The term brand means different things to the different roles of buyer and seller, with buyers generally associating brand with a product or service, and merchants associating brand with identity. Brand can also identify the company behind the specific product -that's not just a biscuit, that's Britannia biscuit. This use of brand puts a "face" behind the name, so to speak, even if the "face" is the result of advertising copy and television commercials. This use of brand also says nothing of quality, just the buyer's exposure to the brand's PR and media hype. For the typical merchant, branding is a way of taking everything that is good about the company -- positive shopping experience, professionalism, superior service, product knowledge, whatever the company decides is important for a customer to believe about the company -- and wrapping these characteristics into a package that can be evoked by the brand as signifier.

1.1 Introduction to Branding
The American Marketing Association defines a brand as “A name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group and to differentiate them to those for competitors”. A brand is thus a product or service that’s adds a Dimension that differentiates it in some way from other products or services designed to satisfy the same need. These differences may be functional, rational, or tangible- relate to product performance of the brand. Branding has been around for centuries as a means to distinguish the goods of one producer to those of another. The earliest signs of branding can be traced to Europe where the medieval guilds required that craftsmen put trademarks on their product to protect themselves and producer against inferior quality substitutes. Also in fine arts branding began with artists signing their works. Brands today play a number of important roles that improve the consumer’s lives and enhance the financial value of firms.


Brands identify the source or maker of the product and allow consumers-either individual or organizations- to assign responsibility to a particular manufacturer or distributor. Consumers may evaluate the identical product differently depending how it is branded. Consumers lean about the brand with its past experience and the marketing program. As consumers lives becomes more complicated, time starved the ability of brand to simplify decision making is invaluable. Brands also perform valuable functions for the firm. First they simplify the product handling and tracing. Brands help to organize inventory and accounting records. The brand name can be protected registered trademarks. The intellectual property rights ensure that the firm can safely invest in the brand and can reap the benefits over a long period of time.

Brands can signal a certain level of quality so that satisfied buyers can easily choose the product again. Brand loyalty provides predictability and security of demand for the firm and creates barriers to entry that makes it difficult for other firms to enter the market. This brand loyalty can translate into willingness to pay higher price. In this sense branding can be seen as powerful means to secure a competitive advantage. Brands represent enormously valuable pieces of legal property that can influence consumer’s behavior. Strong brand results in better earnings and profit performance for firms, which in turn, creates greater value for shareholders. How do you “BRAND” a product? Although firms provide the impetus to brand creation through marketing programs and other activities, ultimately a brand is something that resides in the mind of the consumers. A brand is a perpetual identity that is rooted in reality but reflects the perceptions and perhaps even the ultimate choice of the consumers. Branding is endowing products and services with the power of brands. To brand a product, it is necessary to teach the consumers “who” the product-by giving a name. Branding involves creating mental structures and helping consumers organize their knowledge about products and services in a way that clarifies their decision making and in process provides value to the firm


Branding can be applied virtually anywhere a consumer has a choice. It is possible to brand: • • • • • • A physical good (Nestle soup, Pantene shampoo or Maruti Swift), A service (Kingfisher Airlines, TATA AIG medical insurance), A store (Big Bazaar, BATA stores), A place (The state of Kerala, Pushkar Mela), A person (Shahrukh Khan, Sachin Tendulkar), An organization (UNICEF or BCCI),

Brand is the proprietary visual, emotional, rational, and cultural image that you associate with the company or a product. When you think of Volvo, you think of safety. When you think of Nike, you think of Michael Jordon or ‘Just Do It’. When you think of IBM, you think of ‘Big Blue’. The fact that you remember the brand name and have positive associations with that brand makes your product selection easier and enhances the value and satisfaction you get from product. While Brand X cola or even Pepsi-Cola may win blind taste tests over Coca-Cola, the fact is that more people buy Coke than any other Cola. The fond memories of childhood and refreshment that people have when they drink Coke is often more important than a little bit better cola taste. It I this emotional relationship with brands that make them so powerful.


1.2 Purpose of Branding
The purpose of branding is to create a powerful and lasting emotional connection with customers and other audiences. A brand is a set of elements or “brand assets” that in combination create a unique, memorable, unmistakable, and valuable relationship between an organization and its customers. The brand is carried by a set of compelling visual, written and vocal tools to represent the business plan and intentions of an organization. Branding is the voice and image that represents your business plan to the outside world. What your company, products and services stand for should all be captured in your branding strategy, and represented consistently throughout all your brand assets and in your daily marketing activities The brand image that carries this emotional connection consists of the many manageable elements of branding system, including both visual image assets and language assets. The process of managing the brand to the business plan is important not only in “big change situation” where the brand redefinition is required, but also in the management of routine marketing variables and tactics. This does not have to be a “ground-up” situation where there are wholesale changes to the business. Rather it is more common that specific changes to the changes to the business plan are incremental and the work of the brand strategist and designer is to interpret these changes and revise the branding strategy and resulting brand assets and define their use in the full range of marketing variables.


McDonalds television are a series of one brand association after another. pound that message in every ad.3 Brand Identity Brand Identity includes brand names.1. logos. Then. Ronald MacDonald. positioning. A positioning statement tells what business the company is in. By continuous repetition of messages customer will think of your product and then buy it. in every news release. starting in yellow arches in the low right corner of the screen and following with associations of Big Mac. Do you want your company’s brand identity created for you by competitors and unhappy customers? Of course not. yet few companies create a brand identity. A good brand name gives a good first impression and evokes positive associations with the brand. How do we determine our Brand Identity? Brand has been called the most powerful idea in commercial world. Brand associations are the attributes that costumer thinks of when they hear or see the brand name. Our advice to executives is to research their customers and find the top ranked reasons that the customers buy their product rather than their competitors. brand toons etc. happy meal. kids. and brand personality. in communications with employees and in every sales call or media interview. an animal (the Merrill lynch bull) etc. The first step in creating a brand for your company is branding workshop. brand associations. food quality etc. 5 . a character (Pink Panther). what benefits it provides and why it is better than the completion? Brand personality adds emotion. culture and myth to brand identity by the use of a famous spokesperson (Bill Cosby-Jello).

4 Tools for Building Brand Identity Brand builders use a set of tools to strengthen and project the brand image. a color. Here is the list of brands that own a word: Company Volvo BMW Mercedes Federal Express Apple computers Lotus Kodak Word “Safety” “Driving performance” “Engineering” “Overnight” “Graphics” “Spreadsheets” “Film” Slogan Many companies successfully added a slogan or tagline to their brand name which is repeated in every ad they use. 6 . Here are some well-known brands slogans.1. a symbol. Owned Word A strong brand name should trigger another word. Caterpillar paints all its construction equipments yellow. Strong brands typically exhibit an owned word. which people on the street may easily recall or recognize: COMPANY British Airways Ford LIC SLOGAN “The world’s favorite airline” “Quality is our number one job” “Jeevan ke saath bhi jeevan ke baad bhi” Colors It helps for a company or a brand to use a consistent set of color to and in the brand recognition. a favorable one. IBM uses blue in its publications. and set of stories. a slogan. Yellow is the color of Kodak film. and IBM is called “Big Blues”.

Cartoons and Animations A less expensive approach is to develop a character. even naming the product after them. suggesting that buying insurance is equivalent to having an umbrella available when it rains. The travelers’ insurance company uses an umbrella. Even the way the brand name is written makes a brand recognizable and memorable. to advertise its shoes. The prudential insurance company features the rock of Gibraltar. hoping that his or her quality transfer to the brand. 7 . suggesting that buying an insurance is equivalent to “owing a peace of rock “which is of course. The advertising agency Leo Burnett has successfully created a number of memorable animated characters. animated. to etch the brand’s image into customer’s mind. Here are some well known brand cartoons which people may recognize: Company ICICI Prudential Amul Butter McDonalds All Out mosquito Repellent Pillsbury 7 Up Objects Cartoon or Animation Chintamani Utterly Butterly Girl Ronald Louis Doughboy Fido Dido Still another approach is to choose an object to represent a company or brand. Sporting goods manufacturers sign contracts with top athletes to serve as their symbols. Many companies hire a well-known spokesperson. Companies have developed many logos or abstracts. which are easily remembered by people. Nike uses Michael Jordon who has worldwide recognition and likableness.Symbols and Logos Companies would be wise to adapt a symbol or logo to use in their communications. solid ad dependable.

• Distinctiveness: your brand should be distinct when compared to your competitors and to all spoken and visual communications to which your target audiences will be exposed. defendable. In rapidly evolving market for consumer. Marketers who match their brand with customers needs will have a sustainable competitive advantage. Measuring Brand Effectiveness There are many metrics to measure the potential of and actual effectiveness of brands. The simplest way is to apply the concept of what we call the 4 D’s of Branding. the wider the filed of effective competitive strength it will have. branding has become a source of competitive advantage. and industrial products and services. the price premium associated with the products categories. In this briefing we demonstrate how to calculate the brand strength. and type of customers attracted to the “Premium Products”. The more unique and distinct your communications.5 Brand Effectiveness With an increase in global competition. 8 . There are simple means to apply to test the distinctiveness of your brand. This applies to your trade names and other proprietary words as well as to your logos. differentiation. • Differentiation: the brand strategy and brand assets must set you’re offering apart and clearly articulate the specific positioning intent of your offering. symbols and other visual assets. • Defendable: you will be investing in creating your brand assets and in all cases your brand must have proprietary strength to keep others from using close approximations. digit-able. distinctiveness.1. the source of next generation competency will be branding.

But are or not a potential customer. They hate McDonald’s hamburgers but might love their stock market record and therefore be a potential customer for their stock. a citizen. They will never buy a Boeing 777 but might be impressed by the aircraft and favor an airline that flies them. The ad describing a gracious hotel chain is belied by the behavior of a surly concierge. Since all the employees. but might be persuaded that it is a good thing to have in my PC and therefore buy a computer from a company that uses them. or almost anybody. People may be an employee. Building brand therefore calls for more than brand image building. but cannot envisage any circumstance under which they would (could!) buy a Mercedes.• Digit-able: in most businesses there is strong and growing element of electronic communications and commerce that dictate all brand assets be leveraged effectively in tactile and electronics form. They are aware of Marlboro (and scores of other cigarette brands) but as a non-smoker they will never convert their awareness into purchase. Much can go wrong. or not at all. Male with no children are not targeted by Pampers or Huggies but still are aware of the brands. Awareness of a brand may be irrelevant to any purchasing decision that an individual may make. an interested observer. They have no idea what an Intel chip is. This goes for all brand assets. 1. A fine brand of canned soup described in a full page color ad may be found in dented and dusty condition in the bottom shelf of a supermarket.. But its job doesn’t stop there. a husband and so on. The mind it exists in may be that of a customer. 9 . It calls for managing every brand contact that customer might have with brand. distributors and dealers can affect brand experience. People are aware of the Mercedes car brand. a potential customer. an investor..6 Brand and Reputation A brand exists in the mind. a disinterested observer. People wear many hats. Much of the brand manager’s work is to build a brand image. The brand manager needs to make sure that brand experience matches the brand image.

These companies’ reputations are part and parcel of their brand. internationality. Those potential employees join companies because of their reputation.  He views a Coca-Cola bottler's facility. It is a brand which may represent (to any one individual) diversity. a service brand and a brand with a long history.  He visits a corporate website.  He attends an interview at the company. that the media and other "stakeholders" judge a company on its reputation in some way as a distinct concept from its brand.  He meets an employee of the company. This part argues that such distinctions are fallacious for all companies. For example Coca-Cola is a company brand.Brand Aware argues that there is no difference between "Brand" and "Reputation". but especially for single brand companies such as a McDonalds. perceptions and associations that have grown up over time. abuse of power and other negative perceptions. a Compaq or a Shell. environmental pollution.  He buys a Coca-Cola branded product or service. Perceiving the brand: An individual builds up his perceptions of a brand via a wide range of communications channels. Some conventional wisdoms state that customers buy brands. The Brand To any individual a brand (in his mind) is a complex combination of experiences. 10 . They are as follows: • Experience: The most powerful influence is experiential. This is when the individual actually has a "Brand experience". technical excellence. beliefs. Their brands are their reputation. etc. a Coca-Cola. The most obvious are:  He visits a McDonald’s restaurant or a Shell petrol station. financial strength etc. a product brand. It may also mean insensitivity. but that investors buy reputations.  He contacts the company office for information.

 He buys a share in the company. or travels to one on business or vacation. • Advertising: Over time an individual who lives in a country in which the company/brand is active. will be exposed to their advertising. • Media reports and stories: Individuals will be exposed to a wide variety of reports about companies in the media (print and broadcast) where the editorial content is only partly influence able by the company (in some cases) or not at all (in most cases). This advertising may be in a wide range of media:  TV commercials for products and services  Recruitment ads inviting employment applications  "Corporate" TV commercials promoting the company's "reputation"  Web based advertising  An ad for the company’s branded products or services in a wide variety of print media. They will usually procure their information from a variety of 11 . or from a specific business need.) • Professional/business interest: For some individuals to interface professionally.  Billboards on highways  Radio  Point of sale etc. These stories will come from a variety of primary and secondary sources:  Press releases  Press conferences  Reporting of "events"  Investigative journalism  Stories passed to the media by third parties (Non governmental organizations etc. with famous companies (or to observe them) is part of their job. etc.

It should not carry poor meanings in other countries and languages etc. Healthy choice). performances and expectations does it evoke? What degree of preferences does it create? Choosing a Brand Name A brand name first must be chosen then its various meanings and promises must be built up through brand identity work. For example. short names help a lot to recognize the product to the customers. It should be distinctive. In choosing a brand name. Then price is the thing that counts. it will probably be viewed as a commodity. Some are: • • • • • It should suggest something about the product benefits. When price is the only thing that counts then the low cost producer wins. What does the brand name mean? What associations. location (American airlines). Building Positive Associations The best known brand names carry associations. quality (Safety stores. or an artificial name (Exxon.7 Building the Brand The art of marketing is largely art of brand building. When something is not a brand. it must be consistent with the value positioning of the brand. These individuals have a special interest in the companies and they include:  Financial analysts and journalists with an interest in share performance  Existing or potential suppliers of products and services  Existing or potential industrial/commercial customers 1. It should suggest product qualities such action or color It should be easy to pronounce. In naming a product or service the company may face many possibilities: it could choose name of the person (Honda. Kodak). recognize and remember. Calvin Klein). Among the desirable qualities of a brand name. But just having a brand is not enough. here is a list of words that people say they associate with McDonalds: • Kids 12 .sources and via a variety of channels of communication.

then it would be a weak brand. affluent and professional. serious. Thus we would expect Mercedes to draw buyers who are older. Thus Mercedes triggers the idea of well performing car that is enjoyable to drive and prestigious to own. Thus a Mercedes automobile attributes a picture of well-engineered car that is durable. • Benefits: A strong brand should suggest benefits. If Mercedes were an animal we might think of lion or its implied personality. well-organized and somewhat authoritarian. the brand builder should consider five dimensions that can communicate meaning: • Attributes: A strong brand should trigger in buyers mind certain attributes. not just features. Thus Mercedes is proud of its engineers and engineering innovations and is very organized and efficient in its operations. rugged and expensive. Donald Quality Toys In trying to build a rich set of positive associations for a brand. • Users: A strong brand should suggest the type of people who buy the brand. If a car brand does not trigger any attribute. Thus if Mercedes were a person we would think of someone who is middle age. 13 . • Company Values: A strong brand should connote values that the company holds.• • • • • Fun Happy Meal Ronald Mc. The fact that it is a German company adds more pictures in the mind of the buyers about the character and the culture of the brand. • Personality: A strong brand should exhibit some personality traits.

8 Choosing Brand Elements Brand elements are those trademarks devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand. Nike can help. the empowering “Just Do It” slogan and the mythological “Nike” name based on the winged goddess of victory. Nike has distinctive “swoosh” logo. company values. 1.In summary. Most strong brands employ multiple brand elements. The brand builder’s job is to create a brand identity that builds on those dimensions. The latter three are more defensive and are concerned with how the brand equity contained in the brand element can be leveraged and preserved in the face of various opportunities and constraints. The test of the brand building ability of these elements is what consumers think or feel about the product if they only knew about the brand element. personality and users in the buyer’s mind. Brand Element Choice Criteria There are six criteria in choosing brand element. benefits. Brand element can be chosen to build as much as brand equity as possible. A brand element provides positive contribution to brand equity. brands when their very name connotes positive attributes. The first three can be characterized by brand building in terms of how brand equity can be build through judicious choice of brand element. • Meaningful: To what extent is brand element credible and suggestive of the corresponding category? Does it suggest something about a product ingredient or a type of person who might use the brand? 14 . • Memorable: How easily is the brand element recalled? How easily recognized? Is this true at both purchase and consumption? Short brand name like tide.

Brand elements can play a number of roles.• Likeability: How aesthetically appealing does consumers find the brand element? Is it inherently likeable visually. Jell-O. she doesn’t look a day over 35. If consumers do not examine much information in making their product decisions. Xerox. etc retain their trademarks rights and not become generic. Sunsilk etc evoke much imagery. • Protectable: How legally protectable is the brand element? How competitively protectable? Can it be easily copied? It is important that names that become synonymous with product categories such as Kleenex. The different associations that arise from likeability and appeal of the brand elements may also play a critical role in the equity of brand. 15 . Memorable or meaningful brand elements can reduce the burden on marketing communications to build awareness and link brand associations. verbally. • Transferable: Can a brand element be used to introduce new products in the same or different categories? To what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? • Adaptable: How adaptable and updatable is the brand element? Betty corker received 8 makeovers through the years-although she is 75 yrs old. and in other ways? Concrete brand names such as Wheel. brand elements should be easily recognized and recalled and inherently descriptive and persuasive.

sustainable. brand equity represents the degree to which a brand's name alone contributes value to the offering (again. there are several common characteristics of the many definitions that are used today. it is the consumer that is the most critical component in defining brand equity. and parent corporations that permit the brand to earn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand name and that gives the brand a strong.1. However. From the following examples it is clear that brand equity is multi-dimensional. In other words. and differentiated advantage over competitors. the consumer. channel members. and some would even argue the financial markets. But ultimately.9 What is Brand Equity? There is no universally accepted definition of brand equity." • The Marketing Science Institute (1988) defines brand equity as. from the perspective of the consumer). the channel. Some researchers in the field of marketing have defined brand equity as follows: • Lance Leuthesser. including the firm. "The set of associations and behaviors on the part of the brand's customers. There are several stakeholders concerned with brand equity. The term means different things for different companies and products. above that which would result for an otherwise identical product without the brand's name. et al (1995) writes that "… brand equity represents the value (to a consumer) of a product." 16 .

they will each be briefly explained. For acquisitions.when it is sold or included on a balance sheet. and the actual price that a brand may get when sold? A brand is likely to have a much greater value to one purchaser than another depending on the synergy that exists. and brand description will usually affect or explain some of the brand loyalty." the second "brand loyalty. some of which will be described shortly.Brand equity can be defined as three distinct elements: • • • The total value of a brand as a separable asset -. The reasons for doing this are usually to set a price when the brand is sold and also to include the brand as an intangible asset on a balance sheet (a practice which is not used in some countries)." Brand loyalty will be a factor that affects the overall brand value. the value of a brand to a certain purchaser is often estimated through scenario planning. Of those three concepts. Because of the importance of each of these elements of brand equity. and brand value needs to be considered as only one component of the overall equity of a brand. Brand Equity as Brand Value. A measure of the strength of consumers' attachment to a brand. A description of the associations and beliefs the consumer has about the brand. the first can be classified as "brand valuation." and the third "brand description. it is important to note that there is a significant difference between an "objective" valuation created for balance sheet purposes. What this means is that there is no such thing as an absolute value for a brand. This involves determining what future cash flows the company could achieve if it owned and took advantage of the brand. While there are many methods for making this measurement. 17 . Brand value involves actually placing a dollar or rupee value on a brand name.

Attitudinal measures--focus on general evaluative measures such as 'liking' or 'disliking. and you could have all the bricks and mortar . An example of this sort of belief is: “If the businesses were split up. trademarks and goodwill. brand equity.” The optimism for the concept can be stated on the fact that when one would say as a predictor of future financial performance. The variety of measures used for brand loyalty usually is a combination of one or more of the following: • Price/demand measures--focus on a brand's ability to command a higher price or make consumers less sensitive to price increases than price increases for competing brands. if reported.and I would fare better than you. • • Behavioral measures--focus on consumers' behavior. It represents a barrier to entry. I would take the brands. Brand equity has the potential to become the set of measures of business performance that matter most. a basis for a price premium.Brand Equity as Brand Loyalty Loyalty is a core dimension of brand equity and is a way to gauge the strength of a brand. and time to respond to competitive innovations. • Brand Loyalty and Equity refer to the notion that some brands are "stronger" or better than others.' • Awareness measures--focus on identifying a brand as being associated with a product category. 18 . would be valuable for capital marketers and shareholders.

One of the things is that as with many concepts in marketing. after sales service. or building brands. This "strength" can take a number of forms. Consumers saying good things about your brand. But the question is as always how do we know? That is are we actually building the brand with all our advertising (or other brand building 4 p’s decisions e.So. which might be represented by a high share of category requirements. Future strength might be in terms of some sort of long-term competitive advantage or the ability to sustain brand extensions. So that is a problem. having a positive brand Attitude. At least one advertising agency offers to partner companies in this sort of activity.g. or high proportion of sole-buyers. It might be the ability to not be substituted when out of stock. So marketing strategies could be putting money into (or out of) the brand equity bank account. see no immediate effects. such as sales or profit and these are accounted for in the firm’s profit and loss figures. consumers predominantly buying your brand. 19 .g. hopefully you have got the idea . but you could save your job by saying that you had "built the brand"..The motivation for brand equity comes from the observation that many marketing efforts "realize" benefits. However. limited / premium distribution rights. We need to be clear just what people mean when they talk about brand equity or brand loyalty. there is the possibility that management might choose between taking realized benefits and "storing" them future.. is that there are many different definitions and viewpoints on what exactly brand equity is and how to measure it. fancy packing. high price. You could spend lots of money on advertising. e..theories about brand loyalty and equity are used to represent aspects of brand strength. it might be the ability to charge a price premium.g. e. One of the most common times this argument is used is when discussing the role of advertising versus sales promotion. extended warranties).

associations and awareness. The focus can be the last use experience or simply the use experience from the customer's view.Brand loyalty / Equity advocates One of the ruses used by proponents of brand equity or loyalty is to claim that these measures do not capture all the important aspects of brands strength. Brand Equity as Brand Description Brand description. They work by getting the respondent to link each brand with pictures or words. The first four categories represent customer perceptions of the brand along the four dimensions of brand equityloyalty. But this is an evasion. These attributes or associations are major creators of brand loyalty. the final component of brand equity. The fifth includes two sets of market behavior measures. concerns the actual attributes of the brand. A wide variety of techniques exist for matching consumer associations with perceptions of a brand. Customer Satisfaction: A direct measure of customer satisfaction can be applied to existing customers. These attributes then can be measured with multi-dimensional scaling to position the attributes relative to one another. perceived quality. 20 . which attempt to gauge the strength of a brand. and so we need to know ways that this might show up in. Qualitative Measures of Brand Equity The Brand Equity Ten are ten sets of measures grouped into five categories. We want to be able to detect that our efforts are doing something to the brand. Loyalty Price Premium: A basic indicator of loyalty is the amount a customer will pay for a product in comparison to other comparable products. A price premium can be determined by simply asking consumers how much more they would be willing to pay for the brand. These techniques can be both qualitative and quantitative.

Third. Leadership/Popularity has three dimensions. Namely. Awareness Measures Brand awareness reflects the salience of the product in the consumer's mind and involves various levels including recognition. Brand Personality: This element is based on the brand-as-person perspective.Perceived Quality and Leadership Measures Perceived Quality is one of the key dimensions of brand equity and has been shown to be associated with price premiums. brand usage and stock return. its popularity and its innovative qualities. Organizational Associations: This dimension considers the type of organization that lies behind the brand. brand dominance. the brand personality can provide links to the brands emotional and self-expressive benefits. people are uneasy swimming against the tide are a likely to buy a popular product. First. For some brands. leadership taps the dynamics of consumer acceptance. 21 . if enough consumers are buying into the brand concept it must have merit. This can be measured by asking consumers about the product's leadership position. price elasticities. recall. It can be calculated by asking consumers to directly compare similar brands. and brand knowledge and brand opinion. leadership often taps innovation within a product class. Associations/ Differentiation Measures Perceived Value: This dimension simply involves determining whether the product provides good value for the money and whether there are reasons to buy this brand over competitive brands. Second.

and consumers reacted so poorly to the new product that the old formula was reintroduced and the new formula eventually was discontinued. the equity delivered to the consumer is also changed. They changed the formula of their flagship product Coke.Market Behavior Measures Market Share: The performance of a brand as measured by market share often provides a valid and dynamic reflection of the brand's standing with customers. The most famous example is Coca-Cola. Managing brand equity is a continual process with long-term implications. It is critical for managers to realize that brand equity can have positive as well as negative effects on a product or company. If management feels it is necessary to change the direction of a brand or change a product it must be careful not to change too quickly. consumers met changes with adverse reactions. On these occasions. Managing Brand Equity Consistency is the key to successfully building and managing brand equity. The product has certain attributes or characteristics that deliver the equity to the consumer. Relative market price can be calculated by dividing the average price at which the product was sold during the month by the average price at which all the brands were sold. If any of these attributes are changed or eliminated. Calculating market price and distribution coverage can provide or more accurate picture of the product's true strength. it is the customer that truly defines what brand equity means. many brand managers are forced to focus on short-term goals such as market share and profits. Many programs that are implemented to boost short-term sales or market share 22 . In the end. The consumer through the product experiences brand equity. Having a long-term outlook and projecting a consistent image of your brand to the customer will maximize the results of building brand equity. There are many examples of companies that have changed a product or brand too much or too quickly. Unfortunately. Price and Distribution indices: Market share can prove deceptive when it increases as a result of reduced prices or promotions.

brand equity is the only point of differentiation between products. Chairman of Ogilvy and Mather Worldwide. In 1988. For example. but it is actually a cross-functional team effort. "I doubt that many would welcome a commodity marketplace in which one competed solely on price. in part. Many people may think that building and maintaining brand equity is solely the responsibility of brand managers.may be detrimental to the long-term viability of the brand. said. all of which can be easily duplicated by competition. It may be more cost effective to extend a current brand than introduce a new brand. and eventual bankruptcy. brand equity is damaged. For example. Marketing research can also help determine how brand equity is actually measured." This quote clearly demonstrates the importance of managing brand equity. Constant promotional programs erode margins and eventually brand loyalty. This would lead to ever decreasing profits. Financial managers are important because they can fully analyze the costs of maintaining and building brand equity. promotion and trade deals. This is. Once a definition of brand equity is established. In many categories. Proctor & Gamble has started to test market a program to move away from using coupons to a system of every day low prices. because consumers may become loyal to the coupon or promotion and not to the product itself. of the research and data that companies will use for deciding strategic issues. It develops most. decay. Graham Phillips. the responsibility of tracking 23 . Ultimately. About the only aspect of the marketing mix that cannot be duplicated is a strong brand image. if not all. launching a new brand is extremely consuming in terms of money and time. Marketing research is critical for many obvious reasons.

Branding benefits buyers as well as sellers in the following manner To Buyer: • • • • • • Help buyers identify the product that they like/dislike. The brand makes use of and co-ordinates a full repertoire of marketing activities to build equity. Helps buyers evaluate quality of products especially if unable to judge products characteristics.. sustained support. The company monitors source of brand equity. The brand stays relevant. The brand is properly positioned. The brand’s manager understands what the brand means to customers. The brand is given proper.10 The World Strongest Brand Share 10 Attributes • • • • • • • • • • The brand excels at delivering the benefits consumers truly desire. Identify marketer Helps reduce the time needed for purchase. 1. 24 . The brand is consistent. The pricing strategy is based on consumer perceptions of value. The brand portfolio and hierarchy makes sense. i. Rolex or Mercedes.e. Helps reduce buyers’ perceived risk of purchase.9. Buyer may derive a psychological reward from owning the brand.

• • • • Easier cooperation with intermediaries with well known brands Facilitates promotional efforts. i. Example.. Reduce price comparisons Brand helps firm introduce a new product that carries the name of one or more of its existing products. Helps foster brand loyalty helping to stabilize market share. Contact lenses Brand identifies the companies’ products making repeat purchases easier for customers.half as much as using a new brand. advertising and promotional costs.. Firms may be able to charge a premium for the brand. lower co. designs.e.. BPL telephones. 25 .To Seller: • • • • • Differentiate product offering from competitors Helps segment market by creating tailored images.

Nike also used “swoosh” logo sign to bring immediate recall value. pick on sleeping politicians to get their value across. then why not?” HLL’s Annapoorna uses Flintstone like characters to drive its USP. the claymation Chintamani of ICICI. Digital characters are fast stepping into the realm of corporate brands. while the Claymation characters Of Amaron. Hutch’s Boy-Girl duo. and also serve as a memory hook to pick a particular brand from clutter”. 26 . the Handiplast Boy. “Toon illustrations create excitement. McCann’s new commercial for Coca-Cola’s vanilla variant has the model blowing animated. almost becoming part of the logo of the brand – like A-I am Maharaja or Amul Girl. Industry officials say animation could be used as creative idea to express a particular value.1 Toon Branding Looks like the ad industry can’t have enough of animation. heart-shaped kisses for the audience. Fido-Dido of 7-Up etc are some of the examples of the toons used for marketing the product. “Most advisers are using animation for top of the mind recall” says McCann Erickson’s Prasoon Joshi. Kellogg’s animated kid and bear are intertwined in people’s minds. ALL ABOUT TOON BRANDING 2. as well as the classic Asian paint’s ex-mascot Gattoo. an O&M creative.2. or it could be a sacrosanct image. The toons in All Out Mosquito repellent ad. the Amul girl. O&M’s Piyush Pandey says his firm encourages the idea of breaking form. “Creative people have to look at different ways to get message across. and if that means exploring other forms of art.

First it was retro advertising. but the kid was killed after he was linked to child labour. Creative director. “We used to do three animation ad films a year five years ago.Suresh. Asian Paint’s Gattoo was the rage. “Animation is no kid stuff anymore. One sees a fair number of youth and adult targeted content happening in the form of animation in films and TV shows these days. Famous House of Animation. an animated poodle talking to Rani Mukherjee and her gang of friends in the Fanta commercial. for that matter.they’ve all got the cool punch with animation. The ad world’s latest obsession is with animation. 27 . E. ICICI Prudential’s Chintamani and Anand Rathi Securities happening in the past few months. Be it Bollywood actress Mallika Sherawat asking Fido to make her more curvy or Aishwarya Rai diving into the sea with a Frisbee or. and then there was the trend of using real kids. companies across sectors are more willing than ever before to use animation in their ad films.Welde claims to have used animation where it could add to the creative quotient of the commercial which give something unexpected to the audience. Mr. general manager.” says Rahul Welde. However at times they are given a hasty burial. now it’s two every month. a division of Famous Studios. With a string of animated commercials such as Pepsodent (Bhoot Police). media.As mnemonics flow thick and fast characters get established in the consumers mind. Hindustan Unilever Limited.” says. The number of animation ad films produced per year in the past five years has increased at least eight times and feature films like Hum Tum (had cartoons of Saif Ali Khan And Rani Mukherjee coming in between the film)are backing the overall trend around animation.

Besides the advantage of visual appeal.Lova Lova. “It’s a nice way of doing a boring script. Moreover. The contribution to the sales of pension schemes of the group rose 30% after the campaign. Animated ones cost around Rs. Shrek. the Chintamani ad was initially a radio jingle.” says Chauhan of JWT 28 . it broke the clutter and became likeable in a very non-financial advertising style. what creative directors hate about animation is the fact that it takes a lot more time “For A Fido itself.a gradual transformation over the past few years. most of the global award winning campaigns have used animation extensively. But there are scripts that needs animation to prove the point as in the case of Oye Bubbly (Pepsi Commercial) last year.” points Ashish Chakravarty. Malaysia. can be done away with. director marketing. Run Lola Run. who was then involved in launching the campaign from ICICI Prudential. Grrr Honda. head creative.“Gross thinks at time look cute in animation rather than the real thing. Industry sources say a simple animation ad is less expensive than an ad with decent production quality that costs around Rs. such as stunts. 70-80 Lakh.for instance the stunt in the Lux Commercial couldn’t be done so perfectly by the real character (here Aishwarya Rai) vis-à-vis the animated character. all of which have cutting edge animation. “However a real character interacting with an animated character is not a novelty. many complex issues.” says Abhishekh Bhatia. However. we need to work for three weeks to get it absolutely right. be it Euro RSCG’s Waterboy. say in case of a fat man. VP and Senior Creative Director at JWT. Unileaf Tea or Levi’s Mr. It is a style and a lot of people are catching on it but this is not the end of it.Kill Bill. Lion King. Prudential Assurance. Contract Advertising. The popularity of cartoons among youngsters. There are other viewpoints too. With Claymation (clay + animation).” says Anuja Chauhan. Animation ad also helps keep costs down. 30-40lakh on an average. with the use of animation.

looked. No other brand comes even close to it. She expects the worst but can see no signs of an accident. Mrs. She is the Amul moppet everyone loves to love (including prickly votaries of the Shiv Sena and BJP)." recalls Sheela Mane. winking at you.000 tonnes a year in 1997. For 30 odd years the Utterly Butterly girl has managed to keep her fan following intact. Round eyed. I remember it was our favorite topic of discussion for the next one week! Everywhere we went somehow or the other the campaign always seemed to crop up in our conversation. 29 . dressed in her little polka dotted dress and a red and white bow. Sheela Mane. chuckled at the Amul hoarding that casts her sometime as the coy.2. There are other people too. All because a thumb-sized girl climbed on to the hoardings and put a spell on the masses.2 CASE STUDY AMUL BUTTER GIRL (The moppet who put Amul on India's breakfast table) 50 years after it was first launched. The crowd seems to be growing larger by the minute. from strategically placed hoardings at many traffic lights." Call her the Friday to Friday star. holding out her favourite packet of butter. From her second floor flat she can see her neighbors on the road. chubby cheeked. The ultimate compliment to the butter came when a British company launched butter and called it Utterly Butterly. a bold sensuous Urmila or simply as herself. a 28-year-old housewife is out in the balcony drying clothes. "It was the first Amul hoarding that was put up in Mumbai. Unable to curb her curiosity Sheela Mane hurries down to see what all the commotion is about. How often have we stopped. Amul's sale figures have jumped from 1000 tonnes a year in 1966 to over 25. last year. So much so that the ads are now ready to enter the Guinness Book of World Records for being the longest running campaign ever. It is her four-year-old who draws her attention to the hoarding that has come up overnight. Bombay (Summer of 1967) : A Charni Road flat. shy Madhuri. "People loved it.

This one was sexy. Sylvester daCunha decided it was time for a change of image. corporate ads.It all began in 1966 when Sylvester daCunha.. And who better than a little girl?" says Sylvester daCunha. "Eustace Fernandez (the art director) and I decided that we needed a girl who would worm her way into a housewife's heart. The Amul girl who lends herself so completely to Amul butter. boring image. The baseline simply said. Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul." recalls Sylvester daCunha. had a staid. It was a matter of just a few hours before the daCunha office was ringing with calls. The butter. village belle. lamp kiosks and the bus sites of the city were splashed with the moppet on a horse. gimmickry and all else. created as a rival to the Polson butter girl." 30 . the country saw the birth of a campaign whose charm has endured fickle public opinion. And so it came about that the famous Amul Moppet was born. The year Sylvester daCunha took over the account. then the managing director of the advertising agency. That October. clinched the account for Amul butter. One of the first Amul hoardings In India. "The response was phenomenal. which had been launched in 1945. clothed in a tantalizing choli all but covering her upper regions. It had been taken too seriously. Not just adults. even children were calling up to say how much they had liked the ads. ASP. "We knew our campaign was going to be successful. for too long. food was something one couldn't afford to fool around with. Thorough bread. primarily because the earlier advertising agency which was in charge of the account preferred to stick to routine.

cholbe na cholbe na (won't do. In 1967. We have a campaign that is strong enough to make a statement. "We ran a couple of ads that created quite a furore. I didn't want the hoardings to be pleasant or tame. "They are almost part of our culture. They said if they didn't take down the ads they would stop supplying Amul butter on the plane. or making an impact. If the Naxalite movement was the happening thing in Calcutta. "The Indian Airlines one really angered the authorities. There are stories about the butter that people like to relate over cups of tea." Despite some of the negative reactions that the ads have got." she laughs. Sylvester decided that giving the ads a solid concept would give them extra mileage. What does she do with these ads? "I have made an album of them to amuse my grandchildren. Sumona Varma. Sylvester daCunha. They make them aware of what is happening around them. Amul would be up there on the hoardings saying. Indian Airlines won’t fly without Amul. If there was an Indian Airlines strike Amul would be there again saying. Hurry Hurry'. "Bread without Amul Butter. There are numerous ads that are risqué in tone." says Rahul daCunha. India looked forward to Amul's evocative humour. That was the first of the many topical ads that were in the offing. Mohammad Khan and Usha Bhandarkar."We had the option of being sweet and playing it safe. aren't they? My grandchildren are already beginning to realize that these ads are not just a source of amusement. They have to say something. so to say. It was a decision that would stand the daCunhas in good stead in the years to come.For the first one year the ads made statements of some kind or the other but they had not yet acquired the topical tone. "says Mrs." he 31 . A fine balance had to be struck. So ultimately we discontinued the ad. more dum.'Hurry Amul. Bombay reacted to the ad with a fervor that was almost as devout as the Iskon fever. From then on Amul began playing the role of a social observer. then the creative team working on the Amul account came up with a clincher -. In 1969. "For over 10 years I have been collecting Amul ads. when the city first saw the beginning of the Hare Rama Hare Krishna movement. won't do). DaCunhas have made it a policy not to play it safe." says Sylvester daCunha. Over the years the campaign acquired that all important Amul touch. I especially like the ads on the backs of the butter packets.

" There were other instances too. Amul's little joke on Hussain had the artist ringing the daCunhas up to request them for a blow up of the ad "He said that he had seen the hoarding while passing through a small district in UP. DATA ANALYSIS 32 . Indians do have a sense of humour. The Gandhi cap was a symbol of independence. Even when the Enron ads (Enr on or off) were running. 3.says laughing. Heroine Addiction. the Amul ads have come a long way. They don't pander to your nationality or certain sentiments. From the Sixties to the Nineties. That we laugh because the humour is what anybody would enjoy. He said he had asked his assistant to take a photograph of himself with the ad because he had found it so funny. they couldn't have anyone not taking that seriously. It is pure and simple. "Then there was an ad during the Ganpati festival which said. The Shiv Sena people said that if we didn't do something about removing the ad they would come and destroy our office. afterall. It is surprising how vigilant the political forces are in this country. Then there was the time when the Amul girl was shown wearing the Gandhi cap. Rebecca Mark wrote to us saying how much she liked them. Ganpati Bappa More Ghya (Ganpati Bappa take more). The high command came down heavy on that one. While most people agree that the Amul ads were at their peak in the Eighties they still maintain that the Amul ads continue to tease laughter out of them. So despite their reluctance the hoardings were wiped clean. everyday fun. Where does Amul's magic actually lie? Many believe that the charm lies in the catchy lines." says Rahul daCunha in amused tones.

Indentify the following toon mascots and their products or either of the one: ____________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 1st page of questionnaire 33 .1 SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE BRANDING-SPECIAL FOCUS ON TOON BRANDING QUESTIONAIRE Q1.3.

Why do you think this brand mascot is the most memorable one? 34 . Can you recognize a product on the basis of its brand mascot alone? Always Sometime Often Very Rare Q3.Q2. Do you relate any product with toons? Always Sometime Often Very Rare Q4. Do you think nowadays brand mascots are losing importance to brand personality? Yes No Don’t Know Q5. Which is your most memorable toon mascot? Amul Butter Girl Fido Dido Chintamani (ICICI) Any other __________________ Q6.

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Q9. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Q8.A6. Toon Mascot is mare popular in the rural or urban areas? Give reasons? A8. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2nd page of questionnaire Q7. What features do you think a toon mascot should possess so as to remember over a long period of time? Cute Happy Face Suitable to the product Innovative Entertaining Any other _____________________ `Q10. Would you like if toon mascots are also advertised through clothing. bags etc? Yes 35 . accessories. If you are to launch a new product will you depend on a brand personality of a toon mascot to build the brand image of your product? Give reasons? A7.

71 % 8. 2 S t at i s t i c a l D a t a Q1. of 15 respondents (out of 35) (Y Axis) % 42.No Depends on the mascot Don’t know NAME: AGE: PROFESSION: _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 3rd page of questionnaire 3 .86 % 25.86 % 22. of toons correctly identified (X axis) 5 8 4 9 3 3 2 0 1 0 6 No.57% 0 0 36 . Identify the following toon mascots and their products or either of the one? 1 No.

57% i.57% 57. Can you recognize a product on the basis of its brand mascot alone? 2 Recognition of product on basis of brand mascot (X axis) Sometime 20 Often 12 Very Rare 0 Always No.e. Q2. The most identified mascot is 7up Fido-Dido whereas monster.14% 34.Interpretation: Out of the 35 respondent 15 were able to identify all the products correctly on the basis of its toon mascot alone which comes up to 42.Whereas only 8.86%. only 3 persons were not able to identify all the products correctly.29% 0 37 . of 3 respondents (out of 35) Y-Axis % 8.com was the least popular one.

71% . of respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % Ability of relating products with toons (X Axis) Always 3 Sometime 14 Often 16 Very Rare 2 38 8.7% 5.57% were always able to recognize the product on the basis of its brand mascot Q3.Interpretation: Of the 35 respondents 20 said. that they were sometimes able to recognize the product on the basis of Brand Mascot alone which comes to around 57.57% 40% 45. Whereas only 8. Do you relate any product with toons? 3 No.14% of the total sample size.

Whereas only 5. Do you think nowadays Brand Mascots are losing importance to Brand Personality? 39 .7%.Interpretation: Out of 35 respondents 16 people often related the products with their toon mascots which come up to around 45.71% of the respondents very rarely related the products with toons Q4.

43% of the total people surveyed had the opinion that Brand Mascots are not losing importance to Brand Personality whereas 14. of 12 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 34.4 Brand Mascots are losing importance to Brand Personality (X-axis) No 18 Don’t No 5 Yes No.29% 51. Which is your most memorable toon mascot? 40 .29% Interpretation: 51.43% 14.29% had no opinion regarding the same Q5.

86% 0 Interpretation: on the basis of the survey conducted 85.71% 14.5 Most Memorable Toon Mascot (X-axis) Fido Dido 5 Chintamani 1 Any Other 0 Amul Butter Girl No.71% of the respondents opted for Amul Butter Girl as their most memorable toon mascot followed by Fido-Dido and Chintamani with 14. of 30 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 85.29%and 2.86% respectively 41 .29% 2.

28% 11.42% 20% 11.Q6. of 12 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 34.42% 42 . Why do you think this Brand Mascot is most memorable one? 6 Reason for Amul Butter Girl being most memorable (X-axis) Cute/ Happy 5 Good Attention Animation Seeking 4 7 Innovative 4 Long Lasting No.28% 14.

If you are to launch a new product will you depend on a brand personality or a toon mascot to build the brand image of your product? 43 .Interpretation: According to the survey conducted Amul Butter Girl is the most memorable toon mascot because it has been in the market since a very long time and also it is very attention seeking because it is always related to the current affairs Q7.

28% 17.14% 5.85% Interpretation: 34.7 Dependence for the launch of new product (X-axis) Toon Mascot Brand Personality 6 Both 2 Some Other Method 3 Depends On product 8 No. Toon Mascot is more popular in Rural or Urban areas? 44 .71% 8. Q8. of 12 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 34.28% of the total population surveyed opted to depend on a toon mascot for the launch of their new product 5.57% 22.71% thought of using both the toon mascot and personality for the launch of their product.

14% 28. 45 .14% of the total population surveyed suggested that toon mascots are more popular in the urban areas due to high literacy rate whereas 28.57% Interpretation: 37.57% had the opinion of the toon being more popular in the rural areas because they identify the product on the basis of toons.57% 8. of 13 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 37.8 Popularity (X-axis) Rural 10 Both 3 Urban No.

46 .43% 48. of 11 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 31.29% Interpretation: 71.86% 71.43% thought that the toon mascot should possess the features which are suitable to the product followed by the toon being entertaining and innovative. What features do you think a toon mascot should possess so as to be remembered over along period of time? 9 Features of toon mascot to make him memorable (X-axis) Cute Happy Face 15 Suitable to Innovative product 25 17 Entertaining 19 No.51% 54.43% 42.Q9.

Q10. Would you like if the toon mascots are also advertised through clothing, accessories, bags etc?


Promotion of Toon mascots through clothing, accessories, bags, etc (X-axis) Yes No 1 Depends On Mascot 20 Don’t Know 1

No. of 13 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 37.14%




Interpretation: 57.14% of the total population surveyed suggested that the above mentioned promotion strategy should be used

depending upon the mascot whereas 37.14% would really like the promotion of toon mascot through clothing, accessories, bags etc.


3.4 Theoretical Data
From the survey conducted the following findings can be concluded:

Out of the 35 respondent 15 were able to identify all the products correctly on the basis of its toon mascot alone which comes up to 42.86% hence it can be concluded that toon mascots have almost been successful in their purpose of Brand recall, which means that more interesting toon advertisements, more brand recall.

Out of the 35 respondents 20 said, that they were sometimes able to recognize the product on the basis of Brand Mascot alone which comes to around 57.14% of the total sample size.


Whereas only 8.57% were always able to recognize the product on the basis of its brand mascot

Out of 35 respondents 16 people often related the products with their toon mascots which come up to around 45.7%. Whereas only 5.71% of the respondents very rarely related the products with toons. So if more companies opt for this strategy then the relation of the toons and products will definitely increase, impressing the viewers.

51.43% of the total people surveyed had the opinion that Brand Mascots are not losing importance to Brand Personality

whereas 14.29% had no opinion regarding the same. Brand mascot has its own identity and will definitely be more

appealing to the audience as it is a very innovative concept of advertising and promotion





the for

survey Amul

conducted Butter Girl

85.71% as


the most




memorable toon mascot followed by Fido-Dido and Chintamani with 14.29%and 2.86% respectively 49

According to the survey conducted Amul Butter Girl is the most memorable toon mascot because it has been in the market since a very long time and also it is very attention seeking because it is always related to the current affairs

34.28% of the total population surveyed opted to depend on a toon mascot for the launch of their new product 5.71% thought of using both the toon mascot and personality for the launch of their product. Thus it can be concluded people would really appreciate products. if companies use toons for promoting their

37.14% of the total population surveyed suggested that toon mascots are more popular in the urban areas due to high literacy rate whereas 28.57% had the opinion of the toon being more popular in the rural areas because they identify the product on the basis of toons. So companies operating in the rural areas can use more of toons to make their brand easily recognized and popular amongst the rural masses.


worthiness for the money that spend for it. bags. mobile phones but only “Branded”.1 Why it’s Branding? As a teenager I am very much fond of clothes. 51 . accessories and bags depends completely on the suitability of the toon that means that if the company using a toon mascot is thinking of using such promotional channels should design the toon in a manner that will be suitable and liked by the targeted audience 4.43% thought that the toon mascot should possess the features which are suitable to the product followed by the toon being entertaining and innovative. it gives me great pleasure buying favorite things from a branded company so that it represents quality.• 71. accessories. PERSONAL REVIEW 4. foot wears. • 57.14% of the total population surveyed suggested that promotion of the toon mascots through clothes. costliness. In real sense I am a “Branded Baby”.

This is relevant for the purchase of durable goods like mobile phone. But in case of FMCG products. Some examples for the same context are: PRODUCT Coconut Oil Detergents Toothpaste Pencil Photocopy Book BRAND NAME Parachute Ariel Colgate Nataraj Xerox Navneet Not only FMCGs nowadays companies of other products have also made a mark on the minds of people and are able to share the same priority for the purchase. Brands and Branded products are mainly popular in amongst the age group of 16-30 yrs. And some examples of such brands are: PRODUCT Jeans (Denim) Shoes Glares BRAND NAME Spykar Jeans Adidas Fast Track 52 .Like me other people are also crazy about the brands of the products that they purchase. once the brand or the company gives good quality product the customers become loyal to that brand and make it a point to spread positive word of mouth about the particular brand’s product. People nowadays have very good knowledge about brands that are available for a particular product and also for different types of product. television sets. In this sector some brands are so highly successful their brand name is the first to hit the customer’s mind while the purchase of that product. They gather enough information about different brands that are available for the product that they are willing to buy. washing machines etc.

Big Bazaar and many others which have created a good brand image. If friends are planning to go out for a movie. R-Mall. For fitness purposes people prefer popular fitness centers like Talwarkars. Gold’s Gym etc. L’Oreal etc.2 Difficulties faced 53 . Jet Airways. 4. Availing of transport services also happens through branded providers like Raj Travels and Tourism. they would go to Multiplexes and Cine Plazas which also provides them with the facility of shopping and also cafeterias where they have a good time with their friends. HDFC Bank etc. People also avail banking services from market leaders like ICICI Bank. Orbit Mall. Anything that girl needs to do to enhance her beauty she will first rush to branded outlets of the companies like Lakme. Center One.Make-up equipments Watches Lakme Fast Track or Titan Brand popularity is applicable not only for products but also for services and entertainment • Entertainment: By “Entertainment” I mean to say that people are now so much influenced by the brand that they also want to spend their leisure time under a “Branded Roof”. As being a management student it was a wonderful opportunity for me to work and research on a topic which interests me a lot. While working on this project I gained immense knowledge about branding which plays a very important role in the commercial world and also forms the base for commercial successes. If a family is about to go for shopping definitely they would visit a renowned branded mall Shopper’s Stop. • Services: Services have also become branded and popular amongst masses.

but I was not successful in doing so. The reasons behind the same are: • • Location difficulties The firm is so innovative in its concept of toon branding that the management definitely had no time for the appointment. then too not many people or even students are not aware of it.Working on this project was very much enriching. because it gave me a lot of knowledge relating to how to go about with branding of a product. Enriching and knowledgeable. They needed an explanation about what is toon branding and even searching information about different aspects of branding needed hard work. In spite of all these difficulties I was very successful in getting all the information about Amul Butter Girl because of excellent website designed by Amul. knowledgeable and tiring experience. As the project consists of special focus on “Toon Branding” I have also included case study on Amul Butter Girl which is a successful story for Toon Branding.3 Suggestions While working on the project I have gained almost complete knowledge about branding therefore I would always support branding and even suggest the companies to opt for it. other professors and friends who helped and encouraged me to work on this project. 54 . Not only about how to create a brand name for a product but it also taught me that once created a brand name how to maintain and continue with the quality and consistency of the product. Experience of working on this project was a tiring one because. Lastly I want to thank my guide. 4. As important decisions like “whether to go for toon branding or not?” are taken by the top management therefore I required an appointment with the personnel of the firm who had enough knowledge about this topic. although “Branding” and “Toon Branding” are not new concepts.

A good example in this context would The Amul Butter Girl (Amul Butter). and other industrial sectors and together spreads a message to use Amul butter in all situations of life. it is mainly used to promote the investment plans of ICICI so all the advertisements aims at increasing the importance of investments in the life of individuals and finally it leads to “No Chinta Only Money”. it makes the boring script interesting but care has to be taken by the firm that the designing of the toon is to be done in a manner that not only the toon mascot is memorable or the toon advertisement is remembered but also the sales of the product increases. and also Chintamani (ICICI). All the hoardings of Amul Butter Girl are so innovative and animated in such a manner that it makes the people aware of the current happenings in the world of politics. the process of branding. But the company should make a very correct and appropriate decision so as to how branding is to be done i. Whereas in case of Chintamani.Because it is a process through which the product will be able to find a place in the minds of the people within this competitive world and also gain the loyalty of the customer if the product spells quality. should be done correctly so that there are no misconceptions in the minds of the consumers to understand the use and capability of the product. which means that the toon mascot utilized should also represent the utility. brand mascot or a toon mascot for the promotion of the brand. and need of the product to the customer. The choice of different elements used to create a brand identity such as color. slogans. film industry. but here again the company will face limitations because it 55 . quality. and symbols etc. owned name.e. Toon branding is no doubt a good way to create a brand image. It is definitely a good idea if the firm is opting for toon branding because that is the latest advertising mantra used by many companies but it should be only used if it suits the requirement of product advertisements. clothing bags etc. The firm should use a brand personality. Not only advertisements toon mascots can also be promoted through prints on accessories.

“Always up to some Mischief”. But Chintamani will not be able to share the same popularity as Fido Dido because it is not used in all the Ads of the firm and also the positioning of the toon matters in this case. I illustrate the points as follows: • The Law of Contraction: A brand becomes stronger when its focus is narrowed. bags etc because the positioning of this toon mascot has been done as a “Cool Guy”. CONCLUSION The study done so far in the context of a brand and the special focus on toon branding leads to many important conclusions. Teenagers and specially children like the images of Fido Dido on their TShirts. but rather limiting and focusing a brand on only one type of core product. “Liked by girls” and the list follows. Fido Dido is all about fun. For example: Fido Dido (7UP) which is promoted through these methods is already a great success.purely depends upon the designing of the toon mascot that whether it will be accepted or liked on these things. In order to facilitate proper comprehension of the same. which in Titan's case happens 56 . This does not imply carrying a limited product line.

Mercedes. than with watch making. or perceptions of the names. • The Law of the Company: Brands are brands. who though highly regarded in Indian industry are associated more with heavy industries such as steel and truck building. a brand is nothing more than a name. • The Law of Quality: Though quality is essential to the survival and growth of any brand. as well as it's perception of being a quality product combine to work towards building the strength of the Titan brand. The difference between products is thus not so much between the products. As mentioned previously Titan more or less owns the word "quality" in the minds of the consumers.to be watches. • The Law of Advertising: Once born. advertising is more of an investment than an expense. though possessed of a wide product line. who own the word "prestige" and Coca-Cola. seems to own the word "quality". Titan. Examples of such brands are Volvo. and companies are companies. • The Law of the Word: Any brand worth it's salt should strive to "own" a word or words in the mind of the consumer. has stuck to its focus. Titan. • The Law of the Name: In the long run. at least when viewed in the context of the Indian watch market. the fact remains that brands are not built by quality alone. 57 . it's actual quality. who own the word "safety". Titan is owned by the Tata Group. Thus. who own the word "cola". There is a difference. as it is between their names. If done right. thereby implying that it is perceived as a quality product. a brand needs to actively advertise in order to stay healthy and maintain market share.

Therefore. not the symbol. These should thus be emphasized upon. they did not call their new brand 'Titan Jewellery'. Visual symbols (again with the possible exceptions of Nike's "swoosh" or Mercedes' 3-pointed star) are highly overrated. the jewellery was called Tanishq. When Titan decided to diversify into the jewellery segment. The meaning lies in the words. Indian made watches. modern looking letters. • The Law of Colour: A brand should use a colour and typeface that is the opposite of its major competitor. but when this is done it should be ensured that both brands have separate and distinct identities. For example. Each brand should be kept unique and special. though well recognizable is always accompanied by the words "TITAN" in a clear. and emphasizing upon it's value for money as well as it's classy image. in order to fit the eyes. • The Law of Shape: A brand's logotype should be well designed. the two words most highly identified with Titan are “quality" and "Indian".• The Law of Siblings: There is always a time and a place to launch a second brand. which is that of being “watch experts”? Hence. quality and image) should be properly defined. the following factors should also be kept in mind: • Define the core brand's position and value clearly: A product should be properly positioned and its value (which includes price. Pepsi stands for blue and appears in capital. 58 . positioning it's watches as high quality. crisp typeface-denoting power (through the use of capital letters) and class at the same time. This is exactly what Titan has done. in spite of the high standing of the Titan name in the minds of the Indian consumers. while Coca-Cola stands for red and appears in running handwriting. in order to effectively build brand equity. The Titan logo. To do so would be to undermine the power of the Titan brand. As mentioned in the section regarding the law of the word.

A better (and far less expensive) way to promote a brand would be to allow it to be used by other companies in their promotional offers. and other forms of PR help to define the personality of a company or brand. Unfortunately. a prime example of which is Star World's "The Practice". event and entertainment sponsorships. • Realize that promotions can be tricky: Promotions ought to be used to create recognition and build brand loyalty. Needless and irrelevant contests tend to shift the customer's attention from the product being promoted to the prize being offered (be it a trip to the US or a new car). its value as a brand building tool has more often than not. Titan is currently being offered by both Outlook magazine and WelcomAward (the privileged customer programme of the WelcomGroup chain of hotels) in their various promotional offers.• Don't neglect Public Relations: Public Relations. including the now legendary 1997 Titan Cup. In keeping with India's obsession with cricket. and someone nice to do business with. or PR. Newsletters. Titan has often sponsored cricket tournaments. been undervalued. Titan also sponsors a number of popular television programmes. positioning it as a good corporate citizen. The most sensible and effective forms of promotions are measures such as establishing a privileged customer club offering customer points redeemable for 59 . are vital to the success and survival of any brand.

Such was the case with HMT. • Expand sensibly: 60 .6 Lakh members. Titan convinced the market that it produced the better product and thus destroyed HMT's near monopoly of the Indian watch market. while Titan has never actively promoted the fact that it's parent company is the Tata Group. Titan Signet. at the same time it has never really done much to hide the fact. Thus while capitalizing on the Tata name. Secondly. However with it's emphasis on it's USP and aggressive advertising. First of all. • If you can't be first. and can perhaps best be described in six words. Titan's USP is two fold. Interestingly. it's emphasis on 'international quality' successfully negates it's major Indian competitor. yet singularly unstylish and staid looking watches. but is also what helps him distinguish the brand from its competitors. with the plethora of foreign brands available in the country today. This works for Titan in two ways. • Always remember the USP: A USP (Unique Selling Proposition) is not only what gives the customer a reason to buy the brand. it has built its own identity as an Indian brand offering high quality watches at prices significantly below those of comparable foreign brands.discounts and rebates. which has an impressive 1. HMT. who is still perceived as a company offering solid and reliable. "An Indian company offering international quality". be better: Being the first entrant in any category earns pioneer status for a brand and gives it the advantage of being the probable market leader. Titan emphasis on being Indian enables it to effectively meet their threat. Titan has their own privileged customer club.

It should not. Titan introduced it's own line of chronographs priced significantly lower than the competition at a mere Rs 50006000. When Titan entered the market in 1987. Similarly. with the added USP of being a more stylish alternative to HMT. so did Titan. Titan thus started out being a company offering a wide variety of models. most of which were priced economically. greater competition. 61 . youth oriented "style" brands such as Esprit and Swatch. a company offering reliable and economically priced watches. however be undertaken arbitrarily. to counter the entry of foreign. Omega and Breitling. however. With the entry of the "high performance" sports watch brands in the form of Tag Hauer. again priced extremely competitively. Titan continued to introduce sub brand after sub brand to meet every new challenge.Extensions should always be logical and market driven and not mere "product explosions". brand extension should be undertaken. its main competitor was HMT. With the growing entry of foreign brands into the market. As the market environment changes with the addition of say. Titan introduced the 'Fastrack' sub brand. As times changed. or changing customer wants and perceptions.

com www.• BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: • Marketing Management: By Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Killer • Brand Building: By Philip Kotler • Branding Management: • By Philip Kotler Branding: - By Philip Kotler Websites: • • • • www.google.amul.wikipedia.com www.yahoo.com 62 .com www.

Amul Hits of 1995 – 96 On the introduction of the show “Amul surbhi” Name Game 63 .

Waste Bengal Amul Hits of 1996 .97 On the infighting within the Congress government during the general election On the large number of Lok Sabha candidates from the film industry 64 .

98 When Bihar Chief Minister Laloo Prasad Yadav was involved in the Fodder Scandal 65 .When Atal Behari Vajpayee became Prime Minister Amul Hits of 1997 .

Amul Hits of 1998 – 99 66 . AMUL's salute to India on Independence Day.On Laloo Prasad Yadav's refusal to vacate the Chief Minister's seat.

On the popular Oskar award winning film .`TITANIC' On the famous song aati kya khandala from the movie ghulam. On Women Bus Conductors’ Amul Hits of 1999 – 2000 67 .

Haul of 10 wickets by kumble 68 . On winning the Gold for Hockey in the Asian Games.Based on the Starr report on Bill Clinton.

May 2000 69 .Amul Hits of 2000 .2001 Match fixing charges against South African cricket captain Hansie Cronje" .April 2000 "India's population touches one billion" .

Amul Hits of 2001 – 2002 "On the recent Mumbai Stock Exchange scam involving top brokers" ."On the first anniversary of the Kargil issue". 70 .April 2001.

June 2001 Amul Hits of 2003 – 2004 71 .April 2001 On launch of the Hindi film `LAGAAN' .Protest over the proposed flyover in Mumbai by renowned singer and prominent citizens .

Two Bollywood stars engage in threatening telephonic calls . 72 .June 2003 Controversy on the findings by NGO ."The Centre for Science and Environment" that leading las and carbonated soft drinks contain dangerously high level of pesticide residues which are likely to be hazardous for health .April 2003 Pun on Bollywood highly popular horror film .the episode then going to media .August 2003.

Manmohan Singh being elected Prime Minister of India .Amul Hits of 2004 – 2005 On Dr.May'04 Model turned Actress Preeti Jain's allegation against noted film director Madhur Bhandarkar having sexually exploited her on the pretext of arranging roles in films July'04 Launch of 'ZOOM' India's first glamour and lifestyle family entertainment television channel .September'04 73 .

Amul Hits of 2005 .April'05 On Mallika Sherawat's first international film 'The Myth' with Jackie Chan .May'05 74 .2006 On the Maharashtra Government's decision to close down dance bars all over the state barring Mumbai .

2007 Protests against the proposed flyover on Peddar Road in Mumbai .On Greg Chappell of Australia being appointed new coach of the Indian Cricket Team .May'05 Amul Hits of 2006 .April '06 75 .

July '06 76 .Controversy on increasing height of Sardar Saravor Dam (Narmada Dam) on Narmada River in Gujarat .April '06 On French Captain Zinedine Zidane shown red card sending him off for vicious head-butting Italian defender in the chest during the World Cup Football Final .

August '06 Australian cricketers unpleasant behavior of push and shove towards BCCI President Mr. Sharad Pawar at ICC Champions Trophy prize distribution ceremony at Brabourne Stadium in Mumbai.Central Mumbai to drink sea water which reportedly turned sweet .November '06 77 .On hysteria amongst people at the seafront in Mahim . India .

April 2007. 78 .Indian Bollywood actress Shilpa Shetty winner of British reality television show Big Brother .February 2007 Amul Hits of 2007 – 2008 On Bollywood superstars Amitabh and Jaya Bachchan's son Abhishek's wedding with Aishwarya at their residence Prateeksha in Mumbai .

2007. Richard Gere Hollywood actor and Shilpa Shetty Bollywood actress in a controversial incident in public at an AIDS function in India .May.May' 07.On Super Jumbo A380 Airbus double-decker the world's largest civilian passenger aircraft in India for first time . Bollywood romantic comedy film CHEENI KUM (A Sugar Free Romance) in which 79 .

July '07.June '07. wise beyond her years . Police in Mumbai.superstar Amitabh Bachchan shares time with little girl his neighbor. India conduct breathalyzer or conventional tests on motorists at night to crackdown on drunken driving to avoid road accidents . suffering from leukemia. 80 . It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah JAhan as a symbol of enduring love for his wife Mumtaz on the outskirt of Agra July '07. India's Taj Mahal a masterpiece of architecture of 17th Century in the worldwide race for inclusion in the new Seven Wonders of the World.

August '07. 81 .CHAKDE! INDIA.November '07. the Bollywood movie with focus on women's hockey featuring staractor Shah Rukh Khan playing coach of the Indian Women's Hockey Team to bring fame to India . Bollywood actress and dancing queen Madhuri Dixit in the movie "Aaja Nachle" (Let's Dance) in which music and dance being the essence of the movie .

pure love story and Om Shanti Om – a love story – October 2007.September' 07.Team India celebrate after winning the inaugural ICC WORLD TWENTY 20. . Upcoming releases in November 2007 of two Bollywood movies SAAWARIYA – innocent. SOUTH AFRICA 2007 cricket World Cup in Johannesburg . 82 .

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