The term brand means different things to the different roles of buyer and seller, with buyers generally associating brand with a product or service, and merchants associating brand with identity. Brand can also identify the company behind the specific product -that's not just a biscuit, that's Britannia biscuit. This use of brand puts a "face" behind the name, so to speak, even if the "face" is the result of advertising copy and television commercials. This use of brand also says nothing of quality, just the buyer's exposure to the brand's PR and media hype. For the typical merchant, branding is a way of taking everything that is good about the company -- positive shopping experience, professionalism, superior service, product knowledge, whatever the company decides is important for a customer to believe about the company -- and wrapping these characteristics into a package that can be evoked by the brand as signifier.

1.1 Introduction to Branding
The American Marketing Association defines a brand as “A name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group and to differentiate them to those for competitors”. A brand is thus a product or service that’s adds a Dimension that differentiates it in some way from other products or services designed to satisfy the same need. These differences may be functional, rational, or tangible- relate to product performance of the brand. Branding has been around for centuries as a means to distinguish the goods of one producer to those of another. The earliest signs of branding can be traced to Europe where the medieval guilds required that craftsmen put trademarks on their product to protect themselves and producer against inferior quality substitutes. Also in fine arts branding began with artists signing their works. Brands today play a number of important roles that improve the consumer’s lives and enhance the financial value of firms.


Brands identify the source or maker of the product and allow consumers-either individual or organizations- to assign responsibility to a particular manufacturer or distributor. Consumers may evaluate the identical product differently depending how it is branded. Consumers lean about the brand with its past experience and the marketing program. As consumers lives becomes more complicated, time starved the ability of brand to simplify decision making is invaluable. Brands also perform valuable functions for the firm. First they simplify the product handling and tracing. Brands help to organize inventory and accounting records. The brand name can be protected registered trademarks. The intellectual property rights ensure that the firm can safely invest in the brand and can reap the benefits over a long period of time.

Brands can signal a certain level of quality so that satisfied buyers can easily choose the product again. Brand loyalty provides predictability and security of demand for the firm and creates barriers to entry that makes it difficult for other firms to enter the market. This brand loyalty can translate into willingness to pay higher price. In this sense branding can be seen as powerful means to secure a competitive advantage. Brands represent enormously valuable pieces of legal property that can influence consumer’s behavior. Strong brand results in better earnings and profit performance for firms, which in turn, creates greater value for shareholders. How do you “BRAND” a product? Although firms provide the impetus to brand creation through marketing programs and other activities, ultimately a brand is something that resides in the mind of the consumers. A brand is a perpetual identity that is rooted in reality but reflects the perceptions and perhaps even the ultimate choice of the consumers. Branding is endowing products and services with the power of brands. To brand a product, it is necessary to teach the consumers “who” the product-by giving a name. Branding involves creating mental structures and helping consumers organize their knowledge about products and services in a way that clarifies their decision making and in process provides value to the firm


Branding can be applied virtually anywhere a consumer has a choice. It is possible to brand: • • • • • • A physical good (Nestle soup, Pantene shampoo or Maruti Swift), A service (Kingfisher Airlines, TATA AIG medical insurance), A store (Big Bazaar, BATA stores), A place (The state of Kerala, Pushkar Mela), A person (Shahrukh Khan, Sachin Tendulkar), An organization (UNICEF or BCCI),

Brand is the proprietary visual, emotional, rational, and cultural image that you associate with the company or a product. When you think of Volvo, you think of safety. When you think of Nike, you think of Michael Jordon or ‘Just Do It’. When you think of IBM, you think of ‘Big Blue’. The fact that you remember the brand name and have positive associations with that brand makes your product selection easier and enhances the value and satisfaction you get from product. While Brand X cola or even Pepsi-Cola may win blind taste tests over Coca-Cola, the fact is that more people buy Coke than any other Cola. The fond memories of childhood and refreshment that people have when they drink Coke is often more important than a little bit better cola taste. It I this emotional relationship with brands that make them so powerful.


1.2 Purpose of Branding
The purpose of branding is to create a powerful and lasting emotional connection with customers and other audiences. A brand is a set of elements or “brand assets” that in combination create a unique, memorable, unmistakable, and valuable relationship between an organization and its customers. The brand is carried by a set of compelling visual, written and vocal tools to represent the business plan and intentions of an organization. Branding is the voice and image that represents your business plan to the outside world. What your company, products and services stand for should all be captured in your branding strategy, and represented consistently throughout all your brand assets and in your daily marketing activities The brand image that carries this emotional connection consists of the many manageable elements of branding system, including both visual image assets and language assets. The process of managing the brand to the business plan is important not only in “big change situation” where the brand redefinition is required, but also in the management of routine marketing variables and tactics. This does not have to be a “ground-up” situation where there are wholesale changes to the business. Rather it is more common that specific changes to the changes to the business plan are incremental and the work of the brand strategist and designer is to interpret these changes and revise the branding strategy and resulting brand assets and define their use in the full range of marketing variables.


By continuous repetition of messages customer will think of your product and then buy it. A positioning statement tells what business the company is in. brand associations. positioning. Do you want your company’s brand identity created for you by competitors and unhappy customers? Of course not. yet few companies create a brand identity. pound that message in every ad. logos. food quality etc.3 Brand Identity Brand Identity includes brand names. in every news release. Our advice to executives is to research their customers and find the top ranked reasons that the customers buy their product rather than their competitors. what benefits it provides and why it is better than the completion? Brand personality adds emotion. a character (Pink Panther). brand toons etc.1. 5 . How do we determine our Brand Identity? Brand has been called the most powerful idea in commercial world. McDonalds television are a series of one brand association after another. kids. happy meal. Brand associations are the attributes that costumer thinks of when they hear or see the brand name. Ronald MacDonald. A good brand name gives a good first impression and evokes positive associations with the brand. an animal (the Merrill lynch bull) etc. Then. culture and myth to brand identity by the use of a famous spokesperson (Bill Cosby-Jello). The first step in creating a brand for your company is branding workshop. starting in yellow arches in the low right corner of the screen and following with associations of Big Mac. in communications with employees and in every sales call or media interview. and brand personality.

Caterpillar paints all its construction equipments yellow.1. 6 . Yellow is the color of Kodak film. a favorable one. Strong brands typically exhibit an owned word. Here are some well-known brands slogans. IBM uses blue in its publications. Owned Word A strong brand name should trigger another word. a symbol.4 Tools for Building Brand Identity Brand builders use a set of tools to strengthen and project the brand image. a slogan. and IBM is called “Big Blues”. and set of stories. a color. which people on the street may easily recall or recognize: COMPANY British Airways Ford LIC SLOGAN “The world’s favorite airline” “Quality is our number one job” “Jeevan ke saath bhi jeevan ke baad bhi” Colors It helps for a company or a brand to use a consistent set of color to and in the brand recognition. Here is the list of brands that own a word: Company Volvo BMW Mercedes Federal Express Apple computers Lotus Kodak Word “Safety” “Driving performance” “Engineering” “Overnight” “Graphics” “Spreadsheets” “Film” Slogan Many companies successfully added a slogan or tagline to their brand name which is repeated in every ad they use.

Cartoons and Animations A less expensive approach is to develop a character. Here are some well known brand cartoons which people may recognize: Company ICICI Prudential Amul Butter McDonalds All Out mosquito Repellent Pillsbury 7 Up Objects Cartoon or Animation Chintamani Utterly Butterly Girl Ronald Louis Doughboy Fido Dido Still another approach is to choose an object to represent a company or brand. even naming the product after them. Companies have developed many logos or abstracts. which are easily remembered by people.Symbols and Logos Companies would be wise to adapt a symbol or logo to use in their communications. Many companies hire a well-known spokesperson. hoping that his or her quality transfer to the brand. to advertise its shoes. The advertising agency Leo Burnett has successfully created a number of memorable animated characters. The prudential insurance company features the rock of Gibraltar. Sporting goods manufacturers sign contracts with top athletes to serve as their symbols. animated. Nike uses Michael Jordon who has worldwide recognition and likableness. Even the way the brand name is written makes a brand recognizable and memorable. The travelers’ insurance company uses an umbrella. suggesting that buying insurance is equivalent to having an umbrella available when it rains. 7 . solid ad dependable. to etch the brand’s image into customer’s mind. suggesting that buying an insurance is equivalent to “owing a peace of rock “which is of course.

branding has become a source of competitive advantage. There are simple means to apply to test the distinctiveness of your brand. symbols and other visual assets. defendable. • Distinctiveness: your brand should be distinct when compared to your competitors and to all spoken and visual communications to which your target audiences will be exposed. differentiation. distinctiveness. the wider the filed of effective competitive strength it will have. the source of next generation competency will be branding. 8 . This applies to your trade names and other proprietary words as well as to your logos. The simplest way is to apply the concept of what we call the 4 D’s of Branding. Marketers who match their brand with customers needs will have a sustainable competitive advantage. and industrial products and services.5 Brand Effectiveness With an increase in global competition. In this briefing we demonstrate how to calculate the brand strength. Measuring Brand Effectiveness There are many metrics to measure the potential of and actual effectiveness of brands. • Differentiation: the brand strategy and brand assets must set you’re offering apart and clearly articulate the specific positioning intent of your offering. In rapidly evolving market for consumer. The more unique and distinct your communications. the price premium associated with the products categories. and type of customers attracted to the “Premium Products”.1. • Defendable: you will be investing in creating your brand assets and in all cases your brand must have proprietary strength to keep others from using close approximations. digit-able.

Building brand therefore calls for more than brand image building. People may be an employee. a disinterested observer. The ad describing a gracious hotel chain is belied by the behavior of a surly concierge. an investor. They hate McDonald’s hamburgers but might love their stock market record and therefore be a potential customer for their stock. 9 . They have no idea what an Intel chip is.. Much can go wrong. an interested observer. But its job doesn’t stop there. a potential customer. It calls for managing every brand contact that customer might have with brand. a citizen. but cannot envisage any circumstance under which they would (could!) buy a Mercedes. a husband and so on.. People wear many hats. The brand manager needs to make sure that brand experience matches the brand image. or almost anybody. 1. distributors and dealers can affect brand experience. They are aware of Marlboro (and scores of other cigarette brands) but as a non-smoker they will never convert their awareness into purchase. but might be persuaded that it is a good thing to have in my PC and therefore buy a computer from a company that uses them. This goes for all brand assets. The mind it exists in may be that of a customer. Since all the employees. Male with no children are not targeted by Pampers or Huggies but still are aware of the brands. Awareness of a brand may be irrelevant to any purchasing decision that an individual may make. A fine brand of canned soup described in a full page color ad may be found in dented and dusty condition in the bottom shelf of a supermarket. Much of the brand manager’s work is to build a brand image. People are aware of the Mercedes car brand.• Digit-able: in most businesses there is strong and growing element of electronic communications and commerce that dictate all brand assets be leveraged effectively in tactile and electronics form. But are or not a potential customer.6 Brand and Reputation A brand exists in the mind. or not at all. They will never buy a Boeing 777 but might be impressed by the aircraft and favor an airline that flies them.

10 . They are as follows: • Experience: The most powerful influence is experiential. a Coca-Cola. Those potential employees join companies because of their reputation. These companies’ reputations are part and parcel of their brand. a Compaq or a Shell. Perceiving the brand: An individual builds up his perceptions of a brand via a wide range of communications channels.Brand Aware argues that there is no difference between "Brand" and "Reputation". a service brand and a brand with a long history. technical excellence. Their brands are their reputation. that the media and other "stakeholders" judge a company on its reputation in some way as a distinct concept from its brand. For example Coca-Cola is a company brand. a product brand. The Brand To any individual a brand (in his mind) is a complex combination of experiences. beliefs. internationality. etc. This is when the individual actually has a "Brand experience".  He meets an employee of the company. abuse of power and other negative perceptions. but especially for single brand companies such as a McDonalds. environmental pollution. The most obvious are:  He visits a McDonald’s restaurant or a Shell petrol station.  He visits a corporate website. financial strength etc.  He attends an interview at the company. It may also mean insensitivity. Some conventional wisdoms state that customers buy brands.  He buys a Coca-Cola branded product or service. but that investors buy reputations.  He contacts the company office for information.  He views a Coca-Cola bottler's facility. perceptions and associations that have grown up over time. It is a brand which may represent (to any one individual) diversity. This part argues that such distinctions are fallacious for all companies.

will be exposed to their advertising. • Media reports and stories: Individuals will be exposed to a wide variety of reports about companies in the media (print and broadcast) where the editorial content is only partly influence able by the company (in some cases) or not at all (in most cases). etc. These stories will come from a variety of primary and secondary sources:  Press releases  Press conferences  Reporting of "events"  Investigative journalism  Stories passed to the media by third parties (Non governmental organizations etc. He buys a share in the company.  Billboards on highways  Radio  Point of sale etc. or travels to one on business or vacation.) • Professional/business interest: For some individuals to interface professionally. They will usually procure their information from a variety of 11 . with famous companies (or to observe them) is part of their job. • Advertising: Over time an individual who lives in a country in which the company/brand is active. This advertising may be in a wide range of media:  TV commercials for products and services  Recruitment ads inviting employment applications  "Corporate" TV commercials promoting the company's "reputation"  Web based advertising  An ad for the company’s branded products or services in a wide variety of print media. or from a specific business need.

It should not carry poor meanings in other countries and languages etc. Healthy choice). or an artificial name (Exxon. But just having a brand is not enough. In choosing a brand name.7 Building the Brand The art of marketing is largely art of brand building. Building Positive Associations The best known brand names carry associations.sources and via a variety of channels of communication. Calvin Klein). performances and expectations does it evoke? What degree of preferences does it create? Choosing a Brand Name A brand name first must be chosen then its various meanings and promises must be built up through brand identity work. short names help a lot to recognize the product to the customers. Some are: • • • • • It should suggest something about the product benefits. it will probably be viewed as a commodity. It should be distinctive. quality (Safety stores. These individuals have a special interest in the companies and they include:  Financial analysts and journalists with an interest in share performance  Existing or potential suppliers of products and services  Existing or potential industrial/commercial customers 1. When price is the only thing that counts then the low cost producer wins. location (American airlines). Among the desirable qualities of a brand name. recognize and remember. Kodak). When something is not a brand. It should suggest product qualities such action or color It should be easy to pronounce. Then price is the thing that counts. In naming a product or service the company may face many possibilities: it could choose name of the person (Honda. here is a list of words that people say they associate with McDonalds: • Kids 12 . it must be consistent with the value positioning of the brand. What does the brand name mean? What associations. For example.

• Personality: A strong brand should exhibit some personality traits. not just features. Thus Mercedes is proud of its engineers and engineering innovations and is very organized and efficient in its operations. then it would be a weak brand. the brand builder should consider five dimensions that can communicate meaning: • Attributes: A strong brand should trigger in buyers mind certain attributes. • Users: A strong brand should suggest the type of people who buy the brand. The fact that it is a German company adds more pictures in the mind of the buyers about the character and the culture of the brand. rugged and expensive. If Mercedes were an animal we might think of lion or its implied personality. Thus Mercedes triggers the idea of well performing car that is enjoyable to drive and prestigious to own. Thus a Mercedes automobile attributes a picture of well-engineered car that is durable. well-organized and somewhat authoritarian. Donald Quality Toys In trying to build a rich set of positive associations for a brand. • Benefits: A strong brand should suggest benefits. Thus if Mercedes were a person we would think of someone who is middle age. affluent and professional. • Company Values: A strong brand should connote values that the company holds. 13 .• • • • • Fun Happy Meal Ronald Mc. Thus we would expect Mercedes to draw buyers who are older. serious. If a car brand does not trigger any attribute.

Nike can help. Nike has distinctive “swoosh” logo. The brand builder’s job is to create a brand identity that builds on those dimensions. 1. • Memorable: How easily is the brand element recalled? How easily recognized? Is this true at both purchase and consumption? Short brand name like tide. • Meaningful: To what extent is brand element credible and suggestive of the corresponding category? Does it suggest something about a product ingredient or a type of person who might use the brand? 14 . the empowering “Just Do It” slogan and the mythological “Nike” name based on the winged goddess of victory. A brand element provides positive contribution to brand equity. The latter three are more defensive and are concerned with how the brand equity contained in the brand element can be leveraged and preserved in the face of various opportunities and constraints. personality and users in the buyer’s mind. company values. Most strong brands employ multiple brand elements.In summary. Brand Element Choice Criteria There are six criteria in choosing brand element. The first three can be characterized by brand building in terms of how brand equity can be build through judicious choice of brand element. The test of the brand building ability of these elements is what consumers think or feel about the product if they only knew about the brand element.8 Choosing Brand Elements Brand elements are those trademarks devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand. benefits. Brand element can be chosen to build as much as brand equity as possible. brands when their very name connotes positive attributes.

she doesn’t look a day over 35. • Transferable: Can a brand element be used to introduce new products in the same or different categories? To what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? • Adaptable: How adaptable and updatable is the brand element? Betty corker received 8 makeovers through the years-although she is 75 yrs old. Sunsilk etc evoke much imagery. Xerox. Jell-O. etc retain their trademarks rights and not become generic. and in other ways? Concrete brand names such as Wheel. brand elements should be easily recognized and recalled and inherently descriptive and persuasive. • Protectable: How legally protectable is the brand element? How competitively protectable? Can it be easily copied? It is important that names that become synonymous with product categories such as Kleenex. verbally. If consumers do not examine much information in making their product decisions. 15 . Memorable or meaningful brand elements can reduce the burden on marketing communications to build awareness and link brand associations.• Likeability: How aesthetically appealing does consumers find the brand element? Is it inherently likeable visually. Brand elements can play a number of roles. The different associations that arise from likeability and appeal of the brand elements may also play a critical role in the equity of brand.

"The set of associations and behaviors on the part of the brand's customers. Some researchers in the field of marketing have defined brand equity as follows: • Lance Leuthesser. and differentiated advantage over competitors. From the following examples it is clear that brand equity is multi-dimensional. But ultimately. sustainable.9 What is Brand Equity? There is no universally accepted definition of brand equity. and parent corporations that permit the brand to earn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand name and that gives the brand a strong. from the perspective of the consumer). above that which would result for an otherwise identical product without the brand's name. brand equity represents the degree to which a brand's name alone contributes value to the offering (again. et al (1995) writes that "… brand equity represents the value (to a consumer) of a product. There are several stakeholders concerned with brand equity. including the firm. the consumer." • The Marketing Science Institute (1988) defines brand equity as. it is the consumer that is the most critical component in defining brand equity." 16 .1. the channel. The term means different things for different companies and products. In other words. and some would even argue the financial markets. However. there are several common characteristics of the many definitions that are used today. channel members.

While there are many methods for making this measurement. 17 . they will each be briefly explained. and brand value needs to be considered as only one component of the overall equity of a brand. the value of a brand to a certain purchaser is often estimated through scenario planning. the first can be classified as "brand valuation. A description of the associations and beliefs the consumer has about the brand. For acquisitions. Brand value involves actually placing a dollar or rupee value on a brand name. Brand Equity as Brand Value. Of those three concepts." the second "brand loyalty. What this means is that there is no such thing as an absolute value for a brand. some of which will be described shortly." and the third "brand description.when it is sold or included on a balance sheet. Because of the importance of each of these elements of brand equity." Brand loyalty will be a factor that affects the overall brand value. A measure of the strength of consumers' attachment to a brand. and brand description will usually affect or explain some of the brand loyalty. The reasons for doing this are usually to set a price when the brand is sold and also to include the brand as an intangible asset on a balance sheet (a practice which is not used in some countries). and the actual price that a brand may get when sold? A brand is likely to have a much greater value to one purchaser than another depending on the synergy that exists.Brand equity can be defined as three distinct elements: • • • The total value of a brand as a separable asset -. This involves determining what future cash flows the company could achieve if it owned and took advantage of the brand. it is important to note that there is a significant difference between an "objective" valuation created for balance sheet purposes.

18 . I would take the brands.” The optimism for the concept can be stated on the fact that when one would say as a predictor of future financial performance. The variety of measures used for brand loyalty usually is a combination of one or more of the following: • Price/demand measures--focus on a brand's ability to command a higher price or make consumers less sensitive to price increases than price increases for competing brands. • Brand Loyalty and Equity refer to the notion that some brands are "stronger" or better than others. An example of this sort of belief is: “If the businesses were split up. It represents a barrier to entry.' • Awareness measures--focus on identifying a brand as being associated with a product category. brand equity. and time to respond to competitive innovations.Brand Equity as Brand Loyalty Loyalty is a core dimension of brand equity and is a way to gauge the strength of a brand. Brand equity has the potential to become the set of measures of business performance that matter most. and you could have all the bricks and mortar . a basis for a price premium.and I would fare better than you. trademarks and goodwill. would be valuable for capital marketers and shareholders. • • Behavioral measures--focus on consumers' behavior. Attitudinal measures--focus on general evaluative measures such as 'liking' or 'disliking. if reported.

see no immediate effects. e. One of the things is that as with many concepts in marketing. extended warranties).. but you could save your job by saying that you had "built the brand". You could spend lots of money on advertising. such as sales or profit and these are accounted for in the firm’s profit and loss figures. At least one advertising agency offers to partner companies in this sort of activity. is that there are many different definitions and viewpoints on what exactly brand equity is and how to measure it. having a positive brand Attitude. hopefully you have got the idea .So. e. or high proportion of sole-buyers. We need to be clear just what people mean when they talk about brand equity or brand loyalty.g. It might be the ability to not be substituted when out of stock.g. it might be the ability to charge a price premium. limited / premium distribution rights. or building brands. there is the possibility that management might choose between taking realized benefits and "storing" them future.. One of the most common times this argument is used is when discussing the role of advertising versus sales promotion. Future strength might be in terms of some sort of long-term competitive advantage or the ability to sustain brand extensions. Consumers saying good things about your brand. So that is a problem. 19 . consumers predominantly buying your brand.g.The motivation for brand equity comes from the observation that many marketing efforts "realize" benefits.. which might be represented by a high share of category requirements. But the question is as always how do we know? That is are we actually building the brand with all our advertising (or other brand building 4 p’s decisions e. high price. However. after sales service.theories about brand loyalty and equity are used to represent aspects of brand strength. This "strength" can take a number of forms. fancy packing. So marketing strategies could be putting money into (or out of) the brand equity bank account.

The first four categories represent customer perceptions of the brand along the four dimensions of brand equityloyalty. They work by getting the respondent to link each brand with pictures or words. These techniques can be both qualitative and quantitative. the final component of brand equity. 20 . Customer Satisfaction: A direct measure of customer satisfaction can be applied to existing customers. But this is an evasion. A wide variety of techniques exist for matching consumer associations with perceptions of a brand. Loyalty Price Premium: A basic indicator of loyalty is the amount a customer will pay for a product in comparison to other comparable products. which attempt to gauge the strength of a brand. and so we need to know ways that this might show up in. perceived quality.Brand loyalty / Equity advocates One of the ruses used by proponents of brand equity or loyalty is to claim that these measures do not capture all the important aspects of brands strength. We want to be able to detect that our efforts are doing something to the brand. associations and awareness. Brand Equity as Brand Description Brand description. These attributes or associations are major creators of brand loyalty. A price premium can be determined by simply asking consumers how much more they would be willing to pay for the brand. These attributes then can be measured with multi-dimensional scaling to position the attributes relative to one another. concerns the actual attributes of the brand. The focus can be the last use experience or simply the use experience from the customer's view. The fifth includes two sets of market behavior measures. Qualitative Measures of Brand Equity The Brand Equity Ten are ten sets of measures grouped into five categories.

Perceived Quality and Leadership Measures Perceived Quality is one of the key dimensions of brand equity and has been shown to be associated with price premiums. brand usage and stock return. Associations/ Differentiation Measures Perceived Value: This dimension simply involves determining whether the product provides good value for the money and whether there are reasons to buy this brand over competitive brands. price elasticities. Organizational Associations: This dimension considers the type of organization that lies behind the brand. leadership taps the dynamics of consumer acceptance. recall. its popularity and its innovative qualities. brand dominance. people are uneasy swimming against the tide are a likely to buy a popular product. leadership often taps innovation within a product class. First. 21 . For some brands. Second. the brand personality can provide links to the brands emotional and self-expressive benefits. Awareness Measures Brand awareness reflects the salience of the product in the consumer's mind and involves various levels including recognition. This can be measured by asking consumers about the product's leadership position. Leadership/Popularity has three dimensions. if enough consumers are buying into the brand concept it must have merit. Third. Namely. It can be calculated by asking consumers to directly compare similar brands. and brand knowledge and brand opinion. Brand Personality: This element is based on the brand-as-person perspective.

Having a long-term outlook and projecting a consistent image of your brand to the customer will maximize the results of building brand equity. Managing brand equity is a continual process with long-term implications. It is critical for managers to realize that brand equity can have positive as well as negative effects on a product or company. They changed the formula of their flagship product Coke. The consumer through the product experiences brand equity. it is the customer that truly defines what brand equity means. On these occasions. and consumers reacted so poorly to the new product that the old formula was reintroduced and the new formula eventually was discontinued. In the end. Price and Distribution indices: Market share can prove deceptive when it increases as a result of reduced prices or promotions. If any of these attributes are changed or eliminated. the equity delivered to the consumer is also changed. The product has certain attributes or characteristics that deliver the equity to the consumer. Unfortunately.Market Behavior Measures Market Share: The performance of a brand as measured by market share often provides a valid and dynamic reflection of the brand's standing with customers. There are many examples of companies that have changed a product or brand too much or too quickly. many brand managers are forced to focus on short-term goals such as market share and profits. Managing Brand Equity Consistency is the key to successfully building and managing brand equity. The most famous example is Coca-Cola. If management feels it is necessary to change the direction of a brand or change a product it must be careful not to change too quickly. Calculating market price and distribution coverage can provide or more accurate picture of the product's true strength. consumers met changes with adverse reactions. Many programs that are implemented to boost short-term sales or market share 22 . Relative market price can be calculated by dividing the average price at which the product was sold during the month by the average price at which all the brands were sold.

Marketing research can also help determine how brand equity is actually measured. This would lead to ever decreasing profits. brand equity is the only point of differentiation between products. It may be more cost effective to extend a current brand than introduce a new brand. promotion and trade deals. Marketing research is critical for many obvious reasons. in part. all of which can be easily duplicated by competition. the responsibility of tracking 23 . said. launching a new brand is extremely consuming in terms of money and time. "I doubt that many would welcome a commodity marketplace in which one competed solely on price. Many people may think that building and maintaining brand equity is solely the responsibility of brand managers. Graham Phillips. In 1988. but it is actually a cross-functional team effort. Financial managers are important because they can fully analyze the costs of maintaining and building brand equity." This quote clearly demonstrates the importance of managing brand equity. Chairman of Ogilvy and Mather Worldwide. In many categories. brand equity is damaged. Once a definition of brand equity is established. For example. This is. and eventual bankruptcy. Ultimately. For example. if not all. because consumers may become loyal to the coupon or promotion and not to the product itself. About the only aspect of the marketing mix that cannot be duplicated is a strong brand image. It develops most. Proctor & Gamble has started to test market a program to move away from using coupons to a system of every day low prices. Constant promotional programs erode margins and eventually brand loyalty.may be detrimental to the long-term viability of the brand. decay. of the research and data that companies will use for deciding strategic issues.

Helps buyers evaluate quality of products especially if unable to judge products characteristics. The brand portfolio and hierarchy makes sense.9. The brand makes use of and co-ordinates a full repertoire of marketing activities to build equity. Helps reduce buyers’ perceived risk of purchase. The brand is consistent. Identify marketer Helps reduce the time needed for purchase. The brand is properly positioned. The brand is given proper. The company monitors source of brand equity. Buyer may derive a psychological reward from owning the brand. sustained support. The brand’s manager understands what the brand means to customers.. The pricing strategy is based on consumer perceptions of value.e. 1. 24 . Rolex or Mercedes.10 The World Strongest Brand Share 10 Attributes • • • • • • • • • • The brand excels at delivering the benefits consumers truly desire. Branding benefits buyers as well as sellers in the following manner To Buyer: • • • • • • Help buyers identify the product that they like/dislike. i. The brand stays relevant.

Firms may be able to charge a premium for the brand. BPL telephones. designs.half as much as using a new brand.e. Example.. lower co.To Seller: • • • • • Differentiate product offering from competitors Helps segment market by creating tailored images. Contact lenses Brand identifies the companies’ products making repeat purchases easier for customers. i... advertising and promotional costs. • • • • Easier cooperation with intermediaries with well known brands Facilitates promotional efforts. Helps foster brand loyalty helping to stabilize market share. 25 . Reduce price comparisons Brand helps firm introduce a new product that carries the name of one or more of its existing products.

while the Claymation characters Of Amaron. Hutch’s Boy-Girl duo. heart-shaped kisses for the audience. 26 . as well as the classic Asian paint’s ex-mascot Gattoo. “Toon illustrations create excitement. the claymation Chintamani of ICICI. and also serve as a memory hook to pick a particular brand from clutter”. or it could be a sacrosanct image. ALL ABOUT TOON BRANDING 2. almost becoming part of the logo of the brand – like A-I am Maharaja or Amul Girl. Digital characters are fast stepping into the realm of corporate brands. then why not?” HLL’s Annapoorna uses Flintstone like characters to drive its USP. and if that means exploring other forms of art.1 Toon Branding Looks like the ad industry can’t have enough of animation.2. “Most advisers are using animation for top of the mind recall” says McCann Erickson’s Prasoon Joshi. Fido-Dido of 7-Up etc are some of the examples of the toons used for marketing the product. “Creative people have to look at different ways to get message across. Kellogg’s animated kid and bear are intertwined in people’s minds. The toons in All Out Mosquito repellent ad. the Handiplast Boy. Industry officials say animation could be used as creative idea to express a particular value. McCann’s new commercial for Coca-Cola’s vanilla variant has the model blowing animated. pick on sleeping politicians to get their value across. O&M’s Piyush Pandey says his firm encourages the idea of breaking form. an O&M creative. the Amul girl. Nike also used “swoosh” logo sign to bring immediate recall value.

” says.Suresh. First it was retro advertising. One sees a fair number of youth and adult targeted content happening in the form of animation in films and TV shows these days. However at times they are given a hasty burial. now it’s two every month. E. for that matter. Asian Paint’s Gattoo was the rage. The ad world’s latest obsession is with animation. but the kid was killed after he was linked to child labour. general manager. Famous House of Animation.” says Rahul Welde. 27 .Welde claims to have used animation where it could add to the creative quotient of the commercial which give something unexpected to the audience. With a string of animated commercials such as Pepsodent (Bhoot Police). ICICI Prudential’s Chintamani and Anand Rathi Securities happening in the past few months. Hindustan Unilever Limited. companies across sectors are more willing than ever before to use animation in their ad films.they’ve all got the cool punch with animation. Be it Bollywood actress Mallika Sherawat asking Fido to make her more curvy or Aishwarya Rai diving into the sea with a Frisbee or. and then there was the trend of using real kids. Creative director. “We used to do three animation ad films a year five years ago. an animated poodle talking to Rani Mukherjee and her gang of friends in the Fanta commercial. Mr. a division of Famous Studios. “Animation is no kid stuff anymore.As mnemonics flow thick and fast characters get established in the consumers mind. media. The number of animation ad films produced per year in the past five years has increased at least eight times and feature films like Hum Tum (had cartoons of Saif Ali Khan And Rani Mukherjee coming in between the film)are backing the overall trend around animation.

The popularity of cartoons among youngsters. all of which have cutting edge animation. Animation ad also helps keep costs down.a gradual transformation over the past few years. Contract Advertising. Shrek.“Gross thinks at time look cute in animation rather than the real thing. say in case of a fat man.” points Ashish Chakravarty.Lova Lova. Animated ones cost around Rs. “However a real character interacting with an animated character is not a novelty.Kill Bill. Grrr Honda.” says Abhishekh Bhatia. Run Lola Run. with the use of animation. what creative directors hate about animation is the fact that it takes a lot more time “For A Fido itself. There are other viewpoints too. However. such as stunts. With Claymation (clay + animation).” says Chauhan of JWT 28 . many complex issues. Industry sources say a simple animation ad is less expensive than an ad with decent production quality that costs around Rs. The contribution to the sales of pension schemes of the group rose 30% after the campaign. Besides the advantage of visual appeal. be it Euro RSCG’s Waterboy. 70-80 Lakh. most of the global award winning campaigns have used animation extensively. Malaysia. head creative. But there are scripts that needs animation to prove the point as in the case of Oye Bubbly (Pepsi Commercial) last year. who was then involved in launching the campaign from ICICI Prudential. can be done away with. we need to work for three weeks to get it absolutely right. VP and Senior Creative Director at JWT. Unileaf Tea or Levi’s Mr. 30-40lakh on an average.” says Anuja Chauhan. Moreover. it broke the clutter and became likeable in a very non-financial advertising style. Prudential Assurance. It is a style and a lot of people are catching on it but this is not the end of it. Lion King. “It’s a nice way of doing a boring script. the Chintamani ad was initially a radio jingle.for instance the stunt in the Lux Commercial couldn’t be done so perfectly by the real character (here Aishwarya Rai) vis-à-vis the animated character. director marketing.

There are other people too. All because a thumb-sized girl climbed on to the hoardings and put a spell on the masses. looked. It is her four-year-old who draws her attention to the hoarding that has come up overnight. Amul's sale figures have jumped from 1000 tonnes a year in 1966 to over 25." Call her the Friday to Friday star. 29 . "People loved it. No other brand comes even close to it. last year. Mrs. How often have we stopped. So much so that the ads are now ready to enter the Guinness Book of World Records for being the longest running campaign ever. From her second floor flat she can see her neighbors on the road.2. shy Madhuri." recalls Sheela Mane. She is the Amul moppet everyone loves to love (including prickly votaries of the Shiv Sena and BJP). I remember it was our favorite topic of discussion for the next one week! Everywhere we went somehow or the other the campaign always seemed to crop up in our conversation. holding out her favourite packet of butter. Unable to curb her curiosity Sheela Mane hurries down to see what all the commotion is about. She expects the worst but can see no signs of an accident. chuckled at the Amul hoarding that casts her sometime as the coy. The ultimate compliment to the butter came when a British company launched butter and called it Utterly Butterly. winking at you. a bold sensuous Urmila or simply as herself. The crowd seems to be growing larger by the minute. chubby cheeked. For 30 odd years the Utterly Butterly girl has managed to keep her fan following intact. Sheela Mane.2 CASE STUDY AMUL BUTTER GIRL (The moppet who put Amul on India's breakfast table) 50 years after it was first launched. "It was the first Amul hoarding that was put up in Mumbai. a 28-year-old housewife is out in the balcony drying clothes. from strategically placed hoardings at many traffic lights. Bombay (Summer of 1967) : A Charni Road flat. dressed in her little polka dotted dress and a red and white bow. Round eyed.000 tonnes a year in 1997.

village belle. had a staid. The year Sylvester daCunha took over the account. food was something one couldn't afford to fool around with. "Eustace Fernandez (the art director) and I decided that we needed a girl who would worm her way into a housewife's heart. The butter. then the managing director of the advertising agency." recalls Sylvester daCunha. One of the first Amul hoardings In India. clothed in a tantalizing choli all but covering her upper regions. corporate ads. It had been taken too seriously. The baseline simply said.. Sylvester daCunha decided it was time for a change of image. "We knew our campaign was going to be successful. And so it came about that the famous Amul Moppet was born. for too long. gimmickry and all else. That October. even children were calling up to say how much they had liked the ads. ASP. And who better than a little girl?" says Sylvester daCunha. which had been launched in 1945. the country saw the birth of a campaign whose charm has endured fickle public opinion. Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul. clinched the account for Amul butter. lamp kiosks and the bus sites of the city were splashed with the moppet on a horse. The Amul girl who lends herself so completely to Amul butter. "The response was phenomenal. primarily because the earlier advertising agency which was in charge of the account preferred to stick to routine. created as a rival to the Polson butter girl. boring image.It all began in 1966 when Sylvester daCunha. Thorough bread. Not just adults. It was a matter of just a few hours before the daCunha office was ringing with calls. This one was sexy." 30 .

There are stories about the butter that people like to relate over cups of tea." she laughs. It was a decision that would stand the daCunhas in good stead in the years to come. Hurry Hurry'.'Hurry Amul. "They are almost part of our culture. "We ran a couple of ads that created quite a furore. aren't they? My grandchildren are already beginning to realize that these ads are not just a source of amusement. cholbe na cholbe na (won't do. Sylvester daCunha. There are numerous ads that are risqué in tone. I didn't want the hoardings to be pleasant or tame. In 1967. "For over 10 years I have been collecting Amul ads. A fine balance had to be struck." Despite some of the negative reactions that the ads have got. Sumona Varma. "says Mrs. That was the first of the many topical ads that were in the offing. What does she do with these ads? "I have made an album of them to amuse my grandchildren. Bombay reacted to the ad with a fervor that was almost as devout as the Iskon fever. or making an impact. so to say. Mohammad Khan and Usha Bhandarkar. They make them aware of what is happening around them. We have a campaign that is strong enough to make a statement. more dum. Over the years the campaign acquired that all important Amul touch. India looked forward to Amul's evocative humour. Indian Airlines won’t fly without Amul. DaCunhas have made it a policy not to play it safe. They said if they didn't take down the ads they would stop supplying Amul butter on the plane."We had the option of being sweet and playing it safe." says Rahul daCunha. If the Naxalite movement was the happening thing in Calcutta. Amul would be up there on the hoardings saying. when the city first saw the beginning of the Hare Rama Hare Krishna movement. In 1969.For the first one year the ads made statements of some kind or the other but they had not yet acquired the topical tone." says Sylvester daCunha. From then on Amul began playing the role of a social observer. then the creative team working on the Amul account came up with a clincher -. won't do). So ultimately we discontinued the ad. "The Indian Airlines one really angered the authorities. If there was an Indian Airlines strike Amul would be there again saying. Sylvester decided that giving the ads a solid concept would give them extra mileage." he 31 . "Bread without Amul Butter. They have to say something. I especially like the ads on the backs of the butter packets.

The high command came down heavy on that one.says laughing. "Then there was an ad during the Ganpati festival which said. He said he had asked his assistant to take a photograph of himself with the ad because he had found it so funny. While most people agree that the Amul ads were at their peak in the Eighties they still maintain that the Amul ads continue to tease laughter out of them. From the Sixties to the Nineties. Then there was the time when the Amul girl was shown wearing the Gandhi cap. 3. Heroine Addiction. Ganpati Bappa More Ghya (Ganpati Bappa take more). They don't pander to your nationality or certain sentiments. Indians do have a sense of humour. The Shiv Sena people said that if we didn't do something about removing the ad they would come and destroy our office. everyday fun. Rebecca Mark wrote to us saying how much she liked them. So despite their reluctance the hoardings were wiped clean. afterall. That we laugh because the humour is what anybody would enjoy." says Rahul daCunha in amused tones. It is pure and simple. Even when the Enron ads (Enr on or off) were running. DATA ANALYSIS 32 . It is surprising how vigilant the political forces are in this country. Amul's little joke on Hussain had the artist ringing the daCunhas up to request them for a blow up of the ad "He said that he had seen the hoarding while passing through a small district in UP. the Amul ads have come a long way. they couldn't have anyone not taking that seriously. The Gandhi cap was a symbol of independence. Where does Amul's magic actually lie? Many believe that the charm lies in the catchy lines." There were other instances too.

1 SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE BRANDING-SPECIAL FOCUS ON TOON BRANDING QUESTIONAIRE Q1.3. Indentify the following toon mascots and their products or either of the one: ____________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 1st page of questionnaire 33 .

Why do you think this brand mascot is the most memorable one? 34 .Q2. Do you relate any product with toons? Always Sometime Often Very Rare Q4. Do you think nowadays brand mascots are losing importance to brand personality? Yes No Don’t Know Q5. Can you recognize a product on the basis of its brand mascot alone? Always Sometime Often Very Rare Q3. Which is your most memorable toon mascot? Amul Butter Girl Fido Dido Chintamani (ICICI) Any other __________________ Q6.

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2nd page of questionnaire Q7. Toon Mascot is mare popular in the rural or urban areas? Give reasons? A8. What features do you think a toon mascot should possess so as to remember over a long period of time? Cute Happy Face Suitable to the product Innovative Entertaining Any other _____________________ `Q10.A6. Would you like if toon mascots are also advertised through clothing. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Q9. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Q8. accessories. If you are to launch a new product will you depend on a brand personality of a toon mascot to build the brand image of your product? Give reasons? A7. bags etc? Yes 35 .

No Depends on the mascot Don’t know NAME: AGE: PROFESSION: _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 3rd page of questionnaire 3 .86 % 22. 2 S t at i s t i c a l D a t a Q1.57% 0 0 36 . of 15 respondents (out of 35) (Y Axis) % 42.71 % 8. Identify the following toon mascots and their products or either of the one? 1 No. of toons correctly identified (X axis) 5 8 4 9 3 3 2 0 1 0 6 No.86 % 25.

Can you recognize a product on the basis of its brand mascot alone? 2 Recognition of product on basis of brand mascot (X axis) Sometime 20 Often 12 Very Rare 0 Always No. of 3 respondents (out of 35) Y-Axis % 8.Interpretation: Out of the 35 respondent 15 were able to identify all the products correctly on the basis of its toon mascot alone which comes up to 42.e.29% 0 37 .Whereas only 8. Q2.com was the least popular one. The most identified mascot is 7up Fido-Dido whereas monster.57% i.57% 57.86%.14% 34. only 3 persons were not able to identify all the products correctly.

57% were always able to recognize the product on the basis of its brand mascot Q3.14% of the total sample size. of respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % Ability of relating products with toons (X Axis) Always 3 Sometime 14 Often 16 Very Rare 2 38 8. that they were sometimes able to recognize the product on the basis of Brand Mascot alone which comes to around 57.7% 5.57% 40% 45. Do you relate any product with toons? 3 No.71% .Interpretation: Of the 35 respondents 20 said. Whereas only 8.

Whereas only 5.71% of the respondents very rarely related the products with toons Q4.Interpretation: Out of 35 respondents 16 people often related the products with their toon mascots which come up to around 45.7%. Do you think nowadays Brand Mascots are losing importance to Brand Personality? 39 .

4 Brand Mascots are losing importance to Brand Personality (X-axis) No 18 Don’t No 5 Yes No.29% Interpretation: 51. Which is your most memorable toon mascot? 40 . of 12 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 34.29% 51.43% of the total people surveyed had the opinion that Brand Mascots are not losing importance to Brand Personality whereas 14.43% 14.29% had no opinion regarding the same Q5.

5 Most Memorable Toon Mascot (X-axis) Fido Dido 5 Chintamani 1 Any Other 0 Amul Butter Girl No.86% respectively 41 .29% 2. of 30 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 85.71% of the respondents opted for Amul Butter Girl as their most memorable toon mascot followed by Fido-Dido and Chintamani with 14.86% 0 Interpretation: on the basis of the survey conducted 85.71% 14.29%and 2.

28% 11.42% 42 .Q6.28% 14.42% 20% 11. of 12 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 34. Why do you think this Brand Mascot is most memorable one? 6 Reason for Amul Butter Girl being most memorable (X-axis) Cute/ Happy 5 Good Attention Animation Seeking 4 7 Innovative 4 Long Lasting No.

Interpretation: According to the survey conducted Amul Butter Girl is the most memorable toon mascot because it has been in the market since a very long time and also it is very attention seeking because it is always related to the current affairs Q7. If you are to launch a new product will you depend on a brand personality or a toon mascot to build the brand image of your product? 43 .

71% thought of using both the toon mascot and personality for the launch of their product.71% 8.85% Interpretation: 34.14% 5. of 12 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 34.28% 17. Toon Mascot is more popular in Rural or Urban areas? 44 . Q8.28% of the total population surveyed opted to depend on a toon mascot for the launch of their new product 5.57% 22.7 Dependence for the launch of new product (X-axis) Toon Mascot Brand Personality 6 Both 2 Some Other Method 3 Depends On product 8 No.

14% of the total population surveyed suggested that toon mascots are more popular in the urban areas due to high literacy rate whereas 28.57% Interpretation: 37. 45 .8 Popularity (X-axis) Rural 10 Both 3 Urban No. of 13 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 37.57% 8.14% 28.57% had the opinion of the toon being more popular in the rural areas because they identify the product on the basis of toons.

46 .43% 42.51% 54. What features do you think a toon mascot should possess so as to be remembered over along period of time? 9 Features of toon mascot to make him memorable (X-axis) Cute Happy Face 15 Suitable to Innovative product 25 17 Entertaining 19 No. of 11 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 31.43% thought that the toon mascot should possess the features which are suitable to the product followed by the toon being entertaining and innovative.86% 71.Q9.43% 48.29% Interpretation: 71.

Q10. Would you like if the toon mascots are also advertised through clothing, accessories, bags etc?


Promotion of Toon mascots through clothing, accessories, bags, etc (X-axis) Yes No 1 Depends On Mascot 20 Don’t Know 1

No. of 13 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 37.14%




Interpretation: 57.14% of the total population surveyed suggested that the above mentioned promotion strategy should be used

depending upon the mascot whereas 37.14% would really like the promotion of toon mascot through clothing, accessories, bags etc.


3.4 Theoretical Data
From the survey conducted the following findings can be concluded:

Out of the 35 respondent 15 were able to identify all the products correctly on the basis of its toon mascot alone which comes up to 42.86% hence it can be concluded that toon mascots have almost been successful in their purpose of Brand recall, which means that more interesting toon advertisements, more brand recall.

Out of the 35 respondents 20 said, that they were sometimes able to recognize the product on the basis of Brand Mascot alone which comes to around 57.14% of the total sample size.


Whereas only 8.57% were always able to recognize the product on the basis of its brand mascot

Out of 35 respondents 16 people often related the products with their toon mascots which come up to around 45.7%. Whereas only 5.71% of the respondents very rarely related the products with toons. So if more companies opt for this strategy then the relation of the toons and products will definitely increase, impressing the viewers.

51.43% of the total people surveyed had the opinion that Brand Mascots are not losing importance to Brand Personality

whereas 14.29% had no opinion regarding the same. Brand mascot has its own identity and will definitely be more

appealing to the audience as it is a very innovative concept of advertising and promotion





the for

survey Amul

conducted Butter Girl

85.71% as


the most




memorable toon mascot followed by Fido-Dido and Chintamani with 14.29%and 2.86% respectively 49

According to the survey conducted Amul Butter Girl is the most memorable toon mascot because it has been in the market since a very long time and also it is very attention seeking because it is always related to the current affairs

34.28% of the total population surveyed opted to depend on a toon mascot for the launch of their new product 5.71% thought of using both the toon mascot and personality for the launch of their product. Thus it can be concluded people would really appreciate products. if companies use toons for promoting their

37.14% of the total population surveyed suggested that toon mascots are more popular in the urban areas due to high literacy rate whereas 28.57% had the opinion of the toon being more popular in the rural areas because they identify the product on the basis of toons. So companies operating in the rural areas can use more of toons to make their brand easily recognized and popular amongst the rural masses.


• 57. accessories and bags depends completely on the suitability of the toon that means that if the company using a toon mascot is thinking of using such promotional channels should design the toon in a manner that will be suitable and liked by the targeted audience 4. worthiness for the money that spend for it. foot wears. mobile phones but only “Branded”. accessories.• 71.43% thought that the toon mascot should possess the features which are suitable to the product followed by the toon being entertaining and innovative. 51 .1 Why it’s Branding? As a teenager I am very much fond of clothes. In real sense I am a “Branded Baby”. costliness. it gives me great pleasure buying favorite things from a branded company so that it represents quality. bags.14% of the total population surveyed suggested that promotion of the toon mascots through clothes. PERSONAL REVIEW 4.

television sets.Like me other people are also crazy about the brands of the products that they purchase. washing machines etc. People nowadays have very good knowledge about brands that are available for a particular product and also for different types of product. In this sector some brands are so highly successful their brand name is the first to hit the customer’s mind while the purchase of that product. Brands and Branded products are mainly popular in amongst the age group of 16-30 yrs. But in case of FMCG products. Some examples for the same context are: PRODUCT Coconut Oil Detergents Toothpaste Pencil Photocopy Book BRAND NAME Parachute Ariel Colgate Nataraj Xerox Navneet Not only FMCGs nowadays companies of other products have also made a mark on the minds of people and are able to share the same priority for the purchase. once the brand or the company gives good quality product the customers become loyal to that brand and make it a point to spread positive word of mouth about the particular brand’s product. This is relevant for the purchase of durable goods like mobile phone. And some examples of such brands are: PRODUCT Jeans (Denim) Shoes Glares BRAND NAME Spykar Jeans Adidas Fast Track 52 . They gather enough information about different brands that are available for the product that they are willing to buy.

Anything that girl needs to do to enhance her beauty she will first rush to branded outlets of the companies like Lakme.Make-up equipments Watches Lakme Fast Track or Titan Brand popularity is applicable not only for products but also for services and entertainment • Entertainment: By “Entertainment” I mean to say that people are now so much influenced by the brand that they also want to spend their leisure time under a “Branded Roof”. Big Bazaar and many others which have created a good brand image. Availing of transport services also happens through branded providers like Raj Travels and Tourism. If friends are planning to go out for a movie. HDFC Bank etc. For fitness purposes people prefer popular fitness centers like Talwarkars. R-Mall. While working on this project I gained immense knowledge about branding which plays a very important role in the commercial world and also forms the base for commercial successes. Jet Airways. People also avail banking services from market leaders like ICICI Bank. • Services: Services have also become branded and popular amongst masses. If a family is about to go for shopping definitely they would visit a renowned branded mall Shopper’s Stop.2 Difficulties faced 53 . Center One. As being a management student it was a wonderful opportunity for me to work and research on a topic which interests me a lot. Gold’s Gym etc. L’Oreal etc. they would go to Multiplexes and Cine Plazas which also provides them with the facility of shopping and also cafeterias where they have a good time with their friends. 4. Orbit Mall.

Working on this project was very much enriching. As the project consists of special focus on “Toon Branding” I have also included case study on Amul Butter Girl which is a successful story for Toon Branding. 54 . Lastly I want to thank my guide. then too not many people or even students are not aware of it.3 Suggestions While working on the project I have gained almost complete knowledge about branding therefore I would always support branding and even suggest the companies to opt for it. In spite of all these difficulties I was very successful in getting all the information about Amul Butter Girl because of excellent website designed by Amul. knowledgeable and tiring experience. because it gave me a lot of knowledge relating to how to go about with branding of a product. Experience of working on this project was a tiring one because. Not only about how to create a brand name for a product but it also taught me that once created a brand name how to maintain and continue with the quality and consistency of the product. The reasons behind the same are: • • Location difficulties The firm is so innovative in its concept of toon branding that the management definitely had no time for the appointment. As important decisions like “whether to go for toon branding or not?” are taken by the top management therefore I required an appointment with the personnel of the firm who had enough knowledge about this topic. but I was not successful in doing so. 4. They needed an explanation about what is toon branding and even searching information about different aspects of branding needed hard work. other professors and friends who helped and encouraged me to work on this project. although “Branding” and “Toon Branding” are not new concepts. Enriching and knowledgeable.

but here again the company will face limitations because it 55 . which means that the toon mascot utilized should also represent the utility. A good example in this context would The Amul Butter Girl (Amul Butter). Whereas in case of Chintamani. and symbols etc. owned name. The choice of different elements used to create a brand identity such as color. The firm should use a brand personality. the process of branding. slogans. Not only advertisements toon mascots can also be promoted through prints on accessories. clothing bags etc.Because it is a process through which the product will be able to find a place in the minds of the people within this competitive world and also gain the loyalty of the customer if the product spells quality. it is mainly used to promote the investment plans of ICICI so all the advertisements aims at increasing the importance of investments in the life of individuals and finally it leads to “No Chinta Only Money”. Toon branding is no doubt a good way to create a brand image. All the hoardings of Amul Butter Girl are so innovative and animated in such a manner that it makes the people aware of the current happenings in the world of politics. and also Chintamani (ICICI). it makes the boring script interesting but care has to be taken by the firm that the designing of the toon is to be done in a manner that not only the toon mascot is memorable or the toon advertisement is remembered but also the sales of the product increases. and other industrial sectors and together spreads a message to use Amul butter in all situations of life. It is definitely a good idea if the firm is opting for toon branding because that is the latest advertising mantra used by many companies but it should be only used if it suits the requirement of product advertisements. and need of the product to the customer.e. quality. But the company should make a very correct and appropriate decision so as to how branding is to be done i. should be done correctly so that there are no misconceptions in the minds of the consumers to understand the use and capability of the product. brand mascot or a toon mascot for the promotion of the brand. film industry.

bags etc because the positioning of this toon mascot has been done as a “Cool Guy”. which in Titan's case happens 56 . CONCLUSION The study done so far in the context of a brand and the special focus on toon branding leads to many important conclusions. But Chintamani will not be able to share the same popularity as Fido Dido because it is not used in all the Ads of the firm and also the positioning of the toon matters in this case.purely depends upon the designing of the toon mascot that whether it will be accepted or liked on these things. Fido Dido is all about fun. I illustrate the points as follows: • The Law of Contraction: A brand becomes stronger when its focus is narrowed. For example: Fido Dido (7UP) which is promoted through these methods is already a great success. Teenagers and specially children like the images of Fido Dido on their TShirts. In order to facilitate proper comprehension of the same. but rather limiting and focusing a brand on only one type of core product. This does not imply carrying a limited product line. “Liked by girls” and the list follows. “Always up to some Mischief”.

at least when viewed in the context of the Indian watch market. or perceptions of the names. Titan. Examples of such brands are Volvo. thereby implying that it is perceived as a quality product. who own the word "safety". as it is between their names. though possessed of a wide product line. 57 .to be watches. Thus. than with watch making. There is a difference. who own the word "cola". • The Law of the Company: Brands are brands. and companies are companies. As mentioned previously Titan more or less owns the word "quality" in the minds of the consumers. who own the word "prestige" and Coca-Cola. Titan is owned by the Tata Group. seems to own the word "quality". who though highly regarded in Indian industry are associated more with heavy industries such as steel and truck building. • The Law of the Word: Any brand worth it's salt should strive to "own" a word or words in the mind of the consumer. Titan. • The Law of the Name: In the long run. • The Law of Advertising: Once born. a brand is nothing more than a name. The difference between products is thus not so much between the products. a brand needs to actively advertise in order to stay healthy and maintain market share. it's actual quality. the fact remains that brands are not built by quality alone. has stuck to its focus. If done right. advertising is more of an investment than an expense. as well as it's perception of being a quality product combine to work towards building the strength of the Titan brand. • The Law of Quality: Though quality is essential to the survival and growth of any brand. Mercedes.

the jewellery was called Tanishq. in spite of the high standing of the Titan name in the minds of the Indian consumers. in order to effectively build brand equity. though well recognizable is always accompanied by the words "TITAN" in a clear. • The Law of Shape: A brand's logotype should be well designed. This is exactly what Titan has done. and emphasizing upon it's value for money as well as it's classy image. while Coca-Cola stands for red and appears in running handwriting. Visual symbols (again with the possible exceptions of Nike's "swoosh" or Mercedes' 3-pointed star) are highly overrated. • The Law of Colour: A brand should use a colour and typeface that is the opposite of its major competitor. crisp typeface-denoting power (through the use of capital letters) and class at the same time. The Titan logo. When Titan decided to diversify into the jewellery segment. As mentioned in the section regarding the law of the word.• The Law of Siblings: There is always a time and a place to launch a second brand. Therefore. The meaning lies in the words. To do so would be to undermine the power of the Titan brand. Indian made watches. which is that of being “watch experts”? Hence. 58 . in order to fit the eyes. Each brand should be kept unique and special. quality and image) should be properly defined. but when this is done it should be ensured that both brands have separate and distinct identities. For example. not the symbol. positioning it's watches as high quality. Pepsi stands for blue and appears in capital. the two words most highly identified with Titan are “quality" and "Indian". These should thus be emphasized upon. the following factors should also be kept in mind: • Define the core brand's position and value clearly: A product should be properly positioned and its value (which includes price. they did not call their new brand 'Titan Jewellery'. modern looking letters.

Newsletters. and other forms of PR help to define the personality of a company or brand. Needless and irrelevant contests tend to shift the customer's attention from the product being promoted to the prize being offered (be it a trip to the US or a new car). The most sensible and effective forms of promotions are measures such as establishing a privileged customer club offering customer points redeemable for 59 . Titan also sponsors a number of popular television programmes. or PR. a prime example of which is Star World's "The Practice". are vital to the success and survival of any brand. • Realize that promotions can be tricky: Promotions ought to be used to create recognition and build brand loyalty. event and entertainment sponsorships. and someone nice to do business with. Titan has often sponsored cricket tournaments. A better (and far less expensive) way to promote a brand would be to allow it to be used by other companies in their promotional offers. In keeping with India's obsession with cricket. been undervalued. its value as a brand building tool has more often than not. Unfortunately.• Don't neglect Public Relations: Public Relations. including the now legendary 1997 Titan Cup. Titan is currently being offered by both Outlook magazine and WelcomAward (the privileged customer programme of the WelcomGroup chain of hotels) in their various promotional offers. positioning it as a good corporate citizen.

Titan emphasis on being Indian enables it to effectively meet their threat. Titan has their own privileged customer club. with the plethora of foreign brands available in the country today. • Expand sensibly: 60 . This works for Titan in two ways. and can perhaps best be described in six words.6 Lakh members.discounts and rebates. Titan Signet. However with it's emphasis on it's USP and aggressive advertising. Such was the case with HMT. it's emphasis on 'international quality' successfully negates it's major Indian competitor. Thus while capitalizing on the Tata name. yet singularly unstylish and staid looking watches. at the same time it has never really done much to hide the fact. Interestingly. Titan convinced the market that it produced the better product and thus destroyed HMT's near monopoly of the Indian watch market. who is still perceived as a company offering solid and reliable. Titan's USP is two fold. while Titan has never actively promoted the fact that it's parent company is the Tata Group. • If you can't be first. be better: Being the first entrant in any category earns pioneer status for a brand and gives it the advantage of being the probable market leader. "An Indian company offering international quality". Secondly. which has an impressive 1. First of all. • Always remember the USP: A USP (Unique Selling Proposition) is not only what gives the customer a reason to buy the brand. HMT. but is also what helps him distinguish the brand from its competitors. it has built its own identity as an Indian brand offering high quality watches at prices significantly below those of comparable foreign brands.

Titan introduced it's own line of chronographs priced significantly lower than the competition at a mere Rs 50006000. youth oriented "style" brands such as Esprit and Swatch. When Titan entered the market in 1987. Similarly. brand extension should be undertaken. As times changed. its main competitor was HMT. a company offering reliable and economically priced watches. With the entry of the "high performance" sports watch brands in the form of Tag Hauer. Titan introduced the 'Fastrack' sub brand. 61 . Omega and Breitling. or changing customer wants and perceptions. so did Titan. Titan thus started out being a company offering a wide variety of models.Extensions should always be logical and market driven and not mere "product explosions". It should not. With the growing entry of foreign brands into the market. however be undertaken arbitrarily. Titan continued to introduce sub brand after sub brand to meet every new challenge. As the market environment changes with the addition of say. greater competition. to counter the entry of foreign. however. again priced extremely competitively. with the added USP of being a more stylish alternative to HMT. most of which were priced economically.

com www.yahoo.com www.amul.wikipedia.com 62 .• BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: • Marketing Management: By Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Killer • Brand Building: By Philip Kotler • Branding Management: • By Philip Kotler Branding: - By Philip Kotler Websites: • • • • www.google.com www.

Amul Hits of 1995 – 96 On the introduction of the show “Amul surbhi” Name Game 63 .

Waste Bengal Amul Hits of 1996 .97 On the infighting within the Congress government during the general election On the large number of Lok Sabha candidates from the film industry 64 .

98 When Bihar Chief Minister Laloo Prasad Yadav was involved in the Fodder Scandal 65 .When Atal Behari Vajpayee became Prime Minister Amul Hits of 1997 .

On Laloo Prasad Yadav's refusal to vacate the Chief Minister's seat. Amul Hits of 1998 – 99 66 . AMUL's salute to India on Independence Day.

On Women Bus Conductors’ Amul Hits of 1999 – 2000 67 .On the popular Oskar award winning film .`TITANIC' On the famous song aati kya khandala from the movie ghulam.

On winning the Gold for Hockey in the Asian Games.Based on the Starr report on Bill Clinton. Haul of 10 wickets by kumble 68 .

2001 Match fixing charges against South African cricket captain Hansie Cronje" .Amul Hits of 2000 .May 2000 69 .April 2000 "India's population touches one billion" .

"On the first anniversary of the Kargil issue". 70 . Amul Hits of 2001 – 2002 "On the recent Mumbai Stock Exchange scam involving top brokers" .April 2001.

Protest over the proposed flyover in Mumbai by renowned singer and prominent citizens .June 2001 Amul Hits of 2003 – 2004 71 .April 2001 On launch of the Hindi film `LAGAAN' .

"The Centre for Science and Environment" that leading las and carbonated soft drinks contain dangerously high level of pesticide residues which are likely to be hazardous for health .the episode then going to media . 72 .April 2003 Pun on Bollywood highly popular horror film .August 2003.Two Bollywood stars engage in threatening telephonic calls .June 2003 Controversy on the findings by NGO .

Amul Hits of 2004 – 2005 On Dr.September'04 73 . Manmohan Singh being elected Prime Minister of India .May'04 Model turned Actress Preeti Jain's allegation against noted film director Madhur Bhandarkar having sexually exploited her on the pretext of arranging roles in films July'04 Launch of 'ZOOM' India's first glamour and lifestyle family entertainment television channel .

2006 On the Maharashtra Government's decision to close down dance bars all over the state barring Mumbai .April'05 On Mallika Sherawat's first international film 'The Myth' with Jackie Chan .Amul Hits of 2005 .May'05 74 .

April '06 75 .May'05 Amul Hits of 2006 .On Greg Chappell of Australia being appointed new coach of the Indian Cricket Team .2007 Protests against the proposed flyover on Peddar Road in Mumbai .

April '06 On French Captain Zinedine Zidane shown red card sending him off for vicious head-butting Italian defender in the chest during the World Cup Football Final .Controversy on increasing height of Sardar Saravor Dam (Narmada Dam) on Narmada River in Gujarat .July '06 76 .

August '06 Australian cricketers unpleasant behavior of push and shove towards BCCI President Mr.November '06 77 . Sharad Pawar at ICC Champions Trophy prize distribution ceremony at Brabourne Stadium in Mumbai. India .On hysteria amongst people at the seafront in Mahim .Central Mumbai to drink sea water which reportedly turned sweet .

April 2007. 78 .February 2007 Amul Hits of 2007 – 2008 On Bollywood superstars Amitabh and Jaya Bachchan's son Abhishek's wedding with Aishwarya at their residence Prateeksha in Mumbai .Indian Bollywood actress Shilpa Shetty winner of British reality television show Big Brother .

On Super Jumbo A380 Airbus double-decker the world's largest civilian passenger aircraft in India for first time . Richard Gere Hollywood actor and Shilpa Shetty Bollywood actress in a controversial incident in public at an AIDS function in India .May' 07. 2007. Bollywood romantic comedy film CHEENI KUM (A Sugar Free Romance) in which 79 .May.

wise beyond her years . India's Taj Mahal a masterpiece of architecture of 17th Century in the worldwide race for inclusion in the new Seven Wonders of the World. 80 . It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah JAhan as a symbol of enduring love for his wife Mumtaz on the outskirt of Agra July '07.June '07.July '07. suffering from leukemia. Police in Mumbai. India conduct breathalyzer or conventional tests on motorists at night to crackdown on drunken driving to avoid road accidents .superstar Amitabh Bachchan shares time with little girl his neighbor.

August '07.CHAKDE! INDIA. the Bollywood movie with focus on women's hockey featuring staractor Shah Rukh Khan playing coach of the Indian Women's Hockey Team to bring fame to India . Bollywood actress and dancing queen Madhuri Dixit in the movie "Aaja Nachle" (Let's Dance) in which music and dance being the essence of the movie . 81 .November '07.

. 82 .Team India celebrate after winning the inaugural ICC WORLD TWENTY 20. Upcoming releases in November 2007 of two Bollywood movies SAAWARIYA – innocent. SOUTH AFRICA 2007 cricket World Cup in Johannesburg .September' 07. pure love story and Om Shanti Om – a love story – October 2007.

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