EPIDEMIOLOGI istilah spinal cord injury mengacu pada kerusakan neurologis dari spinal cord yang mengikuti trauma

. Di banyak Negara berkembang, insiden spinal cord injury antara 60-80 kasus perjuta pertahun. Kurang lebih setengah dari seluruh kasus spinal cord injury terjadi pada pasien dengan usia di bawah 30 tahun. Kebanyakan kasus spinal cord injury dialami oleh pria, dengan rentang usia antara 15 dan 25 tahun; hanya 15% dari seluruh kasus spinal cord injury menyerang wanita dan hanya 18% orang diatas usia 45 tahun yang terkena. Demografi tersebut tentunya tidak termasuk yang terjadi di daerah bencana alam. Sebagai contoh, pada gempa bumi di Pakistan pada tahun 2005, mayoritas warga yang mengalami spinal cord injury (dengan estimasi lebih dari 1500 orang) adalah wanita muda dan anak-anak. Penyebab terbesar spinal cord injury adalah kecelakaan sepeda motor hingga terjatuh. Work-related injuries are also common, as are injuries from sport and water-based activities. In some countries the incidence of spinal cord injury from gun, stab or war-related injuries is high. Spinal cord lesions can also be due to disease, infection and congenital defect. Over 55% of all spinal cord injuries are cervical; the remainder are approximately equally divided between thoracic, lumbar and sacral levels. 8,9 The most common level of injury is C5, followed by C4, C6 and T12, in that order. 10 A spinal cord injury in the cervical region affects all four limbs, resulting in tetraplegia (also called quadriplegia). Spinal cord injuries in the thoracic, lumbar or sacral region affect the lower limbs and result in paraplegia. Most spinal cord injuries do not involve transection or severing of the spinal cord. 11 , 1 2 Rather, the cord remains intact and the neurological damage is due to secondary vascular and pathogenic events, including oedema, inflammation and changes to the blood spinal cord barrier. 13,14 The extent of damage to the spinal cord is highly variable and, consequently, a

9 In some patients the only sign that part of the spinal cord .spinal cord injury can prevent the transmission of all or just some neural messages across the site of the lesion.