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ON BUSINESS BY AIR

IlUSINESS AUt TRAV'LLER'S

UfDE by D. Green and K.

We rcotr Jones (30) i a critical a sessrnent of flying today specially for those travelling on busine . It set out the expected facilities on individual airlines and advises on airports and aircraft dealing with travel agents; standards o!1in·flighl service offered; group travel for conferences, fairs, etc and what to do when travel arrangements go wrong. The advantages or charter nying, whether by light twin-engined plane, or jet, are assessed. The authors also look at travel ancillaries such as car hiri g, hotels and credit cards. The book is frank: one chapter in Fact, pomt out the many m tance at home and abroad when it i often more convenient, quicker or comfortable 1101 to fly. Although the book is directed specifically a busine s air travellers, others will find the tabulated lists of airlines and world airports, with their facilities the latter giving distance from city centre as well a fares and exit taxes), of value and Interest too.

81' x 5t 128 pp (pIllS 16pp pictures) 30s

From our Book List:-

Current '& New PubUcation5 Civil Aircratl Marking. '~70

Civil' Airliner Re(osnil::ion, 1970 light. PI,no Recognition 1'n0 Miliury Alr(.raft Re.cognition 1970 London, Airports 1970

Airc ra ft of World War I

Aircraft 01 World War 2

1970 UK Ffigh' Guide

Hondl.y PalO Album of Air".ft Pictorial HiStory of the Luftwl.He Briti!lih Military AirtraftSerials

1911 to f969 Lae ese ed.

Brit.ish Civil Aircraft Re,ister Pictorial History of RAF Vol t Pktoriill History or RAF Vol 2 Pictori21 Hi!u:or)' of BOAC

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AIR RAFT

016 AUGUST, 1970

STOP PRESS

Literally ju t publi hed, and designed to appeal to the general enthusiast and modeller alike, is AIR SC 'N -a picture book cornpiled by P. J. R. Moye ditor of Aircraft Illustrated, and devoted entirely to aeroplanes of the past. It contains top quality pictures printed on top quality paper, is a really de luxe photographic album and should have a wide appeal. Its purpose is purely to entertain by reviving memories for older enthusiasts, providing a new source of inter t for younger ones and furni hing the oftfrustrated mode lie! with some first-class reference material unobtainable el ewhere.

II x 8t 48pp (four- otour CO~C,.) 12s6d

Uni,forms& Wea,po,ns

The following titles are published by WE Inc. of America and di tributed by Ian Allan:

German Military niforms and Insignia 1933·1945

German Army and Navy Uniforms and In ignia ofWWI

German Submachine Guns and Assault Rifles of ww n

Navy niforms, Insignia and

Warship of WWl [

German Tank and Antitank The Fighting Tanks 1916·1933 Tank Data I

Tank Data 2

German Combat Weapon of WW II Vol I

Japanese Combat Weapons of WW 11 Vol. 2 70s errnan Aircraft Guns wWJ-WWn 80s

Tank are Mighty inc Things 555

Automatic Pistol 555

Grumman Aircraft Data 905

The Japanese avy at the end of

WW2

Tanks and Armored Vehicles

70s

80s

55s

90s 90s 80s 75s 80s

70s

80s J20s

AI/ titles shown 011 this page are available from theMail Order Department at the address above, Please send remittance (plus 3s ill the £ lor postage and packing) with order.

ABOVE: Bell CUH-1 H Iroquois 118105 of the Canadian Armed Forces goes into action during a fire-fighting exercise at CFB Uplands, Ontario. [CAf OfficIal

COVER: Cole Palen's gaily decorated Fokker DVII gels ready to take part in a WWI-style dogfight at The Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome. New York. in 1967.

Philip J. Birtles photo feature

J. D. Oughton Peter Kilduff M. Serlin Alfred Granger & Philip J. R. Moyes Philaticus

J. D. R. Rawlings Richard P. Bateson

photo feature James Goulding Ian Huntley

Michael Stroud

Editor:

PHILIP J. R. MOYES

Annual Subscription Rales including postage. AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED: Home 42 s, Overseas (excluding Nonh America) 52s. AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED EXTRA (published. quarterlv}:

Home 145. Overseas (excluding N. America) 18s. Combined AIRCRI!\FT ILLUSTRATED and AI EXTRA: Home 52 s, Overseas (excluding N. America) 665.

Nonh American readers should book subscriplions with Bill Dean Associates. 166-41 Powells Cove Blvd. Whileslone, New York 11357. USA. and the following annual rates apply; AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED $7.50; AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED EXTRA S2.95; combined AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED and AI EXTRA $9.95.

TERMtNAL HOUSE • 5HEPPERTON • MIDDLESEX TIt~flI~ 'W"tlil!rJ""n-'t'b .. m .. 21414

Published by

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aircraft

'"

AUGUST 1970

ILLUSTR'ATED

VOL3

News and views

The Hawker Siddeley Comet 4C Cranweil's big day

Bristol'S 'Barracuda'

Back to World War I

VHF radios

Cenlrespread puff· out feature-

The Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle Stamps

Couple o' Fleas

FAA insignia since 1945 Part 5

Georg Sattler-Mediterranean bomber pilot RAF College celebrates its golden jubilee Russian visitors

Modelling world

Port underwing, Night, Phase III Letters

British civil aircraft register Photofile

Unit historv-106 Sqn, RAF 'Books

INDUSTRY NEWS

Aero ngine ervices Ltd (A - ) or ew Zealand, has received order from UK and Australian distributors for 35 lour-seat Aircruiser and ha granted

K manufacturing right to the Trojan company of reydon which is expected 10 be ready 10 start production by the end of the year. Final assembly and test-flying of the Trojan-built machine will be carried out at Biggin Hill. his under load thai AESL is also 10 discuss a ernbly rights for the Aircrui er with manufacturers in Israel and the SA.

A a further step in the development of the BAC Commercial Aircraft Gr up it ha been decided 10 centrali e the present flight test facilitie of the Weybridge and Filion Divi ion of B C int a new Commercial Aircraft Group flight lest centre 10 be based at Fairford in Gloucestershire, currently the British test centre for the oncorde. The Weybridge Division flight lest work ha for many years been carried out from Wisley Airfield in Surrey close 10 the

Weybridge factory. The amalgamation of the Wisley and airford facilities will be a gradual proce a Wisley is currently engaged in the Flight development pr gramme for the HAC One-Eleven.

light development f the continuing One-Eleven family will remain at Wisley. The fligh; testing of the big new BA Three-Eleven is, however, being scheduled for the new centre at Fairford. The erring up of the new

Have vou heard about

Ian Allen's exciting

aircraft photo album-

AIR SCENE?

For details see page 343

No 8

305 310 315 316 318 324

325 325 326 328 333 334 336 338 339 340 342 343 344

fligh! tesr centre will not re ult in the closure of any of the airfield used by BA . Wisley will continue to be a key communications airfield and there will be no change in the roles or • ilton or HIJrn.

j being evaluated under a S Army contract, i a modified r'H·47A Chinook and main differences include a fourbladed rotor, lengthened fuselage, taller aft pylon and a retractable undercarriage.

Beagle AircraJl's receiver is consideringthe completion of 30 to 40 Pups now on the production line, according 10 lnteravia. Also at Shoreham II Beagle 206 are being offered for ale.

The Boeing. errol 347 advanced technology helicopter made its first flight on May 27. The aircraft, which

Buller Aviation International of nglcwood Cliffs, ew Jersey, ha given new designauons to its range of singleengined Mooney lightplanes, The M-20 eries will be rede ignated a follows:

Aero tar 200 Ranger, Aero tar 201 haparral and Aero tar 220 Executive.

Designations of the present Aerostar 600/601 series are unchanged.

306

LEFT. TOP TO BOTTOM: OHC Twin Otter Srs 300 demonstrator CF· YFT visited Birmingham Airport on May 26 during a route-proving flight for British Air Services; Ex-Autair BAC One- Eleven Srs 416 G-AVOE in its new livery at Manchester on June 3; Personal "barqe" of the Flag Officer at R NAS Portland is this 8·seater VIP Wessex 5. XT770, of 781 Sqn. Colour scheme is green and white and the chopper is popularly known as the "Green Parrot". [Air Pertraits (3) This Twin Pioneer. G-APHY (ex 9K-ACC). was restored to the British register last summer together with a sister machine. G-APHX (ex 9K·ACB), for use bv Western Fisheries. but owing to the owner's nonreturn from Kuwait both aircraft have been put up for sale bv Shackleton'S at Sywell.

[Po J. Bi5h

De sault is to increase (he Mirage production rate from I to 12 aircraft per month from the beginning of next year as a re lilt f recent orders bringing total sales to I 063, including 410 for I he -rcnch Air' orce,

The first export ver ion of the Hawker Siddeley Harrier V {STOL fighter are now in production for the United States Marine Corps and will enter service in 1971. Production is centred at Hawker Siddeley's Kingston and

unsfold factories. Major component manufacture i being undertaken at the company's plant at Hamble, near Southampton, and at Brough, Yorkshire, where the wing is a sembled. The

M 's initial order i for 12 aircraft, with a follow-up of 18 aircraft listed in the J971 fiscal year budget.

lAM announced that the YS-Il delivery po ition at April 30 last was as follows: All Nippon Airways 30· Japan Dome tic Airline ]5; Toa Air Ways 9; Japanese Defence Agency, Air 7 (3 on order); Japanese Defence Agency, Maritime 3 (3 on order); Japanese Civil Aviauon Bureau 3;

ivil Aviation College 2: Maritime Safety Board 1; Piedmont (USA) 21; Transair (Canada) 2; LA SA (Peru) 2; Cruzeiro (Brazil) 8; V ASP (Brazil) 6; Aerotran porte Litoral Argentino 3; Filipinas Orient 4; Southwest Airlines (Okinawa) 3; Korean Air Lines 4; China Airlines (Taiwan) 2; Olympic Airways (Greece) 4 (3 on order): Air Afrique J (on lease).

cortish Aviation (Bulldog) Ltd i to be formed at Prestwick as a subsidiary of coltish viation to produce the Beagle Bulldog military trainer for the Swedish Air Force as the SK61. Bulldog production will begin in July 1971 and continue for ab ut one year.

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

RIGHT. TOP TO BOTTOM: All USAF tactical aircraft based in Great Britain are now appearing with tail codes. bringing them into line with other USAF units. Illustrated here is 48th TFW F·l000 0-62915 touching down at Lakenlleath; A new mark of the Lockheed Hercules now operating from the USAF base at WOOdbridge, Suffolk, is the HC-130N which is similar to the normal HC·130 except that the nose pincers used for airborne pick-ups have been removed and two extra tanks are now fitted under the wings. The tanks contain hose and airborne refuelling gear tor airoome refuelling of the Woodbridge-based "Jolly Green Giant" helicopters on extended search and rescue missions; Line up of Squadron VA-97's LTV A- 7 A Corsair aircraft at the USN Air Display held at Leemoore, California, on May 10. These aircraft, which hays a blue fin flash, normally operate from the USS Constettelion; Visiting Lakenheath for the recent air display was Buccaneer S2 XV349 of 12 Squadron sporting the unit's fox head insignia. (Aviation Photo News (4); Seen at Shannon recently was this North American B·25, N7614C. which was being used as a camera ship during the making of a film featuring BOAC's Boeing 747 G-AWN B. [Po Cunniffe

The Short Skyvan light twin-turboprop STOL transport can now tackle long haul -a characteristic feature or flying in undeveloped countries-with the aid of a new sy rem of extra fuel tankage which gives a 30 per cent increase in maximum range. Shorts visualise the system as being of interest primarily 10 military u ers, but it is thought that the exira 80 minutes flying time it confers would be attractive to some civil operators, particularly in areas where rage length are long or alternative landing fields few. The new installation is now in certification flight testing, and has already been ordered bytwo customers.

CIVIL NEWS

Air Canada has taken delivery of the final aircrafr jn the D -8 and D-9 series which the airline has purchased over the pa t decade. The final aircraft to be accepted wa a long-range DC·8-63 (CF-TIW fleet . a 879). Air Canada now has a fleet of 19 long-body DC-8s, each with a capacity of 198 pa engers, In addition, the airline flies 20 standard D -Bs and a fleet of 36 DC-9 twin-jets. Air Canada took delivery of its first Douglas jet-a DC·8·41-on February 7, 1960.

Air France: has ordered .(I1r.'ee Imtire . :. Ali (II Iii has- ordered four McDonnell Boeing'747s,~ which will bring;'·lhe·air:'· Douglas DC;10·30 transports and has line's 747 flee! to eight by 1972. taken options on a further 6. Deliveries are expected to begin early in 1973. Alitalia currently operates a fleet of 24 D -8 and 36 DC-9s. The litalia

order brings total sales of the DC-JO to 103, plus U I options.

Air Commen of Germany has bought

two Viscount 808s from Aer Lingus-« Air Trans-Africa has bought DC·7CF

El·AKL and EI·AKO. ET·A U from Aer Turas,

AUGUST 1970

307

LEFT, TOP TO BOTTOM: CAF Boeing CC-137 13701 pictured during a recent visit to the UK. [J. Guthrie; Pan Am and TWA are now operatiflg regular services from Heathrow and NP749PA is seen here on June 16 climbing up from runway 10L; BOAC's second 747, G·AWNB, at Heathrow on May 24. (Aviation Photo News (2); Kaiser Industries' Grumman Gulfstream II N116K seen during a recent visit to Heathrow. [M. J, Axe; G-APYC, one of five Cornel 4Bs recently acquired from Olvrnprc by Channel Airways, pictured al stanstead on May 13. Olympic's basic blue and white livery is retained, IR. Colwill; II-laD 5T-CJL (c/n 11304) of Air Mauritanie seen at Abidjan Airport on May 18. [R. Caratini

The President of Argentina has ordered a VFW:Fokker' 28 Fellowship for delivery in December.

Bahamas Airways has ordered a third HAC One- leven 500 for delivery in October. he airline al 0 operat a One- leven 300, which was delivered earlier this year.

Briti It Air Ferries ha confirmed that it intends t buy two HS 748 , 10 be delivered by the end of this year.

Cathay Pacific Airways ha ordered two Boeing 707-320B5 for delivery in June and September next year.

Cimber Alr, the Danish airline, has ordered three VFW-Fokker 614 twinturbofan short haul airliner for use on heduled r ut .

ompania de viacron Faucett the

Peruvian airline, ha ordered a BAC One-Eleven 475. (ee also p333. Announced sale of all versions of the OneEleven n w total 189 and auceu will become the 41 st operator of the type.

Communi t hinn's Ch'il Aviation

Department has purchased four HS Trident I s from Pakistan International Airlines.

The Danish Civil Avialion Directorate

has ordered a ord 262 f r flight

checking radio/na aids in Denmark.

East African Airway ha ordered three McDonnell Dougla D -9-305 for delivery in overnber and December of this year.

France's ervice ational de 13

Protection ivlle has now received its fleet of 10 anadair L-215 water bombers specially designed for forest fire fighting,

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

RtGHT: BAC Sud Jaguar S07 strike/ Hainer prototype built 10 RAF requirements, XW563, which made its first flight on June 12. BELOW RIGHT: The first Argentine Air Force Canberra B62 in Class B markings at Warton before, delivery,

Malaysia-Singapore Airlines has become thefirst purchaser of the improved version of the Boeing 737. The aircraft will be delivered in June J 971,

Merpali usantaria, (he fndonesian

carrier, has bought two Vi count 8285 from All ippon Airways.

Mid land Air Cargo ha bought the

Bristol reighter EI-APC from Acr

Turas.

A. P. Moller, the Danish industrial shipping company, has ordered two Fokker-VFW F27 Friendship 6005 for operation by its subsidiary, Maer kalr, on domestic and charter flights. Maerskair already operates three

riendship 500s and this latest order brings total sales of the F27 to 543 to 122 customers in 46 countries.

igeria Airways has leased a Boeing 707-320C from Ethiopian Airlines for its scheduled service bel ween Nigeria and urope,

aber Air the Singapore-based charter operator, has bought two DRC Twin Otter Series 300 aircraft for passenger and cargo operations,

Sterling Airways, the Danish charter operator has ordered three more S lAS Caravelle 125 which will bring its total Caravelle fleet to 21, including 7 Caravelle 12s.

nited Arab Airways has ordered ten Ru ian transport aircraft, including four Tu-134s and two An-12s, for delivery during the next two years. The aircraft will replace the airline's ll-18s, An-24s and Comets which will be withdrawn from lise within the next three years,

Yemen Airlines has ordered three VFW-Fokker 614s to replace the six DC-3s used on domestic and regional routes,

MILITARY NEWS

A Westland WGI3 helicopter will form pari of the equipment on each of the Type 42 missile destroyers which are to be supplied to the Argentine. avy by Vickers Limited, Specially designed

AUGUST 1970

for all-weather operations from the decks of small ships, the primary role f the naval version of the WG [3 is antisubmarine operations, secondary roles being search and rescue, surface strike, casualty evacuation and fleet logi tic,

The Belgian Ministry of Defence has ordered three S TAS Alouette 3 helicopters for the Belgian Navy.

The government of Ecuador has bought IWO HS 748 Srs 2As for delivery in September and October. One will be operated by tbe air force and the other by TAME, the military-operated domestic airline. Total sales of the HS 748 now stand at 232.

The Royal Air Force has a new aerobatic team this season-the Blue Chips, two Chipmunk pi ron-engined trainers from RAF Church Fenton, York hire. Flown by two qualified flying instructors at the station, the Blue Chips perform a six-minute display of combined aerobaric and synchronised manoeuvres to allow the Chipmunk to be seen at its best. The formation of the Blue Chips means that the RAF wi II be flying two Chipmunk acrobatic teams this year, The other is the Skylarks-four Chipmunks of the Central Flying School at Little Rissington, Glos.

The Royal 'ew Zealand Air Force recently took delivery of the first two of four AESL Airtourer trainers (NZ1760 and '61), the first ewZealand-built plane it ha bought.

The Royal 'ew Zealand Air Force's first McDonnell Douglas Skyhawk ground-attack aircraft wa flown from the Whenuapai base, near Auckland, on May 21, five days after the batch of

14 ai rcraft were landed at Auckland from the helicopter carrier USS Okinawa. The aircraft was one of Ihe four twoseater TA-4Ks in the order (the rest are A-4Ks) and wa flown by the CO of 75 Squadron. All the Skyhawks are to be operated by 75 Sqn at Ohakea and the unit is expected to complete its conversion from Vampire aircraft by the end of the year.

The Swedish Government has ordered 58 Beagle Bulldog trainers, with an option on 45 more, to be produced by a - new subsidiary of Scottish Aviation, (See Industry News.)

The US Air Force has awarded orth American Rockwell a contract for seven B-] A advanced manned supersonic bombers (five flight aircraft and two static rest models) and given General Electric a contract for the engines. The B-1 A will crui e in the Mach 2-3 regime, will be smaller and weigh considerably less than the B-S2 but will carry greater payload -up to two and a half those of the B-52-through improved engine performance. Its in-service date is to be 1977-78, when the first of 200-240 is due to become operational with Strategic Air Command.

The S Army has ordered a further 30 Bell UH·IH helicopters, bringing tha total number of the type on order for the US Army to 319.

How we came to call (hose rusty old choppers in last month's Two of a Kind "Whirlwinds we will never know. They were, of course, Dragonflies as we realised long before any readers didalbeit too late to do anything about it. Our sincere apologies.

309

PHILIP JI .. BIRTLES

IPHOTOGRAPHSBY THE AUTHOR EXCEPT WHERE CREDITED

The Hawker Siddeley Comet4C

THE intermediate Comet 4C was announced in December . 1957 and is the logical combination of the large capacity fuselage of the continental Comet 4B. with the full-span long range wing of the inrercominerual Comet 4.. The 4C offers substantially more payload than the 4 at the cost of a small reduction in maximum range. The result is exceptional economy and versatility of operation where neither thevery long nor very short stages are the main consideration.

The Comet 4C is designed to carry 21 785lb of payload (eg 85 mixed class passengers) on stages up to 2 475 statute miles. Like the 4 and 4B, the 4C is powered for four Rolls-Royce Avons of 10 400lb static thrust.

The Comet 4C, which originally cruised at 500mph at altitudes ranging from 30 ooon to 39 OOOft, can fly a practical stage length, with reserves, of morethan 3 300 miles. With 100 passengers and their baggage the practical stage distance is 2 500 miles.

In the summer of 1961 the cruising speed. wasIncreased by 25mph to 525mph. This was done asa result of a reevaluation of aerodynamic and structural factors after the Comet had completed one hundred million miles of Hying in commercial service.

Prior to this, in September 1960, an increase in the all-up weight to 160 OOOlb was authorised for the Comet 4 and 4C, which from that time onward were fitted with 4B type stub wings. This eliminated the empty weight penalty and increased tbe range to J 225 miles. In factall the Comet 4Cs were produced to. this standard, the first two production aircraft, c/n's 6424 and 6425,. which were started as DEA Comet 4Bs (G-APMD and G-A PME) , being modified on

the, production line. .

Of 77 Comet. Series 48 that were produced, 30 were 4C5, these being sold to eight different operators.

The first order for the Comet 4C was from Mexicana Airlines (CJ\I1A) which announced its intention to purchase three aircraft al. a total cost of Sl4 million including spares on October 30, 1959. Its first a ircratt, XA·NAR, flew at Hatfield on the following. day, carrying the temporary British registration G-AOVU for its C or A and development

310

flying. The Federal Aviation Authority, the American equivalent of the British Air Registration Board, responsible for airworthiness certification of aircraft used by American operators, certified. the Comet 4C in MarchJ96.l. The tests did in fact involve the first Mexican aircraft and resulted in only a few, mainly minor, modifications to suit American operating procedures, all t.he chief requirements for safety and performance being easily satisfied.

The second aircraft for Mexicana XA·NAS, carried the temporary registration G·AOVV when it made its first flight at Hatfield on December 3, 1959. II was actually the first to be, delivered to Mexico City, departing from Hatfield on January 14, 1960, and it was joined by XA·NAR on June g that year. The third aircraftflew at Hatfield on October 7, 1960, . with the temporary registration G·ARBR It left Hatfield as XA·NAT on November 29 for delivery to Mexicana, flying via Gander and Chicago, and completed the total journey of.5 880 miles in just under 15 hours.

The 4C was adaptable for Mexicana's volume of traffic, being laid out for 22first·class and 64 tourist passengers, and flew on the .. Golden Aztec" international routes linking the USA and the Caribbean with Mexico City.

Mexicana had an option on two further Comet 4Cs c/ns 6457 and 6463, which were under construction at Hatfield and due to be registered XA-NAD and XA-NAE. But owing to the airline's financial problems these options were not taken up and. after being storedon the production line at Hatfield. for a short while, the Comets were sold instead to Sudan Airways.

The second order for the Comet 4C wasannounced early in 1960 and involved three aircraft for Misrair, the national airline of the United Arab Republic, which was renamed United Arab Airlines by the end of tbe year. This order was worth about £4 millionand came after two years of careful negotiations, The purchase was actually made shortly after the reopening of diplomatic relationsbetween the UK and UAR, when suitable financial arrangements had been made.

The first Misrair Comet 4C, SU-ALC, made its first flight from Chesler to Hatfield on May 21,1960, and was handed

AI RCRA'FT ILLUSTRATED

FACING PAGE: Comet 4C XA·NAS, the second for Mexicana, temporarily registered G·AOVV for certification flying before delivery. [HSA

over on June 9 within 23 weeks of the.order being placed. The following day it was flown to Cairo, piloted by Captain Shams, Misrair's chief pilot and director of operations, in a total time of 4 hours 17 minutes. It was followed by the second aircraft, SlJ-ALD, on June 29 and Misrair began its Comet services on Saturday July 16, operating between Cairo and London via Rome and Frankfurt.

The third Comet, SU-ALE, joined the other twoaircraft on December 23 and. completed. the I 918 mile delivery flight from Hatfield to Cairo in 4 hours 15 minutes. This aircraft was in service the following day on the Cairo 10 London route, and was the first to carry the new airline name,

United Arab Airlines. .

On January 15" 1961, UAA placed a repeat order for a further two aircraft for delivery that summer, and these aircraft, SU-ALL and SU-ALM, were delivered on June 12 and. July 15. Even these were not. enough and a further two aircraft, SU-AMV and SU-AMW, were ordered and were delivered on Apri[6 and 16 respectively. The last aircraft was lost on July 19, 1962, when it crashed in thick jungle in Thailand, and il was replaced by SU-ANC which was delivered to Cairo on December 22, 1962. SU-ALD was lost in the sea ell route Bangkok to Bombay on July 28, 1963, and was replaced by SU-ANI, the last civil Comet buill, which was delivered to Cairo on February 26, 1964.

The only other Comet 4C lost by United Arab Airlines was SU·ALE, which abandoned take-off at Munich on February 9, 1970,. and overshot. . Although there were no fatalities, theaircraft was probably too badly damaged to warrant ils economical repair ..

The third customer for the Comet 4C was Middle East Airlines which in January 1960 ordered four aircraft worth £5! million, with an option on a fifth aircraft. MEA planned to start operations by April 1961 on its routes from Beirut to London and other European cities, as well as its eastern routes, and in preparation for this it set up a comprehensiveengineering base at Beirut to cope with all the major engineering work on the Comet. The base was eventually put to good use by many other Comet operators who used it as a centre for their maintenance and repairs,

The first Comet for MEA, OD-ADK, made its first flight on December 3, 1960, and was handed over at Hatfleldon December IS 10 Sheikh Najib Alarnuddin, chairman of MEA, about four months ahead of schedule, so that services could start on January S, 1961. The aircraft was delivered to Beirut on December 19 and was re-registered OD·ADR.

.. MEA had been building lip Comet experience by charter. ing Comet 4.G·APDq from BOAC from November 1, .1960, .. 10 'provld~ handlll'~g and traffic information, so the introduction of Its new aircraft into service went smoothly. The. MEA Comets were laid out for 20 first-class and S9 tourist-class passengers, and the aircraft had a planned utillsation of 8t hours 3 day, equal to about 3000 hours a year.

The second aircraft, OD·ADQ. joined the first one on February J 5, 196.1,. followed by the other two, OD·ADS and OD·ADT, on March 14 and 18 respectively,

Unfortunately for MEA the first three Corners were destroyed at Beirut Airport on December 28,1968, together with a number of other aircraft, when the Israeli Forces made a surprise attack on the airfield. MEA was lefe with only OD-ADT and very little else, and it. was only because Kuwait Airways came 10 the rescue that lvlEA wasable to continue operations.

The fifth aircraft on which MEA had an option made its first fligh; from Chester (in MEA colours) on August 21, 1961 as G-AROV. and as such took part in the SBAC Show at Farnborough in September 1961. It was not, however, purchased bY,MEA and was delivered to Aerolineas Argennnas on April 27" 1962, as LY·PTS, becoming LV·AIB on its arrival in Argentina. This aircraft was ordered as a replacement for the Comet 4s lose in earlier accidents and was named after President Kennedy.

The next airline customer to order the Comet 4C was Sudan Airways. which bought the two aircraft originally al.located. to Mexicana, The first one was completed as ST-AAW and made its ,nrst flight on November S, 1962" from Ha~fie.l~, Shortly after this it was allocated temporarily the British regrstratron G-ASDZ so that de Havilland pilots. could fly it to Sudan on November 14 for the Independence celebrations at Khartoum two days later, It returned to Hatfield via Rome on November 18 for crew training and was finally delivered to Sudan Airways on December 8, to be fol.lowed. by the second aircraft, ST·AAX, on December 21, 1962, fILlS being the last Comet built at Hatfield.

The filial airline to order the Cornet was Kuwait Airways which ordered one,.9K-ACA, which first flew on December J4, 1?62, ~nd was delivered onJanu~ry .18, 1963, to replace the airline s Douglas DC·6s. Kuwait Airways rhea placed a. repeat order for am: more Comet 4C,. together with two Trident lEs.and~ome BAC One-Elevens,the Comet, 9K-ACE, being delivered to Kuwait on February 2, 1964 covering the distance of 3 169 miles, ina record time of 6 hours 2 minutes.

. The Kuwait Airways Comets were put up for sale towards the end of 1968 and it was these two Cornets in addition to

..

Kuwait Airways' first Cornel 4C, 9 K-ACA, which was delivered on January 18. 1963.

{HSA

AUGUST 1970

3"

Comet 4C XS235 is a permanently instrumented flight trials laboratory operated by the Radio Division of the A&A"E: at Bascombe Down. This picture was taken al rhe- 1968 Farnborough Air Show.

3 Comet C4 XR399. last of five C4s delivered to 216 Squadron, Lyneham.

4 Comet 4C 9K-ACA pictured at Hatfield in June 1969 whilst on loan 10 Middle East Airlines from Kuwait Airways.

5 Misrair's first Comet 4C, SU·ALC, at Hatfield.

6 Sudan Airways' Comet 4C ST·AAX leaves Hatfield on January 31, 1967, after receiving modifications.

2 One and only executive Comet 4C was SA-R-7 whose black, white, green and gold livery is seen to advantage in this view.

312

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

' ..

4

5

6

---

an c BOA Cornet 4, 9K·ACI, which kept Middle East Airline in bu iness after the destruction of most of its fleet by the surprise action in December 1968.

The mo t interesting Comet 4C buill was the one ordered at the Farnborough Show in September J961 for the personal use of King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia. This aircraft, SA-R-7, was built at Hatfield and was the most luxuriously appointed and expensive executive jet of that time. It was painted externally in green, black, while and gold in a scheme of unique design and was operated on King Ibn Saud's behalf by Saudi Arabian Airlines. The aircraft made its first flight on March 29, 1962, and its first overseas flight, (0 Pisa and Rome, on June 15. It visited Saudi Arabia on October 25, 1962, and continued with the crew [raining and occasional trip for the King until its untimely end when it crashed in the Alps ell route Geneva to ice in the early hours of March 30, 1963 while carrying some of King Saud's luggage and members of hi entourage.

On September 6, 1960, it wa announced at Farnborough that a contract was being negotiated for the purchase of five Cornet C4s for Royal Air orce Transport Command (now Air Support Command), and the following year this order wa confirmed. The C4s were to supplement the ]0 Comet C2s that had been operating with 216 Squadron at Lyneharn since 1956. They were: to be filled with 94 rearward-facing seals; but easily convertible for ambulance

LEADING DATA

Comet 1 I Come' 48 COl11"~C
Ovcr.lllenl,h H,) 111.5 liB 118
Span (ft' 115 107.B liS
Haight (fe) 28.5 28.5 28.5
Win, area (.q f,) 2121 2059 2121
Mal( .uw (Ib) 156000 IS2500 156000
Max landin, wt (Ib) 113000 liB 500 IIB500
MOl( .ero luol .... , lib) 95000 102 500 102 500
Usable fu.1 gpi,i,y (Imp , .. I) 8990 7890 8990
Max Sot'llse Iengrh with max pa.y'oad H7S
(st .. mil ... ) 3000 2300
Correspondln, •• po<ity payload (Ib) 16800 21968 11785 COMET 4C PRODUCTION

dutie 10 accommodate 12 stretchers, 47 sitting patients and 6 attendants; or alternatively as VIP transports.

The fir I C4, XR395, first flew from Chester on November 15, 196J, and was followed by XR396 to XR399 inclusive, the last flying on March 20, 1962. First 10 be delivered to 216 Squadron, on February [5, 1962, was XR397 and the order wa completed by XR395 on June 1 of that year.

On Ihe retirement of the Comet C2s in March 1967 these live C4s were allocated so [ely to VIP duties and the VC-lOs or 53 Squadron took over Transport Command's long-range schedules.

The final Comet 4C customer was the Ministry of Defence which ordered XS235 for use at Boscornbc Down on various radio and navigation equipment trials. It first flew on September 26, 1963, and was delivered to the A & AEE on December 2. It wa first shown publicly at the Farnborough Show in September, 1968 when it dominated the static park. This Comet. an unusual feature of which is a bath tubshaped radome under the forward fuselage, has travelled world-wide to gain information from all environments on the operation of the equipment it carries.

Two final Comet 4Cs. clns 6476 and 6477, were laid down at Chester, but remained unsold until they were allocated to the imrod programme as prototypes. The first one, XV147, made its first flight on October 25, 1965, when it went from Chester to Woodford as a bare 4C airframe and was sub equenrly shortened and converted to the Avonpowered prototype, in which form itfirst flew on July 31, 1967. The second aircraft, XV148, remained at Chester where it was converted to Spey power and again the fuselage was shortened. This in fact was the first imrod to fly, on May 23, 1967, when it was taken to Woodford by John Cunningham and Jimmy Harrison. Both these aircraft featured all the original windows along the cabin, unlike the production aircraft which have relatively few cabin windows.

All the remaining Comet 4Cs, except of cour e the Kuwait aircraft, are still operating successfully with their original owners, even though a number have entered their 10th working year, and it is expected that these sleek alrcraft will continue to grace the sky for years 10 come.

cln Regis'fration First. flifht O.li.ered Cu.stomer Remark!'
6~2~· XA·NAR 31.10.59 S. 6.60 Mexicana St. ned :u ~8 G·APMD, nru. remp G.AOVU for ARB and FAA Oyin,. G.,den Arlee
6<125" XA·NAS 3.12.59 I~. 1.60 Mevic3n3 St.rted as -4B G.APME, neu. Temp G-AOVV
6<139 SU-ALC 21. 5.60 10. 6.60 Misl"'lir
*"-4-'11 SU-ALD IS. 6.60 29. 6.60 Misl"'air Crashed 29.7.63 in sea en route Ihn,kok <0 .Bomb.y
6-40' XA·NAT 7.10.60 29.11.60 Mexic:ana Temp rec G-ARBB
6-4 ..... SU·ALE 22.11.60 23.12.60 UA.A e ..... h.d Munith 9.2.70 ofter '/0 .b.ndoned
6-4"5" OD-ADK 3.12.60 19.12.60 MEA r.-re,OD.ADR. WrlttM-aff Beiru, by " ..... lis 28.12.68
6+46 OD·ADQ -4.2.61 15. 2.61 MEA Wr;"en_off 8.;ru, 28.12.68
6-4"8 OD·ADS 5. 3.61 1-4. 3.61 MEA Wri".n-off Seirut 28.12.68
6-450 OD.ADT 9. 3.61 18. 3.61 MEA
6~5" SU-ALL 30. S.61 12. 6.61 UAA
6~S7' ST·AAW 5.11.62 1-4.11.62 Sudan Alw XA·NAO nev tcmp rc. G·ASOZ lor vi.t [0 Khar-eoum
6458 SU·ALM 30. 6.61 15. 7.61 UAA
(,-460 G·A!\OV" n. 8.61 27. 4.62 AA Origin.lty ME:A,ntu. F.rnborou.lh demo 9161. To AA ., L V-PTS 10 LV·A!B 're.sidon!
Kenn<dr
6461' SA·R·7 29. 3.62 IS. 6.62 King Saud Cr.shed 20.3.63 in .Alp.
6462 SU-AMV 25. 3.62 6. -4.62
6~63' ST-AAX 8.12.61 21.12.62 Sudan XA·NAE, ntu. Las, Come, Irom H .. field
6-46-4 SU·AMW 3. 4.62 16. 4.62 UAA ensned 19.7.62 in jungle in Thailand
M65 9K·ACA 11.12.62 18. 1.63 Kuw3.it Leased 10 MEA 1169
6-466 SU-ANC 8.12.62 22.12.62 UAA
6167 XR39S 15.11.61 I. 6.62 RAF 216 Sqn
6-468 XR396 28.12.61 12. 3.62 RAf 216Sqn
6169 XRl97 17. 1.62 IS. 2.62 RAF 216 Sqn
6-470 XR198 13. 2.62 16. 3.62 RAF 216 Sqn
6171 XR199 20. 3.62 26. 1.62 RAf 21(, Sqn
6-47) XS135 26. 9.63 2.12.63 MOD A & AEE Bascombe Down
M71 9K·ACE 17.12.63 2. 2.61 Kuwait H ar f1eld (London) co Kuw.ie record 6.02hr 10.ec 3169 mil •• on did fli,h,. I .... d to MEA
1/69
6175 SU·ANI 1.2.64 26.2.M UAA La., Comet -'lC completed
6~76 XVH7 25.10.65 MOO Chester to Woodford for ton¥ersion to Nimrod prot, Avon engines. F/i 1 f.7.67
6477 XVHB 23. 5.67 MOD flf from Chester co Woodford .s f,rs, Nimrod '0 fly wit h Spey engines 314 AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

Cranwell's big day

Pictures by AVIAT:ION PHOTO NEWS

This year is the 50th anniversary year of the RAF College at Cranwell (see also p333) and on June 12 the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh attended a special ceremony at Cranwell to mark the occasion. On display were numerous types of aircraft used by the college during half a century of training, including those seen here.

ABOVE RIGHT: Flypast by two current Cranwell types, the Jet Provost and Varsity.

RIGHT: Standing in for the famous Hawker Fury was John Isaacs' ~ scale Fury sporting 43 Sqn markings.

BELOW: Recently brought back from Canada was this superbly-restored Sopwith Snipe which is destined for the AAF Museum at Hendon.

..

Bristol's

'Barracuda'

J. D. OUGHTON

]N October 1937 the Air Ministry issued the general

requirements fora Fleet. Air Arm torpedo-bomberreconnaissance aircraft to replace the Fairey Albacore; the new aircraft was to be a monoplane with an air-cooled engine, of robust construction with good deck rake-off and landing characteristics and improved speed and range performance coupled with a dive-bombing capability. Another important requirement wa for a good field of vision for the pilot and observer. As in an earlier naval specification (S9/36), a remote-controlled gun turret was a ked for if development was possible within the timescale of the overall design.

On January 6, 1938, the definitive specification-S24/37- was issued and in the next few months render were received from Blackburn, Bristol, airey, Folland, Hawker, Super-

marine and Westland. -

The Bristol S24/37 (the design received no Bristol type number) was a high wing monoplane with a fixed cantilever undercarriage and powered by a Bristol Taurus sleeve-valve radial engine; the Hawker design was broadly similar in layout, both types having alternative wheel and float undercarriages as required by the pecificatlon,

But. the Fairey Type 100, designed around the new RollsRoyce Exe pressure air-cooled engine, together with the Supermarine Type 322, won the day and prototype contracts were i sued in May 1938. However, Blackburn was apparently still in the running at that time, for the following month it submitted the B-36 design, this having superseded it original B-29 submission which had it elf progressed as far as the mock-up stage. The Folland project-the H-21- was developed into what was to become a major British naval combat aircraft, the .E28j40, but which was cancelled after prototype construction had begun. Tile Westland design was the PII, developed from the Lysander aircraft.

Ae this time, then, the Rolls-Royce Exe engine figured as the keystone in Specification 824/37, both prototypes having been ordered with this power plant. The Exe I was a 24- cylinder sleeve-valve" X " engine with a single-speed supercharger, and the type test figures were: I 150bhp at 4200rpm for take-off; maximum power output at S ooOft-J loobhp at 3 800 rpm.

After bench tests the Exe was installed in a Fairey Battle flying test bed (K9222) at Hucknall, but development of the engine was stopped after initial flight trials in September 1938 to allow Rolls-Royce to meet the now massive and urgent requirements for Merlin production. This set-back 10 the programme for S24/37 was severe; it is quite possible that, had the Bristol. Taurus engine been readily available,

316

Model of the landplane version of the Bristol 524/37 with bombs under fuselage and wings.

matter might have taken a very different turn, but in the event, with the Taurus programme itself in difficulties and those engines available to the Navy being used in the Albacore, the decision was made to put the one type of aircraft-the Fairey TJOO,later named Barracuda-into production with the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, and the production contracts were placed in March 1939.

The Superrnarine 322 (later to be nicknamed "Dumbo" becau e of its elephantine lines) incorporated a variableincidence wing and, despite pre ure of work on production and development of the Spitfire, the prototype contract was maintained, although the first flight target date was put back to the spring of 1941. This was linked with development. plans for the Folland 28/40, on which active work on hardware began at the tum of the year. But the E28j40 programme came to a halt and was finally cancelled with the prototype (DXI60) more than half cornpletecin 1943, with the availability of the American Grumman Avenger, and Dumbo (RIS10) eventually flew in ebruary 1943. his machine and the second prototype (R18IS) figured largely in development work for another naval

pecification, 814/44, the outcome of which was the Griffon-

powered upermarine Seagull amphibian, which also

featured a variable-incidence wing.

The Bristol 24/37 design had several interesting features: the wing folding arrangement was such that the wings pivoted about the main spar, the same hydraulic system sirnultaneously folding the tail plane halves upward to lie parallel with the fin and rudder; with the trailing edges of the wing now at low level, the deck handling crew cou.ld manually fo!d the wings back towards the tail. The wing itself was fitted with a new type of leading-edge flap, hinging downward about the leading edge, allowing the aircraft to dive to angles of up to 70 degrees; the flap system was extensively tunnel-tested and results indicated little, if any, trim changes and the ability to hold the aircraft speed at tb.e required margins.

The Bristol TBR was to have been ofl ight-alloy construction, the single-spar wing having auxiliary spar: and ribs built up from extru ions and sheet; the wing tips were removable and the interior of the wing was accessible via a detachable panel running the length of each mainplane, Hydraulically-operated split flaps were fitted. Although a certain portion of the wing was made watertight for flotation, the fuel tanks were carried in the fuselage-this was brought about. by two principal design considerations: one, the fuel tank were more easily. accessible for filling in the lower fuselage position, and two, the wing folding mechanism

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

coupled with the neatly designed flush-fitting bomb racks (these hinged about their trailing edges to the horizontal, ttius allowing the loading of bombs or other teres with wing folded or spread) afforded little spare space within the wing structure. Each wing bomb rack could carry a 250lb bomb.

The fuselage design wa a straightforward monocoque structure. Access 10 the pilot's seat was via a roof hatch and the cabin was roomy enough to change pilots during flight. There was a prone bomb-aiming position at the forward end of the cabin, with the fixed sight directly below the frame support for the pilot's seat-there was some two feet of headroom between the floor and this support.

The two fuel tanks (each with a capacity of 115 gallons) were positioned each side of the cabin, and the observer' position in the rear cabin \ as just below the (radmg edge of the wing, with large windows on either SIde of the fuselage. The telegraphist-air-gunner sat in the rear with a flare chute in the floor beside him, the radio in front of him and an F24 camera mounted in the floor below the radio towage. There was a single 0.30]in Vickers" K" machine gun on a high-speed mounting in the rear top decking. Targetlowing equipment could be installed in place of the gun.

Under the fuselage were flush-fitting bomb-carriers similar to those in the wing; up to three 500lb or four 2501b bombs could be carried in this way. Housings were provided for the slinging unit and slip release gear for the torpedo in the underside of the fuselage, cutting down the drag and weight penalties of the usual external torpedo cradle assembly. In short, all bombs and the torpedo could be loaded on the aircraft with wings extended or folded in either the landplane or seaplane configuration, and all the bomb winching, etc, could be done from outside the aeroplane.

The undercarriage was a clean cantilever design; the rear legs were completely removed with the floats when detached for conversion to land plane, but the forward cantilever leg were fitted with tubular ends into which the spigots of either the wheel or float fittings could be fitted. The aircraft was stressed for catapulting in either configuration.

The following figures compare the Bristol S24/37 design ubmissicn with those of the Superrnarine 322 and the production . airey Barracuda 1:

Bristol 524/37 Sup.rmorine 322 Fairey 6orrocudo ,
Engine Taur-us TE 1M Merlin 32 Medi.30
Take-of( I 035bhp 1620bhp I 300bhp
Fuel
{incer-nal] 230 imp gal 130 imp gal 230 imp g.1
Span SOl, 50f, ~9ft 2in
Leng,h ~or, 4Of, 39f,9in
Height 121,8in I~f, 2in ISf, lin
Wing :ar-!!lI 460,q It 32o.q It 367'q It
Weigh. 6 '6Slb 9 17SIb B 700lb
empty
Max'luw 10SOOIb 12000lb 13 SOOlb
M." .,plled 219m ph at 5000ft 279mph at 40001. l~Smph ae II 0001<
Max: cruise t92mph ot 5 0001, '12S0mPh ~t 10001, 191 mph ., 6· ODO"
Rang. (with 850., ml
torpedo) 690" ml - Another view of the model of the land plane version 01 the Bristol S24/37.

2 Head on view of model of landplane version with torpedo under fuselage and bombs under wings.

3 Model of seaplane version with bombs under fuselage and

also under Iclded wings. 3

2

"

AUGUST 1970 317

Back to World War One

PETER KILDUFF

The Western Front recreated at The Old Rhinebeck .Aerodrome

PHOTOGRAPHS BY THE AUTHOR

THE Western Front of WWI is re-created every Sunday

afternoon from May to October at The Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome. Fifty-year-old Sopwith and l okkers take to the air, looping and diving to the chilling chatter of machine gun fire in an impressive display of flying skill which is usually found now only in old films and history books.

This unique" flying museum " belongs 10 Cole Palen of Rhinebeck, New York, USA, who shares his hobby and his rather large back yard with some I 500 spectators during weekly air shows. To keep the flavour of the old days alive, Palen has turned his large Rhinebeck farmland into an authentic WWI aerodrome of wooden hangars and grass landing fields. The clacking machine guns and the smell of burned ca tor oil emanating from a low-flying Sopwith Pup complete the scene.

At present, a variety of classic and antique aircraft can be seen taxiing along the field prior to take-off or simply lined up behind an unobtrusive snow fence, which does 110t restrict the view but does keep curious hands at a respectfu distance, Among the restored aircraft in the Rhinebeck collection are a Spad XIU, a Nieuport 28C-l, a Sopwith 7FI Snipe, a Fokker DVn, and a Curti. s J -4H Jenny. These aircraft are flown, but only on short funs for the benefit of photographers in the crowd.

318

The more rigorous work of mock dogfights and other feat of aerial derring-do are left to more modern aircraft, or to replicas of the old-timers. The replicas, it should be noted, are completely faithful copies of the classic aircraft they seek to emulate; they have all been built from official plans and usually contain instruments and other materials from the original aircraft.

As Palen notes: .. The original aircraft in the collectionall of which are now over 50 years cld=-havc worked hard enough in their long lives. We are happy to be able to maintain them in flying condition. For the fancy work we II. e replicas which have been built from new materials and which arc better able to lake the stress and strain of simulated combat."

o matter how you look at it, though, Rhinebeck is still a hair-raising adventure. The rnooth rumbling of the venerable 180 horsepower Mercedes engine in the Fokker DVn is an experience in sound, as is the staccato blare of the original Lc Rhone rotary engine in the replica Sopwith Pup.

But the highlight of the afternoon's programme is a mixture of history and schmaltz that is as amusing as it is thrilling: the mock dogfight between. the replica Pup and okker Drl triplane, Although subject to variations in

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

LEFT: Dick King runs up the engine of his Sopwith Pup replica prior to a mock dogfight at Rhinebeck.

RIGHT: The Sopwith Pup replica in the air Oller Rhinebeck.

BELOW: The Fokker DVlt-the one aircraft type specifically mentioned in the Treaty of Versailles as being forbidden ever to be used again by Germany. The square-nosed Fokker was one of the finest fighters of its day. Now the throaty roar of its 180hp Mercedas engine brings back memories of the Western Front at The Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome.

..

theme, the main event u ually begins when ole Palen a .. the Black .Baron" (an obvious lampooning of the celebrated German ace Manfred von Richthofen, the o-called Red Baron) performs some dastardly deed. He usually captures Trudy Truelove, thetiancee of the Allied fiier, Lieutenant Goodfellow, portrayed by Dick King. One of the combatants then hurls down the challenge and the two pilots lake up the fight. Palen jumps into the replica Fokker triplane, while his adversary takes off in the Pup,

During the next 20 minutes the two aircraft " mix it up " in true Western Front style. They buzz and dive on each other blazing awaywith Hollywood-type dummy machine gun, which fire nothing more lethal than "pops" of acetylene ga . onetheless, when the two aircraft corne screaming in over the aerodrome, it is enough to scare the heartiest of the uninitiated.

The .• dogfight" is an obvious ource of interest to the many amateur and professional photographer in the crowd, each hoping to produce his own filmed ver ion of an aviation thriller. A j to be expected, Goodfellow trounces the Black Baron, who is la t seen drifting off into the unset, trailing an ominous stream of thick black smoke. Presumably, Goodfellow gets Trudy and they live happily ever after -or, at least, until the next week's aerial duel.

The present panoply of thrill and excitement is the. result of a dream nurtured by ole Palen for J9 years. Palen, who trained to become an airplane mechanic at the old Roosevelt Field Aviation School in ew York. spent many free hours poring over the clas i aircraft then collected at the chool.

"I learned to fly for 62.50,' he recall , • and that was the real beginning. When the Roosevelt Field collection of old aircraft wa broken up and old, I craped up enough to buy the pad Xlll. It had definitely een better days as the darling of rench and American squadrons during World Wa.r I, but 1 was determined to haul it back to Rhinebeck and restore it to original condition."

Following a precarious first Hight in the Spad in 1951, Palen, who had been an infantryman during World War 11, became unalterably devoted 10 collecting World War 1 aircraft After a long period of buying, selling, and swapping aircraft engines, wings, fu elage ,and instruments, he managed to build up what is no doubt the finest private collection of classic aircraft in orth America.

.. We found the okker DVI! in pieces in an old barn," Palen recalls. • But it wa an aircraft built to last, so we were oon able 10 reconstruct the tubular steel framework of the fu elage and wing and apply new Fabric over it. The original Mercedes engine needed to be cleaned up, but it ran ju t fine."

Today, the okker DVTI i till rolled out for brief flight.

It is now decorated as machine Dumber 286/18 in the colours of Vizefeldwebel Willi Gabriel, an 11 victory ace of the Richthofen Geschwader.

Among the aircraft which eluded Palen was the famed

opwith F] amel, which has currently been made popular by the Peanuts cartoon strip. .. I missed buying a Camel in the days when you could get one at a good price. ow," Palen sighs with regret .. an authentic Camel in good condition go for around $40 000. '

However, Palen did manage to acquire a superb example of the Camel's successor: the Sopwith 7Fl Snipe, which was equipped with the same range of engines=-Clerger and Bentley rotaries-as the ameJ. The otber di tinction of Palen's nipe is that it is a former movie star, having been one of three 7 Is brought to Ihe United States after World War r by film actor Reginald De~ny (who had, indeed, erved in the RFC/RAF during the 1914-1918 \ ar), The

three Snipe appeared in several flying epic of the 1920 , including Wings. Palen's Snipe was first restored as E8100 of71 Squadron, RAP (4 Squadron, Australian Flying orps). However, on August 28,1966, while making a low pass over

320

Sopwith 7Fl Snipe awaits the pllot who will put it through its paces at Rhinebeck.

Cole Palen's Fokker Drt Triplane zooms low over the crowd as he pursues his adversary during a mock dogfight.

The "Black Baron" himself, Cole Palen works on a restored World War t Curtiss Jenny.

the field, the engin quit and the nipe era hed into the ground, nose fir t. TIle pilot walked away Ir m the wreckage with only minor cuts, bur the aircraft wa hauled away in pieces. During the past four years Palen' Sopwith

nipe ha been the ubject of extensive repair work and this year, in the same squadron marking but now numbered E8105, it is expected to once again take to the air.

Another of Cole Palen's retired movie stars is his beautifully restored ieuport 28C-I, a nimble French fighter now decorated in the personal markings of leutcnant Douglas Campbell of the 94th Aero Squadron, USAS, the first American-trained ace of World War 1. Campbell, a. resident in nearby Connecticut, visits The Old Rhinebeck erodrome every 0 often 10 watch" his " aircraft take 10 Ihe air as eagerly a it did during the hectic air bailie of over half a century ago. The icupcrt, which appears prominently in both filmed ver ions of John Monk Saunder ' Dawn Patrol, wa received by Palen with" I" trut n the wing and the cowl of a Thoma Morse scout. 1t ha ince been re t red to original configuration,

Palen also numbers several pre-World War I aircraft among his collection: a 1910 Bleriot monoplane of the type made farnou by Louis Bleriot in the first flight. across the English Channel; a 1910 Corti s Model A" pusher," and, aloin Ihat configuration, a 1912 Thomas Model 2, The Bleriot and the two" pushers" are rarely flown, but, rather, are taxied for the benefit of photographer in the crowd.

With the e ception of a recently restored urti s J -4Ha popular World War I trainer used in the United States and Canada-Cole Palen has just about run out of hi roric aircraft to re tore. Happily, though, he ha a good supply of hi toric aircraft engines, and thi fact provides an entirely new field of endeavour: building perfectly accurate replicas

r prominent classic aircraft.

Hi first venture was a replica F kker Dr! triplane, The ta t original Dreidecker was de troyed when the Berlin museum in which it made its last home was levelled by Allied bombers during World War ll. The Joss of this valuable alrcraft=-whieh, indeed, had been one of the

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

AUGUST 1970

321

Red Baron's own-prompted Cole Palen to devote better than J 000 man hours to re-creating a perfect duplicate. , he result, which. Palen now flies every Sunday afternoon in his role as the Black Baron, breathes new life into the mellowing legend of the vaunted flying circu es of World War I, Palen's yearning for complete authenticity has not been without a certain price. In the case of the Fokker DrI, which is the only rotary engine-powered replica triplane, the copy retains all of the nasty tendencies of the original. This includes a proclivity towards ground looping, which Palen has experienced on more than one occasion.

Soon after Cole Palen buill the triplane Dick King, a school teacher from nearby Hyde Park, began work on a Sopwith Pup. King purchased an original 80 horsepower Le Rhone rotary engine from a man who had bought it in 1919 in hopes of constructing his own aircraft. Due to unforeseen circumstances, however, the engine remained in il packing case for almost 50 years .

.• The engine was hardly broken in," King note. .. In fact, II was in such fine condition that I was tempted 10 ask the previous owner if the original manufacturer's warranty still applied! '

In his role as Lieutenant Percy Goodfellow, Dick King has the opportunity to 'shoot down" the men who taught him how to fly. He became interested in flying at Rhinebeck, and; under the tutelage of Palen and his associates, took lessons on more modern aircraft. Then King graduated (0 World War I airplanes.

or Dick King, flying the old aircraft i not ju ! a sport.

"I became interested in World War I aviation through books and magazines,' he says. • They provided somewhat of a vicarious pleasure-but nothing compared to actually flying the aircraft, feeling the wind whip past your face, and fighting the gyroscopic effect of the rotary engine. Everything is a left turn because of the terrific pull of (he spinning engine, But once you master ii-as the pilots of 50 years ago did-you Jearn to make that left hand turn work for you."

If Dick King i the envy of every model airplane builder wh must be content with " working aircraft " a fraction of the size of [he original, then Dave Fox is the envy of the Rhinebeck pilots themselves. Fox, the third member of the World War j elite of Rhinebeck, was a combat pilot in World War It, logging time in pit fire, Mu tangs and a wide range of other aircraft.

One of the maxims of aviation is: .. There are old pilots and there are bold pilots, but there are no old, bold pilots." Dave Fox bears this out to the last dot. He isa careful, experienced pilot, working vintage aircraft which require a certain finesse not found in the average grass-strip hot shot.

This writer was invited to fly in the back seat of an opencockpit chase aircraft as Dave ox put the Fokker DVIT through it paces several hundred feet above The Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome. Where it would have been enough merely to have this wraith of a bygone era fly a straight course, Fo pulled the old German fighter through graceful turn and climbs. A mock strafing attack on the chase aircraft revealed in all its angular splendour the reason the Allie called it "the square-nose Fokker." It v as a chilling sight never to be forgotten. For a brief moment the We tern Front did come alive.

The Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome is by no means a closed corporation. Area residents help out in many ways, from selling picture pOSI cards to cranking the propellers of the airplane. The pilots-Palen, King and Fox-c-share few, if any, of the niceties of wartime aviation officers. They lean right in when it is time to push an aircraft across the field, and they man the gas pumps when it is time to re-fuel. In Cole Palen's case, be is also chief con tructor, being occupied at the moment with work on replica of tile iemens-

chuckert DIH and an FE8 .. pusher" fighter.

But for (he short time they are in the air these men are truly the kings of the sky, rigorously keeping the dust from ettling on their museum-perfect aircraft. They totally fulfil the painted legend over the entrance to the aerodrome: •. Keep 'em flying! "

~ < • ~~ '. ,,~ •• , - ~~ f.!'i:V --.

,.~ ,', .,:' ',' .. t'I.:.,T :~" .. _ ,

ABOVE: Another fine old warbird at Rhinebeck is this restored Spad XIII featuring the personal markings of Capt Robert Soubiran, CO of the 1 03rd Aero Squadron, USAS.

LEFT: Fokker Drl replica gels ready for take-oft from Old Rhinebeck.

RIGHT: Old friends meet. Major Cecil MontgomeryMoore, DFC, who flew Sopwith Pups in 90 Squadron, poses with the Pup replica at Rhinebeck.

AUGUST 1970

323

some hints and tips for budding enthusiasts

M. SERLIN

Buying your VHF set

THERE are several main points to look for when buying a

VHF radio, and of course the most immediate of these is the price. A really good VHF radio will cost upwards of £20 and Ihi , especially in the £30 upward bracket, will have all the extras. Mine i a classical example. For instance, my radio has an AFC (automatic frequency control) witch which cuts out fade on the FM (frequency modulation) band, but this is not really necessary. Also there is a fine-tuning control, effective on the SW (short wave) but hardly noticeable on AM (amplitude modulation), FM, VB (very high frequency) and PB (public band) wavelengths. The external aerial socket i a good idea but

only if YOll have a high aerial to put into it. .

seful things to look for in a radio are, fir tly, a mains adaptor, preferably built-in, although a socket for an external one is just as good. Also, a fairly tall aerial. is necessary. 1ft Gill-2ft 6in is best, but the higher the aerial. the better the reception (thi i where the external aerial

ocket comes in useful). dial light is useful at night

all hough it is not really nece ary.

Size in a radio is important. The bigger the radio, the more room there i for working, and therefore the better the reception and the less the static interference. There is no getting away from the Jailer although. if, like mine, the radio has a tone control thi can be used as a tauc reducer. One word of warnlng: Beware of fairly small radios (6in by 4in by 2in or thereabouts) with three or more wavebands, co ling less than £20 as these have quite a bit of static on aU band and thi i a nui ance when listening t aircraft.

General care and getting to know your radio

When Iran porting your radio 10 and from an airport, keep it in its expanded poly tyrene packing and box. This is an excellent form of in ulation and the poly tyrene will absorb aU bump and knocks.

The best way to become familiar with the airband is to get a friend to bring his radio round to your house. Then ask him to set hi radio on, for instance, 118.2I11C/S, and when an aircraft transmits, pick up the arne aircraft on the same frequency at the arne time and mark the place until you gel 10 know the place exactly. It is best to mark the place in something that will wash off. If you do not know anyone with an airband radio, follow this guide when at an airport and mark the places as above so that you can get to know

them well: -

Airways 127.1-, 127.7,129.6,13.1.2, ]32.45, 133.7, 137.25 mc/s.

Departure

London radar via Homchurch or Mailing

" Brookmans Park or Chigwell " Woodley or Beacon Hill

" Dunsfold

128.4 125.8 128.9 J28.7

324

FIS London ast of Amber 1

" West of Amber I

MET" Vol-met] (continuous)

Zones Bourncmouth Zone (below 4 OOOfl) London ( atwiek) ' ondon Airway (inbound via Mayfield)

and on (Heathrow) London Airways

inbound via Garston

London (Heathrow) inbound via Epsom Souihend Director

AT1S 04.23) Biggin .115.0, Garston 112.3 05.23 pre-departure)

Jl is also po sible [0 pick up aircraft on the FM band (99.2Il1c/ ) and on the PB {I48.2, 149.8 Vol-mer and J 50.0). However, you need a fairly powerful radio to pick :UP aircraft on the FM band, but only fairly powerful radios are equipped with the public band and so if you ha~e this bandwave on your radio you land a good chance of picking

aircraft up on both FM and PH. . .

o if you arc thinking of buying a radio or have Just bought one, plea e bear these points in mind.

• 127.1 ~ 127. I mc/s, repl cing ! 1245. . . . .

t ol-Ul[!t-Mobt terms explain themselves. Dew-pain! IS ~wl!n IT1 •

Ocras are eighths, l:g 5 octa, 2000n m~ans that me, sk;V IS .. covered b~ cloudat an (11111Ude of2 OWfi. No .'1 mean. no "s,uRe.HIlI weal her conditions. A dl ranee given in kilomelreS(cg IOkm Or more) indicale. the maximum di lance. or rorward "" ion in krn. Q H means air pressure onthe airport" runway in milllbars. Q means air pressure at Sea level", millib. rs.av OK means ceiling and visibility OK {unlimited).

DIARY

124.6 J24.75 128.6 121.3

123.9

126.3 123.9 128.95

',V,hilsl every effort 'is made 10 ensure aeeuraey during' compilation of 'this dl.,y. AIRCRAFT ILL STR TEO c.nllot accept re pOl1sibility for cancellations or a.ny olher ch.ng es 01 detail s,

July 30-

AUGUst I AuGuSI2 AUGust 2 August IS August 16 Augu',16 August 2.l Augu.lll

AUGu I 22-31

AuguSl23 August Z9

AugusI29 August 29·31

Augu 130 August 30·31

August 31

BLA Hying Iminifl~ clinic Air Pageant

Parachute and aerobatic display Air Squadren AcrObatic Trophy Barnstormers Flying Circus Model a ircraft day

Open day

Royul Aero Club cross-Channel gyroplane I"DCC.

alionsl Gliding h.l1lpiOilship Open Cia. S

Tiger lub Display USA POp.a Day

Chester Flying Club open day

astrol lying calc Model

Championship'

Veteran Hying di play

rl~i~7.J~~~Q~9·:J;:di~~?~~:;::;

oulngham Ai, Day

Cranfield, Beds Panshanger, Hens Old Warden, Beds Sywcll, Northan ts Barton, LaIlC.

Old Warden, Beds RAF hivenor, Devon

Dover-Calais

D ncaster, Yorks Shoreham, Suss ex RAP Upper Heyford,

OKon Ha' arden, Cheshire

ranfield. Bed

Old Warden, Beds

Half!Jcnny Green, Wore.

Tolleeton. Notts

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

The Armstrong Whitworth

Albemarle

An AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED pull-out feature for modellers

DESIGN of tile Albemarle was initiated by the Bristol

Aeroplane mpany a the Type 15 t~ .",leel Air

Mini try Specification B18/38, but responsibilny was transferred (0 Armstrong Whitworth who de ignated the machine th W41 and substituted Hercules engines for the Tauru originally planned.

The specification called for a rwin-engined reconnaissance bomber and a feature of the design was the composite steel and wo~d construction to conserve strategic materials and enable the aircraft to be widely ub-contracted outside the aircraft indu try. Two pr retypes were built (P1360 and P1361) and the second made its maiden flight on March 20, 1940, the first prototype having crashed earlier when the plywood kin was stripped from the upper urface of the wing in flight.

The Albemarle was not u ed as a bomber but as a special transport and gIide~ tug in. tead .. 11 firs~ went into action a a glider tug during the rnva Ion of SICily In July 1943,

and later took part in the invasion of Normandy and tile Arnhem landing.

ix hundred production Albernarles were built-all by

W Hawk ley ltd-and orne were SUI plied to Ru sia.

Basic Service versions were the Mks I, II V and Vl. The Mk III was a projected variant with Rolls-Royce Merlin engines, and the sole Mk JV (PI406) was powered by Wright R-2600 Double Cyclone engines.

The machine shown in the drawing overleaf and in some of the picture VI823, was a Mk V and its RA service hi tory was a follows: Taken on charge 15.5.44 and allocated to 297 Sqn ; tran Ierred to 22 Heavy Glider Conver ion Unit 27.10.44; struck off charge 28.12.44 following a flying accident ( at ).

The Albemarle was powered by two I 590hp Bristol Hercutes Xl radial engines, carried a crew of four, weighed 22 600lb loaded, had a top speed of265mph at 10 500ft and a range of 1 300 rniles.-P.J.R.M.

ABOVE: Albemarle V V1823 of 297 Sqn. Brize Norton, axon, subject of the scale drawing overleaf.

,

RIGHT: A production model Albemarle I, V1599, which apparently served as a development prototype. This view shows the standard camouflage scheme to good effeel.

AUGUST 1970

BLACK &- WHITE ~TRIPES WERE PAINTED COMPLETELY ~OUND FUSELAGE &- WINGS UPPE'R & LOWER SURFACES

I,.

20-5" ENGINE CENTf\ES

----TI--""'I:::--~ -

DOORS IN UPPER \ 1 -,-

SURFACE OF WINGS ~ - -~ L ~ ~-. - - - ,

! _""_"/ll

TO GIVE CLEARANCE 1 -- I

TO UNDERCARRIAGE'--'~~""""''::':_ WHILE CLOSING

----_ ..

mm DARK ~ GReEN

VIEW ON UNDERSIDE OF NACELLE WITH UNDERCARRIAGE RHRACTED

METRfS}SCAlE ~72 FEET. .

<.

<,

r' <. /1

-: :

/' ',~

,/'

NOSE SECTION OF FUSELAGE BLACK UP TO THIS LINE

ARMSTRONG WHITWORTH

, AW411

! ALBEMARLE V

I - --

FOLDING SHP

I GLIDER TUG , 297 SQN

BRIZE NORTON SUMMER 1944

DRAWN FOR mi-.Maliii

il,..l.ilJ5TRATED

evA. G ranger.',MIT'" VIEW ON OF TOWING HOOK &- GUARD FITTED TO PREVENT PARACHUTE FREE STROPS FOULING ELEVATORS

./"

SPAN 77~O"

TU~RET

REAR fU~ELAGE BLACK UP TO j"J<i!b±~..t..,...--- - .. THIS LINE

H ,

NAVIGATION 6- FORMATION KEEPING LAMPS

H

M

K

J L

, , ,

.,

, I

, ,

.

UPWARD NAVIGATION LIGHT

1./

'144 SCALE PLAN VIEW SHOWING

'INVASION' (A E AF) STRIPES & CAMOUFLAGE PATTERN

1 Port underside view of V1823 showing hurriedly-applied invasion stripes to good effect.

2 Albemarle cockpit layout.

3 Head-on-view showing optically-correct Triplex panel which

served as an entrance door.

4 Guard to prevent free parachute strops fouling elevators. 5 Undercarriage detail.

6 The Boulton Paul four-gun turret which was fitted to several versions ot tha Albemarle.

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

Stamps

PHILATICUS

STAMPS connected with aircraft are eoucerned, in the

wider ell e, not only with the aircraft themselves, but al 0 with the people who buill and flew them, as well as with the various institution connected with their use, such as airports. Our stamp thi month refer to a very farnou person who flew aircraft a well as being one of the many women who have made a name for themselves in this sphere,

The stamp comes from the United States and is, appro-

Couple

I

o

Fleas

TH Midland Aircraft Pre rvation Society, based in

oventry, exhibited, ide-by-side, two examples of the Henri Mignet Pou-du- iel at the Coventry if Pageant organised by Charles Doddington's Barnstormers at Baginton on May 31.

These two examples, one owned by the society and the other by member Gordon Riley, are in the process of being rebuilt to tatic exhibition standard. The first aircraft, G-, OH, was constructed during the '305 in Sutton Cold field by Mr R. . Streather who flew the machine locally during J937 but was restrained from doing s by the entreaties of hi wife. As wa the case with many of the e machines after the Government-imposed ban following several fatal crashes, the fuselage became a molar-cycle

The two Flying Fleas on display at the

Coventry Air Pageant. The Flea's upper wing was pivoted about the front spar and tilted lor longitudinal control. No ailerons werefitled. turns being made on the rudder which was operated by sideways movement of the joystick.

AUGUST 1970

priately, marked ., air mail". II was i lied in 1963. to commemorate Amelia Earhart. She was the first woman to cross the Atlantic by air, flying in June 1928 with Wilmer Stultz in a Fokker monoplane from cwfoundland to Carmarthenshire. Four years later, in May 1932. she flew

010 in a lockheed Vega from ewfoundland to londonderry in what was then a record lime of JUSt over 15 hours. Five years later, in July 1937, he was 10 t at sea with her navigator, Noonan, whil t attempting to fly around the world.

The stamp shows her with one of the planes she flew. Amelia Earhart thus joins the other famous airwornen of the past (such a Amy John on) and f the pr ent (such as Sheila Scott) proving amongst other thing that this is II phere which i by no mean the prerogative of men!

omparison of flying limes and of the machines used by

many of the pioneers shows just how much air travel has advanced in thelast 30 years 01' so. One might, however, be forgiven for wondering whether the optimum has not perhap already been reached, since air travel in the future threatens to become as pleasureless as road travel already is. We have al 0 very largely I lour sense of atisfa lion in achievement, this being something that was certainly not lacking in the case of Amelia Earhart.

[Readers will recall that a photograph of Miss Earhart appeared in last month's is ue.-'D1TOR.]

side-car. The r mains were purchased in June 1967 by Mr R. E. Ogden, past chairman of the Briri h Aircraft Preservation ouncil, who constructed a new fuselage. However, due to the space required at his home in connection with his project tor rebuilding a Moth Minor and a BAC Drone, the machine wa old to ordon Riley in March rhi year. A Scott Squirrel engine was acquired from the orthcrn Aircraft Preservation ociety and ha been rebuilt by another Coventry mcmber.

The second machine, G-A V, was buill by the ast

Midlands Aero Club of ortharnpton and flown during 1936/7 from Sywell. The original Douglas Sprite engine was passed on to a BAC Drone and the Flea was exhibited in a ortharnpt n garage before being di mantled before the war. he fuselage served during hostilities with a local A C squadron and was eventually destroyed, the remains being donated to the Midland Aircraft Preservation Society in January, 1968. A new fuselage and metal part have been constructed in the' society' Coventry workshop.

325

J. D. R. RAWLINGS

The mailed fist insignia on 899's Sea Vixens took on a beefed-up appearance for the squadron's commission on HMS Eagle in 1967. [Peter R. March

Fleet Air Arm insignia since 1945

The Sea Vixen

The Hawker Siddeley Sea Vixen took over from the Sea Venom and acquired some of the in ignia carried on the Venom. 890 Squadron appeared with its witch. on a broomstick, this time on thefin with a. crescent moon as background. 892 Squadron originally had a wolf's head in a crescent moon on the fin but in 1968, in preparation

326

PART FIVE

[or the Simon's Sircus acrobatic team, updated this design to a wolf's head in speedbird fashion piercing a full moon. 893 Squadron used a leaping red fox on its Vixen FA WI aboard Centaur although not all the aircraft carried the marking. With FA W2s aboard Hermes the marking was a blue/yellow check diamond on the fin pierced by a lightning flash. 899 Squadron originally carried its mailed fist badge in a white disc on the fin; more recently its FAW2s have had a streamlined white winged fist thrusting forward along the top of the fin. The training squadron, 766, for a long lime carried no insignia at all but more recently has used its badge, a winged torch of learning, on the fin, Both 766 and 892 Squadrons, when used as the aerobatic team for the AA, carried white underwing tank with red no es.

The Buccaneer

The Hawker Siddeley Buccaneer SIs were rather soberly adorned whilst in service although 800 Squadron managed to carry it badge on a red diamond on the tarboard engine intake and this has been perpetuated on its S2s. 801, the first Buccaneer squadron, waited until receiving S2s before instituting a device, based on Victorious' fin letter" V ' and adapting it 10 portray a swept-wing aircraft pointing downwards. 803, the Hermes squadron, resurrected its black and yellow check marking, though as a ba.nd across the fin just below the t ail plane. 809 Squadron carried its Ted phoenix on the intakes of some of its Sis; however when it first received S2s its only design was the crest on a black rectangle each side of the intake. In 1968, though, the badge, a red phoenix, was boldly emblazoned on the fin with Lossiernouth's "LM" in the centre' this has now changed to " R" for Ark Royal. A transient marking was that used by the Buccaneer S2 IFTU, 700B Squadron, which had a red, winged" B " outlined in white.

ABOVE LEFT: 892'5 original badge on its Sea Vixens was a fox's heed egainst a crescent moon. LEFT: 893'5 Sea Vixen marking during its recent Hermes commission was a lightning flash against a blue and black diamond. [Peler R. March (2)

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

1. 2'"

Another view of 893'5 badge on one 01 its-Sea Vixens.

- [W, J. Bushell

2 892 Squadron's insignia underwent some streamlining in 1968 when Ihe unit provided the Simon's Sircus aerobatic team. [Peter R. March

3 The Sea Vixen conversion unit, 766 Sqn, uses its winged torch badge as the fin insignia on its FAW 2s. Colours are yeltow. orange, red and white. [Peter R. March

4 The earty version of 899's mailed fist insignia on the fin of

Sea Vixen FAW 1 XJ571. [J. D. R. Rawlings

5 801 Squadron's pale blue and white insignia on the lail of Buccaneer 52 XT271 240:V, HMS Victorious. May 1966. [Peter R. March

6 The yellow and red insignia of 809 Squadron on a Buccaneer

S2, September 1968. [Peter R. March

7 Buccaneer S1 XN928 224:LM of 809 Squadron seen in May 1964 when the unit's phcenlx insignia was carried on the engine air intakes. [A. .D. Briggs

iRlCHNRD P. BATESON

Georq Sattler-> Mediterranea,n

GEO~G ~a!tler. all.hough only 27 years old when he was

killed iii! an accident durmg the summer of 1944, was already a highly-decorated bomber pilot, having flown 205 sorties with the German Air Force in something under four years of active operations. After normal flying training, Saltier was posted in September, 1940, a a Leutnant 10 the first Gruppe of Lehrgeschwader 1 equipped with the new twin-engined Junkers Ju 88A bomber and crewed up at Barrbjn Pomerania. He flew from French airfields. during the early winter of ]940-41 against many targets in the British Isles, bUI by February of 1941 found himselfin Rumania, part of a large Lufrwaffe force then being assembled for the planned attack on Greece and Yugoslavia. On March 25 he transferred in Ju 88 Ll + IK to the newlyconstructed base at Krumovo in western Bulgaria: T./LG I waited poised for its first combat mission in tile Mediterranean theatre-an area that Sattler was to get to know well during the nextthree years.

November J 1,1940: 11'011 Cross Second Class November 18, 1940: Iron Cross Ftrst Class

Yugo$lav.i;a

On April 6, 1941,lhe Germans launcheda wave of attacks throughout the Balkans. Sattler flew three trips. Soon after dawn he dived against massed fl1ak on fortificationsIn the Struma Pass. Later, cramped and sweating in the cockpit of his Ju 88, he scored a direct hit on the Royal Jugoslav Army headquarters in Skoplje, and late afternoon

aw him again diving against a munitions factory at Krusevac.

Big explosions and fierce fires were observed.

Greece

By the middle of April the Luftwaffe was expending all its resources in an attempt to prevent those' combined Albanian, British, Commonwealth, Greek and Yugoslav formations still remaining intact from escaping by sea from Greece. Shipping targets were now the order of the day. In the face of heavy anti-aircraft fire Sattler straddled I 2001b SC500 bombs and had a near-miss with a. 2 400lb SCI 000 on a 6000 ton merchantman in Piraeus harbour on April .14, the blast throwing the vessel against the quay, after which it foundered. In a dive attack the next. day on a eonceruration of vessels outside the harbour entrance he managed another perfect hi! on the stern of'an 18000 ton transport which he

328

observed sinking on his return Hight. Thundering over Elefsis airfield at treetop height, his gunner fired at a number of RAF fighters. taking off to intercept LG1's retreating bombers, but apparently failed 10 inflict any damage.

Crete

On May ] 8,1941, Elefsis airfield near Athens, now no longer housing the Royal Air Force, became the home base of L/LG I., Sattler ferrying LI +BK from Krumovo in 112 minutes. Two days later a. heavy attack by German gliders, troop transports and parachute forces presaged the invasion of the island of Crete. On the morning of the 2.lst, Sattler had a narrow escape when. dive-bombing a Royal Navy battleship west of Crete. The unwieldy belly-mounted 28001b SCI400 bomb under his Ju 88 failed to release. Twisting and turning 1.0 escape the enemy's concentrated defensive fire, his aircraft was repeatedly hit in the port wing and fuselage. He landed safely back at Elefsis after a tricky approach with half the port landing flaps shot away. Swapping his damaged LI +BK for another Junkers, he was .in the air again that same afternoon heading back towards the sea off'weslern Crete. This time he was luckier, Hi S 1000, released at the bottom of a spine-chilling dive, fell away cleanly and detonated on the deck of a British cruiser. The underwing-mounted SC500s were near-misses, churning up the water around rhe stricken ship which, following a number of explosions and billowing a vast panoply of smoke, lost all speed and began to lake on a heavy list.

June 8, 1941' War Fl~f!11t Clasp ill Bronze

Egypt

For tho first time since the mass night attacks on England the previous winter, l/LG I commenced a series of strategic bombing raids, This time I.he target was the dock complex at Alexandria. In the J2 days from June 18 to June 30, Sattler attacked the port no less than six times, mostly employing parachute mines. All missions were met by heavy ground fire and blinding searchlight concentrations. On August 31, in yet another attack on the port area, an attempt was made to decoy the ack-aek by detailing Sattler and his crew 10 circle the built-up areas while the remainder of the SraDid attacked Ihe harbour installations. A sitting duck, he was coned by searchlights after only eight minutes of the planned 20, shell's exploded around the cockpit and

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

he could only extricate himself by indulging in highly risky low-level flying. His gunner, Hans 'Burmeister, knocked out one searchlight before they headed back for Greece.

July 1, 1941: Royal Bulgarian Pilo! '.I Medal and Gallantry Cross First Class

A/Jgr{~'1 13, 194/: Wal' Fllghl Clasp ill Silver September 5,1941: War Fligh' Clasp ill Gold

libya

For eight months from April until 'December, 1941, the town of Tobruk lay under siege from Axis forces and was repeatedly attacked by the Italian and German Ail' Forces. A focal point Cor such r aids was the dock area which Sartler visited twice 10 air-mine during September. Four times in a year Benghazi, Libya's. principal port, changed hands, Here again I.ILG I was active, though Sattler was not involved in operations against Benghazi until the end of the year. During October he was on leave and November saw him seconded to the Dessau factory airfield of Junkers Flugzeug lind Motorenwerke AG, where he did divebombing trials with both a civil-registered Ju 88A-4. D.ACBO, and a Ju 87, D·ICDA. Back at Elefsis early in December 1941, he found I./LGl flying an average of two sorties per day in a bitter war against Allied convoys, airfields, road transport and storage sites and all manner of other vital logistical targets. Losses were high due 10 RAFfighters and accurate Royal avygunlire. On January 25, 1942, Sattler celebrated his 100lh operational mission by diving through a hail of flak to bomb a naval formation north-east of'Tobruk. Most bombs fell short, but one SC500 exploded by the side of a cruiser. Quick thinking on his part during an armed-reconnaissance on February 12 prevented what might have been a major tr.agedy. As he took the Ju 88 down in its usual stomachturning dive on a very tempting enemy shi.p of some 20 000 tons that he had spotted in quadrant 5363, he suddenly realised to his horror that he was about to bomb a passenger liner converted as a hospital ship. xerting all his. strength he yanked the aircraft out of its headlong dive and turned away for the North African coast. Upon making landfall he went looking for suitable targets and eventually attacked a tented camp and temporary barrack area near Sidi Barani,

Malta

Lying.60 miles from Si~ily and strategically placed on the main 01brallar·Ale)land~!U sea lane, Malta was forever a thor':! III t.he Side of AXIs attempts. to gain control of the Medllerr~nean. Everything the Lrt/lwaJ!e and the Regia Aeronautica possessed il~ the way of offensive air power was thrown against this Island. Georg Sattler flrsr made acquaintance with Malta and its prodigious defences on the afternoon of ebruary 22, 1942, when he and his Sra./fel dive-bombed Luqa airfield, dropping a good partern of bombs among a number of parked aircraft. Later that same evening anolher. raid w~s. laid on from J./LGI's temporary base at Catania III .Slclly, Luqa's runways again being the, target, The following day the naval air station at Hal Far felt the weight of Sattler's bombs. Night attacks on .theseairfields now follo,:,ed, but theRAF gave as good as It gal. On the flight of February 23/24 after Sattler had been orbiting Luqa and Hal Far airfields for over an hour, during the course of which he had dropped a single 500lb SC250 on to the runway at the former field just as a British aircraft w~ I~ndin.g. he was suddenly ser upon by a nigbtfighter which he failed 10 shake off despite a series of nervewrenching manoeuvres. Finally, the German bomber set course at full boost for Sicily, the British pilot only giving up the chase when Saltier arrived over his home airfield at Catania.

lV/arch 6, 194.2: Gobte! of Honourfor speeio! action

Mediterranean :F(leet

June 1942 saw J./LGl again operating from Greek soil, this time from Iraklion. A typical mass attack took place on June 15 and 16 when heavy blows were aimed against convoy and large fleet units of the British Navy. Taking-off at 04.50 on the 151h in Ll +NH,. Sattler sighted a huge shipping concentration comprising at least nine large merchantmen and 38 naval vessels of various tonnages. His bombing on this occasion was poor, his aim being distracted by a strong fighter screen and accurate fire from escorting destroyers. That same afternoon, piloting a Ju 88A-5,. he was again over the convoy, scoring II near-miss with all SC500 on the port. side of a light cruiser, For the third time that day, he took another aircraft, Ju 88A-4 L1 +AL, and went in search of the Allied ships. It was

Junkers Ju 88A 1.1 +EH of 1 Stallel, Lehrgescbwader 1 which was shot down by Allied fighters in North Afr.ica during December, 1941. [IWM

AUGUST 1970

329

nearly dusk when they were sighted, and by this time RA night fighters with navigation lights burning were patrolling the battered convoy. In an attempt to fool the opposition, Sattler switched on his own lights and screamed down on an English destroyer which, receiving three direct hits from S 250s on its stern, exploded and sank. vading a curtain of flak, and with navigation lights doused Sattler lost the milling night-fighter and returned safely to base. Dog-tired, he was roused again in the middle of the night to prepare a sweep for ditched crews at first light. Despite a square search of 300 minutes not a single missing airman was found.

Algeria

In overnber, 1942, the Allie landed at Algiers and Oran, and advanced on Tunis. The Germans at once reinforced across the Sicilian Narrows and the long battle for Tunisia began. From July until November that year Sattler had been taken off operations and given the job of ferrying new Ju 88s to Lehrgeschwader 1 from the Luftpark at Salonika, as well as various courier ta ks For which he often piloted He IIIH-3 Ll + DB. On ovember )0, the day the Allies dropped airborne troops in Algeria, Sattler found himself once more back at Catania and aloft as part of a protective screen of Ju 88s and Bf 1I0s covering a lop-priority convoy en-route to Benghazi from Piraeus. He stayed with it until dusk. The next afternoon he was out again over these ships; the third day it was the same routine. It was all to no avail-a week later Benghazi fell for the last time into Allied hands; a result of the German rout following the now legendary Battle of EI Alamein. l./LG 1 apparently took little direct action against Allied targets in occupied Algeria. Not until January 23 1943. was a night divebombing attack made on the harbour at BOne, Sattler dropping four I 100lb AB500s on (0 the quays and warehouses, the Gruppe leaving many fires behind.

January 19,1943: German Cross in Gold

Tunisia

While the Axis forces were being pushed back along the Libyan coastline before making 8. last stand in the Tunisian peninsula, Georg Saltier continued to fly a variety of missions, mostly connected with convoy e cort between beleaguered Tunis and the island of Sicily. By the end of March 1943, the fuel situation had become so desperate that L/LGI's Ju 88s were being pressed into service as makeshift fuel transporters carrying long-range uilderwing 'tanks, any petrol surplus to requirement for the return leg to

330

All Sattler'S 205 missions were flown in the Junkers 88. Seen here are two A·4s.

Sicily being pumped out at Tunis. By the end of April, Lichtenstein (airborne radar of various types including aircraft-interception, direction-finding and tall-warning)equipped Ju 88s had been issued in small numbers to l./LGI and were being flown at night to try and protect the minute convoys and solitary ships still funning the gauntlet in the arrows, while during the day, individual machines were called upon to attack partisan band which became increasingly active as the invasion of Sicily drew nearer. The Lichtenstein Ju 88s were also directed against Allied aircraft participating in nocturnal supply-drops to the partisans. On May 13, 1943, (he last remaining Axis troops in Tunisia laid down their arm.

May 16 }943: German-Italian A/rica Medal June J, 1943: Sleeve rillg 'Crete'

SicilV

With the fall of Tunisia, Sicily became the target for the full might of Allied air power, and the Lu/twaffe and Regia Aeronautica 10 t hundreds of aircraft on airfield where they sro d lacking fuel or even the crews to ferry them away. I./LGI withdrew to the comparative safety of Greece, returning to lefsis airfield at Athens. It was a clear case of back to square one. Now filled with Hohentwiel (FIiG 200: airborne radar equipment for use against shipping), their Ju 88A-4s were used for night reconnaissance over the central and eastern Mediterranean, especially tho e waters between Rhodes and Cyprus. On August 17, 1943, icily too was finally overrun, and the way was now clear for the long-projected Allied invasion of Italy.

Anzio

On August 6, Sattler flew Iris last night search with Hohentwiel off the east coast of Sicily and two days later was at the controls of a Fieseler Storch of Flugbereitschaft Luftwaffenkommando Siidost (Duty Flight Lu/rlVaiTe Command South-East) acting as per onal pilot to General Liebig during an inspection of airfields he was malting in the Salonika region. This was possibly the result of a lightning visit. that Sattler had made 10 Rastenburg a week previously when he had had an audience with Hitler's adjutant, probably to give first-hand information on the critical air situation in the Mediterranean at that lime. Whatever the reason, he did not return to operation until the afternoon of December 3, 1943, when he was again airborne from lefsls 10 act as pathfinder for a force of Ju 88s attacking the radio station at Castel Rosso. Aiming at hisftares, the other aircraft obtained good bombing

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

Christmas, 1941 saw Benina airfield at Benghazi. Libya, again in Allied hands. Amongst the booty were a number of badly damaged Ju 88As of 9/LG1: L 1 +MT and L1 +GT can be seen on the left of the picture. [IWM

War correspondents (plus the official photographer) inspect a captured Ju 88A of LG1 at Benina airfield. Christmas. 1941. [IWM

AUGUST 1970

331

results. On January 22, 1944, Allied forces made a. largescale landing on the Italian west coast near the little viHage of Nettuno, 30 miles south of Rome. That same day, I./LGJ transferred from Elefsis to Aviano near Rome. The Gruppe was not committed untilthe evening of the 24th when Generalfeldmarschalt von Richthofen, surveying the battlefield from heights above Anzio, was an interested witness of Sattler's accurateattack on a shipping concentration off the beaches during which the Lelllflatltscored a direct hit ona 3 000 ton freighter. Weather conditions were frightful at this period, while the Allied fighter screen took a heavy toll of the German raiders. On February 8, during a diversionary attack on the bridgehead, Sattler encountered severe icing over the target area, and was unable 10 control the unwieldy Ju B8 which fell out of cloud at I 200 feet on its back; only superb piloting skill enabled him to right the bomber and skim the ground to safety. His last success at Anzio was on the 29lhwhen, as section lecder, target-finder and marker, he made a. glide attack on a :5 000 toncargo vessel. Probably an ammunition ship. it blew up with two gigantic explosions.

February 5, 1944.- Knights Cross of the Iron Cross March 1,1944: Pendant (0 the War FUglrl Gasp

Ital'y

Chieti, between Abruzzoand Marche was the last airfield that Sattler was to see in the Mediterranean area. On May 29/30, during an attack on the island of Ischia, be was intercepted by an Allied night-fighter and returned minus his port engine nacelle. He took part as deputy-leader in a night attack on a convoy of lorries on the Via Appia in the early hours of the 31st,. and was again in the air on June 7 when he made interdiction raids under cover of darkness on supply columns north-west of Rome. His final sortie was again to Anzio, On the night of 12/13th, when on his 196th operational mission, he scored a near miss with an SC500 Trialen by the stern of a 3000 ton freighter.

:Invas'ion Front

Now promoted Oberielllllclfl/and a Staffetkapltdn, Georg Sattler was ordered to the West to help stabilise the danger-

ous situation developing as a. result of the Allied landings in Normandy. There, on June] I, 1944, I./LGI took off from Chieti for the last time and sci course for Melsbroek, now the international airport of Brussels. So ended one man's operations in the Mediterranean. He was fated never to return.

By the end of August the Allies, driving hard northeastwards from the great. plain of Arras, were dangerously close to LG I 's cleverly disguised Brussels base (the Melsbrock airfield buildings at that time had been camouflaged to look like a Belgian village), and the order came through that the Gruppe was to transfer to Hesepe in Oldenburg on the Dutch-German border.

1. Stoffel. Lehrgl!schlVader 1, Saltier's new command.was re-equipping with the S-Series Ju BS,a lightened and cleaned-up version of the old A-4, . with a rounded transparent nose-section replacing the well-known frameworkof glazed panels so characteristic of earlier sub-types. On paper at least, the Siegfried was, ataltitude, some 90 miles an hour faster than the Ju 88s that Sattler had flown during the great night Blitz of ]940, this impressive performance (in the case of the S-.3) being due to a system of GM .1 nltrous-oxide power-boosting of its new 1 7S0bp Jurno 213 engines.

On Angus! )0, ]944, as the spearhead of the Guards Armoured Division of the British Second Army neared Melsbroek, the !u 88s of LOl emerged from hangars disguised ,,~ barnsand splinter-proof pens garnished like

farrnya .. rd haysta~ks. and, with COC~.Pit~ rUII .. t.o ~VerflOWing.·, took off r:r Hcscpc. Sattler, piloting Ju 8 S-3 WINr

33071:5, had five other companions with him the Svserles Ju 88 was designed for an operating crew of only three), including his veteran air-gunner Hans Burmeister. What happened during that ratal take-off will probably never be known: the aircraft was observed to crash neat Melsbroek, ,111 its occupants being killed.

The n-xt .:!::!)' Georg Sattler, together with his crew, was laid 10 rest at i;;~ military cemetery at Evere, near Brussels. Two days later Belgium's capital was liberated. Later his remains were exhumed and now lie in the vast German war cemetery at Lommel.

December 6, J944. Oak Leaf to the Knights Cross of the 11"011 Cross (awarded posthumously)

332

The unit badge of Leh'!leschwader 1, a, red wing.ed griffon, seen on the nose 01 another abandonedJu BBA at Benlna airfield, Christmas, 1941. [IWM

AI RC RAFT I LLUSTRATED

RAF College celebrates its gol,den jubilee

THE Royal Air Force College at Cranwcll, Lines, this

year celebrates its fiftieth anniversary. The College enters its second half-century on the threshold of important changes designed to make it the postgraduate professional training college for officers of all principal branches .of the RAF.

Under the new structure, already partly introduced at the College and becoming fully effective in the early 'seventies, Cranwell will eventually accept entrants holding a degree or equivalent qualification. In this way the College will build its professional training on academic foundations already laid at universities and colleges.

CranweU was the first college in the world to be founded specifically 10 train officers for a full career in an air force. It was established as one of Lord Trenchard's first steps to strengthen the calibre, Quality and spirit of the RAF. Cranwell was "10 provide the Service with officers of character and ability; whose education and Service training will enable them progressively to develop their powers and faculties to meet the demands of the highest ranks." In its :50 years since the first course began on February 5, 1920, the College can justifiably claim to have fulfilled that role.

Within a year of its opening, the Rt HOD Winston Churchill Secretary of State for War, was prophesying during a visit to CranweU the development of new fuels, vertical flight, and the substitution of some other form of propulsion for the airscrew or propeller-e-a forecast which was to be remarkably accurate. Twenty years later a propeller-less aircraft climbed away from Cra:nwell out over the flat fields of Lincolnshire. Britain's first jet aircraft, the Gloster E28139, was making .its maiden flight, bringing to reality two of Churchill's Iorecasts=-new fuels and a new method of propulsion=-and eventually bringing to Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle the College's first knighthood.

[An article on the Gloster E2B/39 appeared in the November 1969 issue-EDITOR)

The achievements of many other old Cranwellians of trus period are pari of RAF history, Flying Officer H. R. D, Waghorn won the Schneider Trophy in 1929 and Group Captain Douglas Bader, a 1930 graduate, was 10 become renowned as a distinguishedfigbter pilot after overcoming the Joss of his legs in an aircraft crash. Other Cranwellians from between the wars rose (0 high command including

Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Dermot Boyle who was the first to be appointqd Chief of .the Air Staff, and his successor, Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Thomas Pike.

The Second World War closed the College and replaced it with allying training school. The College had its share of enemy attacks, mostlyeuccessfully decoyed by dummy beacons and mock airfields in the surrounding fields. More than 400 pilots who had been trained there lost their lives in operations. But the "calibre, quality and spirit" of Cranwell trainees was not lacking-its honours included one VC, three GCs, 82 DSOs and 269 DFCs.

Until 1947, all Cranwell's cadets were trained as pilots, but since then the scope has gradually widened to take in equipment, secretarial, navigator and RAF Regiment training. Finally, engineer flight cadets were included when in 1966 the RAF Technical College at Henlow was merged with Cranwell. Flight cadets receive a 2-j--year education including academic, specialist and officer training. Engineer Branch officers receive initial and post-graduate training.

The changes now being made at Cranwell result from a decision by the Air Council five years ago Ihal the majority of RA direct entrant General List officers-the permanent officer cadre of the RAF-sh.ould be degree trained. The RAF has had to lake account of the fact that defence problems which are becoming increasingly complex demand a higher intellectual attainment frcm full career olfwers.

The high quality young men required as future permanent officers in the RAF also increasingly expect 1.0 have the opportunity of a. degree education ... Because of this it was decided to use as far as possible the resources and experience of the civilian academic world, obtaining future graduates from universities and civilian colleges rather than attempting to set up degree courseswithin the Services.

School-leavers wishing to make a full career of the RAF are now encouraged to obtain a university place and read for a degree before entering Cranwell for a year's professional and specialist training, While at university they hold . a commission as an acting pilot officer and are paid by the RAF.

In this way, Cranwell will relinquish its academic training role that will become a professional training centre, making full use of its incomparable facilities, and entering its secondhalf-century with an enhanced importance.

A One Eleven for the 'country' routes

AS reported elsewhere in this issue, the Peruvian airline Compania de Aviacion Faucett has become the first operator 10 order the British Aircraft Corporation OneEl ven 475 series,latest version of the One-Eleven,

.Mllounced in January for airline service starting next year, the 74-B9 seat One-Eleven 475 is a development of the well-established 97-119 seat 500 series and is specially tailored to bring the benefits of jet travel tn the" country" routes. It combines the fuselage size of the One-Eleven 400 with all. the advanced engineering, extensive aerodynamic improvements and higher engine power of the 500 series, and additionally it has a new low-pressure landing gear lyre system, advanced anti-skid braking and powerful thrust reversers.

Production is now well advanced and airline deliveries will begin next year. Meanwhile, BAC's One-Eleven development aircraft, G-ASYD, is at Hurn being converted to 475 series aerodynamic standard prior to starling flight trials in October.

The One-Eleven 475 is a pedigree jet airliner concept that

AUGUST 1970

is ideally matched to literally hundreds of cities hitherto inaccessible to jets and the exclusive domain of the now oldfashioned propeller-driven airliners. The 475 has more seats, a higher standard of passenger amenities, more range, and [ower seat mile operating costs than its nearest competitor; it is also faster.

Designed for profitable operation on stage lengths as short as 100-300 miles, the 47:5 can carry 74 passengers up to 1 500 miles. Because it has the highest power loading of any One • Eleven to date, powerful thrust reversers and advanced anti-skid braking, it hasexceptionally good airfield performance with brisk lake-off and climb-away, docile landing, and the ability to operate from airstrips of 4 OOOft (I 220m) or less in length. The new low-pressure main and nose landing gear lyre system means that the aircraft. can operate from secondary runways of low bearing strength. The One-Eleven 475 can uplift nearly a third more total weight than its nearestcomper.tor for the same runway bearing load. Tests are also in progress to enable it to operate from unsealed a:nd grave: surfaces.

333

Russian Visitors

Views of some of the Russian-designed airl insrs that have been seen in Britain during recent years. Additional. types, including some of the old piston-engined machines, will be Ieatured in future issues.

-,

~/

RIGHT; Tupolev Tu-l04 of Aerotlot.

BELOW; Antonov An-24 allOT at Heathrow in April 1967.

BOTTOM: Antonov An-12 of Bulair at Heathrow in January 1969.

--

334

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

TOP; Ilyushin 11-62 of CSA landing at Heathrow in J una 1968.

ABOVE: Ilyushin 11-18 of Tabso at Heathrow in 1965.

Pictures by

AVIATION PHOTO NEWS

LEFT: Tupolev Tu-134 of Aviogenex at Gatwick in April of this year.

~UGUST 1970

335

JAMES GOULDING

Two "Jolly Green Giants"

THE USAF's big Sikorsky HH-3E heavy transport and "lifeline" , helicopter is the subject of 1/72 kits from Revell and Aurora. II is interesting to see how two different manufacturers approach the design of a kit of the same subject. and come up with very different results. The IWO kits diHer vastly in external finish: the Aurora HH-3E is almost devoid of any external detail. except for a minimum of panel lines. while the Revell version is rather heavily riveted.

There is a surpriSing difference in the shape of the sponsons in the two kits. and it is difficult to judge which is the more correct. The Aurora version has less head-on taper and is mounted straight across tile fuselage. whereas the Revell version has more head-on taper and has anhedral on Ihe upper surfaces when cemented on 10 Ihe fuselage sides. Of Ihe two, the Aurora version is possibly the more correct, allhough the stub wings on the Revell HH-3E are more convincing.

The desiqn of the main and rear rotors shows considerable difference, The Aurora version is rather over-simplified and somewhat cruder, The Revell. version of the main rotor head is far superior in detail, and the blading is much more delicate. The Ravell rotor head is attached to a shaft which is moulded as an integral part of one of the fuselage sides, but the construction of the Aurora rotor assembly is such that I found it easy to adapt it to make a working hoist.

The two models also differ in details. Revell's helicopter has a moveble rear freight loading door. bUI no external aerials. whereas Aurora has included numerous antennae. The Aurora model also has a belly hitch and the all-important lifl hoist (non-working). It also has the intake guard, which is sometimes fitted. Both models have the flight-refuelling probe and long-range tanks. The latter items on the Revel.1 version are of the banana-shaped variety. Both models have fixed main undercarriages-although that on the Aurora could be made to relract-and swivelling nose wheel units.

There is one common. but undesirable tsature oj both kits:

336

Stop-press news item is that Froghes released a 1/72 kit of the Allison-engined NA Mustang, containing transfers For a USAAF P-51A and also a RAF Mustang II. More details next month, but meantime here is a photo of some Allison-powered Mustang Is of 2 Sqn at Sawbridgeworth, Essex. in July 1942.

they have totally inadequate instructions for painling the exterior finish of the HH-3E, The Revell kit gives colour notes for individual parts, and although the three upper surface colours are mentioned no indication is given regarding positionina of the tones-apart from the box. art. which only gives one side. There are only general notes, such as "sponson topscamouflaged", or "top-camouflage". How?

The Aurora kit is even worse, in this respect. The instruction drawings show dark and light areas of camouflage-but only two, instead of the three. There is one main note: "For painting details reler to illustration on top of packaqe", and a smaller reference to "pa int darker areas on fusel age an olive green". The colours of the box art are completely wrong for the USAF's camouflage schema. All USAF aircraft have definite camouflage patterns, and as far as I am aware the HH-3E is no exception. As the pattern is complicated, explicit instructions should have been included. In both kits the transfers are for "Jolly Green Giants" operating in V.iell'lam.

Summing up, both kits can ba made into pleasing models of the Sikorsky helicopter, but my own pretsrancels for the Revell version because of its better general appearance, more convincing. if heavy, detailing. and far better representation of the rotors, The Aurora kit scores on account of the inclusion of more aerials and other external details. I have not seen a photograph of the H H -31; cockpit, but the Aurora version looks the more convincing.

The Revell kit costs 9s 6d_ The Aurora HH-3E is sometimes advertised at the original price of 15s, but is now also available at 9s 6d.

Our sample of the Aurora kit was kindlysupplied by Modelloys. 246 Kingston Road. Portsmouth.

Latest Frog releases

Two models that I reviewed in detail last February were, Hasegawa's McDonnell HF-1 01 C and Convair F-1 02. At that time neither of these fine kits were availeble in this country, but happily these have now been released under the Frog label. From iii moulding point of view both kits are unchanged except for a correction of a tooling fault on the RF-101 C. The Convair F-102 is moulded in grey plastic, much as in the original Hasegawa kit, but the RF-1 01 C has been moulded in silver plastic-which I am less happy about. Silver plastic does not seem to mould as well as grey, in my opinion. panicularly 01'1 the smaller details, The original Hasegawa RF-l 01 C was moulded in grey plastic, and there was no disadvantage in this base colour when applying the upper surface finish of either camouflage or simulated natural metal.

The transfers for the Convair delta fighter are for an aircraft 01 the 32nd Fight.er Squadron, B61h Air Division, USAF, at Soesterberg, Holland, which carried the Dutch national colours

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

on the fin, and for an F-l 02 of the Turkish Air Force.

The transfers for the R F-1 01 C are for a camouflaged version in use by the 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 46th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, USAF. III Tan Son Nhut Air Force Base in South Vietnam, and another used by 66th Tactlcal Reconnaissance Wing, USAF, Upper Hsvtoro. Oxon, The latter R F- 101 Cs were originally in natural finish lor the most pan. although some now have camouflage finish. As usual, these two kits have excellent colour scheme charts on the back of the boxes.

Both kits are superb. with beautiful detailing of even such items as the inner surfaces of undercarriage doors and air brakes. Both are an impressive size. especially the RF-1 01 C-with its massive fuselage and tiny wings. Both have under-wing drop tanks, and tha Convair also has the full load of six Falcon missiles on their extended mountings.

Each of these kits costs 10s 6d.

A new Bronco

The third 1/72 scale kit of the North American OV-10A Bronco has been produced. by Revell. It is amazlnqthe! so many manufacturers have produced kits of this aircraft and are chasing the same potential market. There is very little to choose between any of these models, although the Frog/Hasegawa version is of the prototype and pre-production type, but still worth buying.

Revell's version of this COIN aircraft is another very good kit.

As on all the other kits of this aircraft, under-wing and fuselage stores include a drop tank. four bombs, and two sidewinder missiles. Painting instructions are fat an all-white Bronco of the US Marine Corps. and transfers are provided for one machine.

Price of this kit is 9s 9d,

Snoopy and his Sopwith Camel

I am not a fan of Monogram's "way-out", sick. so-called funny car models, but now it-has produced a new aeroplane kit which, 10 me, is in a diHerent and happier category, This is intended for children, of all ages, and is of the cartoon character Snoopy, of the Charlie Brown series. Snoopy is sitting in his likewise cartoon Sopwith Camel, muttering suitable phrases. such as "Curse you. Red Baron", The Camel's engina is eqL!ipped with a small 1 t volt electric motor to spin the propeller. Allthe parts of the kit press together and do not require cementing, and the transfers are self-adhesive. so that Ihe whole model can be put together without the aid of dad. UK prica of this kit is not yet known.

Unfair to modellers

From correspondence that I have received from readers it is evident that there is much disquiet about the practice of some model shops in advertising new kits long before these are available. Modellers are naturally very keen to obtain all the latest kits as they are released. but is it grosslv unfair of some model shops who play upon this feeling by advertising kits which they have nOI in fact yet received from the manufacturer. Doubtless these shops would claim that it takes time for an advertisarnant to appear in a magazine, but I can recall at least one case when a relailer was advertising the Frog/Hasegawa 9-47 at the tirna when the manufacturer was stil! awaiting the decal sheets for tha kit I Doubtless. many modeliers hurriedly sent their money to this model shop only to be told that the kit would be sent when it became available, This really is sharp practice. and does nothing for the reputation of Ihe shop concerned. Surely the small amount of money that a shop obtains in advenced bookings fora kit. which is not yet available, is not worth losing a reputation for, or even gaining a worse one.

Jump, jet training in the countryside

ROY AL Air orce Support Command Harrier V/STOL

strike and reconnaissance aircraft have started operating from a variety of unusual sites in the countryside, ranging from private airstrips to simple clearings in woodland.

The aircraft are flying to and from these sites while pilots practice vertical and short take-off and landing procedures. This ability of the Harriers to operate from natural sites, dispersed away from main airfields. gives them protection from an enemy's pre-emptive air strikes and means they can land afely where a conventional aircraft could not touch down.

The ight of a Harrier hovering over a farmer's field or

Orne other unlikely landing place will be common over a wide area, as the training i taking place over countryside in a 25 flying miles radius of the Air Support Command station at RAF Wittering, ' orthants, where Harriers are now in service with J Squadron, commanded by Wing Commander Ken Hayr,

Use of the deployed sites hasinvolved detailed consulta-

AUGUST 1970

tion with farmers and landowners, and where private land is involved the, occupiers have proved to be most co-operative. All the landing sites have been carefully selected and approved.

Ellery effort will be made to cause the minimum nuisance and for this, reason each site will be used only occasionally. The M.oD says there is no cause for the public 1.0 be alarmed by the sight of Harriers landing in out-of-the-way places, and the local police will be informed each lime it is proposed to use a landing site away from Wittering.

Aircraft will be supported at the landing sites by a highly mobile team of engineering, air traffic control, RAF Regiment and re cue service per onnel who would be required on actual operations.

Typical of Ihe landing areas are a handful of grass airfield and private airstrips. Several will be ordinary meadows, and at lea t two of the sites will be no more than clearings in woodland. The aircraft operations will. include vertical lake-off and landing. short rolling landings and short take-off,

337

The Night port underwing was never a special marking at any lime for the Westland Whirlwind but was a standard temporary identification marking for all aircraft coming within the cateqorv Fighter Command. day fighter (home) during the period 12.12.40 to 15.4.41.

First of an occasional series of articles on camouflage and markings written primarily for modellers by

IAN HUNTLEY

o 6

rrrrrn

Port underwinq, Night, Phase 111*

IN OCloberl940 the III/Tlm]r!! virtually disappeared from

the skies over the United Kingdom, to such an extent that Royal Air Force Fighter Command sough! ways and means of getting to grips with the enemy nearer to hi home bases,

Thus a tactic was devised of employing lhe partially inactive units of day fighters to fly low level sortie against Llljill'a.oe airfields in and around the Channel coast areas of occupied Europe and, on e launched, expansion or closure of the scheme would depend on results.

Its debut brought about the re-introduction of a temporary identification marking in order to cornpen ale for large numbers of lighter aircraft tim being engaged in the unusual task of fast, low flying over ground defences not properly attuned to such actions, and still with Battle of Britain memories very much to the fore. The marking was neces-

ary because fighters would have to practice low flying, and once the scheme got going fighters would be either forming up or returning from operational sorties under these conditions.

Therefore, in member 1940 the ight port underwing was reinstated as being the mark of a fast, low flying, friendly fighter.

Underside colouration for Fighter Command day fighters (home) was at that time Sky, with Type A roundels at midaileron position. Thus for user units a black port underwing marking was applied and the roundcl converted to Type Al by the addition of a yellow ring, u ing Night and Id nt Yellow respectively, in di temper material to pecification DTD 441. In many cases this was effected by a very narrow outline addition 10 the roundel, whilst in other cases the roundel was correctly restyled to the right propertions (J :3:5 :7).

[The change on aircraft from production line and ASU's wa not effected in permanent materials (DTD 83A, DTD 308, DTD 314)J.

Timewise, a good many fighters had been re-marked by early December 1940, and on December 12 an Air Ministry Order was issued making the marking mandatory for all aircraft. coming under this category.

338

The first operational sortie in the e markings took. place on December 20, 1940, when two Spitfires were despatched to the Dieppe area to evaluate enemy reaction.

By January 1941 the gradual build up of aircraft engaged in cross-channel sweeping had got under way with more and more squadrons participating until whole wings were involved. By this lime too, the temporary markings had more or less been standardised in accordance with the stipulations of the AMO.

However, during the spring of 1941, when cross-Channel sw eps were reaching their zenith, it was not unknown for the occasional enemy intruder to succeed in slipping in with the returning fighters, wearing a similarly-marked black under-wing surface in an attempt to cause confusion within the ground defences, by adopting a revised version of lip-and run raiding.

Sweeping fighters were by now operating to a fairly set pattern; therefore it was considered no longer a necessity to maintain the temporary marking, and in order to prevent enemy intrusions on a much larger scale a date was set for the sudden cessation of the use of the marking (the element of surprise always paid a dividend in uninitiated enemy aircraft).

The order was issued by a Directorate of Research minute dated April 3, 1941, and the subsequent details were passed on in orders dated April 7 1941. The actual order instructed the replacement of Night with Sky and that the roundel be returned to standard. The date for completing the change was laid down in no uncertain terms: all fighter aircraft in the category of day (home) within Fighter Comrnandsphere of control were to be remarked by dawn on Tuesday, April 15, 1941. Aircraft would be seen with either marking between the dates gillen.

• Phase I-described unofficially as the individual unit interpretations of the under surface :identification markings 1937 to April 1939.

Ph use fi-the OOR standardised scheme 27.4.39 (0 17.6.40.

Phose HI-from. 12.12.40 10 15.4.41, und thereafter when requested (mainly for special area air ex ercises).

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

L.etters

The editor welcomes letter for these columns but tresses that brief letters will stand a better chance of publication.

Jazzed up Warwick SIR,

. The photographs of Mike's Assam Dragg'lI were of great interest to me. 1 saw this aircraft at Lydda during [he period July 25-August 3, 1946. The Captain wa a Wg Cdr Michael Earl. I had the impression at the lime that the aircraft had come up at sometime from the India/Burma area, and was on its way to the UK.

A close look revealed that every inch of the fuselage was covered in farewell messages and drawings, done in pencil, pen, paint spray and stencil, and ranging from the mildly vulgar to the boisterously obscene.

The equel, which I heard second-hand, and cannot therefore verify, is that on its subsequentjourney to England Mike's Assam Dragg'n developed technical trouble over the Channel and had to make an emergency landing at Tangmere, where at the lime were being held the Gloster Meteor high-speed trials.

Apparently the sight of this apparition lobbing in, complete with graffitti, was said to have caused uproar and consternation among the top brass of the Air Ministry and other dignitaries assembled to see a world-record attc;mpl. But, as I say, this part of the story is only hearsay.

Hoyle, Cornwall B.J.S.

The 'scissors' Emil SIR,

1 read with interest the article in the June issue on the BfJ09E exhibited at Exeter during'1940, and congratulate M. W. Payne on his excellent research. Having had similar interests myself over the past. seven years I have amassed a considerable amount of information on Bf I 09E losses during the Battle of Britain and can therefore, confirm Mr Paynes findings. The aircraft in question was indeed that brought down near Faversharn on August 30, 1940, piloted by Feldwebel Ernst Arnold of 1/JG27.

Incidentally, Arnold made a creditable belly-landing in a field at Copton, causing much amusement amongst the local populace as the field had been" officially" rendered useless by a liberal sprinkling of landing obstacles. More by luck than judgment Arnold avoided the lot! The irony of this incident wa heightened some weeks later when Pilot Officer Redman of 257 Squadron force-landed in a field only half a mile away. This field contained only one such obstacle but its position must havebeen critical, for, having collected the telegraph wires as he circled low over Boughton, Redman careered the complete length of the field eventually finding the obstacle an extremely effective brake and caving-in the nose of hi aircraft in so doing.

I confess to having identified Arnold's BfJ09E with less trouble than Mr Payne, having, some years ago, been fortunate enough to discover two excellent photographs taken at the crash site. Content in the assumption that the scissors were some form of personal emblem, I made no efforts to explain their derivation and am therefore, wildly impres ed by Mr Payne's theories re Leutnant Scherer, with which I find myself in grateful agreement.

. Regrettably, I can throw no light on the subsequent history of W r 3271, although I believe it was also exhibited at Honiton before its eventual. and inevitable reduction for scrap.

AUGUST 1970

One last point, Mr Payne meruiones Feldwebe! Fritz Schur of 3/1G26 and the fact that he has no known grave. This is not so, as he was washed ashore and buried at Sheerness on October 27, 1940, having been lost on opera-

tions over the Channel four weeks before. -

Beckenham, Kent PETER D. CORNWELL

Spoils of war SIR,

I was very pleased to see the survey of number allocation for ex-enemy aircraft in the April issue of AIRCRAFT I LLUSTRA TED.

The rnis ing details of the Fw 190 AM 10, sent to South Africa, are a follows: Bavart Fw 190 A-6/R6, Werk: r 550214.

Apart from the listed types sent to this country I. came across an Me 262 A-la a~ld a Fw ,190 being used as scrap for a handiwork school III Benoni, Transvaal, Obtained from the SAAF Station at Lyttleton, they were in a ad Slate but I managed to get good colour samples which are important items in my collection.

Both aircraft had their under surfaces firu hed in pale blue-grey (76) with the upper of the FW in natural metal thinly sprayed with green (71) so that in places the metal showed through, resulting in a two-tone effect.

The Me 262 had a dark gre~ (74) mottle over a very pale grey ground on the fuselage With 71 tailplane, and I assume the mainplane would have been the same but this unfortu-

nately, was missing. '

Port Elizabeth, South Africa R. R. BELUNG

Target practice Lightnings SIR,

Many thanks for printing my previous leuer (AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED June). However, one of us has slipped up. It should read .' .... XM136 crashed at ColtishaU on 13.9.67. XMI64 is currently .... ' 1 hope this will put the record straight.

Cottingham, Yorks M. C. BU.RliELL

SIR,

Concerning the article in AIRCRAFT ILL STRATED of April J970 about TFF Lightnings, and the corrections to the article that appeared in the letters page of the June issue I have some further information about two of these aircraft:

At the USAF open day at RAF Bentwaters on May 16 this year two Lightnings of Wattisham TFF appeared. In the static park was XM139, and XMI44 flew. Neither bad code letters, but '139 had a small Union Jack on each side of tbe fin, as well as the dayglo cat markings under the canopy,

Kettering, Northants D. C. WHITWORTH

Civil registrations se,

I would like to comment on two items in the May AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED.

Firstly, in Mr Foot's article on Southend Airport, he mentions Hornet Moth G-ABMP; this registration belonged to a DHSOA Puss Moth. (Perhaps the dust was thicker than Mr Foot realised.)

Secondly, in Photofile the DH60M Moth G-ADU c/n 1514 is given a ex K1202 and G-ABID. According to my records, G-ABID was cln 514, ex 19107, a DH60X Moth, which was fitted with a Gipsy 1 engine on being civilianiscd. Uxbridge. Middx V. A. SMITH

More letters on page 344

339

British civil aircraft register

Compiled by MICHAEL STROUD NEW ADD.ITIONS

Regn I Type ct« 1 Owner or Opcraror

G-AYDN Super Cub 18·8874 T. Wall & Sons
G-AYDO Short Sky.~n 3 SHI874 Short Bros & Harland
G-AYDP Short Sky.,.n l SHI879 Sherr Bros & Harland
G-AYDR Stamp. SV·4C 307 Messrs Coburn &
Hughes (ex FB-CLG)
G-AYDS Snow Commander 13700 Agrrcu Itura I Avn &
600 E('!gir.eer'inl (ex
Cherokee 140 M. H. Gill VH·SNC)
G-AYDT 28·26SSS
G-AYDU Wittman Tailwind PFAI36] A. J. E. Perkins
G-AYOV Swalescns SAUl PFA13S3 1. R. Ccares
G-AYDW Beagle Terrter 1 BM6 Peraneer Autos Ltd
G-AYOX Beagle Terrier 2 BM7 Pensnttt Autos Ltd
G-AYDY Luton Minor PFABI7 L. J. E. Goldfinch
G-AYDZ CEA DR200 I R' C. Chandless
(ex F·BLKV)
G-AYEA Icd e! DR 1050 369 t-ies ... Collott 8<
Blackburn (ex
F.BKHG)
G-AYEa lodel 0112 586 W. H. Cole 8<
Partners (ex F·BIQR)
G-AYEC Pie. Em£nude 249 W. H. Cole 8<
""r'ner. (ox F·BIMV)
G-AYEO Camanche 260 24-4923 CE~ A.ia,ion L,d
(e" N9417P)
G-AYEE Cherokee 180E 29-5813 College of Air Training
G-AYEF Cherokee I BOE 18-5815 Callot!!! of Air Training
G-AYEG Palconar F9 ;PFAI321 G. R. Gladstone
G-AYEH lad.1 DR 1050 ~SS E. J. H"rsf.11 (." F-BLJB)
G-AYEI N ... :" 300 253 Court Line_iex N6730l) I
Regn Typ. Cln O ..... ner or Operator
G-AYEJ Jcde! ORI050 253 Messrs Collett &
Blackburn (ex F.BIYG)
G-AYEK Jodel DRIOSO 282 Mes.rs Collelt &
Blackburn (ex F.BIYL)
G-AYEl Bell ~7G-5 25007 BEAS
G-AYEM Azrec 0 27.4~11 I. G. Hogg (.~ N 137(2)
G-AYEN Piper 113 Cub ~383S Menrs Collett &
Blackburn (ex F-BGQD)
G-AYEO Jodel D·112 68-'1 W. H. Cole &.
Partner-s (ex f·BIGG)
G-AYEP HS 125 Sr. ~OOB 25219 BritIsh Steel
Corporuion
G-AYER HS 125 Srs ~OOB 25238 Rank Organisuion
G-AYES MS 892A R.lly. 10513 Air TotJrinf: Services
[ex F.8MV])
G-AYET MS 892A Rally" 10565 Air To'uring Services
(e~ F.BNBRI
G-AYEU Brookland Hornet 12 Brockl3nd ROlI:orc,r3ft ltd
G-AYEV Jed e! DR 1050 1.79 G. M. Jones {e .• F-BER.H)
G-AYEW Jodel DI'I.I051 413 R. C. Chand! ...
(0" F-BLMJ)
G-AYEX Sa.ing 707-355C 19417 Caledcnlan Airways
(ex N525EI)
G-AYEY Cessna FISO 0553 Ncrehalr A ... i;u:ion
G-AYEZ. Ces.n. I80C 50695 M. R. Wood
rex TR-LLP)
G-AYFA Twin Pioneer 2 538 Scottish Aviation Ltd
(ox M285)
G-AHB Conn. flJ7 0009 Rogen Aviation Ltd
G-AYFC D61B Condor RAE64'1 Rcllascn Aircrart " Ena:ine$
G-Aym D62B Condor RAE615 Reltasen Airc;r3if't, & En,£ines
G-AYFE D628 Condor RAE646 Roll3.son Aircraft & Enlines
G-AYFF 062B Condor RAE647 Roll:l.!lion Aircr2rt: & En.lines
G-AYFG D62B Condor RAE618 R.oltascn Airc:rdt & Ena:ines
G-AYFH D62B Condor RA~M9 P:oll3.5on Aircn.rl: & Engines
G-AYFI MS 860B R.II ye lJ3 T. C. Wren
G-AYFI Twin Comanche 39-66 Anglo Arrica.n
CIR ~;u;hinery
G-AYFK SIAISF260 239 Han Jiil.me5-Buing
G-AYFL H5 748 Sr. 2A 1679 Hawker Siddoley Avn
G-AYFM HS 125 Sr. 4006 28229 Ford Motor Compa.ny LEFT TO RIGHT, TOP TO BOTTOM: Fournier RF-5 G·AYAI of Sportair. Biggin Hill, being demonstrated at Denham Air Pageant on June 6. [J. W. Ware; Rowntree Mackintosh's PA-27 Aztec D, G·AYBO, which is to be operated by Norwich Airways. [B. lewis; Cessna FA150K G-AYCF at Fairoaks on June 7. [T. J. Gander; Super Cub G-AYDN at Kidlington on May 13. [W. J. Bushell

340

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED

~ I'.

New resident at Blackbushe is this beautifully restored Luton Miner which its new owner reportedly purchased for £15. [Tony Leigh

G-AHTA-G-AHTZ (Registered mid 1946) PhOIO credit: Philip J. R. Moves
R~BistrQI;On Type C/n Previous Idendty Fote or ("trent Owtler
G-AHTA Perci •• 1 Q6 Q46 P5640 Sold as OO-PQA 11.~6
G-AHTB Percival Q6 Q39 PS636 Sold as SU.AEQ 8048
G-AHTC Perc:iv:d Procter I K2S1 P6191 Cr as hed Uganda I 0.8.~8
G-AHTO Percivtd Proctor 5 A.60 Broken up WooI5in,gt.on 1..49
G-AHTE Per,d v a,1 Preetee S. A.S8 W.i,hdr.wn Elmdan 8.61
G-AHTF Percival Proctor S A.59 Sold as OH-PBB 12.53
G-AHTG Per cive I Proctor 5 A." Sold as VH-BDA I.S I
G~AHTH Perci ... ~ I Proctor S A.62 Crashed Rodditch 8.3.~B
G-AHTI Percival Preece- 5 Ac66 Sold as EC-AHX 2.52
G-AHTJ Percival Proctor S Ac67 Sold.s VT·CTF 5.18
G-AHTK Per-elva! Proctor S A.68 C;"',hcd O"end -4.8.57
G-AHTL Perciva l PrOCtor 5 A.70 Sold as F·OAOZ 1.H
G-AHTM Percival Proctor 5 A.71 Sol d •• OH-PPA B.S I
G-AHTN Percival Precrer I K279 P624S Sold as VH-BLC 6.18 'I
G'AHTO Supermartne Walrus W268B Scranped Cowes 7.50
G-.AHTP Superrnarine W:llrus Z170 Scrapped Cow •• 12.50
G-AHTQ NOI used
G-AHTR OH Rapid. 6961 TX306 Burnt ou, lran 10.7.50
G-AHTS DH Rapf d e 6962 TX304 Cr.shed Middle E.s, 29.4.H
G-AHTT OH Rapide 6966 TX308 S.i,ed Inn 1951 (later EP.AAX)
G-AHTU Rerciyal Prccecr 3 H559 lZ798 C.ashed Tur-in 29.1.~8
G-AHTV Per-elva! Proctor J K105 1'6271 Sold •• VH-BCX 10.53
G-AHTW Airspeed Oxlord J08] V33B8 Wilhdrawn Wolve.hamptM 12,60
G-AHTX Miles Aerovan 2 6380 Cr .. h.d B .. lbeck, Lebanon 9.11.51
G-AHTY OH Rapid. 6608 X7491 Sol d as F-BGIS B.52
G-AHTZ Cierva C30A 70S G-ACUIIHM5BI C ... shed ·Elmdan 4.3.5B 8iJJy Boy AUGUST 1970

341

PHOTOFILE

1 Spitfire I K9822 pre-war with original style under surface

finish. ie ali-silver. [via E. Winchester

2 Spitfire LFIX 5R:F of 33 Sqn sporting invasion stripes.

[via T. D. Knapmen

3 Bristol Fighter of B Fit, 6 Sqn, at Mosul, Iraq, June 1929. lvia P. H. T. Green

4 Gloster Gladiator of 32 Squadron.

[R. Riding

5 Norman Thompson NT2B flying-boat of WWI.

[via John Pothecary

Unit history

106 SQUADRON, RAF

"for freedom ..

N0 .106 Squadron's badge, heraldically described as a lion sejant, rampant, holding a banner, is be ed on the crest r the County Borough of Doncaster, near to which the squadron wa stationed when the badge was adopted early

in 1941. .

The squadron wa formed at Andover Hants, on eptember 30, J9.17, and from May 1918 served in Ireland as a army co-operation unit. Disbanded the following year, it re-formed in June 1938 at Abingdon as a bomber SQuadron equipped with Hawker Hinds, and later re-armed with 'Fairey Bailie and Handley Page Harnpdens in turn.

Vic of Hampdens of 106 Sqn on a sortie Irom Finningley in April 1940 with L4192 nearest camera. [Flight International

During the early part of the war the squadron acted as an operational training unit, but early in 194 [ it regained firstline statu and joined in the night-bombing offensive against Fortress urope. After a short pell with the unsuccessful Avro Manchester, 106 received Lancasters in 1942 and in October, at which time the legendary Wg Cdr Guy Gibson was CO, it took part in 5 Group's famous du k attack on Le Creusot.

]943 saw the quad ron take part in the firs! "shuttlebombing" raids-against Freidrichshafen and Spezia=and the epic raid on the German V weapons experimental centre at Peenemunde. Included on the target list in J 944 were a coa tal gun battery 'at St Pierre du Mont (on D Day) and the V-I storage sites in the caves at SI Leu d' sserent, In December the squadron's Lancasters made a. I 900-mile found trip to bomb the German Baltic Fleet at Gdynia, whilst in March 1945 it joined in the heavy onslaught on We el which neutralised that key town's defences so effectively that Commandos were able to cross the Rhine and seize it with only 36 casualties.

The squadron's last operations against the enemy, in April 1945, were directed against targets in Norway and brought its wartime record to a total of 5 834 operational sorties 011 496 nights and 46 days during which 17 781.6 tons of b rnbs and mine were dropped. Aircraft losses totalled 187 but on the credit side 20 enemy aircraft were destroyed, three probably destroyed and 29 damaged. Two-hundredand-sixty-seven decorations were won by quadron members, including a Victoria Cro awarded to Sgt . . Jackson. for conspicuous bravery during a raid on Schwelnfurt on April 26/27, 1944.

In cbruary 1946 J06 Squadron, which was "adopted" by the City of Newcastle in World War 11, was disbanded.

Photographs Galore

Now on sale is AIR SCENE, an exciting 48 page photo album. size 11in by 8!in, containing 118 top quality. aircraft pictures, mainly of histolic planes, and designed to appeal to the general enthusiast and the modeller alike. Subjects covered include the TSR .2 (eiso featured in full colour on the cover); the Supermerine Spitfire: the Douglas Commercia! trsnspons, Bristol, GIOSler and Westland aircraft of yesteryear: the Sero A33 flying-boat; the "Reiwstle's" He 111; and the Beechcraft XA-38 "Grizzly". All the p/lotographsare printed large and many of them are very rare. AIR SCENE costs 12s 6d and can be purchased from booksellers or from the Retail Department, Ian Allan Ltd. Terminal House, Shepperton, Middlesex (postage and packing 2s 6d extra). Buy your copy nowl

AUGUST 1970

343

LETTERS

continued from page 339 Horsa retrieval

SIR,

. 1 have just read Bryan Tomblin's article 13)' HOFsa (0 Pegasus Bridge in I he June issue and i I certainly revived old memcnes. I was a member of one of several Dakota crews which formed No I Heavy Glider Servicing Unit -based al Netheravon, In September 1944 we were ordered to auernpt the retrieval of all serviceable gliders from uhe Orne area for use in any future airborne operation. Ground personnel. were flown to France to prepare a landing strIP and repatr those gliders which were considered to be of further ~SC, and to move them to the strip which was quite ncar the Village of Ouistreharn at the mouth of the Orne. There were many. incidents in the subsequent lift due to the fact that many of the Horsas had been given Ihe minimum of attention before being towed off, and several had to be released by. the tugs over the Channel. However, the many gliders which were brought back to England and were replaced at Netheravon were used in the next airborne operation at Arnhern,

Glasgow, ~VJ T. K. BLACK

I. D .. R. McDona,ld,RFC/RAF SIR,

I feel. I. must answer Mr Dixon's remarks on McDonald and Woo.lleU. It was not my intention to belittle H. W. Woolleu, DSO, MC, and bar, whose record speaks for itself.

.. But the fact remains Ihal. McDonald was 0.01 happy under Wool'leu:s le,adership. This,was pr!>bably not an.y fault of Woolteu S since McDonald s eousm Robert McDonald when wl'iting to me said: "Ian was ~ery independent, -and always volunteered for the most dangerous post, and always or almost always got away with it. He did nOI. take kindly to .tl~e authority of others, due no doubt to the spartan tramrng he received at Denstone College. or a few years I thought Ian r,night have gol out of trouble on his last flight, as at school Ius life had showed he was so lucky, or clever, or what ever you like to call it ",

Perhaps McDonald resented Woollen's discipline,al· Ihou~h his lack. of success under Woollen may have been due in pan 10 .Ihc DHS. However.it seems ridiculous to suppose that Wooltert was all things to all men.

Littleover, Derby DOUGLASS WHETTON

Fleet Air Arm insignia since 19·45 SIR,

I. have followed with some great interest, over the past few months, Mr Rawling's series on Fleet Air Arm markings, feeling that although 1 was aboard the .. Ark" forner 1963·66 (srh) commission Ji was in no position to give advice to the experts,

Havingjust received my June issue and taken in Mr A. W.

Bri,ggs' letter, 1 venture to forward a little information which appears to conflict with his suggestionthat codes are allotted ro squadrons ..

To ?O, this one must go back to the early stage of the commission, 1963·64, when the squadrons-803 (Scimitar), 890 (Vixen 1), 849C (A W Gannet) and 815 (Wessexj-> joined the" Ark" from the home stations.

No 803 carried codes in the 100 series, 890 in the 200 series, 815 in the 300 series and 849C in the 400, and ttlis would appear to agree with Mr Briggs' ob-servations that codes were allortedon a squadron basis, but=-arrd here we appear to conflict=-about halfway through the commission (the exact date, J am afraid is unknown to me but .i:( was at

3441

least by early (965) all " Ark's" aircraft were receded in the .0 series. At about this lime all the aircraft undercarnages were painted a. very light grey in place of the old chromate-yellow,

The aircraft of 890 carried, as far. as my memory serves, codes 001. to about Ol5, S03 upwards 10 the 03s, 849C the 04s and 815 the 05s. This would appear to be some move to code aircraft by the carrier rather than by the squadron, Ar~ Royal c~rr~mg 0 senes codes, Eagle the 1 series, Vic(0/'/011.\' the 2 senes and Hermes the 3 series.

.I must add that the Scimitar that used our deck for .. rollers '.' whilst operating off Lossiemouth during February 1965, being a 736 Squadron aircraft, definitely had its codes in.a blue-outlined. white panel. I clearly recall someone making [he verbal observation that it was the same

colour as the lightning flash on the fin. "

Torpoint, Cornwall R. HUNT

':Boats and FI,oats SIR,

The thought that Chaz Bowyer can do a piece on 'Boats and Floats Without depicting at least a representation from

the Shott range gives me a twitch in my webbed feet. '

Most, of us, to whom flying boal.s were a way of lifc regarded Short 'boats as being by far the best. 111. particular; no hull could match lip 10 those built on the Medway. So perhaps a vehicle. can be found to include some represenralion, III a future Issue, of the. fabulous Short range of Rangoon, Calcutta! Sarafand, the Singapores and the many Sunderland derivants.

Shepton Beauchamp, SOmeD'(!1 A. W. GREGG

The exclusion of SIIoJ" 'boatswas completely unintentional, Mr Gregg, and )lie hope 10 do justice to the fOlldly-remembel·etl t ypes you mention in anotherphoto feature ill the 1I0/-too-dis(CIIII jitl1ll'e,-EDITOR.

Assistance wanted

Mr G. R. Marshof lp2 Watcombe Road, Southbourne, ~,our~emouth, seeks mform~tlon concerning wartime histories of RAF stauo~s Beaulieu, Stoney Cross, Holmsley South, Somerford (Christchurch), Hum, lbsley and Tarrant Rushton.

Mr R. Townley, 18 Bassett Walk, Leigh Park .. Havant, ]~ams, basrecenrlycorne into possessien of a cast alloy bell, 6m highand 41m 111 diameter and inscribed thus: "RAF Benevolent Fund. Cast un metal from German aircraft shotdown over Britain 1939·1945 ", Al~o in. the casting are the heads of Stalin, Roosevelt, of Winston Churchill and on the handle a .. victory V ". Mr Townley would be gratefulto any readers who can offer further information,

.Mr 1.W:egg, c/o Deutsche Lufthansa AG, Heathrow AJ~~Orl, ~td~lesex, seeks details, photos and cuttings of BrllJsh~bllllt aJ,rcraf~ used by Yugoslaviaceg Hurricane 1 and IV, Spitfire, Mosquito, Fury, Hind, Oxford and Anson,

Mr 'fI' T. Wi!liams, of68 Fern Grove, Toxteth, Liverpool 8, seeks. information about colour schemes and representative markings of Spitfires, Mustangs, B-175, Meteors, Mosquitoes, Phantoms and Skyhawks operated by the Israeli Defence Force/Air Force,

AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRAT.EO

IBooks

• ~ook.publhhedin the United Ki".,dom,

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LIGHT PLA~N'E RE.COGNITION

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The second part of the former singlevolume Civil Aircraft RUCOglli/I'OII. this new publication covers the principal light aircraft types operated from UK airfields. A photograph, technical data, outline development. and a three-view silhouette are' provided for nearly 50 aircraft families. Additional sections show selected helicopters, some vintage and veteran types, home-builts and racers flying in this country. These sections do not have three-view drawings,

The qualityof the photographs is up 10 the high standard expected in Ian Allan publications, with many of the aircraft shown in the ai r. Printing is on gloss paper with excellent reproduction, contrasung With some of the earlier recognition books in the .1·970 series. The omission of a detailed index, however, makes quick reference more difficult, particularly for the spotter who is nor familiar with the manufacturers of light aircraft.-P.R.M.

PICTORIAL HIISTORY OF BOAC AND IMPERIAL AIRWAYS

bv Kennelh Munson. Ian Allan, 9}in bv 6!in. 237pp, illustrated, 60s (post1Jge 2$),

This aptly-tilled book takes in British Airways and several subsidiary airlines of both Imperial Airways. and .BOAC. Prcceeding the pictorial, content comes 66 pages of text covering events from 1919 onwards to the formation of I mperial Airways in ]924 and the amalgamation oFIAL and British Airways (0 form a state owned airlineBOAC. Since the narrative serves as an introduction to the photographs." 50 years of development have had- to be c~)I1dcnsed into 66 pages-e-including rune route maps.

The flee I lisl that follows will delight some and disappoint most readers. Delight will be realised on seeing for tho first time listed (with omissionsj rhose wartime military aircraft that were loaned to BOAC. On the other hand, most readers wHI groan over the use of abbreviated dates and the perfunctory details .in the disposal. column which, regrettably, contains some resurrected myths, like the fate of Frobisher (DH91) that was actually destroyed by arson. not by enemy action. The expected. crop of'errors is noted as also is the omission of several aircraft, including the Saro Cloud G·ABHG bought by

AUGUST 1;970

Imperial Airways for £2875 in Novernber 1939 for crew training, finally to be withdrawn by BOAC in December 1940. Another omission is the use on BOAC aircraft of the military code letters that replaced civil markings in 194445.

The pictorial content occupies some 144 pages, into which 277 photographs have been packed. The quality - of reproduction varies and at bestit falls short of excellent. The choice of subjects is generally acceptable and many readers will find .. new " photos to please them; for a few who can remember far-off days this collection will also be a. nostalgic reminder of the past. The overall production quality is excellent, but. the price is too high for the book to reach a wide market=which is a pily.-P.W.M.

lEST PILOT AT WAR by H. A.. Taylor. Ian .Allan.

9i1;in by 6!in, 144pp. illustrated. 425 (paslage Is 6d).

While the title may evoke visions of 9G dives and struggles to get clear of disintegrating Service prototypes in order to hit the silk, this book is in fact a collection of personal reminiscences of 24 aircraft flown (among others) by the author during the period 1939-1945.

Nearly all ex-wartime RAF and Naval pilots will. find in these pages types that they flew, and the narrative, combined ~"'ith. many excellent pictures of cockpit mtenor , take one right back into the " office". One finds oneself mentally reaching for the Pilot's Notes to confirm or refute the decisions called for. How forcefully one re-lives that daunting first encounter with the mass of instruments and controls of a Harvard, after the so-recently relinquished Tiger Moth or the knuckle-barking struggle to read.~ the fuel cocks behind the pilot's seat of a Mosquito. The author's comments on the Lysander's. ., rocking-horse " game recall. vividly the reviewer's failure on one occasion. to gel a " Lizzie" into 2 000 yards of totally deserted runway near Lough Erne.

Alone, the profusion of over 80 photographs, including some outstandingly rare variants, make this book a worthwhile buy, but the author has achieved the difficult task of putting across to the non-pilot that 'elusive quality, the character of the aircraft..POM.

THE MIGHTVEIGHTH

by Roger A. Freeman. Macdonald. 111in by 8Mn. 31.2pp, iltuslreted, 75s (postage 4s 6d),

Long regarded as the leading authority on the wartime USAA Sth Air Force, Roger Freeman, who hails from Eighth AF territory-Dedham, which is also in the heart of the famed Constable Country-has now produced his -Iong~ awaited book. And what a magnificent tome it is! Illustrated with nearly 500

photographs-many of them extremely rare-especially drawn maps and a 14- page full colour section by John B. Rabbets depicting aircraft colour schemes and unit markings, the book give,s. a full history of the largest air striking force ever committed 10 bailie. A.II those who enthuse over the Forts, Libs, Mustangs, Jugs and so on of the colourful Eighth will want this book, and rnodellers in particular will revel not only in the aforementioned colour plates (the finest so far produced anywhere) but also in the detailed descriptive reference matter on aircraft camouflage <I!ld markings, Recently, when the reviewer was motoring to Norfolk on holiday, he noticed a signpost in Suffolk reading "RAF Rattlesden 1 mile" and remembering wartime photos of the yellow and green tailed Forts of Rartlesden's 4471h BG-including the famous Bit 0' Lace since memorialised (to use an Americanism) by Airfix-he made, a mental note 10 read-up Roger Freeman's account of tile group on his ret urn home. He did, and he learned. a great deal. Yes, Roger Freeman has done a splendid job in producing The Migh(y Eighth, and he deserves the warmest praise.-P.J.R.M.

REPU BLiC FlltF·B4F

THU NDER$TREAK/1HUN D ER F.LASH by Richard Ward and Ernest R. McDowell. B·OEIN.G B·l1B·HF1YINGFORTRESS by Richard Ward and Ernest R. McDowell. Osprey Publications Ltd. PO Box: 25.

707 Oxford Road, Reading,. Berks.

9j;in by Jain. 48pp. illustrated. 21 s each,

Two latest titles in Aircam Aviation Series aimed chiefly al rnodellers, Quality of B·17 photos is below par, which is unfortunate, [orin the final analysis photos are always better value (han artwork in magazines and books of this sort-the camera cannot lie.

AIRCR.AFT PHOTO ALBU'M

by Peter M. Bowers and Paul R. Mall. Historical Aviation Album. California.

3,50 (Overseas dlstributors. W. E. Herssot Ltd, 228 Archway Roact, Highgate, London N6. price 315).

I we-hundred-and-seventy-Jour photographs sized between 4in by J!in 10 whole page and covering the Breguet 14, CUrtiss NC 'boats, Hughes XF-Il etc, Pictures are good and captions informative but layout leaves much to be desired,

·FAIREY SWORDFISH I-IV by Ian G, Stolt

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Two latest titles in the well-known series of Profiles containing descriptive text, photos and colour paintings and numbered 212 and 213 respectively,

345

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lomibe'f'& I '1,3"-45

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