) societies may help establish the socio-cultural analogues to the components of a Conversational Domain. educators. some general lessons could be deduced on the circumstances under which mutual understanding is facilitated. and the analogues of the task structures are rituals. and even hypnotic states could be used to explore the conceptual worlds of Israeli and Arab volunteers.
Heavenly Jerusalem and the story of Genesis. an old image. in moments of grace. by increasing "I-It" communications and substituting them for "I-You" communications. Our suggestion is that the symbol of the Heavenly Jerusalem is the "natural" symbol for encompassing the further ideals of Zionism. The first ten are brief historic surveys of the concept of the Heavenly Jerusalem. The long history of this symbol in itself gives evidence of its archetypal reality and potential fertility. it undeniably contains the word Zion. At present she hovers above the buildings of the earthly Jerusalem. Nowadays civilization is rapidly changing by being embodied in an emerging communications and computation media. The last two stages. It is thus time to introduce the Heavenly (or New) Jerusalem. a symbol of a city as the place of learning and encounter. In Christian tradition. for the city of Jerusalem when regarded as the ideal of wholeness and peace.Viewed inclusive of their inhabitants and builders. Let us then define Zion as the Heavenly Jerusalem and Zionism as the movement for the actualization of the Heavenly Jerusalem. concerning modern Zionism and contemporary global developments. which appears untold times in the Jewish Scriptures and in prayers for the return of God and the people to the city. and aesthetic perfection. Already in its first chapter (the Kabbalist can show it in its first word) the world's most . other-worldly fulcrum for both changing the world and lifting Zionism out of its depressed and entrapped state. Why of Zionism? Because whatever other connotations that word may have. Zion is a name for the holy mountain. and will be revealed to all at the redemption of the world. 4. however. 4. spiritual. their concrete structures carry symbolic messages for their populations and embody their cultural values. but only the most righteous can see her.1. even when they lie in ruin or sin. as it were of twelve "gates" to the story of the Heavenly Jerusalem. the identification of Zionism with the Heavenly Jerusalem has never really been forgotten. the wedding of the physical city with moral. Yet this symbol has become almost unknown to all but the more religious Jews and Christians.that of Jerusalem and of the Heavenly Jerusalem and it could be the remedy for these ills of modern civilization. This symbol appeared already over two thousand years ago in Jewish Midrashim. and Christian scriptures based on them. In these legends the Heavenly Jerusalem exists perpetually as the most splendid sight that one can see. she will descend out of Heaven perfect and complete at the consummation of history. even of revelation . The Heavenly Jerusalem is an uplifting symbol for the mind. are given in somewhat more detail. This central meaning of Zion is sometimes forgotten. as I will attempt to show. in the manner criticized by Buber. She can provide the Archimedean. The following are twelve stages and contexts. There is little mention of this idea in official histories of Zionism but. Heavenly Jerusalem and the Old-New Zion. but this is happening quite haphazardly. but it is impossible to take Zion out of Zionism. There is. while their layouts channel social transactions. She is the archetype of the good to come. she is described at the end of the New Testament as both the perfect city and the bride of the Messiah or Son of Man.
and prototypical man . "boundaries" . contains the ingredients of a redemptive cosmology. Most later attempts at calculating the Messianic "End Time" attempt to read some significance into this calculation. gives many significant insights. Each one of us is something like a cell in the body of Humankind called Adam.oppressing boundaries. (4) All humankind is one. Thus Abraham visited Jerusalem to receive the teachings of a Kingdom of Justice. After 400-years of exile and slavery. Adamah has become cursed and Adam relates to her as an alienated laborer. Even if we regard it as a mythology. i. and by the same creative process. 4. a priest of the high God of Heaven. concerned with their alienation from Paradise and their dispersal over the face of the earth. human time was invented. the Bible. Adam was to be the husbandman of Adamah (which in Hebrew is the feminine of the same word).were created by the same Creator in the same evolutionary process. the children of Abraham were liberated. and to face the trial of the awe and the teachings of God. (2) The creation of the world of Adam can be measured by dividing it into six equal stages which evolve progressively from each other. where he suffered various trials. The book of Genesis ends with the story of how the children of Abram/Abraham and Israel left the land during a famine for the land of Egypt (Mitzra'im.Adamah . Renamed Abraham ("father of multitudes").e. when historical. They were . decide to use their united might to build a tower from earth to heaven. This means that Adam is still alive through each person. Adam is in exile with only dim memories of Eden. Tradition identified the Mount Moriah of Isaac's binding with the Temple Mount of Jerusalem. The next story tells how the sons of Adam. He had to leave his homeland and his father's house and to go to the land of Cana'an ("submission"). (3) The living Earth . Out of the land of Babel came Abram ("high father"). A single man brought about a turning point in the situation. The Jewish calendar dates history from that exile. Heavenly Jerusalem and the Kingdom of David. where they became slaves. when cultural coding media such as cities appeared. "confusion". She was ruled by Malkitzedek ("king of justice").e. we are all the sons of Adam. The confusion led them to forget their original unity and the land where they were confounded became known as Babel (Babylon). The following chapters show how Adam's misinformed quest for intelligence (Jewish and Christian interpretations of the story of Eden greatly differ) led to another form of existence which still persists. the future Jerusalem. Kingdom of Wholeness and Priesthood of Heaven. The only place where he really was made welcome was in the city of Shalem ("whole"). the Genesis story (and especially in the original Hebrew). The Creator stopped them by confusing the common language that allowed them to act as one. who apparently re-discovered the unity of the Creator.widely read book.Adam . he then returned to that area to face his greatest trial. also birth canal).-"Sons of Man". that of the going to the "Land of Moriah" for the binding and intended sacrifice of his son Isaac. the unity of man and the dialogue between the two.2.. "Moriah" means either "awe of God" and/or "teachings of God". Among them: (1) Both Heaven and Earth were created. which it assumes to have been about 5750 years ago. i. In the idyllic condition.
was instructed to rule in justice and wisdom and to build the Temple as a point of contact with the divine mansions of heaven (Kings 8:30. 1938) that the image of the Heavenly Jerusalem is already mentioned in Isaiah (49:16) as engraved by God upon the celestial vaults (though this is generally lost in modern reading and in translation).temple which was described in detail. They spoke to Jerusalem as to a woman and prophesied her destruction. The instructions for rebuilding Jerusalem were given in the books of Daniel and Ezra and even in the closing sentence of the Hebrew Bible (Chron. There would be a federation of twelve tribes and a square-form free zone for the new holy city. provided it was wholly consistent with the Biblical laws. The exilic prophecies probably inspired the first Shivat Zion (return to Zion). The temple itself was completed only much later by the cruel and alien king Herod. whose name suggests "peaceful" or "whole". who were less inclined to emphasize the temple service than to elaborate religious laws for all aspects of daily life. mainly the Philistines 8. this last word of the Bible may be regarded as the essence of Zionism. The Heavenly Jerusalem is mentioned in several of the apocrypha scriptures of that period. 4. This is the injunction of Cyrus (regarded elsewhere as God's Messiah) which calls upon all those who would build Jerusalem to make their ascent.3. Heavenly Jerusalem and the Second Temple. led to their establishing a kingdom. and the Prushim (Pharisees). "confusion". Jerusalem and its temple were eventually destroyed by the king of Babel. who was trained as a priest in the Temple but worked among the exiled in the town of Tel Aviv.39). "those apart". who envisaged the new Jerusalem as the source of the teaching which would lead to peace and wholeness for the whole earth. They saw life itself as a divine ritual that would improve society and lead it towards the visions of the prophets. and his wise son Solomon. To David were attributed the Psalms which were sung in the Temple and remained a spiritual legacy for the whole world.4. rather than by the promised descendent of David. whose prophetic experiences were often connected with the Temple rituals and who were at odds with the city's behavior as the city quickly became corrupt. who carried its people to a new exile in his land. Heavenly Jerusalem and the Prophets. II 36:23). 4. but the actual rebuilding of Jerusalem in the time of Ezra proceeded piecemeal. the custodians of the earthly temple. when King David conquered the city of Jerusalem and made it his capital. Their struggle with their neighboring enemies. Still apart from these two sects were the Essenes who were obsessed (as evidenced by their Dead Sea scrolls which included the apocrypha scriptures) with the notions of heavenly ascent and the proper rebuilding of the Temple and its reformed . The most important sects were the Sadducees. Among the prophets was also Ezekiel. His visions of redemption included detailed predictions concerning the land of Israel. Also from that time came the moral teaching of the prophets. It was shown (Aptowitzer. Popular belief started gravitating towards the prospect of "the Kingdom of Heaven" visions which were being elaborated by mystics and sects. "Mound of Springtime" in Babylonia. Jerusalem became a memory and a hope always remembered through the psalms and the redemptive prophecies. but also her restoration to an ideal state.given the Torah through Moses and later returned to the land of their fathers. This kingdom reached its peak in its early days. Among the prophets were Isaiah and Mikha.
and its organization was seen as the machinery of redemption. Christian life should be a pilgrimage for otherworldly grace rather than for worldly things.1986) that the vast dimensions of the envisioned city encompass the entire earth and reflect the esoteric gnostic codes inherited from the mystical traditions of antiquity. the visions of Ezekiel. seeing the Jewish return to the land and to sovereignty as leading to that final redemption. (The Crusades somehow initiated the "Gothic" building of heavenward churches. the image of the heavenly city often returned in popular folklore as the ultimate goal of Christian pilgrimage (Bunyan. the Essenes were destroyed in the final battle at Massadah. belief in the Kingdom of Heaven and acceptance of the symbol of the perfect New Jerusalem rose and spread widely as Christianity spread through the world. The Eastern Church built Jerusalem as a pilgrimage city. founded in Abraham's covenant. Christianity had to become institutionalized. As the influence of Rome waned in many countries. Robinson. then even the earthly Jerusalem seemed real enough for Western Christians to warrant the Crusades. as the imminent apocalypse did not materialize. Thus that very "Christian" book. 1989. came to dominate Christianity in place of Jerusalem.a vast cube with twelve pearly gates . The Christian Church soon identified itself with the City of God. In Patmos Saint John again experienced. the fall of Rome (coded "Babylon") and the restoration of Jerusalem. in opposition to the materialistic City of Man. 1989) whose myth relates to the building of Solomon's Temple).5. 4. Even though the successors to Jesus broke with Judaism. yet they apparently had major influence upon incipient Christianity. Heavenly Jerusalem and Christianity. what matters is the immaterial City of God. which was later declared heretic by the Pope and abolished. the resources of the Christian world were increasingly gathered to build a material New Jerusalem in Rome. as the capital of the Western Church. Saint Augustine used the image of the Heavenly City. in related forms. . to describe all of human history as a redemptive process. This city. is very typical of the apocryphal scriptures so cherished by the Dead Sea sect. A few centuries later. When the Crusaders had to retreat from Jerusalem. and the descriptions of the New Jerusalem in Revelation are very reminiscent of the descriptions of the future Temple of Jerusalem in the recently found "Temple Scroll". and when it lost her to the Moslems. 1678) and Jerusalem became a cherished symbol often mentioned in hymns and prayer. the Revelation of John.coming down from heaven as the bride of the Messiah. is the agent of redemption. Thus the fall of the great Rome is no great disaster for civilization. 1972 . It was in Jerusalem that the chivalric Order of the Templars was established. preaching the Kingdom of Heaven. but which had a role in instigating European esotericism down to the Freemasons (Baigent. Then Christianity came to dominate Rome and eventually Rome. and Paul's doctrines (quite different from Jesus' ideas) reflect the Essene ascetic ideals of the elect. After the destruction of Jerusalem by Rome (whose reign they regarded as that of "the sons of darkness").service. The New Testament of Christianity concludes with his Book of Revelation and it concludes with the image of the New Jerusalem . The ideas of Jesus developed among the teachings of the Temple-period mystics. Currently there is a resurgence of "Christian Zionism" which supports Israel in anticipation for the "Second Coming" and the appearance of the New Jerusalem. It has been suggested (Michell.
is in itself a sort of a metaphysical city.the Holy .4. it was by way of Jerusalem that he ascended to Heaven and drew the "down pouring" from Heaven which produced the Koran. 1938) the already open dispute with Christianity which emphasized the other-worldly Jerusalem and identified with her. Yet the Talmud has a somewhat reserved attitude to the legends of the Heavenly Jerusalem by insisting on her subservience to the earthly Jerusalem. Temple worship was replaced by daily prayers which included prayers for the return to and rebuilding of Jerusalem and the Temple. a form of "Islamic Zionism" rose with many songs of praise to the glories of Jerusalem as paradise lost and paradise to be regained. 4. were erected in Jerusalem as pilgrimage sites alternative to Mecca.7. the place of Abraham's offering of Isaac. according to Augustine. What the City of God should be for the Christian. Islamic legends continue the Talmudic Midrash about Jerusalem. Heavenly Jerusalem and the Talmud. Yet in the present time. and later Christianity and northern invaders were conquering Rome. and aspiring to studying it for its own sake as if already dwelling in paradise. After the Moslem Empire split. can already be seen in moments of grace by the Tsaddikim. Over the years they were accepted widely to become the third holiest place of Islam. Heavenly Jerusalem and Islam. and much more. His original direction of prayer was towards Jerusalem. Ishmael is sometimes given a role similar to that of Isaac. The Talmud became the true abode of Judaism for many centuries. which is portrayed as the scene for the Day of Judgement and the consummation of history. which is to be realized by the redemption. and they can receive the inspiration from her. Then for several centuries Jerusalem was again quite marginal for Islam. But even while Rome was conquering Jerusalem. (the wholly righteous people who are "the foundation of the world". The Talmud records many legends of the period about Jerusalem: that the heavenly temple was created much before Genesis. After the destruction of the Temple by the Romans. In Mohammed's version of the Biblical story. The prophet Mohammed was apparently one of those who could see the Heavenly Jerusalem. After the conquest of the Crusaders and the exile of the Moslems from Jerusalem.the domain of (holy-holistic) peace. the Talmud. reflecting (Aptowitzer. particularly because of the Jewish takeover . There is even a legend that in the End of Days the stone of the Ka'aba will fly to Jerusalem (much like the tradition behind the vision in the Book of Revelation). which commemorates Mohammed's ascent. the Tannaim and then later the Amora'im were continuing to build on the tradition of the Prushim (Pharisees). the Dome of the Rock and the alAksa Mosque. Their monumental work. the Talmud was for the Jews. The Heavenly City herself. the stopper for the flood water. but the rock at the Temple Mount continues to be considered as the site of Abraham's offering of his son to God. drawing all instruction for every act of life in the world.6. (in accordance with the practices of the Jewish mystics for ascending to the celestial mansions 9) and when his prayers were answered on the Night of Power.and the concept of the Heavenly Jerusalem as the abode of exalted consciousness has its parallel in Islam by the name of Dar Es-Salaam . that the temple site in Jerusalem was Adam's place of worship. Jerusalem is called in Arabic "el Kuds" . the common work of thousands of people interacting through centuries of common construction. A Jew could literally live inside the Talmud. the earthly bridge to the divine).
In medieval Kabbalah. but it was in Safed in the Galilee that he revealed himself for his brief ministry. we find the idea that the Shekhinah became separated from the Godhead through this exile and that the unity of the heavenly spheres will only return with Israel's return to Jerusalem. and Jerusalem became the main Kabbalistic center in the world (eclipsed only briefly by Safed) and has remained so continuously since then. the holy Shekhinah. Adam was created by God expressly to gather the exiled sparks. described all the land of Israel as the setting for the metaphysical journeys of sages who discovered there the intricacies of the redemptive cosmology implicit in the Bible. The Kabbalah which grew in this milieu restored the image of the Heavenly Jerusalem to Jewish lore (Idel. one which symbolizes plurality. the formation of Adam's wife from his side parallels the building of Jerusalem in the Time to Come. signifying Islam. the actual land of Israel came to be the site where the Kabbalistic masters regathered from the Sephardi. Rabbi Isaac Luria "the Holy ARI" was born in Jerusalem. reflect each other. (In a recent conversation with Sheikh Suleiman Ja'abari. The structure of the divine sparks. There are several references to the Heavenly Jerusalem in the Zohar. In general. paradise had thus been urbanized. Following the destruction of the second Temple it was taught that the divine presence on earth. or will constitute. which identified the holy Shekhinah with the Sefirah of Malkhut. the Zohar. and also "The World to Come" (Olam haBa).of Jerusalem. Each person is a sub-unit of Adam's soul. the Mufti of Jerusalem.8. . the return and her rebuilding is reflected in heaven as on earth).) It is thus quite possible that Jerusalem may rise as an alternative focus (qibla) of Islam. Ashkenazi and Byzantine diaspora. Luria did not write but some of his twelve disciples wrote his complex theology which soon became the main Jewish theology for two centuries. During the second exile. Jerusalem has become a powerful sacred symbol for the Moslems. 4. the Kabbalah came to identify Jerusalem with the Sefira of Malkhut "Kingdom" or the Shekhinah "habitation". Heavenly Jerusalem and the Kabbalah. This makes Jerusalem a potential cause of war. In one she has been created by God to house the souls of the righteous (Tsadikim). the symbol of Jerusalem continued to gain importance in Jewish thought. of Adam's soul and of the world. Jerusalem became the paradise lost and the paradise to be regained. went into exile just as Israel did. The major Kabbalistic canon. After the exile from Spain. and raised in Egypt. the redemption (Thus the exile from Jerusalem. and the Heavenly Jerusalem became identified with the higher Shekhinah. with a heavenly tree situated above Jerusalem from whose roots flow three rivers. which is the Sefirah of Binah "understanding". In another. but it also brings back powerfully her symbolic significance as the domain of peace. and is born with an individual responsibility to gather up his corresponding spark of divine light. The liberation and reunion of all this divinity-within-matter will bring. Christianity and Judaism. 1985). bring restitution and redeem the whole world. Luria expanded this notion into a cosmic drama: the divinity was exiled and the sparks of divine light were already scattered even before Eden. the sheikh recalled another Islamic legend about the Heavenly Jerusalem. The greatest Kabbalist master.
that of Shambhala.10. The benevolent king openly shared these teachings with his people. 4. Emancipated from every form of alienation. they may attach importance to the location of Jerusalem which is in Asia .9. The case would be that. tribes who. there is a point in linking it to a symbolic ceremonial central point on earth from which this hope should be evoked. or monotheistic. namely at the center of the inhabited earth. is in line with the Jewish prophetic tradition. Many Tibetans believe that the kingdom of Shambhala still exists. the oikumene (see Sec. Yet there might be a case for combining the assumed locations. will return to Jerusalem at the time of the redemption. but they seem to relate to a different geographical region. the Heavenly Jerusalem was presented in the context of the "Abrahamic".but yet is in the "center of gravity" of the earth's continents. Dawa Sangpo. a model society. Other legends suggest that the enlightened society literally transcended into a more celestial realm many centuries ago. 4. The stories tell that Buddha himself handed down advanced tantric teachings to the first ruler of Shambhala. As the people of Asia discover the rest of the world cultures. Heavenly Jerusalem and Marxism. there is a closely parallel concept in Buddhism. meditate and follow the spiritual path. hidden deep in the pure. harmony and communal good will. Trying to associate Marx with the Heavenly Jerusalem or with Zionism may seem sacrilegious to the orthodox on both sides of the dialectic between materialism and religion. However. Thus far. the point. man as the effective producer of his own life has appropriated his universal nature. countless generations have heard the legend of a land called Shambhala . In many Asian countries. in fact.4. reveals some similarity between Marxism and the Lurianic Kabbalah: "Marx presented a substitute Kingdom of God on Earth. But as a great contemporary Tibetan teacher writes: "Among many Tibetan Buddhist teachers. But in fact. and one might assume that the concept has no relevance for the majority of humankind . there has long been a tradition that regards the kingdom of Shambhala not as an external place. These are quite similar to the legends and understandings about the Heavenly Jerusalem. Heavenly Jerusalem and Shambhala. wage labor and class divisions. yet a useful retrospective insight may be drawn from viewing Marx as a (Jewish) Messianic prophet. It is well known that this grandson of rabbis had a strong distaste for religions which Marx thought distracted the masses from the true sources of alienation. uncharted valleys of the Himalayas. A summary by a modern Marxist scholar (Hypolite. but as the ground or root of wakefulness and sanity that exists as potential within every human being" (Trungpa. however. 1969). Soon. . is to change it". these legends claim. Marx's motto: "The philosophers have always tried to explain the world.a remarkable place bathed in peace. religions. very similar to that which appears in Jewish legends as the hidden land of the Lost Tribes of Israel beyond the Sambatyon river. The hidden midAsiatic realm is. and thus the center for the emergent collectivity of humankind.12 below).the cultures of Middle and Eastern Asia. the middle of Asia rather than the Middle East. which is the complete reconciliation of man and nature. whereas Shambhala should manifest everywhere on earth. all of Shambhala began to study. 1988). which in the early history of society appeared alien to him".
The late Yitshak HayutMan (Haissman). The connections between the Zionist movement as organized by Herzel and the Zion which is the Heavenly Jerusalem were tenuous to start with. In England's green and pleasant land. Till we have built Jerusalem. but in spite of his childhood Messianic dreams. 4. this stanza of William Blake's hymn. When the novel was translated into Hebrew it was named Tel Aviv.11. They built the neighborhood of Ahuzat Bayit ("a homestead") in the sands outside Jaffa as a quasi-cooperative enterprise. the Zionist leader wanted the Jew to build his destiny with his own hands. Heavenly Jerusalem in early Modern Zionism. and is. in honor of Herzel and his vision. as essential to his Zionism. the exalted materialist visions of Marxism have not materialized. my grandfather. "Jerusalem": "I shall not cease from mental fight. or even the Land of Israel. Herzel himself came to Jerusalem only in 1898. Within a year they all realized that they were creating a city. in order to meet the German Emperor there. and elsewhere. now being filled by atavistic religion and fierce nationalism as witnessed in Russia. Yet with its demise we can see that Marxist communism fulfilled some idealistic purpose and its disappearance has left a vacuum. which did not accord with his visions. "Ruins of Springtime". Neve Tsedek. before the first Zionist congress.g. In the 1860's Jews were already a majority in Jerusalem and were building their New Jerusalem in the form of humble Jewish neighborhoods outside the old city walls. the British Labor Movement. and the first neighborhood. just as any other man. Tel Aviv had its own visionaries and prophets. Herzel was certainly a great visionary. It is significant to note that the Jewish Aliyah to Jerusalem persisted throughout the diaspora and was growing in influence during the 19th century. Herzel did not even think Zion-Jerusalem. Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand. Between 1904 and 1909 a group was formed in Jaffa with a vision of new urban life in a modern Jewish city. allowed no boundaries to his visions. even before the creation of Political Zionism (e. they named the city Tel Aviv. chose for its anthem. and thus as the symbol of its aim. Herzel's Zionism was more within the new tradition of Marx and the 19th century Utopians than that of passive Messianism. Jewish new neighborhoods were being built outside the walls of old Jaffa not long after the exit from the walls in Jerusalem." While Marxism. a need for a supranational redemptive ideology which Marxism at least pointed towards. There was. who had the original concept and brought the other four co-founders of the "first Hebrew City" into the partnership. and the totalitarian ideology which only a few decades ago seemed capable of overtaking the whole world is now in the process of disappearing. Walking in the .but also the name of the Babylonian city where Ezekiel had prophesied about the Heavenly Jerusalem. was founded in 1886. the ideal city it described was not Jerusalem but Haifa. in the former Yugoslavia. At first. signifying the combination of old and new . and when he later wrote the utopian novel "Old-New Land". and Communism gained power. He did not like the city that he saw. the 1st Zionist congress in 1897).It is instructive that Marx's candidate for reconstructing the "City of Man". he was neither a millennarian nor a Jewish mystic.
according to him. The two cities represent distinct aspects of contemporary Israeli society and have long been in cultural competition. In spite of all Israel's past attempts. His real concern. It was noted (haMe'iri. about the pettiness and lack of vision in her society and the negligent creation of future urban ills. Kuk saw.seemingly endless sand. whereas the name Jerusalem expresses the holiness in the renascence of the nation". This movement was intended to relate amicably to the prevalent Zionism but not to become a branch of the Zionist organization. and it is in Jerusalem that contemporary Zionism is forced to confront problems which it has . Kuk saw the secular pioneers as forming the emerging mind (Nefesh) of the nation. which he called "Jerusalem" or "the flag of Jerusalem". It is the earthly Jerusalem where the new battle for Israel's soul is being fought. He was thus distressed about the ways in which his city was developing. When the war ended and Kuk returned. its reality also attests to the shortcomings and oversights of political Zionism. he made an appeal to the citizens to organize themselves to purchase land in Sinai and build there a second Tel Aviv in order to overcome the city's suffocation and the high land prices. The Jerusalem movement. On Tel Aviv's 25th birthday. the chief Rabbi of Jaffa and a good friend of Tel Aviv's founders. was not for quantity but for quality and he preferred Tel Aviv to Jerusalem because it had room left to attempt better designs and ways of life. The soul (Neshamah) of the nation are the Tsaddikim who are charged with harmonizing the mind and spirit and keeping them open to receive the divine influence (Recall that these Tsaddikim are granted. according to tradition. traffic clogged. the city of hol: it is profane. the ability to see the Heavenly Jerusalem here and now). Kuk applied the distinction between kodesh. almost synonymous in everyday speech with a degraded quality of life. would become the whole body of the nation and eventually transform secular Zionism. Arab propaganda used to paint a caricature of "the Tel Aviv government of the Zionist state". it is certain that "the problem of Jerusalem" will not disappear. and aging in spite of its cult of youth. Kuk saw this movement as the root of which general Zionism is only a branch. He saw the orthodox as maintaining the spirit (Ru'ah) of the nation. perceived as a Western colony. he abandoned his plans for it. Yitshak HayutMan and Rav Kuk are becoming pertinent today. There is Tel Aviv. Stuck in Europe in 1914. hol in Hebrew. These old stories about Herzel. needing its own revitalization by the example of the pioneers. 1941) that he really believed that Tel Aviv might grow to become the Heavenly Jerusalem and that this was his highest aspiration. he did not go back to Tel Aviv but became chief Rabbi of Jerusalem. he urged people to hurry and build their houses in the city before its growth made land prices prohibitive. But with all his growing pessimism Haissman was full of confidence in the Jewish genius and destiny. caring for the vitality of the body of the nation. holiness. he conceived of a way for making Zionism holy and started to organize a movement for this. A better known visionary of that era was Rav Kuk. and was convinced that conflict with the Arabs was avoidable. When he found that the two existing religious parties kept seeing his intended Jerusalem movement only as competition. worldliness with reference to Zionism: "The name Zion or Zionism symbolizes the hol in the renascence movement. and hol. and he readily admitted that this spirit had become ossified. In fact. even that Jews would be able to write a new Torah if needed. flashy. noisy. however. the visible signs of the coming final redemption of Israel and of the whole world. in the physical settlement of the land.
the earthly and the heavenly. coextensive with the whole earth. 3) Developing and synthesizing new insights. Teilhard spoke. an organization that is hyper-personal. that it has a well-marked. Teilhard did not refer directly to the Heavenly Jerusalem. through the increase of both knowledge and love. p. 2) Maintaining a coherent and edifying image for this rapidly expanding and extremely diverse city. and an invisible "noosphere" emanating from it . eventually converging on a point that he called Omega. when Norbert Wiener published his book Cybernetics and the formula for information (as the inverse of the thermodynamic formula for entropy). who brought spiritual concerns of "holiness" to the realm of science and the theory of evolution. about the two new spheres built around the earth: the concrete "technosphere" of the urbanization of the planet. the physical and the mental. even if it does not always call her by this name. then round this evolved a second envelope of life. This final evolution alone betokens the capacity of man to cope with complexification through his own complexification. There is an emerging global view which brings a universalist and futuristic orientation towards the Heavenly Jerusalem.12. 1975. He was forbidden to publish his books by his religious superiors during his lifetime. and that evolution is nothing but the gradual development and . significantly. called noosphere. 2) the surrounding film of life. Teilhard was a Jesuit priest and a mystic and also one of the world's leading paleontologists. human relations and understandings out of this diversity. in particular: 1) Peaceful co-existence between Jews and Arabs and among the Abrahamic religions. (Beer. and his Phenomenon of Man became available only in 1955. Smuts approached the spiritual from the point of view of the existence of wholes and wholeness in nature and tried to show (Smuts. The Heavenly Jerusalem. His outlook could be considered scientific only after 1948. body. 4. Holism and the Whole Earth. and then round this an envelope of the products of consciousness. the noosphere achieves an intense unification. Teilhard saw the whole of creation in one vast and integral evolutionary purpose. but his whole eschatological view was clearly derived from the Revelation of John. called geosphere. From the whirling gases evolved the envelope of rock. There is a close and important parallel with the development of the concept of "holism". implying that information is the basic process of the universe. called biosphere. So there are: 1) the rocky Earth. mind and soul. At Omega. 17-18). proposed in 1926 by Field-Marshal Smuts. In all this Teilhard saw a continuous process of evolution through complexification (his term). 1926) that: "This whole-making or holistic tendency is fundamental in nature.in Christian culture . even for those not yet able to comprehend it.which closely parallel the two aspects or levels of Jerusalem .the inanimate and the animate. reductionist models of the Greeks. and 3) the artifact envelope of the technosphere and the envelope of emergent mind. ascertainable character. where the name Omega is used for the goal of history and where the image of the Heavenly Jerusalem is presented as a new cover. Beer comments that Teilhard's thesis could not become science as long as the basic paradigms of science were the atomist. There is no way to avoid pluralism. That book crossed all the boundaries that separate . starting with de Chardin (1881-1955).avoided for decades and to seek solutions for its deeper problems.
as either the separation or the communications interface between two evolving living wholes that are so large that they are hardly recognized by everyday perception and mainline science . to be approached and addressed through strict ritual.El Kuds . This creature is constantly evolving and extending itself. the settled part of the Earth.that the earth is indeed a living being (Lovelock. cybernetic considerations were employed by James Lovelock to posit the "Gaia Hypothesis" . it has become possible to study organization in the abstract. After Wiener's formulation of organization in terms of information measures. The Gaia Hypothesis (and the name) has gained enormous popularity in certain environmentalist circles.. with some fringe elements even reviving pagan rituals for Gaia's sake.2. using this theory. Former civilizations also revered the "Earth Spirit" (Michell. 1988).means "will demonste the whole"." One critical issue is the mode of communication between humankind and the earth. from the Greek word "Oikumene" meaning inhabited land. 3.stratification of progressive series of wholes. there is hardly any consideration of subtle "Bio-Energies" or "Geo-Energies" . that of "Oikumenos" has already been employed (Stringer. Oikumene/the Technosphere can be regarded.means "the Holy".." Smuts does not refer to Jerusalem. A related concept. and developed. i. if we so wish. till the last century and used everywhere.1) may be thus applicable to global cultures. be named "the Heavenly Jerusalem".. and has a fantastic ability to transform its immediate environment. It has a memory and a consciousness: consequently. Stringer contends that "the actions of mankind throughout history have gradually created a living organism of fantastic complexity that draws its life support from the surface of the Earth. which considered the terrestrial energy flows (and which survived in China. stretching from the inorganic beginnings to the highest levels of spiritual creation. while this stage is being attained. it is recognizably a `being' or even a `person'. and cybernetics is becoming successful in defining and studying wholes. but we may recall that the Hebrew meaning of Jerusalem . And. .namely the whole earth and all of humankind as a unified and potentially conscious entity. Stringer regards this creature as the unrecognized god of mankind. Recently. Smuts too could not validate his thesis adequately. we may also view the global "Technosphere" or the worldwide city of "Ecumenopolis" (Doxiadis. mainly because at this time there was no science such as analytic biology which could study wholes as such. and that the Arabic name for Jerusalem . The rigorous formulations of Conversation Theory (Sec. it exerts a controlling influence on the lives of millions of human beings. named Feng-Shui. most important of all for us as individuals..e. 1975) in the context of a world-view called "Tellurianism". In the present era of world-wide urbanization transforming the face to the earth. Oikumenos is likely to reach its maximum possible size sometime in the early part of the twenty second century 10. 1975) and their construction was done in consultation with an occult science of "geomancy". We now have the tools to study nature and man-made systems holistically and yet rigorously. 1968) as an emerging Mechanical Individual. even for high density habitation). and view the Noospheric development as an emerging (hyper) Psychological Individual which may. 1979. For prehistoric people the Earth was considered to be alive and sacred. Just as a city may be viewed as a "Mechanical Individual" and its civilization seen as a "Psychological Individual". it will not become sick (there comes a list of possible malfunctions) .or else Oikumenos will not be a fit place in which human beings can live."Yoru-Shalem" . Our problem is to ensure that. naming it Oikumenos.
during which haOlam haZeh is transformed into haOlam haBa. the Heavenly Jerusalem is often identified with the Higher Shekhina. seeming to negate all earthly concerns. 4. a follower of Teilhard de Chardin and Buckminster Fuller. collectively. So the "Heavenly Jerusalem" often conjures the image of "a pie in the sky" that cannot have practical uses. Another such condensation is achieved by equating the reaching for the Heavenly City with bniyah. In the Kabbalah. and the Heavenly Jerusalem was used to negate the earthly Jerusalem. John. intended to enhance global consciousness). to transcend all creature/human limitations through the harmonious use of our capacities. Havannah and Bniyah. The New Heavenly Jerusalem . possibly the most important writer on "earth mysteries" and ancient monuments. and in this. the Kabbalistic insights accord very well with the new insights of cybernetics. Sefirah). that John Michell. literally "habitation". this new world can also legitimately be considered "the world of understanding". and that the twelve fold pattern of this city is the key for "the science of enchanting the landscape" (Michell and Rhone. but continuously penetrates our world and renews it. Likewise. 1993) she chose the Biblical Book of Revelation as the basis for a modern future vision and in particular the New Jerusalem as the guiding vision: "The New Jerusalem is our potential. 1972). In Hebrew there is a ready connection between . which studies the system of the ten divine emanations. "understanding". however. which are below the Sefirah of Binah and which also correspond to the seven days of Creation. The main problem with the suggestion of using the vision of the Heavenly Jerusalem is that in the past it was used in Christianity in a strongly dualistic manner of the "heavenly" as opposed of the "earthly". As we have seen. the Sefirot (single. as the ultimate model and goal of these designs and as coextensive with the whole earth (Michell. This concept of haOlam haBa is not in dualistic opposition to haOlam Hazeh. We may thus associate the English word "Heaven" with the Hebrew Havannah. a "heavenly" orientation will be worthwhile only to the extent that we can arrive at meanings of the term "heavenly" which go beyond its old dualistic connotations and incorporate more systemic scientific and theological insights. such as of the Kabbalah (sec.Heaven. This process is seen by some as requiring six thousand years for its completion. achieving a society of Universal Humans whose minds and bodies are total reflections of the mind of God".8). "building". the New/Heavenly Jerusalem. This process of the transformation of this world is symbolized by the seven Sefirot of Bniyah. A foremost futurist and advocate of "conscious evolution" for a unified and qualitatively superior humankind is Barbara Marx Hubbard. "The World That Is". Therefore. repeatedly suggested the City of Revelation of St. We can attempt to absorb these learned relationships by capturing them through easily pronounced relations. and their dynamics. 5. (We may also recall that Buckminster Fuller already employed the twelve-pointed icosahedron for representing the whole earth in his "dymaxion maps". which is the Sefirah of Binah. there are different versions and visions about the development of humankind. 1991). Most people are anyway conditioned to very dualistic perceptions and assume that if something sounds "spiritual" than it must be automatically the opposite of "real" or "practical".It is instructive. In her recently published "book of co-creation" (Hubbard. "understanding" and "The World to Come" (Olam haBa). and for some the vision of the New Jerusalem is very meaningful in this context.
. The more stable that the material becomes. but the form is also dependent on the material and is attached to it. much as a city grows. In the introduction of the canonical work of Kabbalah. the more significant the form will be." 6.1 Heavenly Orientation and Aliyah. The Zohar asserts that one should not read there "ami" (My people) but "imi" (with Me) . as prophesied. they have an integrative power and tend to reinforce certain values.. . he cannot neglect the prior stages. . and bniyah. Thou art my people" (Isaiah 51:16). is a relationship of continuous mutual influence. An extract: "The kodesh (holiness) must be built upon the hol (profane. until they cover the whole earth. "understanding". The kodesh must be attached to the hol.The relationship between the kodesh and the hol. and also sand).say to Zion. The Heavenly Jerusalem emphasizes a new kind of "Spiritual Zionism". which is connected to Tsion-Zion). His teachings on the sanctification of the profane are worth recalling here." Yaron (1974) has summarized his approach to building the kodesh thus: "The method of connecting the kodesh to the hol in the philosophy of Rav Kuk resembles a ladder in which man climbs from the hol to the kodesh. The material-hol receives its purpose from the form-kodesh. Heavenly Jerusalem as a Symbol of Future Zionism. Thus this paper advocates realizing or Building Heavenly Jerusalem. an explanation is given on the verse ". . thereby becoming ready to receive the heavenly plenty or Shefa. and the kodesh is its form. But even after he has arrived at the highest level and reached the stage of holiness. The hol is the material of the kodesh. implying that we need not just sit and wait for the coming of the Messiah with some Cargo-from-the-sky but build both ourselves and our environment through and to ("heavenly") understandings. the kodesh not only cannot exist without the hol...In the ladder of hol-kodesh all the rungs are required for the maintenance of the ladder.Each stage prepares the man for the next stage. The kodesh becomes strengthened and fortified through the connection of man with the actual world in which he lives.. but the very nature of the kodesh obliges it to be infused within the hol. expecting that understandings should grow and connect into large coherent structures. This cocreation is done by reaching excellent innovative teachings (excellent-metsuyanim. The Heavenly Jerusalem as the symbol of future Zionism calls for an optimistic outlook to a rich future and is pregnant with many meanings and potentialities.Binah. Such concepts of building "Jerusalem" as building the spiritual or holy part of Zionism were foreseen by Rav Kuk. .namely that those who are called "Zion" are literally co-creators who are building the New Heaven and New Earth together with God. It offers a remedy for the current situation in Israel where life is becoming increasingly materialistic.. as between the spirit and body... 6. While symbols may mean different things for different people. the Zohar (the Book of Splendor"). We shall discuss below just a few of the pertinent values and practices that are likely to be amplified through the adoption of the realization of the Heavenly Jerusalem as the next goal of Zionism.
e1.narrowly focused and subgrouporiented. and help to bring about the Heavenly Jerusalem. Torah B. aliyah is the peak of meditation. Ir E. can become social as well as individual. In Hebrew. the activity of reaching Ma'ala. aliyah laregel. Hedvah Joy We shall now explore the values and possibilities which are emphasized as we join together various facets of this vision. to Jerusalem. Shalem Whole (thus also holy. which is an urban and communal image. This idea can be illustrated through the most basic Zionist commandment ." An interpretation-expansion (Perush) of the symbols of "Building Jerusalem" begins from this description. k'IR d. sheHUBRA-la F. c2. when the adept is lifted up to see the heavenly worlds where also the Heavenly Jerusalem can be found 11. literally. The new concept of ascent/aliyah associated with the Heavenly Jerusalem. see 4. f4. the Law (of Moses). City. aliyah is the honor given to members of a congregation on Shabbat and holy days. Shalom Peace. Yahad Together. Hibur Joining. welcome. unique. But aliyah has many meanings. YERU a. Bniyah Building. Yahadut Togetherness. c1. Yerushalayim which is built as a city joined together. Hevra Society. YAHDAV Semantic symbol Meaning Teaching.that of aliyah. e2. the Heavenly Jerusalem is Yerushalayim shel Ma'ala and aliyah is. haBNUYAH D. . Among the Kabbalists. In the Book of Psalms there is a collection of the "Ma'alot Poems". Basic terms A. f2. corresponds to how to build the Heavenly Jerusalem. which. SHALAYIM C. aliyah is the commandment which forms the very last word of the Jewish Bible. expressly in the context of rising to volunteer and to participate in the building of Jerusalem. Psalm 122 gives a description of what the pilgrims see when they approach the gates of Jerusalem: "Our feet were standing at thy gates. O Yerushalayim. in gaining understandings of how to rectify the world. It calls for rising up to behold. Psalms 120-136. Among religious Jews. in our terms. "to go up to the Torah". b1. and so is reminiscent of the traditional communal pilgrimages. to define twelve semantic symbols. f3. which are pertinent to the vision of Yerushalayim shel Ma'ala. composition. Its adoption could orient us for a more meaningful spiritual and social life. f1. immigration to the Land of Israel. as it is expanded word by word in the chart below.12) b2. Yahid Individual. Havannah Understanding. which we may regard as "gates to the Heavenly Jerusalem" or as key topics names. It is now largely encouraged by material incentives and valued for its effect on population statistics.
We Jews are slowly finding that our Zionist ideals cannot be realized without our considering the hopes and dignity of the Palestinians. and thus for constructing the antithesis of the Tower of Babel. The Mosaic Torah knows of wholesome social regulation of even the basic economic structuring of the society (the Jubilee principle). The Torah was greatly extended by the Talmudists. The prophets's vision (Isaiah 2:3.Building Bridges to Peace.could be built. The Heavenly Jerusalem can represent a goal for Christians.which is another meaning for the Heavenly Jerusalem . Our age sorely misses the wholesome-holistic applications of science and technology. When each party really desires to reach this universal goal. 3. Applications of science and technology to complex contemporary problems are usually fragmentary and often even exacerbate these problems. 4). and is fragmented into many hundreds of disciplines that do not communicate with each other. Our conclusion of the cybernetic Conversation Theory and of equating the "heavenly" nature of the city with havannah-understanding is that the Heavenly Jerusalem can be built through the very endeavor to reach it. This paper shows that the holistic bridges to peace are intercultural understandings and that through them a whole "city of peace" . Mikha 4:2) is that "Out of Zion will come Torah and the Word of the Lord from Jerusalem" may well mean that this new Torah will be of "Yoru-Shalem" .2). If this would be the new orientation of Zionism. combining the excellence of the traditional and modern methods. The academic "Ivory towers" could then coalesce into the "metropolis" of the Heavenly Jerusalem.3 (Shalom. This vision is a most appropriate goal for the future Zionism. and this metropolis would in turn form a matrix within which to build a holistic technology for material.A New Torah from Zion. it is in line with Mikha's prophesy about the Torah that will come forth from Zion to the world. people build understandings between them. Science today is still largely based on reductionist methods. Jerusalem could be the natural center for holistic teaching. and we saw them as pointing to the Heavenly Jerusalem. 6. or of "positive peace". they knew how to build self-supporting and self-referring cognitive wholes and used the symbol of "Towers that hover in the air" for such structures. Bniyah & Havannah) . and these understandings then constitute the heavenly Jerusalem. In the course of aspiring to the heavenly Jerusalem. behavioral and cultural applications. it will learn that it cannot succeed without considering the other parties. both as different and also as necessary to the achievement of that goal. Moslems and secular socialist idealists (sec. Jews. Both sides may require a period of self-reliance in order to appreciate themselves as well as . Building such a holistic peace is a major challenge for applying the scientific study of wholes. the more added chances there are for cooperation.2 (Torah & Shalem) Teaching wholeness .6. who developed conversational methodologies for their dedicated work. Though they were interested primarily in issues with practical importance. The more mutual recognitions occur. Modern theories of wholes and system-theoretic methodologies also point to new possibilities of transcending disciplinary fragmentation and discovering wholes at every level. The Arabs are perhaps even slower than the Israelis in recognizing their need of the other. The peace suggested by the Hebrew word Shalom is suggestive of wholeness and of holistic solutions (sec.to demonstrate the whole.
We can then see urban problems such as bureaucracy and deterioration as symptoms of spiritual problems. as developed in Judaism. The Christian Arabs. they can stand on their own. Early Practical Zionism idealized an Eden of rural settlements. 6. and might spread in the Middle East and the whole earth. as well as about what can be and needs to be done. but its development was overtaken by a wave of materialism and the initial vision was forgotten. In this way.Mosaic Patterns. As such realizations are established among people in the M. manner. In the context of our common goal here. A whole spirit of peace can develop out of these experiments in Zion.has to do with being stimulated and awake . Our attention must be directed to the here and now. even though urban living is the actual lot of the majority of people in Israel. immediately places urban conditions in our focus of attention.others. The quality of urban living has been neglected and it is still not an acknowledged national priority. perhaps ritualistic. At that point the cities will come to life to teach us about our real situation and culture.styles .5 (Hibur & Yahad) joining together . 6. The Heavenly Jerusalem.4 (Bniyah & Ir) . its "Revisionist" opponents had the fortress city of Beitar as their ideal. the vision of the Heavenly Jerusalem built of understanding. is a symbol of an ideal urban existence. For those people. Understandings are stable entities amongst the welter of existence. These true pioneers may embrace conversational methodologies of reaching understandings and exercise them in a rigorous. The test of the new Torah of Zion could consist in the assembly of such genuine understandings into large coherent assemblies and in processing these so as to form the basis for popular media shows and new curricula for the coming generation. as our goal. symbolic dimension is added to our problems so that we do not become immersed in their superficial details. may have a particular potential for playing an important role in both the Christian-Jewish and the Arab-israeli dialogues.E. We can envisage some of the critical understandings discovered through the process becoming codified into new "rites of passage" for the increasing numbers of people intent upon reaching the Heavenly Jerusalem. Once we begin to aspire towards the Heavenly Jerusalem. Even visitors to the presently-united Jerusalem sense that the unique character of this city is derived from the diversity of communities and neighborhoods with very different life. an additional. The adoption of the Heavenly Jerusalem.. the symbol of ideal urban existence.City Building and Urban Living. is likely to be a guide and a strength. we can begin to reflect upon the cities in which we live as extensions of ourselves. be reproduced and joined together into larger wholes. while much of the religious population has felt the importance of preserving its ghetto living patterns.Ir òéø. At the birth of Tel Aviv there was a vision of founding the Heavenly Jerusalem. there could be those who dedicate their time to seeking the proper partners and engaging in the relevant dialogues. being a double minority. The first Ma'alot Psalm characterizes Jerusalem as a city that was made up of many units. but with a more holistic perspective directed toward the building of the kodesh (holy) from the hol (mundane) as envisioned by the Rav Kuk. but the quality of urban living has never been a priority of Zionist ideology. these understandings are likely to be intercultural as well as interpersonal.Er òø). as outlined here. (Note that the Hebrew word for city .
An Automaton can represent any system that has fairly predictable successive states. The scientific study of systems. including people and societies. This insight is very important whenever schemes of social and cultural unification are raised. addresses itself to the implications of systemic assemblies and of making an (artificial) intelligent system out of simpler units. the Greeks did not know of it. in common with all the contemporary world. An observer may not appreciate the virtues of any particular community or culture within the assembly. we fail to realize that this "reality" is an artifact of perception with many defects.g.as former mayor Kollek used to compare her . and even now our culture does not really accept its implications. City Building + Urban Living) . Further implications can be derived from the primary meanings of the Heavenly Jerusalem already explored by joining these meanings together and putting them in the context of real-world problems. 7. patterns of units which retain their autonomous behavior but are affected by their neighbors' states give rise to overall patterns of behavior which are not predictable from the behaviors of the individual units. Civilization literally means urban living.to a vast mosaic made from many small pieces. the compact assembly of many "cells" (in our case as small autonomous communities) into a "mosaic" of cells (e. On the other hand.compacted together within a small area. their juxtaposition is likely to give rise to more intricate patterns. 1955) that "Union of the weakest develops strength. a thou". it must be regarded as a system or as a conscious entity. Consequent Implications of the symbols. The "systems approach" is new in Western civilization. but we should heed the poet's warning (Stevens. which combine to make a rich and elaborate picture. 7. cultural productivity and self-organization ("autopoiesis"). yet cybernetics shows that a "society" of automata can give rise to intelligence and innovation. It is like a mosaic where a limited range of stones can be used to achieve very complex patterns. Scientists generally strive to demonstrate that the entities they observe. but as cybernetics has demonstrated. . called General System Theory or Cybernetics. One scheme frequently cited in such studies is that of the socalled "Cellular" or "Tessellation Automata". each with its own simple color. Israel. therefore the need for cohesive design is very great. The following brief illustrations can be expanded in greater detail. One defect is that nothing works for long or responds if it is regarded as simply an "it". are predictable automata. mosaic-like. "neurons") promises not merely strength but the emergence of greater intelligence. Compact. Jerusalem can exemplify this pattern of unification for the world. Being so used to regarding the world as being made of unitary objects. Jerusalem can be compared . suffers from our incapacity to comprehend and master systems that are as complex as cities.1(Teaching Wholeness. The naive reaction is "the bigger the better". not wisdom". Automata are not creative by definition. even when the members cannot. but which are more intricate and intelligent.Designing Civilization.and the systemic composition of what are generally regarded as unitary "things". This image of Jerusalem can bring us to understand something very fundamental about the world .
let alone the Arabs. 6. and more attractive image. It is also legitimate to identify the heavenly city as a symbol of the "Noosphere" (sec. Israeli and Palestinian.E. The orientation for achieving this goal is likely to combine the principles of "The New Torah of Zion": attention to urban living and the development of skills akin to the Talmudic excellence in designing complete and coherent ways of life. A few years ago this author proposed rather detailed cantonization plans for the whole Eretz-Yisrael/Palestine area (HayutMan.to what extent can these arrangements help to make the whole earth intelligent? Experimentation is warranted. Yet while they all have their rationales. sovereignty. a 8-12 state canton federation would be less polarized than two states. In the past. etc. is also a good start for the realization of the Heavenly Jerusalem. one important question has not been explored .what has already been called "wholes". This possibility of increasing the "intelligence" of the land by structuring it as a compact federation of fairly autonomous units is very appropriate to the Heavenly Jerusalem. state. or other forms of "national entity". Ben Gurion in the 30's and even Shim'on Peres in the 70's) but they failed to raise interest and win the support of most Israelis. It was realized that there is a prior need to help people think of the problem in systemic terms rather than in simple categories (of identity.The symbol of the Heavenly Jerusalem suggests social goals that are complex. exemplified by its urban environment. There appears to be a world-wide trend towards trying new federative arrangements. also included a vision of the future organization of the whole Land of Israel again into a union of twelve tribal (today we would say "ethnic canton") units (Ezekiel 47-48).5). confronting each other. Many Israeli political scientists have advocated peace settlement through some federaltype arrangement. Above all. 8) or the making of the whole earth into a super conscious being. 7. for instance. These attempts have underlined the value of the symbol of the Heavenly Jerusalem.Encouraging Federalism.2 (Building Bridges to Peace & Joining Together) . Federation as a seed pattern which might be reproduced world-wide. and the proposed pattern might alleviate the need to redivide Jerusalem by making its region into a state. from which the whole concept grew. many federation and cantonization plans have been aired (including by Ben Avi in the 20's.) and to have super-ordinate goals that place value on pluralism. a new solution must appeal to the respective Jewish and Palestinian diasporas no less than the idea of separate national states. yet coherent and harmonious . The interesting thing is that this is the type of organization that appears most congenial for the development of richer civilization (sec. that politically and militarily. It appears to be no accident that the prophet Ezekiel's vision of the Heavenly Jerusalem. but on higher ideals for Zion in her distinction in cultural and moral achievements. and the Psalm quoted earlier sees the value of "the built Jerusalem" (Yerushalayim haBnuyah) specifically as "where the tribes ascend together". It was argued. by having a comprehensible. Ezekiel. . Mikha and Isaiah placed value not on the might of a new unified Kingdom. The mastery of modern planning-arts and a holistic technology for material and behavioral issues would be necessary in order to actualize a real "model society" in Israel. but they express concern about the lack of cultural and ideological support for such ideas among either Israelis or Arabs. and encouragement of the M. l975).
perhaps over a much larger area than even the currently expanded Jerusalem municipality. In concrete terms of urban management this may mean neighborhoods that are selfsufficient in their maintenance. but the searchers rarely turn to Zionism and to Israel. make the Zionist experiment into an important model for study and application in both the overdeveloped and the underdeveloped countries. rather than a single municipality of East Jerusalem. without detailed budgeting from the central metropolitan council. Zionism is a very earthly and prosaic goal for a little group who are no longer seen as underdogs. but which are influenced by their neighbors in the timing of renewal activities and population changes (which may cover periods of several decades). would be for division into a fairly large number of neighborhoods each having its own effective council. with a sizeable percentage of the intake going back to each neighborhood. The intended scientific-cultural enterprise (6. as prophesied by Amos. For the non-Jews. rather than as the projections of simplistic concepts. but on a very broad and therefore shallow front. However. 7. Urban Living & Joining Together) . The resultant rich mosaic would allow many types of dialogues to take place. where the dialogue can be sustained to the point of producing understandings rather than mere accommodations. as associated with the new global vision.2) and the "experimental civilization" status of the whole state (7.types of unity-within-diversity such as those found in nature. The recommendation for Jerusalem and its sharpening ethnic problems. .3 (City Building. Such an order has been mentioned in the case of the cybernetic tessellations and the mosaic patterns. As stated earlier. "Zionism" is currently getting a bad name in world opinion.The Earthly Jerusalem. Jewish reverence for Jerusalem (which is the core of this essay) and excitement over its unification often blind us to the validity of self rule in the non-Jewish sectors. The search for meaning is still going on in the world. the Judean state mentioned in sec. The bold proclamation of the long-range and timely goals of Zionism. into a whole region.1) would. just as it is desirable to have doctors available locally. Alternative social experiments have been made in Cuba or China which inspired idealist youth in many places. that is the question of the city of Jerusalem. Selfsufficiency would also mean the local availability of the required technical skills. the reality of the existence of immense ethnic and religious diversity may eventually force all sides to seek higher types of unification . weekly and yearly rhythms. once started. The sort of mythology outlined in chapter 8 is geared for "New Age" movements and has the new conception of Zion at its core (7).4 (Yahadut & Teaching Wholeness) .Israel and the World. The Old City of Jerusalem. including several Arab ones.2. The symbol of the Heavenly Jerusalem could help to resolve one problem area that can make or break the peace process. would re-introduce a sympathetic interest in our approach.7. to be spent. A reasonable financial example of what is meant by self-sufficiency is a central collection of municipal taxes. with its distinct quarters. A time of spiritual hunger has arrived. The central council would plan and administer metropolitan-scale plans to be undertaken as joint ventures whenever they impinge upon a neighborhood. 7. There would be over 20 such neighborhoods. at the discretion of its own council. this is hardly so today. provides a model that can be applied further.
make Israel attractive to the best in every land and give the country a new role.9). London. Hame'iri. University paperbacks. 4. "Ekistics: An Introduction to the Science of Human Settlements". and neglected the Heavenly Jerusalem which Socialism knew at the start (sec. London. in Gove (ed): The Labeling of Deviance. Michael & Leigh. Sonoma CA 95476. We can envisage instead the new Torah from Zion. "Platform for Change". Psychiatry 20. English version available from the Academy of Jerusalem. "Lalekhet Shevi" (Captivation). "Introduction to Cybernetics". Aharon and Amaliah.Box 1941. (1975). "The Ages of Gaia". Lovelock. UK. Walter (1975). the Hayut Foundation. Blake. "Tel Aviv Shel Ma'ala" (The Heavenly Tel Aviv). Reprinted 1992. from the Heavenly Jerusalem and her practical building. Bunyan. "Natural symbols". Uri. (In Hebrew). References. Idel. James (1988). Constantin (1968). Vintage Books.in Hebrew) Emda 24 & 25. (1968). "The Phenomenon of Man". Dunne. Stafford (1975).I. "Studies on Marx and Hegel". N. Beer.the amity that is systematically built through individuation (Hityahadut) .O. Marxism and Socialism have lost their appeal and vitality.Y. Meyasde Tel Aviv. "Elements of the Inter-human Contact". N. Hayutman Y. London. Douglas. Brunel University. Trasl. Barbara (1993). de Chardin. Foundation for Conscious Evolution.Y. Barnett. "The Revelation: Our Crisis in a birth". "The Labeling Perspective". Doxiadis. Corgi paper back 1990. "The Way of All Earth". "Milton" and "Jerusalem". Khayutman (Hayutman). Currently. James (19979). numerous editions. In Hebrew.G. POB 8115 Jerusalem Hubbard. "Israel Without Zionists". Hutchinson. "The Abraham Federation: a proposal for a radical Solution to the Arab. N. (1989). I would venture to name this teaching "the Torah of Yahadut" (communalism) . Baigent. McGraw-Hill. for example. H. in Bar-Drora (ed) "haBonim haRishonim" (the first builders). Martin (1957). Aurelius. Ashby. . Wand. Hypolite. William (1804).The intentions expressed in this essay concerning Israel's future would. "Gaia: a New Look at Life on Earth".Y. Richard. Yig'al (1977). John (1972). Lovelock. MacMillan. "The Pilgrim's Progress". In a book by the Ben Tzevi Foundation (in Hebrew). Avnery. This may be because socialism has kept its sights down to the ground. Buber. that is. "Innovation: The Basis for Cultural Change". Y. Saint. "City of God". Oxford University Press. Avigdor (1941). MacMillan. N. Barne'a. Oxford University Press. Jonathan Cape. Augustinus. Gove.I. Dissertation. Elam. Ross (1956). Jean (1969).D. "The Temple and the Lodge".Y. (1963). Hibur bTsiyonut ("a treatise in Zionism" . Teilhard (1955).Israeli Conflict". Moshe (1985) "Jerusalem in Jewish Medieval Thought".for the whole world. John (1678).Y. N. P. (1953). Fontana. Wiley. (1981): "The Cybernetic Basis for Human Reconstruction: with Application for the Middle-East". Mary (1973). Ph. if fulfilled to any appreciable extent. (1989).
Elsevier. Smuts.T. Amsterdam. John (1986). Trungpa. and potentially complementary. London. Pask. Primary sources in English are scant. Stevens. (in Hebrew). Some people like to draw moral distinctions between preference to the land or to the people. Notes. Verbally (logologically. Abacus. these also represent a different universe of discourse. Gordon (1975). is the response pattern of a system that is in a deteriorating situation and which tries to correct it by employing a preprogrammed repertoire of corrective moves which only tend to worsen the situation. a system may not only not yield. Note: No references are given here to the numerous mentions in this essay to notions from the Hebrew Bible. Jan (1926). In such cases. Gordon (1976). "Holism and Evolution". but for those who appreciate integration. "The Earth Spirit". an outside observer sees that the system has become coupled to a part of its environment. "Conversation. E. while the two movements appear to their adherents as mutually contradicting. Wallace (1955). Zvi (1974). "Dimensions of Paradise". Robinson. London. "Twelve-Tribe Nations and the Science of Enchanting the Landscape". in cybernetic usage. A vicious circle is thus set up that is likely to cause the breakdown of the system. John (1972). Yaron. but may overreact against the pressure with traditional responses). Gordon (1981). Michell. (2) A "trapping state". others see the people. Updated version "Dimensions of Paradise". Thames and Hudson. Thames and Hudson. "The Secret of the gods". Arrow Books. John (1989). London. Abacus. "Shambhala: The Sacred Path of the Warrior". "Conversation Theory: Application in Education and Epistemology". "Organizational Closure of Potentially Conscious Systems". London. Elsevier. "The Philosophy of Rabbi Kuk".Michell. 1973 reprint. Both land and a conflict can be settled. Pask. While some people see the land as primary. Cognition and Learning". John (1975). Pask. ways. Thames and Hudson. North Holland.when pressed. the Talmud and Midrashim and from Kabbalistic sources. best accessible through the Hebrew language. Greenwood Press. London. Stringer. (1) Characteristically. Jerusalem. (1988). . which now behaves like a "shadow" of which the system has not learnt to be cognizant. from a perspective on another level they may be saying the same thing in different. Christine (1991). in Zeleny (ed) Autopoiesis: A Theory of Living Organization. (1976). Michell. New York. Chögyam. Amsterdam. Shambhala Books. "Like Decorations in a Nigger's Cemetry" in the Collected Poems. Michell. "Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry". John and Rhone. (This is in line with what has often been called the counter intuitive behavior of complex systems -. in the sense of Kenneth Burke) "settlement" and "peace-making" or "reconciliation" are much the same thing. both the land and the minds of the people should be settled harmoniously (the Shalom-Shalem or "holistic peace discussed in the paper). On the whole. "The City of Revelation".
in some negative and in some positive. has been much cited by Stafford Beer when discussing solutions to the world's problems (Beer. (8) The original name "Plishtim" meant "invaders" (from the West). The study of the Talmud. 1956). Many converted to Islam after the Moslem conquest. 1975) who describes in detail a contemplative ascent . 3.(3) These categories do not coincide. we may quote a modern AmericanMoslem Sufi master (Lewis. (6) The word "Myth" has very different connotations for different schools of thought. Some forms of psychotherapy and of mysticism try to reveal one's own beliefs as myths and a genuine conversation may do the same.g. which is perhaps why such conversations are so resisted and rare. In other words. This accurate latter appellation is not used at all. which is traditionally viewed in Judaism as the greatest religious desideratum (and the major activity in paradise). (4) The Law of Requisite Variety. and it is more accurate and relevant to divide these two camps to "of Islamic countries origin" (yotz'ei artzot hamizrah which is a common appellation) and "of Christian countries origin". but the present native Arabs of the land were ignorant of both meanings.2) are illustration of the requisite dialogical matching of the answer to the question. (7) To take a very small-scale example: There is a Talmudic Saying: "Whoever says something by the name of its originator . Thus Barthes (1973) shows how the concepts of the bourgeoisie are "myths". whose chiefs (in institutions and the academia) are generally secular Jews of Western descent. Others would see Marxism and even rationalism as fantastic myths. (5) The Hashmona'im Kings of the Second Temple period coerced the people of Edomea. The name came later to mean "enemies of culture". becomes therefore a conversational ritual where the students take the roles of former sages and reproduce their cognition. It is evident. and this marks a particular blind spot in Israeli selfperception. The Talmudic study is based on this approach. with its system of citations. (9) Rather than cite scholarly evidences for the influence of Jewish mysticism upon the rise of Islam (which may raise resistance). Philistina and the Galilee to convert to Judaism. which links the awe-inspiring concept of "Redemption" with very feasible and practical behavior. but presumably his own (largely Marxist) analysis and beliefs would seem to him and his followers as perfectly rational. The secularity is prevalent in this century in traditionally Christian countries but it is not so in Islamic countries ("traditionally Moslem countries" are still very much Moslem countries). making those former sages practically immortal. and all the discussions pertaining to current rulings quote opinions of sages who quote the scriptures and derive from them pertinent new insights. Pask's constructs (sec. The redemptive scenario implied here. 1975). be they respected or ridiculed. Somewhat similar standards are current in the academic domain. candle lighting on Friday night and Hannuka) that survived till recently and from recent genetic studies that many of the Palestinians are of Jewish origin. as in this whole article.brings redemption to the world". The Roman-Byzantine empire later forbade Jews to live in Jerusalem and later all people had to be Christians. especially in scientific research. (Ashby. from Jewish customs (e. is that redemption will come when current pressing problems will be discussed through "strict conversations" that strive for reaching understandings with the rigor of traditional Talmudic discourse or current scientific standards. "myths" are generally the beliefs of the others.
the inner concern of every person. or "Hours".7 mentions the similar ascent of Mohammed. 2 Peter 3:8). or three stages of two thousands years each (Talmud.Israel Ba'al Shem Tov -. The Sufi Islamia Ruhaniat Society. 2) Torah and 3) "the days of the Messiah". the materials are shaped and a Golem is formed. or supplant. 1 The meta-historical frame: A few thousands of years ago.which tells about an "Aliya" that he had. Prophecy Pressworks. or meta-historical scheme for Yahadut which is designed to complement. In other hours multiplication is achieved. this event happened some 5. This process too has its stages. the potential. "The Jerusalem Trilogy: Song of the Prophets". It is remarkable that these estimates tally fairly well with the Jewish calender that the "global Shabbat" will start at 2240 CE. Appendix "A" .the-Cross's "Ascent of Mount Carmel" and Ramon Lull's "Ladders of Heaven" as well as the sixth century "Ladders of Paradise". In one of them. I. when the unified humankind properly called "Adam" is forming. Sec. in R. Paladin. (1975). which evolved through religious accounts and later by academic research programs. Taking the Hebrew Biblical tradition.750 years ago and is called "The Creation of Adam". Christians (the City of Revelation) and Moslems (the Ka'aba). (1994). Lewis. the new Yahadut myth draws its main inspirations from the Judaic tradition and places the Heavenly Jerusalem (and the city of Jerusalem) as its main focus. which . 12) The cubic form was suggested as common to the aspirations of Jews (Teffilin). which brought the beginning of Islam. Whereas these mythologies (which have also many Jewish adherents worldwide) are often antisemitic in their roots. in which he was given to understand his Messianic role. "A Feasible Pattern for the Future Temple of Jerusalem". "Mythologies". Time (in the sense of human temporal consciousness and search for the meaning of Life) was created (formed through human speech and heavenly/comprehensive inspiration). unified humankind. London. the current "New Age" and "Deep Ecology" mythologies. that this is a six-stage sequence of "days of the Lord" lasting a thousand years each (Ps. 4.A Future Mythology In the following is outlined one mythological construction. 10) Presumably Stringer's estimate on mid 22th century as the time for reaching the stable human population of the planet is based on demographic considerations. World Scientific Publishing. Our present time is in that sixth millennium. and the entanglement with the Trees occurs. Raymon (1973). Sanhedrin 94:1) of : 1) bewilderment (or Tohu). Samuel. Y. The Yahadut adopted the traditional Jewish account. There are many detailed Kabbalistic manuals for the practicing of Aliya. 90:4.to the Heavenly Jerusalem undertaken by the Moslem champion Salladin. Novato California. This creation has thus set upon earth the global accounting system for finding the meaning of human Life. Trappl (ed) Cybernetics and Systems '94. a similar notion of ascent was prevalent among the Christian mystics and there are many manuals for it. Such a design is presented by Hayutman (1994). 11) Especially famous is a letter of the founder of Hasidism -. notably Saint-John-on. References to the Notes: Barthes. It may take a little longer to achieve the economic zero-growth advocated by the environmentalists. in another a divine breath is added and Adam becomes a "Living Nefesh" (Nefesh Haya). Hayutman.
2) Living creature . developing through stages of 1) physical formation.Biosphere ("ecomanistically" . parallel to that which proceeds from a larva through Golem (pupae.e. which is happening as stage 3 for the earth. While the myriad particular stories can take place everywhere on earth (and in heaven!).Technosphere (ecomeni/oikomenus. chrysalis) to a winged creature. This transformation. 4 The Jerusalem Global Stages: . 3) Settled earth . Satan. We are now just a few years from this great "hour". but again of collective character rather than a unique and deified (or idolized) person. which can act as a Universal demonstration facility.Tevel.heightened the drama to a climax. with humankind as co-creator who can improve own formation and the earthly environment. however. 2) cultural (civic) formation. Adam has two more aspects which can be projected as outside and separate or integrated: C: Eve (Biblically "Havah". 4) the Noosphere.Gaia. really from a Golem to a conscious Adam. The temptations and the pitfalls grow increasingly. offered as model for followers of that teaching was the "The Messaye'a" (literally "the Helper"). and that this collective entity could operate by the unique collective joint cognition-conation taught by Yahadut (called in Kabbalah Yehidah).when the global riddle of the meaning of life reaches its answer (Teshuvah). leading to a global conflagration or exile. including the 12 "Sons of Israel" Zodiac of tribal archetypes. This figure was modelled on the figure of the Messiah (or Christ) offered in various Jewish and Christian esoteric teachings. D: "Serpent" (Christologically. The main character. meaning "experience" or "having experienced). and is thus the period of intense confrontation between the two. 3) emergence of a unified ADAMIND (i. until either a mishap occurs. then in co-creation. Biblically Nahash ("Guesswork". first in procreation. 2 The Drama: It is the story of the transformation from Olam haZeh (of agreement or convention) to the Olam haBah (of understanding and co-creation). Biblically Adamah). E: Other Biblical characters as archetypes. which for human accounting is a given fact. developing through stages of 1) material formation (Eretz-earth). associated with the Tree of Knowledge. This last stage merits the name "Adam" (àãí-understood as the sequence of "Abraham". which for human accounting is a given fact. The intention was that each initiate would become a Messiah. which can become associated with either Jerusalem or Babel). It is followed by learning stages of how to behave in a godly manner. perhaps a universal actor or indwelling of the Creator. is a dramatic process of metamorphosis. or a safe passage into the cosmic Shabbat and the "end of Time" . Jerusalem-Yorushalem. Biblically . "David" and "Messiah"). shoddy cognition). a "Psychological Individual" (P-Ind) made of all humankind within the "Global Brain". B: Humankind. 3 The Dramatic Characters: A: The earth. an "ADAMInd"). Jerusalem is the distinguished and prominant stage for helping the various human cultures and trends to become well characterized.
Thus the devil insinuated to the native Ame Ha'aretz self identity as Palestinians-Philistines who strive to their state and to Jerusalem in a shadowy caricature of Zionism. and geographically it is at the junction of three continents and the middle point for the five settled continents (the ecumeni). With all this (positive and negative) cultural "investment". and possibly for all humankind. Satanic possessions. further.is thoroughly and inextricably connected with Jerusalem. wrong elections can still maim the infantile Adamind: 1) infantilegalactic infatuations. It points out to its adherents an opportune . The idea was that just because Zionism seemed destined to usher the whole world's redemption. In its formulation. for øåí àðùéí and for øîéä) Ecumenism. 6 The Palestinian special concern of the Messaye'a: The Yahadut focuses a special attention on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It is the mythical stage of the formation of Adam.and that what the Messiah legends always implied.the Heavenly Jerusalem Association (sea below) . The most unique and mysterious human nationality .Ame ha'Aretz) in a nasty blood feud that would make Zionism despised and abhorred in the world.Israel . Culturally. 2) human hubris and deception: ego-centered capitalist economics. It is the natural focal point for the HEJERA . Satan saw to it to entangle Zionism with the native people of the land (òîé äàøõ .. 3) Premature christalization under simplistic theological formulations. The longanticipated ingathering of the exiled and oppressed Jews into the land of Israel (expedited by the cataclysms of the WW-II and the holocaust) to become a new nation was marked by the sign of Jerusalem and thus called Zionism. Zionism generated shock waves and the Jewish-Arab hostilities rose from Jerusalem to become a permanent preoccupation (even possession) in the emerging mind of humankind. Particular crises are: * Aborted transformations through 1) human incompetence: nuclear war. geo-centered fascistic-ecomanic paganism. The remedy advocated is for processes of "Christalizations" as coherent (crystal) ordering of messianic (Christal) inklings in the womb-template (chrysalis) of understandings rather than confused aggregations based on agreements and conventions of the ecumenical Golem ecumenos. * After birth succeeds. occupying a special place in human consciousness.and can become the focal point for initiations to the co-creator status for the Mesaye'as. ecological disasters. 3) through war in heaven: astroid collision. the Midrash of Palestine-ôìùèéï as "Palash Satan" (ôìù-ùèï) "Satan Invaded". When thrust violently into the resisting environment held for centuries by Arab Islam. Jerusalem can become the focus for the transformation of humankind . Jerusalem is the symbolic city par-excellance. 2) rationalistic fixations or scientistic crucification of the Tree of Knowledge. 5 Concerns: The Crises and the Christalization: The Yahadut warns of several crises which are on the way: aborted transformation and wrong choices.The Yahadut identified Jerusalem as the natural stage for the exploits of the new global Messaye'a for the following reasons: Geologically. Yahadut advocates that the suffering of the Palestinians is real and is a festering ground for any Satanic intent and that the solution for it is to solve the problem in an economically and culturally just way. "Israel" stands for "Is-Real" whereas "Filastin" (the accepted Arab name) stands for "Falsity". The epitome of this conflict is Jerusalem. especially of the "philistine" type and. Archaeologically it in the region of the earliest city (Jericho).. it is at the junction of three tectonic plates. with the Heavenly Jerusalem as the Messiah's bride. imperialistic "Roman" ("Rome".
The images of the Gates of Jerusalem as the entry point of the redeeming understandings and of the Temple Mount as the place for Co-Akedah was developed. whose names in the Hebrew Bible are Yishmael . This is a very concrete symbol of the current situation and of the Messianic hopes. in the Zohar Hadash. Noah) that chart spiritual exercises involving the gates of Jerusalem.listening to the other to forming understanding and humor (positing "You-More") for transcending ego-based boundaries. The form of this gate is of a twin gate whose doors are blocked. allowing for the preparation of multi-media gospels of Yahadut.g. one is closed . in Hebrew "inheritance".namely by the Messaye'as.. So Jerusalem is a twinned inheritance of the Children of Abraham. 8. namely the migration. which began its calendar and its redemptive account from the Hegira. It also contains the word "Yerusha".Sha'ar haRahamim (the gate of Mercy) which leads to the Temple Mount and through which the Messiah is supposed to enter the city.2 The Yitshak Gate.which means "will listen to". allowing a dozen archetypical characterizations for the various users. In line with the understandings about the heavenly Jerusalem/Yerushalayim shel Ma'ala as the assembly of understandings and of transcendence. a dialogical/conversational "Co-Akedah" scenario can be developed for various spiritual exercises and dramas with appeal to the native people of the whole Land of Israel.that the problems of the Palestinians are very small in real terms compared with their importance in the world's eyes: no greater than of a single slum neighborhood in any of the scores of the Third World festering metropoli. and Yitshak (or Yis'hak) . especially from Arab and Moslem backgrounds was posited as the HEJERA (The Heavenly Jerusalem Association) and its intelligent realizations in electronic entertainment and learning media which employ conversational techniques as El-HEJERA (the Electronic Heavenly Jerusalem Agency). problems which do not yield to the engineering approach) by roleplaying and countering gravity by humor. The semitic culture. There are "twelve gates to the city" of the Heavenly Jerusalem. and many stories (e. . of the prophet Mohammed. places particular emphasis on semantics and on the audile modes of speech and of listening. etc..g.1 The Yishmael/El HEJERA Gate.which means "will laugh" (or "will play"). and it is appropriate to name the means of the movement of the heavenly Jerusalem in honor of brother Yishmael. 8. We refer here only to the gates image. and could be solved by a single modest-size but enlightened global organization . 8 The Twin gates: Of the eight gates nowadays in Jerusalem. characteristic of the Arabs even more than of the Jews. We may call the twin doors the door of Yishmael (Ishmael) and the door of Yitshak (Isaac). The success of the Messaye'as' effort in Israel would establish it in the world's eyes as the proper global Messiah (e. Thus the new Zionist organization for the seekers of the Heavenly Jerusalem. The complementary element ("software complement") of the El HEJERA is programs to transcend conflicts and "wicked problems" (such as social problems. the Messiah is born in a hovel in a refugee camp at Bethlehem.challenge . Yishmael is associated with Islam. this twin characterization is a specification for the twin spiritual disciplines needed for reaching and inheriting this city .) 7 The Jerusalem Dramatization: When this publication draws fairly positive response. The name Israelis use for Jerusalem is "Yerushalayim". which is in a dual form used for paired entities.
Other prominent groups were of Fundamentalist Christians and of investment houses in the Gulf States. including hundreds of Palestinian Arabs. It is just a very particular demonstration of the application of the principles discussed so far . We have all been journeying Towards the Heavenly Jerusalem For about two thousand years perhaps for four. The various HEJERA Shows and the initial computerized HEJERA Games gradually increased the constituency and the Messaye'as to several scores of thousands of very able people around the world. notably among dramatists and designers of computer games. 9 Epilogue. Other. given from the perspective of a few decades into the future. sold to people who wanted to identify with the New Israel and become the builders of the New Jerusalem. the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and possibly a Palestinian State/authority) and to produce the HEJERA Games and kindred software and virtual equipment. The corporation proceeded to buy up real estate in. more detailed and grounded scenarios can be developed. we can derive redemptive scenarios in any degree of elaboration and rigor to address almost any aspect of the contemporary world problem. It will be natural for the HEJERA to build the perfect arena (Beit haBehirah . in turn. . Presently our feet are standing by the gates: And overhead the inscription says: "IF YOU WILL. THIS IS NOT A LEGEND" It is Herzel's OldNew formula to utter! The gates are opening . rather than the simplistic Christian account (the "original sin" doctrine). and to contract to execute the services of the governments and authorities that have jurisdiction over the whole Land of Israel (the State of Israel.and a rather fancy one. Among the buyers of the HEJERA stocks were Freemason lodges worldwide which were looking for a new context for doing their charitable work which allowed the possibility of accomplishing their historic avowed aim . and financial resources which allowed the launching of the HEJERA venture. one "redemptive scenario" is outlined. 1 The HEJERA Design: The publication of improved versions of this outline of Yahadut by the Academy of Jerusalem spawned interest in various circles.shall we enter? Appendix "B" . or even more. The HEJERA corporation was registered in Wall Street to issue its 12 "tribal" types of stocks.to build the Temple of Jerusalem for the benefit of all humankind. These scenarios. can be the story line for any number of computerized games/training facilities for educating people and motivating them to solve these problems.By utilizing the more sophisticated Kabbalistic accounts of the story of the Trees in Genesis.A Redemptive Scenario for the HEJERA In the following.the palace of choice) in Jerusalem and to organize the world electronic Olympic games in it.
to build their central facility.000 strong Messianic New Israel each year. Special pilgrimage journeys were held for people from the whole world who had trained upon the HEJERA facilities for cocreators and now came to Israel and to Jerusalem to do their finals. and plenitude and peace on Earth are being assured as the Cosmic Shabbat is about to enter.Though many of the initial investors did it out of ideological rather than commercial calculations. so that people could play out all the issues of Jerusalem and bring them to extreme situations and sometimes to glorious resolutions. called also the New Jerusalem. But there is still need to extend dialogical technics to group processes and cultural issues. above its existing structures 12. As the HEJERA sales increased and the value of the HEJERA stocks rose. however. These universal-Zionist pioneers sacrifice their material possessions and self-centered aspirations to form new world-wide distributed communities or "tribes" (. At that stage. and the New Jerusalem facility was built as a global spiritual service station or womb. a 144.. where they represented the best hope for change. which for some of the poor people was their only income. growing value of the stocks and growing membership. 2 The New Jerusalem in Action: With growing success of the HEJERA products. a share was held also for each resident of the whole land. the board of the HEJERA (which by then included most of the decision makers in the relevant states anyway) made the ultimate bid . With rising revenues and added members-investors. is the Conversation Theory developed by the cybernetician Gordon Pask. all world crises are expected soon to be overcome. 1966) for an Interpersonal Perception Method (IPM) for individual interactions on personal topics. "The Menashe of the Year 5. citizens of each of the sovereign states in the land and those who can validly claim to belong to them. The brand games.g. the perversion of the Tree of Knowledge to be averted. They enjoyed a substantial added income. which has been used to develop educational programs and for experimental research in the behavioral sciences.Conversation Theory. A likely model for extending the analysis of human interactions also for cultures and groups. a cellular matrix of individual cubicals for personal transformation and joint arena for theophany (encountering God). Conversation . al. Eventually the bid was accepted. enough investment capital was generated to produce a variety of first rate programs and games on CDROM interactive multi-media shows to tap the huge world markets for training and spiritual development programs. the HEJERA was growing into a global corporation with an intricate ownership structure based on the Biblical stipulation for the inheritance of the Tribes of Israel and the Jubilee law for a periodic New Deal. With the "Christalization" of this new leadership factor within humankind. used the specific history of Jerusalem for complex political and spiritual role-playing games. 1. The beautifully printed and personalized HEJERA share-participation certificates became a standard framed exhibit in both Ramat Aviv Penthouses and refugee camp hovels. Backgound: Buber's insights were eventually operationalized (Laing et. Each month now. many of the people of these countries asked for their shares. the Temple of the Elect (Beit haBehirah) as a giant cube. some twelve thousand people are processed by the HEJERA Process.e.890") that serve the world in the particular coherent joint way that was revealed to them on that occasion. even at no cost apart from revenuesharing. Appendix "C" . astride the Temple Mount of Jerusalem.
they must engage in an "IYou". Thus Pask regards individual cognition to be made by populations of reproducible "concepts" which are controlled (reproduced. Sets of "task structures" for building models or performing other activities which can produce the prescribed topic relations.and other-references. Since the conversing parties (the P-Individuals) have named identities (selfreference) the conversation uses self. showing the connections whereby any topic can be derived from other topics (specified relations) in that domain. 2. To secure and nurture the production of understandings in an educational context. and the student can choose his route through them.when two people come to an agreement based on understanding.Theory (Pask 1975. has the facilities to display information of descriptions and rules plus of several levels in a controlled environment. Conversational Domains are not linear. Pask found these points to be the understandings which arise in the conversations between two participating individuals.as stratified into concepts of different logical levels (or "Logical Types" in Russel's sense) that require different types of language to discuss them. Main Concepts: Conversaton Theory regards the cognitive domain .and thus also the cultural domain . scientific research requires stable reference points in human transactions to allow for reproducible results. In other words. . but use conversational languages with questions. Discussions between individuals are conducted on several logical levels: they use an object language to activate concepts and demonstrate them. typical of Pask's research work takes place within the supportive environment of a conversational domain. We may say that conversational domains are recordings of fruitful past conversations and that they provide the symbolic environment in which the original insights can be reproduced and further conversations can take place and evolve. Pask regards Conversation as being mediated by "Language Processors" (or "L-Processors) that allow self. the conversants can re-create from their understandings new agreements to replace the old ones. Such Conversational Domains are organized hierarchically of the following components: 1. The makers of the agreements can regulate the stability of their transactions without being dependent on their details. Actual concrete media ("modelling facilities") in which task activities can be enacted or executed as models. 1976) regards social systems as symbolic. There are usually many different ways to satisfy a relation and the stored programs are only illustrative examples. but these are intuitively clear . In other words. language-oriented systems where responses depend on one person's interpretation of another person's behavior. and not just "I-IT". Unlike conventional recordings and curiculums. transactions. A family of "entailment structures" which are like maps of topic names. answers and commands to talk about concepts and to explain them. he has devised a special type of L-Processor called "Conversational Domain" which allows the exteriorization of complex cognitive processes and the detection of understanding. and which he defined rigourously. 2. The topics themselves are learnable relations. But since meanings are agreed. then even if the agreement was built upon transient elements which changed. A strict conversation. edited. and the agreements can be illusory and transient. by) higher level concepts he calls "P-Individuals" (for "Psychological Individuals"). understandings are evidenced by the ability of the conversing parties to produce explanations of self and other's explanations. edited) by higherlevel concepts he calls "memories" which in turn belong to (are controlled. III.and other-references. Pask's definition of understandings and the significance of their stability comes from cybernetic theory. reproduced. and where meanings are agreed through conversations. 3. Understandings require answering "why" questions through discussions of explanations of explanations and comparing them. Agreements can thus be produced (as new analogy relations) between concepts when their explanations match.
Comparison of the two different derivations is especially significant when each participant inhabits a different universe of discourse and their agreement about a topic creates an analogy relation for that topic between these two universes.that is. self. for example. religious orders. Understanding also amounts to answering a why question -. 4. But success in making the demonstration does not prove conception of a stable procedure for the topic. Understanding the topic amounts to having a stable concept of it. P-Individuals can undergo development only when they are executed in suitable language processors which have common aims . What has been built through these procedures is an evolving conversation which can advance from one verifiable understanding to another. leaving recorded traces that can be used for the study and reproduction of that conversation. social roles. They are languageoriented. scientific research programs or even whole cultures. But Pask's formulation allows the generalization of these entities beyond the confines of the individual human being. the understanding of the analogy relation involves each one adopting the other's perspective so as to see that relation from his world. and why is the answer couched in the specific terms used. For a person.why was this answer preferred. and the P-Individuals are the various "personalities" which that person exhibits. A topic is marked as understood by the participants only after agreement has been reached on both the adequacy of their concepts and the validity of their derivations of the concept. the MIndividual is indeed his brain and body. Topics get marked as understood at a rate and in a configuration which is particular to that conversation. P-Individuals are invisible and are not material. that a mismatch of cognitive styles among the participants almost guarantees that hardly any learning or understanding will occur. yet are inherently "processor independent" and can even be encoded in a static inscription. In each stage. theatrical characters. In many cases users of experimantal conversational domains acquire an enhanced capacity for learning.and when they fully enter a conversation. self-reproducing systems of beliefs. one that can be reproduced and built from other concepts already in the student's mental repertoire. as distinct from the "Mechanical individuals" or M-Individuals. and in which they become observable. A successful . while matching improves learning dramatically. we should understand who are the participants whom Pask calls "Psychological Individuals" or "PIndividuals". Research has shown. Awareness of personal style can lead to awareness of the styles of others and the possibilities of matching them. intrinsic to the mind of the learner. a topic that is appreciated and desired by them but that is not known by them operationally . P-Individuals are the "persons" who converse and M-Individuals are the matrices or media in which the P-Individuals are embodied and "breed". P-Individuals may be human personalities. Agreement is reached when one learner's demonstration of how to satisfy a topic requirement is consistent with the other's.The two participants begin a strict conversation by agreeing on an aim for reaching operational knowledge of some topic on the "map" (Entailment Mesh) of the connections between the topics. Generalizations: To appreciate the main implications of Conversation Theory in our present context. a topic is first marked as agreed between the participants and then as understood. They can be observed and/or communicated with only through language processors (such as M-Individuals. but also various artifactual media).and otherreferential. Begining with only some vague appreciation of some preliminary topic. and as data for research about cognitive styles and learning strategies. In this case. the conversation advances from one topic to another in a series of stages.
in turn. and that successful such conversations breed cultural innovations (Barnett. which promise to make modelling facilities common as everyday realities and extensions of the brain in McLuhan's sense. 1973) are such P-Individuals who have their own characteristic concepts and often even distinct languages. are "individuated" through organizational closure and self-reference. Note that drama and the stage were the traditional media to enact cultural myths and they have burgeoned into movies (which probably lower the possibility of identification and participation) and are now developing into the new media. it is most instructive that the founder of modern Zionism. and they control their own distinct "social memories" which. scientific "schools" or "research programs" in the sense of Lakatosh. some generalizations to anthropological studies of whole (primitive) societies have been made *. theatrical and social roles. Dr. The suggestions in the paper as extensions of Conversation Theory will need the agreement of the larger social science disciplines to win currency. Such belief systems. schools of thought. Herzel. Types of P-Individuals include human personalities. Pask's early work employed various purpose-made analogue computers. even many. as P-Individuals. 5 Novel Conversational Environments: Originally the concept of modelling facilities was derived from the theater and its stage settings as well as military gaming simulations. whereas a single PIndividual can "reside" in several. systems of belief and human cultures.the specification of which are typical "task structures" . Obviousely. and the development of psychological and social simulations . In our context of renewing Zionism. . to their myths). We may thus assert that a whole coherent network of such symbols is essentially a "mythology".1952) that are novel. These examples can help establish the socio-cultural analogues to the components of a Conversational Domain.and their translation into plays and games of many kinds on the other. This is the case of cultural entities. We claimed there that cultural explanations of self and other cultures are given by "myths" and that full conversations between cultures are possible (though deficient conversations are often dangerous. But it is the current proliferation of multi-media machines and electronic information processors into the laboratory and the home on the one hand. even while sharing the same facilities (libraries. such as interactive CD-ROM role-playing games and virtual realities which hold a promise of greater participation. While it is not easy to generalize from these small-scale contrivances to the processes happening within society at large. reproduce their own concepts and produce new ones in a distinct and characteristic style. further generalizations to modern societies may be very worthwhile. Scientific disciplines (or more precisely. and the analogues to topic names are the cultural symbols while the analogues of the task structures are rituals. yet consistent with the traditions and myths of the culture. It is evidently not easy to build agreements among the many P-Individuals that comprise the different schools of the social and human sciences about the concepts pertaining to social discourse and its (linguistic-symbolic) means. Building roleplaying mythical environments according to the specifications of CT for a conversational domain will allow the formation of cultural understandings. computing media and academic framework). was an accomplished dramatist and his plays were the most popular in Vienna of his time. which are not just shared concepts but coherent systems of beliefs. Several P-Individuals. even fatal. Pask does not equate the P-Individuals with individual brains but defines them as cognitive programs (characterized by self-reference and organizational closure) which are executed in brains as well as in other suitable media (which Pask calls "Language Processors"). Claiming wide general validity to these constructs. even conflicting ones. brains and their extensions in various media. can "reside" in one brain.conversation that leads to understandings is a P-Individual in its own right. even self-reflection.
Schwarz. Viewed inclusive of their inhabitants and builders. "Interpersonal Perception . we now claim. But analysis of the "Cargo Cults" of Melanesia (Worsley. 1970. and Lee. A. . Nowadays civilization is rapidly changing by being embodied in an emerging communications and computation media. "Pigs for the Ancestors". 1969). and from which "civilization" got its name. in Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science VIII. which showed a society in an ecological balance maintained by a ritual cycle. the very name "Zion" which carried a tremendous set of associations.. Peter (1957). Paladin. "History of the Science and its Rational Reconstruction". its further extension into world civilization. Ronald.Y. 1962) and other social innovations (Barnett. There are. Worsley. The modelling facilities of a conversational domain are only simulations of M-Individuals. Springer. They have shown that this traditional society has the exact basic structure of a P-Individual and its environment acts as a Language Processor. since they are not self-organizing. ch. Lakatos. Part 2. These are our cities. (1973). understood as "the City of Understandings". We may say that cities has been the L-Processors in which civilization was embodied and has evolved... the slaughter of pigs and the copulation of people. They are the media in which civilization is embedded. 1957) which showed remarkable social innovation in devising new (albeit ineffective) rituals. Revised paperback edition.A Theory and a method of Research". Tavistock. 10). 1970. 1976.Herzel's genious enabled his translation of a set of ideas from a political manifesto and a utopian novel into the stage of the Zionist Congress and then into the Zionist organizations and eventually the State of Israel. tied the new movement to the whole of Jewish history and myth and it still allows. and this is happening quite haphazardly and in the manner criticized by Buber of increasing "I-It" communications and substituting them to "I-You" communications. their concrete structures carry symbolic messages for their populations and embody their cultural values. Philipson. Vol 20. On the other hand. Press. the concept of "Jerusalem" as the city of "showing wholess" discussed in here is the very symbol of the city as a learning and conversational environment. and of connected nativistic (yet effectively modernising) movements (Schwartz. This is a stable.R. while their layouts channel social transactions. artifacts that serve as M-Individuals and which are quite important for our discussion. Roy (1969). "The Trumpet Shall Sound: a study of "cargo" cults in melanesia". Dordrecht. was analysed by Pask and his students. MacGibbon & Kee. London. Reidel. Symbolic acts as the erection of a rotten fence and the planting or uprooting of a certain tree signal the onset of war and peace. however. non-learning society. I. whereas the Heavenly Jerusalem. Theodore (1962). Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. "Palian Movement of the Admiralty Island". Rappoport. 1952) has shown them as cases of "Conversational Breeding" on a social scale (Pask. Yale U. The main symbol Herzel used. References to Appendix: Laing. (*) The study of the Tsembaga tribe of New Guinea (Rappoport. D. Penguin Books. (1966). N. is the epitomy of such a city and its realization is thus the ideal setting of a conversational environment for cultures. H.
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