The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a of

¯
Adin¯ atha:
A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation
James Mallinson
Balliol College
Oxford
August , 
The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a of
¯
Adin¯ atha:
A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation
submitted by James Mallinson of Balliol College, Oxford
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
in Trinity Term 
This thesis contains a critical edition and annotated translation of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
of
¯
Adin¯ atha, an early hat
.
hayogic text which describes the physical practice of khecar¯ı-
mudr¯ a.  witnesses have been collated to establish the critical edition. The notes to the
translation adduce parallels in other works and draw on Ball¯ ala’s Br
.
hatkhecar¯ıprak¯ a´sa
commentary and ethnographic data to explain the text.
The first introductory chapter examines the relationships between the different
sources used to establish the critical edition. An analysis of the development of the text
concludes that its compiler(s) took a chapter describing the vidy¯ a (mantra) of the deity
Khecar¯ı from a larger text to form the framework for the verses describing the physical
practice. At this stage the text preserved the Kaula orientation of the original work
and included verses in praise of madir¯ a, alcohol. By the time that the text achieved
its greatest fame as an authority on the hat
.
hayogic practice of khecar¯ımudr¯ a most of
its Kaula features had been expunged so as not to offend orthodox practitioners of
hat
.
hayoga and a short fourth chapter on magical herbs had been added.
The second introductory chapter concerns the physical practice. It starts by ex-
amining textual evidence in the Pali canon and Sanskrit works for practices similar
to the hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a before the time of composition of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
and then discusses the non-physical khecar¯ımudr¯ as described in tantric works. There
follows a discussion of how these different features combined in the khecar¯ımudr¯ a of
the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Then a survey of descriptions of khecar¯ımudr¯ a in other hat
.
hayogic
works shows how the hat
.
hayogic corpus encompasses various different approaches to
yogic practice. After an examination of the practice of khecar¯ımudr¯ a in India today the
chapter concludes by showing how the hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a has generally been the
preserve of unorthodox ascetics.
In the third introductory chapter are described the  manuscripts used to establish
the critical edition, the citations and borrowings of the text in other works, and the
ethnographic sources.
The appendices include a full collation of all the witnesses of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a,
critical editions of chapters from the Matsyendrasam
.
hit¯ a and Hat
.
haratn¯ aval¯ı helpful in
understanding the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, and a list of all the works cited in the Br
.
hatkhecar¯ı-
prak¯ a´sa.
Acknowledgements
The enthusiasm of my teachers and fellow indologists in Oxford has been a constant
source of inspiration. Many have helped directly with this thesis but a few have
been particularly generous with their time and learning. Firstly, I want to thank
my supervisor Professor Sanderson who has always been ready to help me with his
encyclopaedic knowledge. Dr. Somdev Vasudeva is responsible for any elegance in
the presentation of the thesis and has provided me with a great deal of useful textual
material. Dr. Dominic Goodall encouraged me to go to India in search of manuscripts
and helped me with the south Indian witnesses. Others from Oxford that I want to
thank by name for their comments and help are Dr. Harunaga Isaacson, Alex Watson,
Isabelle Onians, Dr. Jim Benson, Professor Richard Gombrich and Csaba Dezs˝ o. From
outside of Oxford I thank Christian Bouy, whose work inspired me to start the thesis
and who has helped in my search for sources, and Sebastian Pole who, with his practical
expertise in yoga and his knowledge of ¯ ayurveda, has both encouraged and aided me
in my work.
Thanks are due to the many people who have helped me obtain copies of manu-
scripts, in particular Simon Stocken, Dr. David White, Cassia Murray-Threipland,
H.H. the Maharaja of Jodhpur, M. Ram, Dr. Dominic Wujastyk and the staff at the
following institutions: the Maharaja Man Singh Library, Jodhpur, the Indian Insti-
tute Library, Oxford, the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London,
the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras, the Scindia Oriental Research
Institute, Ujjain, the Sarvajanik Library, Nasik, the Praj ˜ n¯ ap¯ at
.
ha´s¯ al¯ a, Wai, the Na-
tional Archives, Kathmandu, the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project, the
Oriental Institute, Baroda, the Institut franc¸ais de Pondich´ ery, the Bhandarkar Orien-
tal Research Institute, Pune, the Bombay University Library, the Rajasthan Oriental
Research Institute, Jodhpur, and the Oriental Research Institute, Bikaner.
For funding my studies and field trips I thank the British Academy for Humanities
Research, the Boden Fund, Eton College and the Spalding Trust.
Finally, this thesis could not have been completed without the help of my family,
Claudia Wright, and all the yogins in India who shared their knowledge and insights
with me, in particular
´
Sr¯ı R¯ am B¯ alak D¯ as.
Contents
Introduction
The date and place of composition of the text 2
The Witnesses of the text 5
The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a : Part, Whole or Wholes? 14
Editorial Policy 18
Language and Metre 20
The Hat
.
hayogic Khecar¯ımudr¯ a
Forerunners :
The Pali Canon 23
Early Sanskrit Texts 26
Tantric Texts 28
Khecar¯ımudr¯ a in Tantric Texts 37
Why was the Hat
.
hayogic practice called Khecar¯ımudr¯ a? 40
Khecar¯ımudr¯ a in Hat
.
hayogic Texts 44
Khecar¯ımudr¯ a in Modern India 50
Practitioners of Khecar¯ımudr¯ a 52
Sources
Manuscript Sources 54
Testimonia 74
Manuscripts of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a not consulted 77
Ethnographic Sources 78
Conventions in the Apparatus 81
Critical Edition of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 89
Annotated Translation 133
Appendices
A. Full Collation 195
B. MS G 259 −274b 296
Matsyendrasam
.
hit¯ a 16.98 −112 297
C. Matsyendrasam
.
hit¯ a pat
.
ala 17 298
Matsyendrasam
.
hit¯ a pat
.
ala 18 302
Matsyendrasam
.
hit¯ a pat
.
ala 27 306
D. Works cited in the Br
.
hatkhecar¯ıprak¯ a´sa 308
E. Hat
.
haratn¯ aval¯ı upade´sa 2 315
Abbreviations 318
Works Consulted 321
Introduction
The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a is a dialogue between
´
Siva and his consort, Dev¯ı. It calls itself a tantra
(:.:o) and consists of :ï¡ verses divided into four pat
.
alas. In manuscript colophons
its authorship is ascribed to
¯
Adin¯ atha, the first of the gurus of the N¯ atha order, who is
usually identified with
´
Siva.
:
The first pat
.
ala (¬¬ verses) starts with praise of the text
itself, followed by a coded description of the khecar¯ımantra and detailed instructions
for the key physical practice of the text. This practice is called khecar¯ımudr¯ a
:
and
involves the freeing and lengthening of the tongue of the yogin in order that it might
be turned back and upwards above the soft palate to break through the brahmadv ¯ ara,
the door of Brahm¯ a, so that the yogin can drink the amr
.
ta, the nectar of immortality,
which is stored behind it. The second pat
.
ala (::¡ verses) describes the different kal¯ as
in the body where amr
.
ta is stored, the rewards to be gained from accessing the amr
.
ta in
these kal¯ as, and how to cure the problems that may arise in the course of the practice.
The third pat
.
ala (o, verses) describes practices involving the insertion of the tongue
into the abode of Brahm¯ a and the raising of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı, in order to flood the body with
amr
.
ta and defeat death by temporarily or permanently leaving the body. The short
fourth pat
.
ala (:¡ verses) describes herbal preparations which can effect various magical
results (siddhi s) for the yogin.
The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a is the source of four verses in the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a, and of all ¡,
´slokas of the second adhy¯ aya of the Yogakun
.
d
.
alyupanis
.
ad. It is cited by N¯ ar¯ ayan
.
a in
his commentaries on s: atharvan upanis
.
ads and is quoted in the Goraks
.
asiddh¯ anta-
sam
.
graha, a seventeenth-century anthology of passages connected with Goraks
.
an¯ atha,
who is said to be the original teacher of hat
.
hayoga. The M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a, an east
Indian collection of hat
.
hayogic and tantric lore associated with Matsyendran¯ atha, who
is claimed by the N¯ atha school to have been Goraks
.
an¯ at
.
ha’s guru, has among its ss
:
See e.g. Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ ajyotsn ¯ a :.:.
:
The compound khecar¯ımudr¯ a is in fact used at just two places in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a: :.ï:a and +.s¡a.
At the first occurrence it refers to the physical practice, while at the second it seems to refer to the result
of the sum of the practices described in the text. Elsewhere the physical practice is called simply abhy¯ asa,
“the practice”.
:
: Ixriooucriox
pat
.
alas all four pat
.
alas of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a was thus regarded as an
authority on hat
.
hayoga and associated with the N¯ atha order of yogins.
+
The text has received little attention from modern scholars. R.G.Harshe, in Sum-
maries of Papers submitted to the 17th Session of the All-India Oriental Conference, Ahmed-
abad, :,s+, under the heading “M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astra: Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a by
¯
Adin¯ atha”, wrote:
“It is not published so far as it is known and a critical edition is being presented for the
first time”. It has not been possible to find out whether this edition was in fact ever
presented or published. Bouy (:,,¡) noticed the borrowings from the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
in the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a and Yogakun
.
d
.
alyupanis
.
ad ; it was his pioneering work that first
drew my attention to the text. Wuiri (:,,o::o,–:¬c) gives a synopsis of the text and
Ros¸u (:,,¬:¡:, n.¡c) mentions it in passing.
¡
The date and place of composition of the text
The terminus a quo of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a is the date of composition of the Vivekam ¯ a-
rtan
.
d
.
a, a work mentioned at Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a :.:¡cd.
s
Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a (or ˚m ¯ art ¯ an
.
d
.
a) is
one of the many names by which the work now usually known as the Goraks
.
a´sataka
+
This association with the N¯ atha order is almost certainly a retroactive attribution. There is little
in the text that connects it with any specific tradition, apart from general evidence of roots in Kaula
tantrism. It does not contain a systematic description of its yoga, nor does it call its yoga s
.
ada˙ nga,
“having six ancillaries”, or as
.
t
.
¯ a˙ nga, “having eight ancillaries”. It contains no statements of its ontological
standpoint. Other than the manuscript colophons there is nothing to link it with
¯
Adin¯ atha. The four
tantras mentioned in the text (see footnote s) help little in locating it within a specific tradition. The
Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a was itself probably attributed to Goraks
.
an¯ atha some time after its composition (see
footnote o). The mention of a J¯ alasambaratantra in the Kularatnoddyotatantra (see footnote :ï¬) and the
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s use of the system of six cakras found in texts of the Pa´scim¯ amn¯ aya cult of Kubjik¯ a suggest
a possible link with the latter. M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a ¡¡.:¬ declares etat te param ¯ amn ¯ ayam auttaram
.
pa´scim ¯ a-
nvayam: “this [that I have taught] you is the supreme higher tradition, consonant with/ following the
western [tradition]”, and M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a :ï.o¬a–oïb describes all Yogin¯ıs and Siddhas as kubje´svara-
prabh¯ ah
.
, “resembling Kubje´svara”. Members of the cults connected with the M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a and
the M ah¯ ak ¯ alasam
.
hit ¯ a, the two works with which the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a is most closely linked, add the suffix
- ¯ anandan ¯ atha to their initiatory names (M aSam
.
:¬.s¬; Jua :,¬o:s). This suffix is rarely found in the
names of N¯ atha yogins but is added to the names of Kaula initiates. See Tantr¯ alokaviveka :,.¡: and,
for the cult of
´
Sr¯ıvidy¯ a, N ityotsava p.+¬, ll. :–+. The names by which the goddess is addressed in the
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a are common in Kaula and Vidy¯ ap¯ıt
.
ha
´
Saiva texts. Thus v¯ıravandite (KhV :.:ï, :.::c) is
found at M VUT +.:ï, +.sï, ¬.¡, Tantrasadbh¯ ava (NAK s-¡¡s) ,.:,,, Picumata (NAK +-+¬c) so.ï¬, so.ï,,
ïs.s¡, JRY ¡.:.¡o+, KM T o.¡ï etc.; kule´svari (KhV :.::¡) occurs many times in the Kubjik ¯ amatatantra.
I am grateful to Professor Sanderson for providing me with these references.
¡
Miuiixniio (:,,,:vol.IIA pp.¬¡,–sc) gives a description of the text which is derived from that of
Wuiri.
s
Four other works are mentioned at :.:¡c–:sb. Because of variants among the witnesses and a lack of
manuscripts of the works mentioned, establishing their identities is difficult, and establishing their dates
even more so. See the notes to the translation for further details.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a +
has been called.
o
No internal references allow us to establish a terminus a quo for
o
Bouy (:,,¡::ï) lists the names by which this text has been called: Goraks
.
apaddhati, Goraks
.
asam
.
hit ¯ a,
Goraks
.
a´sata, Goraks
.
a´sataka, Goraks
.
ayoga´s¯ astra, Hat
.
hayoga, Hat
.
hayogagoraks
.
a´sataka, J˜ n ¯ anaprak ¯ a´sa´sataka,
J˜ n ¯ ana´sataka, M uktisop¯ ana, Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a, and Yogam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a. (I have not included the following titles
from his list: Hat
.
hagrantha, Hat
.
hayogacint ¯ aman
.
i, Yogacint ¯ aman
.
i and Yogas¯ agara. These are reported by
Biiccs (:,ï,::so) as names by which the Goraks
.
a´sataka is referred to in its commentary in his manuscript
P, but are probably no more than honorific ways of referring to the m ¯ ula.)
A text called Vivekam ¯ art ¯ an
.
d
.
a and attributed to Vi´svar ¯ upadeva has been edited and published in the
Trivandrum Sanskrit Series (No. ::,). It is a work in six prabodhas, the last of which, entitled Yogas¯ adhana,
closely matches the text of the Goraks
.
a´sataka as edited by Nowotny. This sixth chapter has also been
edited, as the Vivekam ¯ arttan
.
d
.
a, in the Goraks
.
agrantham ¯ al¯ a series (GGM ¬s) from a copy of a manuscript
in Jodhpur (MMSL No. :c:¬) which consists of the sixth chapter alone. Only in this chapter is the
practice of khecar¯ımudr¯ a described, so the reference in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a cannot be to any of the other five
prabodhas. In the present state of research, it cannot be definitively stated whether the first five prabodhas
were composed and prefixed to the already extant sixth, or whether they were all composed together, with
the sixth becoming more popular and attaining a life of its own. Bouy (:,,¡:::) and Kuvaiay¯ axaxoa
and Suuxia (:,sï::¡–:s) prefer the former hypothesis.
Nowotny has edited the Goraks
.
a´sataka from four manuscripts, the oldest of which is dated samvat
:¬,: (:¬++–+¡ci). There is a manuscript in the Oriental Institute Library, Baroda (accession number
¡::c) whose colophon reads iti ´sr¯ıgoraks
.
adevaviracito vivekam ¯ arttam
.
d
.
ah
.
sam ¯ aptah
.
⊕⊗ sam
.
vat 1534
(:¡¬o–¬¬ci). The text of this manuscript corresponds closely to Nowotny’s edition of the Goraks
.
a´sataka,
although it omits :¡ verses found in the edition, including verse four, in which the work calls itself
Goraks
.
a´sataka. Another manuscript of the Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a in the Oriental Institute Library, Baroda
(accession number :cï:), which is undated but appears to be old, also transmits a work that closely
matches Nowotny’s edition of the Goraks
.
a´sataka. In Guaiori and Bioixai’s Descriptive Catalogue
of Yoga M anuscripts (:,ï,:+so–+s¬) the “Additional Particulars” section for MS No. ïc¡¬ in the Jodhpur
Oriental Research Institute, entitled Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a and dated samvat :ï¬,, reads “It is Goraks
.
a´satakam”.
In the Goraks
.
asiddh¯ antasam
.
graha, which can be dated to the seventeenth century (Bouy :,,¡::,), there
are four quotations from a text called Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a all of which can be found in Nowotny’s edition of
the Goraks
.
a´sataka.
In Guaiori and Bioixai’s catalogue (:,ï,:¡¡–s,), of o: manuscripts called Goraks
.
a´sataka and s called
Goraks
.
asam
.
hit ¯ a, the oldest dated manuscript was written in :o,oci (Varanasi Sanskrit College MS no.
+¬s,).
This evidence indicates that the work now generally called the Goraks
.
a´sataka was known as the Viveka-
m ¯ artan
.
d
.
a before the seventeenth century. This seems a more fitting name for a text which in its shortest
available complete form consists of :s¬ verses (Kuvaiay¯ axaxoa and Suuxia :,sï:¬). Recensions of the
text consisting of a hundred or so verses do exist, but are clearly incomplete. Biiccs (:,ï,::ï¡–+c¡)
presents a version of the text having consulted two manuscripts, one from Poona (presumably MS Pk of
Noworxy’s edition) and the other from Benares, as well as a printed edition entitled Goraks
.
apaddhati
which consists of :cc verses (ibid.::so–:s¬). It would appear that the manuscripts transmit only :c: verses
since that is the length of the text Briggs produces. The edition he presents names the six ancillaries of
yoga at verse ¬ but stops half-way through the description of the second ancillary, pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama, at verse
:c:. Kuvaiay¯ axaxoa and Suuxia’s :,sï edition of the Goraks
.
a´sataka also consists of :c: verses. There
is a different text called Goraks
.
a´sataka which is complete in :cc verses. This unedited work was used to
compile the first chapter of the Yogakun
.
d
.
alyupanis
.
ad ; see Bouy :,,¡:¡c. It is perhaps through confusion
with this work that the Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a came to be known as the Goraks
.
a´sataka. Bouy (:,,¡::c–:¡) notes
in detail other concordances between the Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a and the different recensions of the Goraks
.
a´sataka
but does not remark on the diachronic nature of the shift of name from Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a to Goraks
.
a´sataka.
¡ Ixriooucriox
the Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a, so its mention in the text is not especially helpful in dating the
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. As noted by Bouy (ibid.::s n.+c), two verses of the Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a are
cited without attribution in the
´
S¯ ar ˙ ngadharapaddhati, a lengthy anthology of verses on
a wide range of subjects.
¬
This establishes a terminus ad quem for the Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a
of :+o+ci (Sriixnacu :,¬¡::¬).
The terminus ad quem of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a is the date of composition of the Hat
.
ha-
prad¯ıpik ¯ a which, as mentioned above, borrows four ´slokas from the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. The
Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a is an anthology of passages from various texts.
ï
The four borrowed
verses are not found in any work other than the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, so one can be confi-
dent that the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a has borrowed from the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a and was therefore
composed after it. Bouy (:,,¡:ï:–ïs) summarises earlier attempts at dating the Hat
.
ha-
prad¯ıpik ¯ a and, adding further evidence, draws his own conclusion. His identification
of at least eleven of the works from which the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a borrows does not help
him since none of these works have themselves been satisfactorily dated. He sees the
lack of a reference to the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a in M¯ adhava’s Sarvadar´sanasa˙ ngraha as strong
enough evidence to claim that the date of composition of that work (the second half of
the :¡th century) is the terminus a quo of the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a.
,
The terminus ad quem
of the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a is established by a manuscript of Mummad
.
ideva Vidvad¯ ac¯ a-
rya’s Sam
.
s¯ arataran
.
i in the collection of the Mat
.
ha of the
´
Sa˙ nkar¯ ac¯ arya of Pur¯ı.
:c
The
A new edition of the Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a, drawing on the large number of variously named manuscripts of
the text that exist, would make an important contribution to the study of the historical development of
hat
.
hayoga.
¬
´
SP ¡+¬¡ =VM ¬,
´
SP ¡¡:ï =VM s,.
´
SP ¡+¬:–¡¡:, contains verses from various works on yoga (the
edition has ete yoga´s¯ astrebhyah
.
after verse ¡¡:,) and describes the first of two types of hat
.
hayoga, which is
said to have been practised by Goraks
.
a, as opposed to the second type, which was practised by the sons
of Mr
.
kan
.
d
.
a (
´
SP ¡+¬:). Over half of the other verses of this passage are from the Datt ¯ atreyayoga´s¯ astra.
ï
Bouy (:,,¡:ï:) has shown that the H P borrows from the following texts: the Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a,
the original Goraks
.
a´sataka, the Vasis
.
t
.
hasam
.
hit ¯ a (Yogak ¯ an
.
d
.
a), the Datt ¯ atreyayoga´s¯ astra, the Amaraughapra-
bodha, the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, the Yogab¯ıja, the Amanaskayoga, the Candr¯ avalokana, the Uttarag¯ıt ¯ a, the Laghu-
yogav ¯ asis
.
t
.
ha and possibly also the
´
Sivasam
.
hit ¯ a. To these can be added the Kaulaj ˜ n ¯ ananirn
.
aya (KJN
+.:c–+b H P ¡.++) and possibly the Kulac¯ ud
.
¯ aman
.
itantra (a half-verse from which is cited in Ks
.
emar¯ aja’s
´
Sivas¯ utravimar´sin¯ı ad II.s and found at H P +.s+ab).
(The absence of a source text or textual parallels for H P +.::–+o suggests that this passage on the hat
.
ha-
yogic s
.
at
.
karmas may have been composed by the compiler of the text. I have been unable to find references
to similar practices in tantric works. These cleansing techniques, which may have been developed from
medical practices, are thus probably a unique feature of hat
.
hayoga.)
,
This evidence is not conclusive. The Sarvadar´sanasa˙ ngraha often relies on only a limited number of
texts of a given discipline. (I am grateful to Dr. Dominic Goodall and Dr. Harunaga Issacson for pointing
this out to me.)
:c
Guaiori and Bioixai (:,ï,:¡+ï–,) list a manuscript of the H P in the collection of the Sanskrit
University Library, Varanasi (No. +c:c,) which is dated :ss+. Bouy (:,,¡:ï¡ n.+s¬) understands this
to mean Sam
.
vat :ss+ which seems odd since elsewhere Guaiori and Bioixai indicate when a date is
Sam
.
vat. Perhaps Bouy has seen the university catalogue, which I have not. He concludes that if the date
is correct “on pourrait fixer le terminus ad quem de la HP en :¡,o”.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a s
manuscript is described by Miria (:ïïo:+c:) and the work, which is a commentary on
the Laghuyogav ¯ asis
.
t
.
ha, has been edited by V.S.Panasikara. In it the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a is
cited seven times and mentioned by name at five of the citations. The Pur¯ı manuscript
is dated samvat :sï: (:s:¡ci). This manuscript is described as “incorrect” and “corrupt”
by Mitra which leads Bouy to infer that the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a “ne saurait ˆ etre post ´ erieure
au xv
e
si` ecle”. He concludes “Dans l’´ etat actuel des connaissances, il y a tout lieu de
penser que la Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a est une anthologie qui a ´ et ´ e compos´ ee dans le courant
du xv
e
si` ecle”.
In the light of this evidence we can say that the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a was probably composed
before :¡ccci.
About the place of composition of the text, nothing definite can be said. Its
witnesses are found all across the subcontinent, from Jodhpur in the west to Calcutta
in the east, and from Kathmandu in the north to Pondicherry in the south. The
possibility of an eastern origin is hinted at by the superiority and greater age of the
readings found in the manuscripts of the M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a which was itself probably
composed in the Bengal region.
::
The Witnesses of the Text
The witnesses of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a fall into four groups:
::
• The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a manuscripts.
Twenty-two manuscripts form a discrete group on account of their similarity.
Their sigla are: S, NW
:
MK
:
K
+
(=subgroup α), J
:
J
¡
VK
¡
K
:
PJ
+
FK
s
K
o
C (=subgroup
β) and J
:
J
s
W
:
RB (=subgroup γ). In the following pages these witnesses are
referred to collectively as “the KhV manuscripts”. The edited text as presented
corresponds most closely to the text as found in these witnesses.
• The M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a manuscripts.
:+
Three manuscripts of a text entitled M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a have been consulted.
Their sigla are AJ
o
J
¬
and they are referred to collectively as “the M aSam
.
manu-
::
About the origins of the M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a, see p.ï. We can also perhaps discount the possibility
of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a having been composed in the modern Mar¯ at
.
h¯ı-speaking region, on account of the
absence of any of the esoteric physiological terminology used in the texts composed in that region at about
the same time as the composition of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, i.e. J˜ n¯ andev’s Abha˙ ngam ¯ al¯ a and L ¯ akhot
.
¯ a, and the
Siddhasiddh¯ antapaddhati. See footnote :¡: for more details.
::
Detailed descriptions of the individual sources consulted to establish the critical edition of the
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a (including its citations in other works) can be found on pp.s¡–¬o.
:+
I am grateful to Dr. Harunaga Isaacson for first drawing my attention to the M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a. He
lent me Dr. Debabrata Sensharma’s transcription of the first :c pat
.
alas as found in witness A.
o Ixriooucriox
scripts”, or as the group µ.

Verses :¡.:–:¬.: of the M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a corre-
spond to the first three pat
.
alas of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, while M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a
pat
.
ala :ï corresponds to Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a pat
.
ala ¡.
• G
Witness G is a palm-leaf manuscript written in Grantha script in the collection
of the Institut franc¸ais de Pondich´ ery. Entitled Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, it is missing its first
two folios and starts at the edition’s :.:ca. It has no pat
.
ala divisions and does
not include pat
.
ala ¡.
• UT
Witness U is the Yogakun
.
d
.
alyupanis
.
ad. The ¡, ´slokas of its second adhy¯ aya are
all found in the first o¡ ´slokas of the first pat
.
ala of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
:s
Witness
T, like U, stops at what is :.o¡b in my edition of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, but it has the

1
2
´slokas that the upanis
.
ad omits.
On the next page is a stemmatic diagram of the relationships between the witnesses.
In this diagram, only the positions of the witnesses themselves represent definite his-
torical facts; the remaining nodes and the lines are conjectural, and no attempt has
been made to indicate contamination between the witnesses and witness groups.

The abbreviation M aSam
.
has been used to avoid confusion with MS meaning “manuscript”.
:s
Bouy (:,,¡) has shown how an anonymous South Indian Ved¯ antin used various hat
.
hayogic works
to expand already existing texts, and create some anew, in order to establish a corpus of :cï upanis
.
ads.
Thus the first pat
.
ala of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a acquired the status of an upanis
.
ad.
ï Ixriooucriox
The four manuscript groups are now examined in detail.
The KhV manuscripts
The twenty-two KhV manuscripts present similar versions of the text but can be divided
into three distinct subgroups which I have called α, β and γ. See for example the list
of siddhi s given at :.¬scd (this verse is omitted in G):
:o
p¯ aduk ¯ akhad
.
gavet ¯ alasiddhidravyamanah
.
´sil¯ ah
.
¬s
~jJ ˚manah
.
´sil¯ah
.
] µ; ˚m abh¯ıpsitam
.
Sα, ˚manah
.
´sil¯a β, ˚m aneka´sah
.
γ
Of these three subgroups, α is perhaps the best, sharing the most readings with µ
and G (which often preserve the best readings—see below). β is the largest and least
homogeneous subgroup while γ is the most idiosyncratic. The subgroups themselves
can be further divided. Thus K
:
and K
+
are called α
+
. The rest of α, i.e. N, W
:
and
M, make up α
:
, which is in turn further divided because of the close similarity of N
and W
:
(=α
:
). J
:
, J
¡
, V and K
¡
make up β
:
on account of their similarity while in γ,
B is distinct on account of its corrected readings, leaving γ
:
(=J
:
, J
s
, W
:
and R) which
contains γ
:
(=J
:
and J
s
). Because of extensive contamination between and within the
subgroups it has not been possible to use stemmatic analysis to decide which readings
to adopt.

The KhV manuscripts are divided into sub-groups in order to make the
apparatus less cluttered.
The text as presented in the Br
.
hatkhecar¯ıprak ¯ a´sa (witness S) is derived from wit-
nesses in the tradition of groups α and β. Several times in his commentary Ball¯ ala
gives alternative readings and these can all be found among the witnesses of the two
groups.
The Mat syendrasam
.
hit ¯ a manuscripts
The M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a is a long treatise in ss pat
.
alas on Kaula ritual and yoga. It is
ascribed to Matsyendran¯ atha, the second in the traditional list of gurus of the N¯ atha
order,

with which the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a is usually affiliated.
:,
As far as I am aware, the
M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a is neither mentioned nor cited in any other works.
:c
Evidence
:o
It is of course only through conjunctive errors that one can confidently establish that witnesses share
a hyparchetype (Vasuoiva :,,,:xxv). The many such errors that support the division of the witnesses of
the KhV are not listed here. The interested reader is invited to consult the full collation.

On the evidence of this contamination see page :,.

See e.g. H P :.s.
:,
On this affiliation see footnote +.
:c
A
´
Sivamatsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a is mentioned in the margin of f.sr of the Br
.
hatkhecar¯ıprak ¯ a´sa (witness S).
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ,
helpful in dating the text is scant. The mention of cannabis (siddhim ¯ ulik ¯ a) in pa-
t
.
alas :, and +, suggests that the text as we have it was compiled in eastern India
after the advent of Islam in that region.
::
However, as I shall show below, parts of
the text (probably including pat
.
alas :, and +,) were added to an earlier original core.
The layers of narrative in the text are rather complex—it is a dialogue between
´
Siva
and P¯ arvat¯ı which was overheard by Matsyendran¯ atha while in the belly of a fish and
which he then told to an unnamed Cola king who had it written down. As a result
there is some confusion in the vocatives found in the text, and one cannot always be
sure who is talking to whom. The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a as a dialogue between
´
Siva and the
goddess fits neatly into the didactic section of the text but appears not to be part of
the original layer. At the beginning of the M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a when P¯ arvat¯ı asks
´
Siva
for instruction in ´s¯ ambhavayoga she lists the subjects about which she wants to know.
These subjects correspond closely to the subject matter of pat
.
alas :–¬ and ::–+ï, and
she does not mention Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
::
The inclusion of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a causes some
internal contradictions in the text: for example, a hand-gesture khecar¯ımudr¯ a unlike
::
I am grateful to Professor Sanderson for reproducing for me part of a letter on this subject that he
wrote to Professor Wezler in :,,¡. He concludes “The literature of the bhang-drinking Kaulas appears
to be from eastern India. As to its date, I know no evidence that it predates the establishment of Islam in
that region”. See also Miuiixniio :,ï,.
::
Dev¯ı’s request is found at :.s–::b. The following is an edited version of witness A f. ¬r
3−8
:
deha´suddhih
.
katham
.
deva katham
.
sy¯ ad ¯ asanakramah
.
|
pr¯ an ¯ ay¯ amah
.
katham
.
proktah
.
praty¯ ah¯ arah
.
katham
.
bhavet s
katham
.
s¯ a dh¯ aran
.
¯ a yoge dhy¯ anayoga´s ca k¯ıdr
.
´sah
.
|
katham
.
´sr¯ıkun
.
d
.
alin¯ıyogam
.
trili ˙ ng¯ arc¯ api k¯ıdr
.
´s¯ı o
k ¯ ani ks
.
etr¯ an
.
i dehe ’smin k ¯ ani t¯ırth¯ ani ´sam
.
kara |
sarvasn ¯ an ¯ adhikasn ¯ anah
.
kah
.
parah
.
parame´svara ¬
k ¯ any aus
.
adhaprayog¯ an
.
i kim
.
ca deva ras¯ ayanam
.
|
katham
.
sy¯ at p¯ aduk ¯ asiddhir dehasiddhih
.
katham
.
bhavet ï
vet ¯ alasiddhi´s ca katham
.
kap¯ alasya ca s¯ adhanam
.
|
katham a˜ njanasiddhih
.
sy¯ ad yaks
.
in
.
¯ısiddhir eva ca ,
an
.
im ¯ adi katham
.
deva yogin¯ımelanam
.
katham
.
|
et ¯ any eva tath¯ any¯ ani bhavat ¯ a s¯ ucit ¯ ani ca :c
t ¯ ani sarv ¯ an
.
i me br ¯ uhi vistaren
.
a mahe´svara |
~c˚sn¯ anah
.
] em.; ˚st ¯ ana cod. ~J parame´svara ] em.; parame´svarah
.
cod.
Su k¯ any ] em.; k¯ ay cod. • ˚prayog¯ an
.
i ] em.; ˚prayog¯ ani cod. Sb ca deva ] em.; cid eva cod.
ioc et ¯ any ] etany cod. ioJ bhavat ¯ a ] em.; bhavant ¯ a cod.
Deha´suddhi, ¯ asanakrama, pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama, praty¯ ah¯ ara, dh¯ aran
.
¯ a and dhy¯ anayoga are described in pat
.
alas :–
¬ respectively. Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ıyoga and the li ˙ ngatraya are described in pat
.
alas :: and :+. Pat
.
alas :o and :¬
describe t¯ırthas and ks
.
etras in the body. Aus
.
adhaprayog¯ an
.
i and ras¯ ayana are described in pat
.
alas :ï (=KhV
pat
.
ala ¡) and :,. P¯ aduk ¯ asiddhi is described in pat
.
ala +c. Pat
.
ala +: covers vajrasiddhi —the dehasiddhih
.
in :.ïd is probably a corruption of vajrasiddhih
.
. Vet ¯ alasiddhi, kap¯ alas¯ adhana, a˜ njanasiddhi, yaks
.
in
.
¯ısiddhi,
an
.
im ¯ adi and yogin¯ımelana are described in pat
.
alas +:, ++, +s, +¡, +o and +¬ respectively. Thus it seems
likely that M aSam
.
pat
.
alas ï–::, :¡–:s and +,–s¡ are additions to the earliest layer of the text.
:c Ixriooucriox
those described at Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a :.ï:–ï: or +.s¡ is mentioned in the eleventh pat
.
ala,
:+
and the praise of cannabis as the ultimate drug at :,.:–: contrasts sharply with its
not being mentioned in pat
.
ala :ï (=Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a pat
.
ala ¡).

This evidence suggests
that the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a is a later addition to the earliest layer of the M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a.
However the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a does tie in well with the subject matter of the M atsyendra-
sam
.
hit ¯ a, which is a blend of Kaula ritual and hat
.
hayoga. In style and language too the
texts are very similar. M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a :¬.:–:ï.o+ (particularly :¬.:cc–+¬b) echoes
parts of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a and appears to be derived from it: for example :¬.:¡c–+:
about the use, protection and worship of the book in which the text is written is very
similar to :¡.:ï–:ï (= Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a :.:ï–:ï). The M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a is not entirely
derivative when it covers subjects found in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a: parts of its earliest layer
are helpful for understanding the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Thus M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a pat
.
ala :¬
covers in greater detail the practices described at Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a :.¬:–¬,.
:s
Many of the readings found in µ are different from, and often superior to, those
of the other Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a witnesses. Their superiority can be seen at +.:¡a where
we find prapibet pavanam
.
yog¯ı, “the yogin should breathe in air”. Only µ has the
reading pavanam
.
; all the other witnesses read pam
.
camam
.
. Similarly at :.o¡ab, in the
description of the location of the vessel of nectar in the head, only J
o
and J
¬
read
par¯ amr
.
taghat
.
¯ adh¯ arakap¯ at
.
am
.
, “the doorway at the base of the vessel of the supreme
amr
.
ta”. For ˚ghat
.
¯ a˚, A reads ˚cat
.
¯ a˚, G has ˚ghad
.
¯ a˚ and the KhV manuscripts have ˚s
.
ad
.
¯ a˚.
At :.::cd, in the instructions for the worship of the text, only µ has granthim
.
(em.;
granthi codd.) nodgranthayed asya vin ¯ a kaulikatarpan
.
¯ at, “one should not open the book
without [carrying out] its Kaula libation”; for the first p¯ ada G and α have variants
on the unlikely grantham
.
samarpayed asya, S and β retain the negative with grantham
.
:+
::.:–+ (A f. +cr
3−5
):
atha naivedyam utsr
.
jya mukhav ¯ as¯ adi d¯ apayet |
mudr¯ a´s ca dar´sayet pa´sc¯ at p¯ uj ¯ ante sarvasiddhaye :
daks
.
avy¯ am
.
´sau bhujau devi parivartya tath¯ a˙ ngul¯ıh
.
|
tarjan¯ıbhy¯ am
.
sam ¯ akr¯ ante †sarv ¯ ardhamadhyame† :
a˙ ngus
.
t
.
hau tu mahe´s¯ ani k ¯ arayet saral¯ av api |
es
.
¯ a hi khecar¯ımudr¯ a sarvasiddhiprad¯ ayin¯ı +
iu utsr
.
jya ] em.; utsr
.
jyah
.
cod. ¿u a˙ ngus
.
t
.
hau ] em.; a˙ ngus
.
t
.
au cod

In footnote :: it was noted how M aSam
.
pat
.
alas :ï and :, correspond to Dev¯ı’s request to hear about
aus
.
adhaprayog¯ an
.
i. All the other subjects she lists correspond to single pat
.
alas, so it is likely that either :ï
or :, is a later addition to the earliest layer of the text. Pat
.
ala :ï lists various herbal preparations while :,
begins ´sr¯ıdevy uv ¯ aca | sarvaus
.
adhamay¯ı (em.; sarvos
.
adhamay¯ım
.
A) ´sambho y¯ a par¯ a siddhim ¯ ulik ¯ a. . . . This
appears to be capping the previous pat
.
ala and suggests that :ï (=KhV pat
.
ala ¡) might be part of the
original layer and thus the M aSam
.
may be the source of KhV pat
.
ala ¡. However, the fact that the various
different metres in pat
.
ala :ï are not used elsewhere in the earliest layer of the M aSam
.
argues in favour of
pat
.
ala :, being part of that earliest layer.
:s
Critical editions of M aSam
.
pat
.
alas :¬,:ï and :¬ are included in the appendices, on pages :,ï–+c¬.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ::
tu n ¯ arcayed asya while γ has grantham
.
tu c¯ arcayed devi.
:o
Again, at +.:+a–:¡b, in a
description of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı, the edition reads:
si ˜ ncant¯ı yogino deham ¯ ap¯ adatalamastakam |
sudhay¯ a ´si´sirasnigdha´s¯ıtay¯ a parame´svari :+
punas tenaiva m ¯ argen
.
a pray¯ ati svapadam
.
priye |
“. . . sprinkling the body of the yogin from the soles of his feet to his head
with dewy, unctuous, cool nectar, o supreme goddess, she then returns by
that same pathway to her own abode, my dear.”
For :+cd all the witnesses other than µ have variants on atha s¯ a ´sa´sira´smisth¯ a ´s¯ıtal¯ a
parame´svari, “then she, cool [and] sitting on a moonbeam, o supreme goddess”. The
particle atha and the omission of sudhay¯ a ´si´sirasnigdha´s¯ıtay¯ a leave the participle si ˜ ncant¯ı
with neither a main verb nor anything with which to sprinkle the yogin’s body.
As hinted at in the example of˚ghat
.
¯ a˚ above, µ and G often share readings not found
elsewhere and generally these readings are superior to those of the other witnesses. A
very clear example of this is found at :.oï. This verse is found only in µ and G and
is necessary to make sense of the passage in which it occurs. At :.+¬a, µ and G read
tatrastham amr
.
tam
.
while the KhV manuscripts have the inferior tatra sth¯ ane ’mr
.
tam
.
and tatra sam
.
sth¯ amr
.
tam
.
.
So far, the superior variants found in µ(and G) that have been pointed out are simple
and obvious improvements to the syntax or meaning of the readings found elsewhere.
If we turn to +.ssa–o,b, however, the differences become more interesting.

The passage as found in µ is a Kaula eulogy of madir¯ a, alcohol. In G and the KhV
manuscripts, it has been redacted to make it more palatable to orthodox practitioners of
hat
.
hayoga. Thus µ’s madir¯ a becomes khecar¯ı (see +.soa, s¬a and osc) and the necessity
of alcohol for success becomes the necessity of ´sivabhakti : madir¯ ar¯ adhanam
.
at +.s,b
becomes mad¯ıy¯ ar¯ adhanam
.
; where µ has tatpras¯ adavih¯ın ¯ an ¯ am
.
tannind¯ aparacetas¯ am at
+.s,cd the KhV manuscripts substitute mat˚ and man˚ for tat˚ and tan˚; p¯ uj ¯ am
.
sam
.
-
tyajya m ¯ adir¯ım at +.ocd becomes p¯ uj ¯ am
.
sam
.
tyajya m ¯ amak¯ım; v ¯ arun
.
y¯ a tarpayet at +.o:a
becomes bhakty¯ a sam
.
tarpayet and so on.

Other passages in µ were so alcoholic that
they had to be omitted altogether (see the entries in the last register of the critical
edition apparatus at +.o:b, +.o¡b and +.o¬c).
G and the KhV manuscripts probably derive from a single archetype, in which the
text as it is found in µ was first redacted to remove the Kaula references. There are
:o
The readings without na may be attempts by redactors to reject Kaula ritual.

Critical editions of this passage as it is found in µ and G are included in the appendices (pp. :,o–¬).
The number of variants, additions and omissions, and the reordering of the verses make it difficult to
compare the different passages by referring only to the apparatus of the critical edition.

An attempt at expunging a reference to Kaula alcohol practices can be seen at SSP s.:¡: Mallik’s
edition has j ˜ n ¯ anabhairavam ¯ urtes tu tatp¯ uj ¯ a ca sur¯ adibhih
.
; witness Ha has yath¯ avidhih
.
for sur¯ adibhih
.
.
:: Ixriooucriox
several differences between them, however, and it is likely that their traditions diverged
early on in the transmission of the text. In G attempts have been made to alter some
of the verses found in µ that are omitted in the KhV manuscripts. Thus at :¬.::ccd µ
has
asam
.
p¯ ujya pibed devi madir¯ am
.
yah
.
sa p¯ apabh¯ ak
which is found in G as
m ¯ am asam
.
p¯ ujya yogena p¯ apam
.
bhavati n ¯ anyath¯ a
and where µ at ::+c–::¡b has
sam
.
tarpya ´sivam ¯ı´s¯ anam
.
dev¯ım
.
dev ¯ am
.
´s ca sarva´sah
.
tatpras¯ adena labhate samyagj ˜ n ¯ anam akhan
.
d
.
itam
in G we find
sam
.
tarpya ´sivam ¯ı´s¯ anam
.
sarvadevotsavapradam
matpras¯ adena mahat ¯ a sarvavij ˜ n ¯ anav ¯ an bhavet.
µ’s :¬.:c¬ab, asaktah
.
sumah¯ ap¯ uj ¯ am
.
yadi kartum
.
ca s¯ adhakah
.
, is found verbatim at G
:¬+ab but is absent from the KhV manuscripts. µ follows this half-verse with kury¯ ad
bindvekad¯ anam
.
v ¯ a guruv ¯ aky¯ avalambakah
.
, the bindvekad¯ anam
.
v ¯ a of which is replaced
with ekaikay¯ a devi in G; the KhV manuscripts have this half-verse at +.o¬ab but in a
different context and replace the offending phrase with ekaikam abhy¯ asam
.
.
It might well be asked how one can be so certain of the direction of borrow-
ing, especially since, as shown above, the M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a has borrowed the entire
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Several points indicate that µ’s version of the passage is the oldest:
• As mentioned above, µ’s primacy can be inferred elsewhere in the text from its
preservation of good readings not found in the other witnesses, and from its
containing a large number of ai´sa forms that are found corrected in the other
witnesses.
:,
• Contextually, µ’s version seems to fit better. The first three lines of the passage
suggest that the section on Khecar¯ı is over.
+c
:,
Some of µ’s ai´sa forms are listed on page :c.
+c
However, KhV +.o,ab (M aSam
.
:¬.::sab) suggests that the topic of Khecar¯ı is not finished until
then. Perhaps the madir¯ a passage was an early interpolation in the text. G seems to have attempted to
resolve the problem of context by shifting M aSam
.
:¬.::¡cd to before M aSam
.
:¬.,,c but this only results
in further confusion over who is talking to whom.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :+
• At +.o:ab, the combination of ´sivena and m ¯ adir¯ım fits better than the KhV
manuscripts’ incongruous pairing of ´sivena with the unusual form m ¯ amak¯ım (G
has m ¯ anavah
.
for m ¯ amak¯ım).
• At +.o:a, µ’s v ¯ arun
.
y¯ a tarpayed is more natural than the unlikely bhakty¯ a sam
.
-
tarpayed of G and the KhV manuscripts.
• If one were altering a text, it is more likely that one would omit troublesome
passages than insert extra ones. The passage in µ at :¬.:coc–:c¬d, which is
omitted in the KhV manuscripts (apart from :¬.:c¬cd which is found slightly
altered at KhV +.o¬ab), fits well contextually as well as syntactically with the
following half-verse while its omission in the KhV manuscripts gives the passage
a disjointed feel.
+:
Analysis of the witnesses of µ indicates that the readings of A derive from those of
J
¬
which derive from those of J
o
.
+:
Manuscript G
As stated above, G and the KhV manuscripts probably derive from an earlier attempt
to expunge the explicitly Kaula references found in µ. G often shares good readings
with µ that are not found in the KhV manuscripts, and has unique readings that appear
to be deliberate alterations. See for example G’s ca gurutarpan
.
¯ at at :.::d, where µ and
the KhV manuscripts have kaulikatarpan
.
¯ at.
++
G also regularly has good readings not
found in any other witnesses and several of these have been adopted in the edition.
See e.g. :.¬ca, :.+d, :.::c, :.¡ca, :.ïïc, :.,:a. G shows no evidence of contamination
with any of the other manuscript traditions.
Witnesses U and T
Bouy (:,,¡) has shown how, in the eighteenth century, a corpus of :cï upanis
.
ads
was compiled in south India. In order to do this, some new upanis
.
ads had to be put
+:
The half-verse at µ’s :¬.:::ab has nothing with which to connect it syntactically but it fits well at KhV
+.o¡ab. I can only assume that the redactor of the KhV version inserted this half-verse in order to make
sense of a passage rendered nonsensical due to the omission of µ’s :¬.::c and that this half-verse found its
way into µ due to conflation of the sources.
+:
Evidence of the direction of transmission can be seen at the following places:
Jo to J¬ and A: e.g. :.¡cd, :.+cb, +.:ca, +.o:a, +.o¡d; M aSam
.
:ï.:cc.
Jo to J¬ to A: e.g. :.¡:c; M aSam
.
:ï.+:b, :ï.¡¬d, :ï.s,a, :¬.:ïa, :¬.:,b.
Jo and J¬ to A: e.g. :.:cb, +.sob, +.soc, +.o:c; M aSam
.
:¬.¡d, :¬.¬a, :¬.:b, :¬.:c, :¬.+a.
++
Kaulikatarpan
.
¯ at was evidently too much for the redactors in the tradition of β’s Ks which has
´sa˙ nkarap¯ ujan ¯ at.
:¡ Ixriooucriox
together and the vogue at that time for the teachings of hat
.
hayoga led to hat
.
hayogic
works being used for the task. The compilers were orthodox ved¯ antins and tried to
keep their compositions within the limits of upanis
.
adic and advaita convention. Thus
U omits most of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s first pat
.
ala’s explicit references to tantra and tantric
practices. Fourteen of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s first sixty-three verses are omitted altogether
in the upanis
.
ad. In these verses (:+c–:cb, ::a–:sb, :oa–:ïb, +cab, o:ab)
´
Siva calls
the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a a tantra and mentions other tantras in which the abhy¯ asa is taught.
The verses omitted by the upanis
.
ad include (at ::–:s) the directions for worship of
the grantha in which the text is written down, a practice described in other tantric
works but not possible in the case of a divinely-revealed upanis
.
ad. Verses in which
the text is referred to abstractly as ´s¯ astra rather than the more tangible grantha are
generally retained and in ::a only U and J
+
have ´s¯ astram
.
as opposed to granthah
.
.

The
first chapter of the upanis
.
ad is not presented as a dialogue.
+s
Without introducing his
interlocutors, the redactor presses on with the second chapter, keeping it as a dialogue
but eschewing the tantric form of the text as a conversation between
´
Siva and P¯ arvat¯ı,
substituting the vocative forms brahman and mune where the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a has devi and
priye respectively. For longer vocatives, he substitutes colourless verse-fillers. Thus at
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a ïb parame´svari becomes guruvaktratah
.
and at :.scd tis
.
t
.
haty amaravandite
becomes tis
.
t
.
hed eva na sam
.
´sayah
.
.
Witness T is curious in that like U it stops at the edition’s :.o¡b but it keeps the
verses that U omits and the vocatives addressed to the goddess. This must be either
the result of conflation between manuscripts of the upanis
.
ad and of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
or evidence that Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a :.:–o¡b existed as a text in its own right before being
redacted to make the upanis
.
ad’s first adhy¯ aya.
The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a: part, whole or wholes?
The colophons of the KhV manuscripts and G describe the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a as being part
of the M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astra of
¯
Adin¯ atha.
+o
I have found no catalogue references to a
manuscript by that name and the single textual reference to it that I have come across
postdates the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s composition by some centuries and is probably derived

U does, however, keep ,a’s granthatah
.
.
+s
Bouy (:,,¡::c:) has demonstrated how the compiler of the upanis
.
ad borrowed from an unedited
work called Goraks
.
a´sataka (entirely different from the well-known Goraks
.
a´sataka edited by Nowotny—see
footnote o) to compile the first chapter.
+o
The colophon to the end of pat
.
ala : of the BKhP (witness S) reads: iti ´sr¯ı ¯ adin ¯ athanir ¯ upite mah¯ ak ¯ ala-
tam
.
tr¯ antargatayoga´s¯ astre um ¯ amahe´svarasam
.
v ¯ ade dvit¯ıyah
.
pat
.
alah
.
p¯ urn
.
ah
.
, suggesting that the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
is part of a M ah¯ ak ¯ alatantra. However, this is hard to reconcile with :.:¡c where a M ah¯ ak ¯ alatantra is
distinguished from the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :s
from the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s own attribution to the text.

This suggests that the M ah¯ ak ¯ a-
layoga´s¯ astra never existed and that the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a was connected with this fictitious
text in order to anchor it within an appropriately weighty-sounding tradition.

Alter-
natively, the name M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astra may be being used to suggest the teachings on
yoga found in the M ah¯ ak ¯ alasam
.
hit ¯ a whose authorship is also ascribed to
¯
Adin¯ atha. As
noted by Goudriaan (Gouoiiaax and Guira :,ï::¬ï), the M ah¯ ak ¯ alasam
.
hit ¯ a “func-
tions as the locus of ascription for a number of stotras and other texts”.
+,
Its manuscript
colophons say that the text originally consisted of scc,ccc verses, but the manuscripts
themselves provide only fragments of it (+c of at least :ss pat
.
alas).
¡c
Whether or not the M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astra ever existed, an examination of the text
and style of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a indicates that it was part of a larger work. The name of
the text is very unusual—I know of no other tantric or hat
.
hayogic work called vidy¯ a. In

Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ ajyotsn ¯ a :.:: ¯ adin ¯ athakr
.
to hat
.
havidyopade´so mah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astr¯ adau prasiddhah
.
. Wuiri
(:,,o::o,) says that N¯ ar¯ ayan
.
a, the commentator on Atharvan upanis
.
ads, refers to a M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astra
as a treatise on hat
.
hayoga. I have been unable to locate this reference.

I am grateful to Dr. Dominic Goodall for suggesting this possibility.
+,
Goudriaan (loc. cit.) also identifies the M ah¯ ak ¯ alasam
.
hit ¯ a with the M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astra. His reasons
for this are not clear. It may be due to a mistake in the NCC (Racuavax :,o,b::ïï) where a manuscript
of the M ah¯ ak ¯ alasam
.
hit ¯ a in the collection of the Asiatic Society of Bengal is wrongly said to be of the
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a/M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astra (from the description by Suasrii (:,cs:::) it appears to be of the first
eight pat
.
alas of the M ah¯ ak ¯ alasam
.
hit ¯ a Guhyak ¯ al¯ıkhan
.
d
.
a).
¡c
It is likely that at least some of the M KS postdates the KhV. M KSG ::.o,ï–:cos teaches two types of
yoga, gradual (kr¯ amika) and subitist (hat
.
ha). (Hat
.
hayoga is said to be very dangerous: many Brahmars
.
is
have died from it, so it should not be practised—vv.¬c:–+.) The kr¯ amika yoga has eight ancillaries and
instructions for it are taken directly from the Va´sis
.
t
.
hasam
.
hit ¯ a (dated by Bouy to pre-::scci (:,,¡:::ï))
with a few minor doctrinal alterations, including at M KSG ::.,+,a–,s¡b a visualisation of Guhyak¯ a-
l¯ı substituted for that of Hari found at VS ¡.++b–o¡d. Thus M KSG ::.¬c¬a–,o¡b and :c:cc–:cs¬
match closely VS :.:,–¡.¬+ and o.ï–s+. Somewhat surprisingly in the light of vv.¬c:–+ mentioned above,
instructions for hat
.
hayoga are included at M KSG ::.,ooa–:c:cb. The only practice described is the ha-
t
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a and the instructions seem to be a pr´ ecis of the KhV. Although no verses are lifted
directly from the KhV, the instructions to cut and lengthen the tongue, and the descriptions of the tongue’s
attainment of successively higher places in the head in three year stages correspond to those taught in the
KhV. The many rewards described almost all have direct parallels in the KhV and the ascription of the
ability to prevent dos
.
as found at ::.,ïs is suggestive of KhV :.ï:a–:c:b. Such parallels cannot be found
in other texts that describe the technique. The main aim of the technique as described in the M KS and
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a is amr
.
tapl¯ avana, flooding the body with amr
.
ta, not bindudh¯ aran
.
a, retention of the bindu,
the aim of the practice in most other works (on these two aims, see page ¡¡). The one glaring difference
between the M KS passage and the KhV is that the M KS nowhere mentions Khecar¯ı, calling the practice
rasan ¯ ayoga, “tongue yoga”. Why this should be so is unclear. The Vasis
.
t
.
hasam
.
hit ¯ a, while retaining tantric
features such as visualisations of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı and amr
.
tapl¯ avana, does not call any of its yogic techniques
mudr¯ as and it may be that the writer of the passage on rasan ¯ ayoga was remaining faithful to this tradition.
Jua (:,¬o:s–,) does not ascribe any great age to the M KS, suggesting the twelfth century ci as the
earliest possible date of its composition. He believes it was composed (or compiled) to establish a tantric
sam
.
prad¯ aya that was not anti-vedic. Thus at M KSG ¡.:,o the Veda is praised above all tantric works. The
earliest external evidence for the M KS are citations in the seventeenth-century T ¯ ar¯ abhaktisudh¯ arn
.
ava.
:o Ixriooucriox
such texts, vidy¯ a may mean a mantra or a particular type of mantra, and in all instances
of the word in the text of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a this is what it means. Some tantras contain
coded descriptions and instructions for the use of many different vidy¯ as.
¡:
It seems
possible that the framework of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a was taken from a chapter in such a
text in which the vidy¯ a of Khecar¯ı was described, and then filled out with instructions
about the physical practice.
¡:
The third pat
.
ala ends with
´
Siva saying to the Goddess:
¡+
“I have taught this yoga, which brings success in all yogas, out of fondness
for you, o Goddess. What more would you like to hear?”
To which the Goddess replies:
¡¡
“O
´
Sambhu, on whose head is the half-moon [and] who can be attained
[only] by true devotion, may you be victorious. You have described well
the secret Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.”
The second line is as it is found in the KhV manuscripts and fits with this being the
end of the teaching of a text called Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. In µ, however, we find the following:
¡s
“. . . you have taught the secret method of mastering the vidy¯ a of Khecar¯ı.”
As we have seen above, µ often preserves older readings than those found in the
KhV manuscripts and this reading suggests that we have come to the end of a section
describing the form and practice of the Khecar¯ı mantra rather than the end of the text
itself.
¡:
See e.g. Yogin¯ıtantra pat
.
ala ¬.:–:¬ which contains descriptions of the svapnavat¯ı, mr
.
tasa˜ nj¯ıvan¯ı,
madhumat¯ı and padm ¯ avat¯ı vidy¯ as. Cf. Tantrar¯ ajatantra pat
.
ala +¡
¡:
The practice was already called khecar¯ımudr¯ a—the Vivekam ¯ art ¯ an
.
d
.
a mentioned at KhV :.:¡d calls it
thus (G
´
SN o¡). Cf. Kularatnoddyota +.:cs–:cï, cited in footnote ,:.
¡+
KhV +.oï:
ayam
.
yogo may¯ akhy¯ atah
.
sarvayogapras¯ adhakah
.
|
tava pr¯ıty¯ a mahe´s¯ ani kim
.
bh ¯ uyah
.
´srotum icchasi oï
¡¡
KhV +.o,:
´sambho sadbhaktisam
.
labhya jaya cand¯ ardha´sekhara |
tvay¯ a ´sr¯ıkhecar¯ıvidy¯ a guhy¯ a s¯ adhu nir ¯ upit ¯ a o,
¡s
M aSam
.
:¬.:cd (KhV +.o,cd):
tvay¯ a ´sr¯ıkhecar¯ıvidy¯ as¯ adhanam
.
guhyam ¯ıritam :
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¬
The KhV manuscripts also have a fourth pat
.
ala in just fourteen verses which makes
no mention of Khecar¯ı or the practice,
¡o
but describes drugs (aus
.
adh¯ ani ) for siddhi,
magical power. Besides its lack of continuity in subject matter, this pat
.
ala is different
in style from the preceding three, most noticeably in the variety and complexity of
the metres that it uses. The first three pat
.
alas are entirely in anus
.
t
.
ubh metre with a
few vipul¯ as. The fourth pat
.
ala uses vasantatilak ¯ a, upaj ¯ ati, and sragdhar¯ a metres as well
as anus
.
t
.
ubh. Witnesses µ and G, which regularly have better readings than the KhV
manuscripts, do not include this fourth pat
.
ala with the other three.
¡¬
A manuscript of
the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a in the collection of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal consists of only
three chapters (see page ¬ï). Furthermore, the colophon to the Mysore Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
manuscript’s fourth pat
.
ala reads iti siddhaus
.
adh¯ ani without ascribing it to the Khecar¯ı-
vidy¯ a, while at the ends of the first three pat
.
alas it reads iti ´sr¯ı ¯ adin ¯ athaviracite mah¯ ak ¯ ala-
yoga´s¯ astre khecary¯ am
.
prathamah
.
/dvit¯ıyah
.
/tr
.
t¯ıyah
.
pat
.
alah
.
. It seems likely that this fourth
pat
.
ala has been appended to the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, perhaps on the model of the Yogas¯ utra’s
fourth p¯ ada, which mentions aus
.
adhi in its first s¯ utra. Similarly, Dicaxnaii¯ı and Ju¯ a’s
edition of the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a contains a short fifth upade´sa, found in only a small
proportion of the witnesses, which details ways of curing physical imbalances through
breath-control and diet.
¡ï
Analysis of the witnesses thus indicates that the text probably existed in the follow-
¡o
In verse , the reading found in µ and K+ has been adopted, in which it is said that the yogin will
become a Khecara from eating a particular herbal preparation.
¡¬
The M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a does include the fourth pat
.
ala but it is found ten pat
.
alas after those that
correspond to the first three of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
¡ï
On the likelihood of M aSam
.
pat
.
ala :ï being the source of KhV pat
.
ala ¡ see footnote :¡.
It is on the strength of the KhV ’s fourth pat
.
ala, in which ïc–,b describes a preparation containing
mercury, sulphur, orpiment and realgar and verse :¡ describes a preparation containing mercury, that
Wuiri (:,,o::o,) has called the entire KhV “a paradigmatic text of the Siddha alchemical tradition”.
In the first three pat
.
alas there are two verses where it is said that alchemical siddhi s arise as a result of
perfection of the practice (:.oï and :.¬s), but other than that, there is nothing that could be described as
specifically alchemical. The bizarre practices described at :.¬:–¬, suggest an attempt to render external
alchemical practice redundant by effecting similar techniques within the realm of the body (see the notes
to the translation). The thesis of Wuiri’s work is that Rasa Siddhas (alchemists) and N¯ ath Siddhas
(hat
.
hayogins) “if they were not one and the same people, were at least closely linked in their practice”
(ibid.::c). It seems more likely that they were not “one and the same people” but that many of the
similarities in the terminology of their practices are due to the texts of both schools being couched in
the language and theory of earlier tantric texts. Wuiri himself suggests (ibid.:,¬–:c:) that Gorakhn¯ ath
brought together several disparate schools when he established the N¯ atha samprad¯ aya “as a great medieval
changing house of
´
Saiva and Siddha sectarianism” (ibid.::cc). None of the textual descriptions of the
trainee hat
.
hayogin’s abode suggests that it might be used as a laboratory (e.g. DY
´
S :c¬–:::, H P ::–:+) while
the peripatetic lifestyle of the perfected hat
.
ha adept is incompatible with the encumbrances of alchemical
experimentation. During my fieldwork, the hat
.
hayogins with whom I travelled would buy beads of fixed
mercury to wear in their jat
.
¯ a from Brahmin rasav ¯ adins who lived at the t¯ırthas through which the ascetics
passed on their annual pilgrimage cycle.
:ï Ixriooucriox
ing forms in the course of its development:
:. It first existed as part of a longer text, in the form of a chapter describing the
mantra (vidy¯ a) of Khecar¯ı. As such the text would probably have consisted of
the edition’s :.:–¡¡ and +.ss–o,.
¡,
:. This chapter was extracted from the larger text and the remaining verses found in
the edition’s first three pat
.
alas were added.
sc
These verses contain instructions
for the physical practice of khecar¯ımudr¯ a and were probably gathered from a
number of different sources.
s:
+. These three pat
.
alas were then redacted to remove the references to unorthodox
Kaula practices found in the M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a manuscripts.
¡. The fourth pat
.
ala, on magical potions, was added to the text.
Editorial Policy
The text has been presented in the form in which it is found in the KhV manuscripts.
It is in this form that the text enjoyed its greatest popularity and for which there is the
greatest amount of evidence. The composite nature of the text and the redaction it has
undergone have resulted in internal contradictions that must have been present since
at least the second stage outlined above. Rather than attempt the impossible task of
¡,
The section from +.ss to the end of pat
.
ala + would have been as it is found in the M aSam
.
manuscripts.
The original chapter describing the vidy¯ a of Khecar¯ı was probably the first chapter in the text from
which it was taken. Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a :.:–¡¡ contains several verses that emphasise the importance of the text
and the worship of the book in which it was written, giving the passage an introductory flavour. These
verses could themselves be later additions but they contain references to melaka, a goal of the practice of
the vidy¯ a that is mentioned only in the earliest layer of the text. One problem with this theory is the
inclusion of the Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a among the tantras listed at :.:¡c–:sb. This work does not contain a
description of a Khecar¯ı mantra but does describe the tongue practice. Perhaps the list originally included
the name of a different work and this was changed to Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a when the instructions for the
practice were added to the text.
sc
It is likely that at this stage the text was not divided into three pat
.
alas in the same way that it is in the
edition. Witness G has no chapter divisions, while the M aSam
.
manuscripts divide the pat
.
alas at different
places from the KhV manuscripts.
s:
The verses describing the practice have some internal contradictions and are unlikely to have been
composed together. See, for example: pat
.
ala +, in which vv. :–:¡, :s–::, :+–:sb, :sc–+:b and +:c–ssb are
different descriptions of similar practices; :.:c:c–:c:b, which mentions c¯ alana as one of the four stages of
the practice even though it is not mentioned in pat
.
ala : (see also footnote +¡¬); :.:c¬–::s and +.:+–:sb,
which use phrases common in other, more explicitly hat
.
hayogic texts (e.g. ¯ urdhvaretas, unman¯ı, ´s¯ unya,
sahaja yoga) but conspicuous by their absence elsewhere in the KhV ; :.ss, where the tongue ready for the
practice is said to be able to reach the top of the head, having passed the eyebrows several years earlier,
while at :.¬+ the siddhi s effected by the practice are said to arise between the eyebrows (cf. footnote ::¬).
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :,
creating a completely coherent text I am presenting it as an inherently flawed document
whose flaws tell the story of the development of both the text and hat
.
hayoga.
It has been impossible to adopt readings in the edition by means of the kind
of stemmatic analysis advocated by Wisr (:,¬+) and others. There is considerable
contamination between and within the witness groups to the extent that stemmatic
analysis is impossible.
s:
The following are some of the most glaring indicators of this
contamination:
• µ ← all other witnesses : :.++c–+sb is found after :.s+d in all witnesses. It is
only found at :.++c–+sb in µ, which has the passage twice. It seems that it was
originally at :.++c–+sb but was then mistakenly put after :.s+d and this mistake
found its way into the µ manuscripts through conflation of sources.
• µ ← the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a witnesses : these witnesses have n ¯ abhi˚ at :.¡ca as opposed
to G’s correct li ˙ nga˚. Cf. :.,:a.
• α ↔ β : as mentioned above, Ball¯ ala mentions alternative readings in his
commentary. These can all be found in α and β.
• µ ↔α
+
: e.g. :.oa abhy¯ as¯ al, :.,d sam
.
sr
.
ti, :.:,d vadet, :.¬¡b praj¯ıvati, ¡.od labhet.
• K
:
PJ
+
F ↔ γ : these witnesses omit :.,cd–,:a, +.+c and ¡.¡ab.
• K
¡
← µGα : K
¡
, uniquely among the witnesses of β and γ, has the reading
abhedyah
.
found in µGα at :.:,a.
• N ↔ J
:
R : these witnesses omit :.:c¬.
• α
:
↔ K
:
: these witnessees omit :.sb–oa.
• α
+
↔ K
:
↔ γ : these witnesses omit +.socd.
As Wiirzxaxx (:,¬¬:::,) has observed, in a contaminated tradition the true
reading can easily survive in just one witness, so the merit of each individual variant
has been the criterion for its selection.
s+
As stated above, the text as found in the KhV
manuscripts has been used as a blueprint, but where a variant reading from µ, G, or
U improves the text without conflicting with the ideological standpoint of the KhV
manuscripts, it has been adopted.

I shall now describe how the witnesses other than the KhV manuscripts have been
used to establish the text.
s:
Only G shows no definite evidence of contamination.
s+
Where there are two or more equally acceptable readings it is usually that found in the greatest
number of witnesses that has been adopted.

Nowhere in the edition has a reading found only in T been adopted.
:c Ixriooucriox
Where a plausible alternative can be found among the other witnesses, the readings
of U have not been adopted. This is because U has undergone the most redaction so
its variant readings are the least likely to be original. At :.ocd, however, its reading has
been adopted since it is the only one of which I can make any sense. There are two
other places (:.+ïc, :.s:a) where the upanis
.
ad’s reading has been adopted over those of
all the other witnesses.
Examples have been given above of how µ and G often preserve better readings
than the other witnesses. Where these are straightforward improvements to the text
they have been adopted. Where their variants in the KhV manuscripts show signs
of doctoring for ideological reasons they have not. Thus, in the example already
given of µ’s pavanam for the KhV manuscripts’ pa˜ ncamam at +.:¡a, pavanam has been
adopted. Similarly, the verse found at :.o, in µ and G, which is missing from the
KhV manuscripts, is adopted. On the other hand, the passage at +.s¬–o, is presented
as it is found in the KhV manuscripts despite µ’s version being original and more
coherent. Verses in which I have considered doctrine more important than originality
include :.+, (˚bh ¯ utalayo bhavet for ˚bh ¯ utajayam
.
labhet ), :.sc (yoginah
.
for yoginyah
.
), :.¬:
(t ¯ alu˚ for bh¯ ala˚), +.:: (sad¯ amr
.
tatanuh
.
for par¯ amr
.
tatanuh
.
) and +.+: (nityadehamayam for
tyaktv ¯ a deham imam).
On matters such as how long a technique should be practised or how long it takes
to produce results the readings of µ and G have usually been adopted if they differ
from those of the KhV manuscripts. This approach could of course be flawed—the
redactors of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a may have altered practical details as a result of first-hand
observation.
My reliance on the quality of individual variants as the criterion for their adoption
gives me considerable editorial license. Where I feel that my reasons for adopting a
particular variant may not be entirely clear I have explained them in the footnotes to
the translation.
Language and Metre
Language
The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a is written in simple Sanskrit, similar to that of other tantric and
hat
.
hayogic works. Ai´sa peculiarities are common, more so in µ than in the KhV
manuscripts, in which the ai´sa forms found in µ have often been corrected. In general,
I have only included those peculiarities which are found in the text as constituted or
in µ.
ss
ss
In compiling this list of ai´sa peculiarities I have used that given by Goooaii (:,,s:xxiv), which he
in turn drew from a list compiled by Professor Sanderson.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ::
plural declined as singular
¡.¬a pa˜ ncam ¯ asena.
neuters declined as masculines in dual and plural
:.s,d sth¯ an ¯ ah
.
; :.::cb phal¯ an.
masculine singular becoming neuter singular
:.¡d tadabhy¯ asam
.
ca durlabham (µ only); :.sa abhy¯ asam;
so
:.s¡b, :.ssb abhy¯ asam;
:.ï,a, :.::¡c bhedam; :.:c¬c sam
.
gamam; +.:¡d yogam; +.¡¡a k ¯ alam; +.s,c na
sidhyati mah¯ ayogam (µ only); +.oïa etad yogam
.
may¯ akhy¯ atam (µ only).
neuter singular becoming masculine singular
:.::¬a divyadar´sanah
.
.
neuter singular becoming feminine singular
:.¬¬b adhar¯ a.
dual - ¯ abhy¯ am for -ayoh
.
:.,sc karn
.
¯ abhy¯ am.
-in stem declined as -i stem (metri causae)
:.oc parames
.
t
.
h¯ın ¯ am.
substantive for adjective
:.+,c, +.::d ´sivas¯ amyah
.
; ¡.+c mah¯ am ¯ arutas¯ amyavegah
.
.
lyap for ktv¯ a
:.+¬a tatrastham amr
.
tam
.
gr
.
hya (µ only); after +.o:b t ¯ as¯ am ekatam ¯ am
.
gr
.
hya (µ
only).
ktv¯ a for lyap
:.¬ca sam
.
p¯ıtv ¯ a.
active verb with causative sense
:.::+d vi´set ; +.:a pravi´sya; +.+a pravi´set.
incorrect verb-forms
:.¡od, :.¡¬d samucchinet ; :.s:a kramati ; :.s¬b pravi´syati ; :.scc samup¯ asante;
:.,od ´sr
.
n
.
utv ¯ a (µ only); :.::cb labhati ; +.+,b grasat¯ım.
consonant stem becomes vowel stem for purposes of sandhi
:.ocb ´sirordhve; +.ï jyotir ¯ upin
.
¯ı.
so
This reading is corrected to abhy¯ asah
.
in MFB and I have adopted the corrected form in the edition.
:: Ixriooucriox
incorrect sandhi
:.:oc asmin tantravare;

:.:ïd vikhy¯ at ¯ a ’maravandite;

:.::cb phal¯ an labhati.
awkward syntax
:.ïcd tad¯ a tat siddhim ¯ apnoti yad uktam
.
´s¯ astrasam
.
tatau ; :.¬:cd dambhakaut
.
ilya-
nirat ¯ as tes
.
¯ am
.
´s¯ astram
.
na d¯ apayet.
s,
Metre
The first three pat
.
alas of the text were composed in anus
.
t
.
ubh metre. In pat
.
ala ¡, verses
:, s–, and ::–:¡ are in anus
.
t
.
ubh, : is in vasantatilak ¯ a, + and :c are in upaj ¯ ati and ¡
is in sragdhar¯ a. As I have presented it, the text contains the following vipul¯ as in the
anus
.
t
.
ubh verses:
na-vipul¯ a [:¬ in total]: :.sc, :cc, occ, ¬oc, ¬¬a; :.ïa, ¡cc, ¡¬c, sïa, s,a, o+a, ¬:c; +.¡a,
::a, +ca, +¬a, ooa.
bha-vipul¯ a [s]: :.s:a; :.,ca, ::oa; +.:c; ¡.,a.
ma-vipul¯ a [o]: :.+¡c, o:c; :.:+a, ¡+c, ::¡c; +.:sa.
ra-vipul¯ a [:]: :.:::a; +.+sc.

This reading is found corrected to asmim
.
s tantravare in N.

This reading is found in Sβγ and is an attempt to alter vikhy¯ at ¯ a v¯ıravandite, the reading found in
µα+ which has been adopted in the edition.
s,
This anacoluthon is found repaired in G.
The H at
.
hayogic Khecar¯ımudr¯ a
This chapter starts with a survey of textual evidence for practices related to the hat
.
ha-
yogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a before the composition of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
oc
This is followed by
an examination of the nexus of ideas that surrounds the practice as it is described in
hat
.
hayogic texts. In the next section ethnographic data is drawn on to see how and
why khecar¯ımudr¯ a is practised today. The chapter finishes with a brief look at those
who practised the technique in the past and those who practise it today.
Forerunners of the hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr ¯ a
The Pali Canon
A practice which has elements of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s khecar¯ımudr¯ a is described in three
passages in the Buddhist Pali Canon. In one passage the practice is condemned by
the Buddha while in the other two it is praised. It is condemned in the M ah¯ asaccaka-
sutta (M ajjhima N ik ¯ aya I, Book ,, pp.:¡:–:¡o). The Buddha has been questioned
by Saccaka, a Jaina who is also called Aggivessana, about k ¯ ayabh¯ avan ¯ a, “development
of the body”, and cittabh¯ avan ¯ a, “development of the mind”. In his reply the Buddha
describes his attempts to control his mind with physical practices including the pressing
of the tongue against the palate before describing further attempts involving app¯ anaka
jh¯ ana, “non-breathing meditation”, and fasting. The passage runs as follows:
o:
oc
This survey of texts is of course by no means exhaustive. There is undoubtedly more material to be
unearthed. The most fruitful area for research is likely to be the texts of tantric
´
Saivism.
o:
tassa mayham
.
aggivessana etad ahosi | yan n ¯ un ¯ aham
.
dantehi dantam ¯ adh¯ aya jivh¯ aya t ¯ alum
.
¯ ahacca cetas¯ a
cittam
.
abhiniggan
.
heyyam
.
abhinipp¯ıl
.
eyyam
.
abhisant ¯ apeyyan ti | so kho aham
.
aggivessana dantehi dantam
¯ adh¯ aya jivh¯ aya t ¯ alum
.
¯ ahacca cetas¯ a cittam
.
abhiniggan
.
h¯ ami abhinipp¯ıl
.
emi abhisant ¯ apemi | tassa mayham
.
aggivessana dantehi dantam ¯ adh¯ aya jivh¯ aya t ¯ alum
.
¯ ahacca cetas¯ a cittam
.
abhiniggan
.
hato abhinipp¯ıl
.
ayato
abhisant ¯ apayato kacchehi sed¯ a muccanti | seyyath¯ a pi aggivessana balav ¯ a puriso dubbalataram
.
purisam
.
s¯ıse
v ¯ a gahetv ¯ a khandhe v ¯ a gahetv ¯ a abhiniggan
.
heyya abhinip¯ıl
.
eyya abhisant ¯ apeyya evam eva kho me aggivessana
dantehi dantam ¯ adh¯ aya jivh¯ aya t ¯ alum
.
¯ ahacca cetas¯ a cittam
.
abhiniggan
.
hato abhinipp¯ıl
.
ayato abhisant ¯ apayato
kacchehi sed¯ a muccanti | ¯ araddham
.
kho pana me aggivessana viriyam
.
hoti asall¯ınam
.
upat
.
t
.
hit ¯ a sati asammu-
t
.
t
.
h¯ a s¯ araddho ca pana me k ¯ ayo hoti appat
.
ippasaddho ten’eva dukkhappadh¯ anena padh¯ an ¯ abhitunnassa sato
:+
:¡ Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
“Then, Aggivessana, this occurred to me: ‘Suppose now that I clench
my teeth, press my palate with my tongue and restrain, suppress and
torment my mind with my mind.’ So, indeed, Aggivessana, I clenched
my teeth, pressed my palate with my tongue and restrained, suppressed
and tormented my mind with my mind. Aggivessana, as I clenched my
teeth, pressed my palate with my tongue and restrained, suppressed and
tormented my mind with my mind, sweat came from my armpits. Just as
when, Aggivessana, a strong man, taking hold of a weaker man by the head
or shoulders, restrains, suppresses and torments him, so when I clenched
my teeth, pressed my palate with my tongue and restrained, suppressed
and tormented my mind with my mind, sweat came from my armpits.
But although, Aggivessana, unsluggish energy arose in me and unmuddled
mindfulness came about, my body was impetuous, not calmed, while I
was troubled by that painful exertion. And indeed, Aggivessana, such a
painful feeling, when it arose in me, remained without taking over my
mind. Then, Aggivessana, this occurred to me: ‘Suppose I meditate the
non-breathing meditation’. . . ”
He goes on to hold his breath until he is afflicted by terrible headaches, strong
winds in the stomach and a great heat that is like being roasted over burning coal. He
then tries fasting until the skin of his belly touches his backbone, he falls over from
fainting, his hair falls out and, finally, he loses his fair complexion. At this point he
declares:
o:
“Then, Aggivessana, this occurred to me: ‘The ascetics or Brahmans of
the past who experienced painful, sharp [and] severe sensations due to
[self-inflicted] torture [experienced] this much at most, not more than
this. And those ascetics or Brahmans who in the future will experience
painful, sharp [and] severe sensations due to [self-inflicted] torture [will
experience] this much at most, not more than this. And those ascetics
or Brahmans who in the present experience painful, sharp [and] severe
sensations due to [self-inflicted] torture [experience] this much at most,
not more than this. But I indeed, by means of this severe and difficult
| evam
.
r ¯ up¯ a pi kho me aggivessana uppann ¯ a dukkh¯ a vedan ¯ a cittam
.
na pariy¯ ad¯ aya tit
.
t
.
hati | tassa mayham
aggivessana etad ahosi | yan n ¯ un ¯ aham
.
app¯ anakam
.
jh¯ anam
.
jh¯ ayeyyan ti. . . (p.:¡: l.:+–p.:¡+ l.s).
o:
tassa mayham
.
aggivessana etad ahosi | ye kho keci at¯ıtam
.
addh¯ anam
.
saman
.
¯ a v ¯ a br¯ ahman
.
¯ a v ¯ a opakkamik ¯ a
dukkh¯ a tipp¯ a kat
.
uk ¯ a vedan ¯ a vedayim
.
su et ¯ avaparamam
.
nayito bhiyyo | ye pi hi keci an ¯ agatam addh¯ anam
.
sama-
n
.
¯ a v ¯ a br¯ ahman
.
¯ a v ¯ a opakkamik ¯ a dukkh¯ a tipp¯ a kat
.
uk ¯ a vedan ¯ a vedayissanti et ¯ avaparamam
.
nayito bhiyyo | ye
pi hi keci etarahi saman
.
¯ a v ¯ a br¯ ahman
.
¯ a v ¯ a opakkamik ¯ a dukkh¯ a tipp¯ a kat
.
uk ¯ a vedan ¯ a vediyanti et ¯ avaparamam
.
nayito bhiyyo | na kho pan ¯ aham
.
imay¯ a kat
.
uk ¯ aya dukkarak ¯ arik ¯ aya adhigacch¯ ami uttarim
.
manussadhamm ¯ a
alamariy¯ a˜ n ¯ an
.
adassanavisesam
.
| siy¯ a nu kho a˜ n ˜ no maggo bodh¯ ay¯ ati |(p.:¡o ll.:c–+c).
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :s
practice, do not attain to greater excellence in noble knowledge and insight
which transcends the human condition. Could there be another path to
enlightenment?”
The Buddha is here clearly condemning the ascetic practices that he has undertaken.
However, in the following passage from the Vitakkasanth¯ anasutta (M ajjhima N ik ¯ a-
ya I, book ,, pp. ::c–:::), after being asked about adhicitta, “higher thought”, he
recommends the practice that we have just seen dismissed:
o+
“Then if, monks, a monk concentrates on the thought function and the
nature of those thoughts, but there still arise in him sinful and unskilled
thoughts associated with desire, aversion and confusion, then, monks,
he should clench his teeth, press his palate with his tongue and restrain,
suppress and torment his mind with his mind. Then, when he clenches
his teeth, presses his palate with his tongue and restrains, suppresses and
torments his mind with his mind, those sinful and unskilled thoughts as-
sociated with desire, aversion and confusion are got rid of, they disappear.
By getting rid of these the mind turns inward, becomes calm, one-pointed
and focussed.”
In the Suttanip¯ ata (p.:+ï, vv.¬:o–¬:ï) when asked to explain monam, “sagehood”,
the Buddha says:

“[The sage] should be [as sharp] as a razor blade. Pressing his palate with
his tongue he should be restrained with respect to his stomach. He should
not have an inactive mind nor should he think too much. [He should be]
without taint, independent and intent on the holy life. He should learn
the practices of solitude and serving ascetics. Solitude is called sagehood.
Solitary you will indeed be delighted and shine forth in the ten directions.”
o+
tassa ce bhikkave bhikkuno tesam pi vitakk ¯ anam
.
vitakkasa˙ nkh¯ arasanth¯ anam
.
manasikaroto uppajjant’eva
p¯ apak ¯ a akusal¯ a vitakk ¯ a chand ¯ upasam
.
hit ¯ a pi dos¯ upasam
.
hit ¯ a pi moh ¯ upasam
.
hit ¯ a pi tena bhikkhave bhikkhun ¯ a
dantehi dantam ¯ adh¯ aya jivh¯ aya t ¯ alum
.
¯ ahacca cetas¯ a cittam
.
abhiniggan
.
hitabbam
.
abhinipp¯ıl
.
etabbam
.
abhi-
sant ¯ apetabbam
.
| tassa dantehi dantam ¯ adh¯ aya jivh¯ aya t ¯ alum
.
¯ ahacca cetas¯ a cittam
.
abhiniggan
.
hato abhini-
pp¯ıl
.
ayato abhisant ¯ apayato ye p¯ apak ¯ a akusal¯ a vitakk ¯ a chand ¯ upasam
.
hit ¯ a pi dos¯ upasam
.
hit ¯ a pi moh ¯ upasam
.
hit ¯ a
pi te pah¯ıyanti te abbhattham
.
gacchanti | tesam
.
pah¯ an ¯ a ajjhatam eva cittam
.
santit
.
t
.
hati sannis¯ıdati ekodihoti
sam ¯ adhiyati |

. . . khuradh¯ ar ¯ upamo bhave |
jivh¯ aya t ¯ alum
.
¯ ahacca udare sa˜ n ˜ nato siy¯ a |
al¯ anacitto ca siy¯ a na c¯ api bahu cintaye |
nir¯ amagandho asito brahmacariyapar¯ ayano |
ek ¯ asanassa sikkhetha saman
.
op¯ asanassa ca |
ekattam
.
monam akkh¯ atam
.
eko ve ’bhiramissasi |
atha bh¯ asihi dasa dis¯ a |
:o Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
The Paramatthajotik ¯ a commentary on this passage describes the pressing of the
palate with the tongue as a means of overcoming thirst and hunger. This is echoed
both in medieval hat
.
hayogic texts,
os
and by contemporary Indian yogins who say that
the hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a enables extended yogic practice by removing the need to
eat or drink.
Now this is not the place to add to the already considerable debate over the incon-
sistencies of the Pali Canon by investigating whether or not this technique was indeed
practised or approved of by the Buddha. For our purposes it is enough to conclude
that these passages provide evidence that an ascetic technique involving the pressing
of the tongue against the palate (but not its insertion above the palate) was current at
the time of the composition of the Pali canon and that this practice had two aims: the
control of the mind and the suppression of hunger and thirst.
oo
Early Sanskrit Texts
The earliest Sanskrit reference that I have found to a practice similar to the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s
khecar¯ımudr¯ a is in the Vis
.
n
.
usmr
.
ti. Diiiirr (:,¬+:+:) describes this dharma´s¯ astric text
as “a puzzle”, standing “between the thought-world of Manu and that of the Vais
.
n
.
ava
Pur¯ an
.
as”. Kaxi (:,oï: vol.:.: p.::s) believes the text to consist of two layers, a prose
nucleus composed between +cc and :ccnci, and a later verse layer, added between ¡cc
and occci. The following passage (,¬.:) comes at the beginning of a prose section on
dhy¯ ana:

“With the feet placed on the thighs and facing upwards, with the right
hand placed in the left, with the tongue unmoving and placed at the
palate, not touching the teeth together, looking at the tip of his nose and
not looking around, fearless and calm, he should think of that which
is beyond the twenty-four elements....And for him who is devoted to
meditation yoga manifests within a year.”
Here the practice involving the tongue has no explicit purpose but is just one of
various physical postures to be adopted by the meditator.
The next passage is from the M aitr¯ ayan
.
¯ıya Upanis
.
ad. This work is a later upanis
.
ad
but its date is uncertain. In his edition of the text, Vax Buirixix makes no attempt
at dating it. He does however distinguish between an early layer of the text and later
os
e.g. G
´
SN os,
´
SS s.¡+. See also KhV :.:c¬ and footnote +s¬.
oo
The earliest date for the composition of the Pali canon that we can confidently assert is the last
quarter of the first century nci. See e.g. Scuoiix :,,¬::+–:s.

¯ urusthott ¯ anacaran
.
ah
.
savye kare karam itaram
.
nyasya t ¯ alusth¯ acalajihvo dantair dant ¯ an asam
.
spr
.
´san svam
.
n ¯ asik ¯ agram
.
pa´syan di´sa´s c¯ anavalokayan vibh¯ıh
.
pra´s¯ ant ¯ atm ¯ a caturvim
.
´saty¯ a tattvair vyat¯ıtam
.
cintayet 1...
dhy¯ ananiratasya ca sam
.
vatsaren
.
a yog¯ avirbh¯ avo bhavati o
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¬
interpolations, and includes the following passage among the interpolations (:,o::ïs).
The mention of the sus
.
umn ¯ a n ¯ ad
.
¯ı shows that the passage has been influenced by tantric
physiology; it may be no older than the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
At o.:ï yoga has been described as s
.
ad
.
a˙ nga, consisting of pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama, praty¯ ah¯ a-
ra, dhy¯ ana, dh¯ aran
.
¯ a, tarka and sam ¯ adhi. The following passage (o.:c–::) concerns
dh¯ aran
.
¯ a:

“Elsewhere it has also been said: Next is the ultimate fixing of [the object
of dhy¯ ana]. By pressing the tip of the tongue and the palate [and there]by
checking speech, mind and breath [the yogin] sees Brahman through
consideration (tarken
.
a). When, after the termination of mental activity
[the yogin] sees the ¯ atman by means of the ¯ atman, more minute than an
atom and shining, then having seen the ¯ atman by means of the ¯ atman he
becomes without ¯ atman. Because of his being without ¯ atman he is to be
conceived of as without thought, without origin; this is the definition of
liberation. That is the ultimate mystery. For it is said thus:
‘For by calmness of the mind he destroys good and bad action.
Happy and abiding in the ¯ atman he attains eternal bliss.’
Elsewhere it has also been said: The upward-flowing channel called
sus
.
umn ¯ a carries the breath and ends in the palate. By way of this [chan-
nel] which is joined with Om and the mind, the breath moves upward.
Turning the tip [of the tongue] back over the palate and restraining the
sense-organs greatness looks upon greatness. Then he becomes without
¯ atman. Through being without ¯ atman he does not partake of pleasure or
pain and attains isolation.”
Here the technique of turning the tongue back onto the palate seems to serve a
similar purpose to that found in the first two Pali passages, namely that of controlling
the activity of the mind. It is also connected with the raising of the breath by way of
the sus
.
umn ¯ a n ¯ ad
.
¯ı.

ath¯ anyatr¯ apy uktam
.
| atha par¯ asya dh¯ aran
.
¯ a | t ¯ alurasan ¯ agra(˚¯ agra˚ ] em. Isaacsox axo Goooaii; ˚¯ agre
Ed)nip¯ıd
.
an ¯ ad v ¯ a˙ nmanah
.
pr¯ an
.
anirodhan ¯ ad brahma tarken
.
a pa´syati | yad¯ atman ¯ atm ¯ anam an
.
or an
.
¯ıy¯ am
.
sam
.
dyotam ¯ anam
.
manah
.
ks
.
ay¯ at pa´syati tad¯ atman ¯ atm ¯ anam
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v ¯ a nir¯ atm ¯ a bhavati | nir¯ atmakatv ¯ ad asam
.
khyo
’yoni´s cintyo moks
.
alaks
.
an
.
am iti | tat param
.
rahasyam iti | evam
.
hy ¯ aha
cittasya hi pras¯ adena hanti karma ´subh¯ a´subham |
prasann ¯ atm ¯ atmani sthitv ¯ a sukham avyayam a´snute (a´snute ] corr.; a´snut ¯ a Ed) iti :c
ath¯ anyatr¯ apy uktam | ¯ urdhvag¯ a nad
.
¯ı sus
.
umn ¯ akhy¯ a pr¯ an
.
asam
.
c¯ arin
.
¯ı t ¯ alv antar vicchinn ¯ a | tay¯ a pr¯ an
.
a
(pr¯ an
.
a ] em.; pr¯ an
.
¯ a Ed) om
.
k ¯ aramanoyuktayordhvam utkramet | t ¯ alv adhy agram
.
parivartya cendriy¯ an
.
i
sam
.
yojya mahim ¯ a mahim ¯ anam
.
nir¯ıks
.
eta | tato nir¯ atmakatvam eti | nir¯ atmakatv ¯ an na sukhaduh
.
khabh¯ ag
bhavati kevalatvam
.
labhate (labhate ] corr.; labhat ¯ a Ed) iti |
:ï Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
The Pali and Sanskrit passages cited above provide evidence (albeit rather scant)
that a meditational practice involving pressing the tongue to the palate was known and
used by Indian ascetics as early as the time of the composition of the Pali canon. The
practice as described in these texts is however very different from the khecar¯ımudr¯ a of
the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, being merely its bare bones. We must turn to the texts of tantric
´
Saivism for the flesh.
Texts of Tantric
´
Saivism
o,
Averse from the yogap¯ ada of the Kiran
.
atantra describes in brief a practice similar to that
described in the M aitr¯ ayan
.
¯ıya Upanis
.
ad (which may well postdate the Kiran
.
atantra):
¬c
“Holding the breath and, while trembling (sasphuram ?), contracting the
throat, by means of the conjunction of the tongue and palate there is
instant rising [of the breath].”
Both this and the M aitr¯ ayan
.
¯ıya Upanis
.
ad passage describe a precursor of the idea
found in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a and other hat
.
hayogic texts that the insertion of the tongue
into the palate results in the raising of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı.
¬:
The later tantric and hat
.
hayogic
emphasis on the raising of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı is not found in early works of tantric
´
Saivism
such as the Kiran
.
atantra, where the emphasis is on the raising of the breath through
the central channel.
We now turn to five passages from texts that are products of possession-based Yogin¯ı
cults or their Kaula derivatives. These passages describe methods of conquering death
by drinking amr
.
ta, “non-death”. Similar techniques are described elsewhere in tantric
o,
The absence of a fixed lower limit for the date of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a makes it impossible to prove that
these
´
Saiva works predate it. However, it is a chronology of ideas that is important here. The khecar¯ımudr¯ a
of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a combines elements of the tantric
´
Saiva physical practices described in this section with
the non-physical tantric khecar¯ımudr¯ a described in the following section in a way that is not found in
these tantric works. The khecar¯ımudr¯ a of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a must postdate its individual elements as found
in these texts. (It seems very likely too that the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a does postdate these works: the latest of them
(see footnote ,o) are the Kubjik ¯ amatatantra and the Kularatnoddyota, early works of the Pa´scim¯ amn¯ aya
in which the system of six cakras is found for the first time (see KM T pat
.
alas ::–:+ and footnote ¡::).
This system is found well developed in the Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a, a work mentioned at KhV :.:o.)
¬c
KT s,.+¡c–+sb:
kumbhakam
.
tu tatah
.
kr
.
tv ¯ a kan
.
t
.
ham ¯ ap¯ıd
.
ya sasphuram +¡
jihv ¯ at ¯ alusam ¯ ayog¯ at tatks
.
an
.
otkraman
.
am
.
bhavet |
The verse is as found in the Mysore codex (University of Mysore, Oriental Research Institute MS P
:ïs/ :c). At +¡d, the Nepalese MS of c.,:¡ci (NAK s-ï,+; NGMPP Reel No. A ¡c/ +) has kr
.
tam ¯ avi´sya
tatput
.
am.
¬:
E.g. Brahmavidyopanis
.
ad ¬+–¬¡. See also footnote ::ï.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :,
´
Saiva works but in these the yogin is instructed to visualise the body being flooded
with the amr
.
ta rather than to drink it.
¬:
The first of these passages is from the mudr¯ as
.
at
.
ka of the Jayadrathay¯ amala. It is a
description of a yogic karan
.
a called antarjala and comes in the middle of a long passage
describing several other such karan
.
as.
¬+
These are all extremely obscure and the text is
corrupt in several places. However the passage contains one of the earliest references to
a yogic practice in which the tongue is definitely placed in the hollow above the palate
and which links the practice with the drinking of amr
.
ta. The previous twenty verses
describe a technique of breath-retention by which the yogin can flood his body with
amr
.
ta and then increase the duration of the retention to attain various magical powers
and worlds. The passage runs thus:
¬¡
“[The s¯ adhaka] should drink that nectar of the stream which is milked
as if from a cow’s udders. Satiated by that amr
.
ta he [becomes] free from
wrinkles and grey hair....When the tongue has reached the head of Vis
.
-
¬:
References to these other passages can be found later in this chapter where the “corporealisation” of
subtle visualisation techniques into gross physical practices is explored in detail.
¬+
The tantric
´
Saiva karan
.
as become known as mudr¯ as in the texts of hat
.
hayoga. H P :.so describes the
stages of hat
.
ha[-yoga] and has mudr¯ akhyam
.
karan
.
am as the third stage. Ball¯ ala (BKhP f. +¬v
7
), explaining
H P ¡.:c, glosses karan
.
am
.
with mudr¯ a. Sixcu (:,¬,:++) quotes (without reference) a definition of karan
.
a:
karan
.
am
.
dehasannive´savi´ses
.
¯ atm ¯ a mudr¯ adivy¯ ap¯ arah
.
and translates it with “disposition of the limbs of the
body in a particular way, usually known as mudr¯ a i.e. control of certain organs and senses that helps in
concentration”. Similarly, AY :c uses karan
.
a as a synonym of mudr¯ a. The headstand (or shoulderstand)
is known as vipar¯ıtam
.
karan
.
am or vipar¯ıtakaran
.
¯ı in hat
.
hayogic texts: see e.g. G
´
SN :+s, H P +.o, +.¬o–¬ï.
¬¡
JRY Bhairav ¯ ananavidhi Bh ¯ umik ¯ apat
.
ala :s+c–:o:b (f.:,+v–f.:,¡r):
pibed dh¯ ar¯ amr
.
tam
.
tac ca yad dugdham
.
gostanair iva :s+
ten ¯ amr
.
tena tr
.
ptas tu val¯ıpalitavarjitah
.
|
vis
.
n
.
umastakasam
.
pr¯ apt ¯ a rasan ¯ a ´s¯ unyasam
.
game :so
¯ıs
.
atspar´savivarj ¯ a tu t ¯ alurandhragat ¯ a tath¯ a |
dvijaca˜ ncuput
.
aprakhyam
.
vaktram
.
kr
.
tv ¯ a tath¯ a dvija :s¬
uddhr
.
tya tad anu spar´sam
.
y¯ avad bh¯ avam
.
sthir¯ıgatam |
(194r) dr
.
d
.
habh¯ avagato yog¯ı svastham
.
plavam av ¯ apnuy¯ at :sï
tatrasthasya ca vi´sr¯ am ¯ ad gandhadvayavic¯ aran
.
¯ at |
par¯ amr
.
tam
.
prasravati ´s¯ unyendurasan ¯ ahatam :s,
tad¯ asv ¯ aditacidr ¯ upam ¯ urdhvam
.
gacchaty a´sa˙ nkitam |
kau ˜ ncikotp¯ at
.
anam
.
hy es
.
a ´siva´saktisam ¯ agamah
.
:oc
†´sivavy¯ aptikr
.
tody¯ anam
.
plutocc¯ arordhvadr
.
kkriyah
.
† |
lalan ¯ at ¯ aluke yojya spanda´saktiyutam
.
dadet :o:
kan
.
t
.
hotthat ¯ aluvivaram
.
y¯ avad dv ¯ ada´sabh ¯ umik ¯ ah
.
|
ij¿c dh¯ ar¯ a˚ ] conj. Saxoiisox; v¯ ara˚ cod ij6c˚sam
.
pr¯ apt ¯ a ] em.; ˚sam
.
pr¯ apta cod ij~c
dvijaca˜ ncuput
.
a˚ ] em. Saxoiisox; dvikacum
.
cuput
.
a cod i6oc kau ˜ nciko˚ ] em. Saxoiisox;
krau ˜ nciko˚ cod
+c Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
n
.
u, on union with the void it enters the aperture of the palate without
even slightly touching [the side]. Then, o Brahman, making the mouth
like the hollow beak of a bird and then holding that sensation until [his]
condition becomes steady, the yogin in the steady state floats comfortably.
As a result of the relaxation of [the yogin] there and consideration of the
two smells (?), the supreme nectar flows forth, struck by the tongue at
the moon of the void. That which has the form of consciousness having
tasted that [amr
.
ta] assuredly moves upwards. This conjunction of
´
Siva
and
´
Sakti is the uprooting of the Key goddess.
¬s
†[The conjunction] in
which the power of sight is above the pronunciation of an extended vowel
is a garden created by the all-pervasiveness of
´
Siva.† Joining the tongue
and the palate, [the yogin] joins the aperture of the palate above the throat
with the energy of vibration up to the twelve levels.”
Although there are many difficulties in this passage it is clearly the closest we have
come so far to the khecar¯ımudr¯ a of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
¬o
As in the M aitr¯ ayan
.
¯ıyopanis
.
ad and Kiran
.
atantra passages, the placing of the tongue
at the palate is connected with the raising of the breath (at :oca, cidr ¯ upam, “that which
has the form of consciousness”, is the breath).
The next passage is from the M ¯ alin¯ıvijayottaratantra:
¬¬
¬s
Professor Sanderson conjecturally emended krau ˜ nciko˚ to kau ˜ nciko˚ on semantic grounds, with the
support of KM T ï.¬+d ku ˜ ncikodgh¯ at
.
ayed bilam and parallel metaphors found in the
´
Sr¯ıp¯ıt
.
hadv ¯ ada´sik ¯ a
(NAK s.+sï ff.,+v–,sr: verse s) and the K¯ al¯ıkulakramasadbh¯ ava (NAK :-¬o: :.ï¬ab). (Professor Sanderson
has similarly emended JRY :.¡s.:ï¡b kru ˜ ncikodgh¯ at
.
amatratam to ku ˜ ncikodgh¯ at
.
am ¯ atratah
.
and Yogin¯ısam
.
c¯ a-
raprakaran
.
a (part of the JRY ’s third s
.
at
.
ka) :.+:b kru ˜ ncikodgh¯ at
.
am to ku ˜ ncikodgh¯ at
.
am. The JRY passage
describes the Alam
.
gr¯ asa stage in the yoga of the v ¯ amasrotas while the Yogin¯ısam
.
c¯ araprakaran
.
a passage lists
names of works with titles echoing the names of the phases of the JRY ’s v ¯ amasrotas yogas.) At M aSam
.
:¬.ïc Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı is called both cidr ¯ up¯ a (cf. JRY Bhairav ¯ ananavidhi Bh ¯ umik ¯ apat
.
ala :oca) and ku ˜ ncik ¯ a.
Cf. M aSam
.
:ï.+ca.
¬o
This passage has linguistic parallels in the KhV. Compare JRY :.:s¬cd with KhV :.¬¡ab: k ¯ akaca˜ n-
cuput
.
am
.
vaktram
.
kr
.
tv ¯ a tadamr
.
tam
.
pibet, “making the mouth like the open beak of a crow, [the yogin]
should drink the amr
.
ta therein” (see also footnote :¡ï) and :.:s,a with KhV +.¡:ab: par¯ amr
.
tamah¯ a-
mbhodhau vi´sr¯ amam
.
samyag ¯ acaret, “[The tongue] should duly relax in the great ocean of the supreme
amr
.
ta.”
¬¬
M VUT ::.:–ï:
ath¯ atah
.
paramam
.
guhyam
.
´sivaj ˜ n ¯ an ¯ amr
.
tottamam |
vy¯ adhimr
.
tyuvin ¯ a´s¯ aya yogin ¯ am
.
upavarn
.
yate :
s
.
od
.
a´s¯ are khage cakre candrakalpitakarn
.
ike |
svar ¯ upen
.
a par¯ am
.
tatra sravant¯ım amr
.
tam
.
smaret :
p¯ urvany¯ asena sam
.
naddhah
.
ks
.
an
.
am ekam
.
vicaks
.
an
.
ah
.
|
tatas tu rasan ¯ am
.
n¯ıtv ¯ a lambake viniyojayet +
sravantam amr
.
tam
.
divyam
.
candrabimb¯ at sitam
.
smaret |
mukham ¯ ap¯ uryate tasya kim
.
cil lavan
.
av ¯ arin
.
¯ a ¡
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a +:
“And now the supreme secret, the acme of the amr
.
ta of
´
Siva’s gnosis
is described for the destruction of disease and death in yogins. [The
yogin] should visualise Par¯ a in her own form flowing as amr
.
ta in the
sixteen-spoked wheel in the void, whose centre is formed by the moon.
Armed with the previously[-described] ny¯ asa, for an instant (?) the wise
[yogin] should then lead his tongue to the uvula and insert it [there].
He should visualise the flowing divine amr
.
ta, whiter than the orb of the
moon. Should his mouth fill with a slightly salty liquid that smells of
iron then he should not drink it but spit it out. He should practise
thus until [the liquid] becomes sweet-tasting. Drinking it, within six
months he effortlessly becomes free of decrepitude and disease; after a
year he becomes a conqueror of death. Once it has become sweet-tasting
thenceforth his mouth fills up with whatever substance he, with focussed
mind, visualises in it, such as blood, alcohol or fat or milk or ghee and oil
etc., or [any] flowing substance.”
•
lohagandhena tac c¯ atra na pivet kim
.
tu niks
.
ipet |
evam
.
samabhyaset t ¯ avad y¯ avat tat sv ¯ adu j ¯ ayate s
jar¯ avy¯ adhivinirmukto j ¯ ayate tat pivam
.
s tatah
.
|
s
.
ad
.
bhir m ¯ asair an ¯ ay¯ as¯ ad vatsar¯ an mr
.
tyujid bhavet o
tatra sv ¯ aduni sam
.
j ¯ ate tad¯ aprabhr
.
ti tatragam |
yad eva cintayed dravyam
.
ten ¯ asy¯ ap¯ uryate mukham ¬
rudhiram
.
madir¯ am
.
v ¯ atha vas¯ am
.
v ¯ a ks
.
¯ıram eva v ¯ a |
ghr
.
tatail¯ adikam
.
v ¯ atha dravad dravyam ananyadh¯ıh
.
ï
————–
Codices: KEd =The KSTS edition, with selective variae lectiones from K: , K:, K+ and K¡;
V=Benares Hindu University c ¡:co, paper,
´
S¯ arad¯ a; J=
´
Sr¯ı Raghun¯ atha Temple Library,
Jammu, MS No. :s:¡/ ka, paper, Devan¯ agar¯ı; P=Deccan College MS No. ¡ïï, Collection
of :ï¬s–o, paper, Devan¯ agar¯ı. Somdev Vasudeva kindly provided me with the variant
readings of witnesses V, J and P.
————–
zb ˚kalpitakarn
.
ike ] KEd ; ˚kalpitakalpitam VJ, ˚kalpitam P (unm.) ¿c rasan¯ am
.
] KEd -
VJ; rasat ¯ am
.
K+P ¿J viniyojayet ] VJP; viniyojayat KEd qb ˚bimb¯ at sitam
.
] K: VJP;
˚bimbasitam
.
KEd jJ sv¯ adu ] K
pc
Ed
V; s¯ adu K
ac
Ed
, s¯ adhu J, s¯ adhv a˚ P 6u jar¯ a˚ ] KEd P;
jaya˚ J ~u tatra ] KEd VP; tac ca J • sv¯ aduni ] K
pc
Ed
VJ; s¯ aduni K
ac
Ed
, s¯ adhuni P Sb
vas¯ am
.
] KEd VJ; vam
.
sam
.
P SJ dravad˚ ] KEd VJ; dravy¯ ad˚ P
•
M VUT :¡.::-:s describes a similar (but subtler) practice, “the introspection of taste” (rasar ¯ up¯ a dh¯ a-
ran
.
¯ a): “Now I will teach the taste-introspection, which is revered by Yogins, whereby the attainment of
all flavours arises for the Yogin. One should contemplate, with a focussed internal faculty, the Sensory
Medium of taste as resembling a water-bubble on the tip of the tongue. It is located at the end of [the]
royal nerve (r¯ ajan ¯ ad
.
¯ı-), it is cool, six-flavoured and smooth. Then, within a month, one savours flavours.
Rejecting the salty [flavours] etc., when he reaches sweetness, the Yogin, swallowing that, becomes the
vanquisher of death after six months. [He is] freed from aging and disease, black-haired, undiminished
is [the splendour] of his complexion. He lives as long as the moon, the stars and the sun, practising now
+: Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
Unlike in the other passages describing the defeat of death, in this passage the
tongue is not explicitly said to enter the aperture above the uvula—lambake viniyojayet
at ::.+d could mean either “[the yogin] is to place [his tongue] at the uvula” or “[the
yogin] should insert [his tongue] into [the cavity above] the uvula”.
¬,
However, in the
light of the other passages, in which the insertion of the tongue above the palate is
explicitly instructed, it seems likely that the same is intended here.
ïc
The next passage is from the Kaulaj ˜ n ¯ ananirn
.
aya:
ï:
“Now [I shall teach] the secret Upper Lord, that destroys all diseases. [The
yogin] should point his tongue upwards and insert his mind in there. By
regular practice he destroys death, my dear. In an instant he is freed
from sicknesses, diseases, death, decrepitude and the like. All diseases are
destroyed, like deer by a lion. In an instant disease is destroyed, [there is]
the destruction of severe leprosy. With a sweet taste, o great goddess, there
is the removal of wrinkles and grey hair. With a milky taste, o wise one,
and again.” (Vasuoiva’s translation: :,,,::s+).
M VUT :s.:o–:, teaches the “introspection of the tongue” (jihv ¯ adh¯ aran
.
¯ a): “The yogin should con-
template his own tongue as having the colour of the moon. Within ten days he will achieve the sensation
of the absence of his own tongue, as it were. After six months the single-minded [practitioner] can taste
what is far away. Within three years he directly savours the supreme nectar, whereby the Yogin is freed
from old age and death. Even if he is addicted to forbidden drinks he commits no sin. . . ” (ibid.::o¡).
KM T ,.:,-:c teaches a visualisation of the mouth filling with amr
.
ta that has arisen at the uvula, in
which the amr
.
ta seems to be equated with the Aghora mantra.
¬,
If the tongue were held at the uvula without entering the hollow above it, the yogin would be unable
to swallow and the mouth would still fill with fluid.
ïc
See JRY ¡.:.:s¬b t ¯ alurandhragat ¯ a; KJN :¡.scc ¯ urdhvak ¯ am (cf. KhV :.ïca); KJN o.:ïb brahmavilam
.
gatah
.
(cf. KhV :.ssd); KJN o.:od svavaktren
.
a sam
.
yut ¯ am (cf. KhV :.o¡d); KM T :+.:s,d lambakam
.
tu
vid¯ arayet.
ï:
KJN :¡.sc–s¡b:
ata ¯ urdhve´svaram
.
guhyam
.
sarvavy¯ adhivimardakam |
rasan ¯ am ¯ urdhvak ¯ am
.
kr
.
tv ¯ a manas tasmin nive´sayet sc
satat ¯ abhy¯ asayogena maran
.
am
.
n ¯ a´sayet priye |
ks
.
an
.
ena mucyate rogair vy¯ adhimr
.
tyujar¯ adibhih
.
s:
na´syate vy¯ adhisam
.
gh¯ atam
.
sim
.
hasyaiva yath¯ a mr
.
g¯ ah
.
|
ks
.
an
.
ena na´syate vy¯ adhih
.
kat
.
ukakus
.
t
.
han ¯ a´sanam s:
susv ¯ adena mah¯ adevi val¯ıpalitan ¯ a´sanam |
ks
.
¯ırasv ¯ adena medh¯ avi amaro j ¯ ayate narah
.
s+
ghr
.
tasv ¯ adopamam
.
devi sv ¯ atantryam
.
tu tath¯ a bhavet |
joc rasan¯ am ¯ urdhvak¯ am
.
] em.; rasan¯ a ¯ urddhakam
.
Ed jiub˚¯ abhy¯ asayogena maran
.
am
.
]
conj.;˚¯ abhy¯ asayet tat tu muh ¯ urttam
.
Ed jzJ kat
.
uka˚ ] conj.; kat
.
uke Ed jqu˚opamam
.
]
em.; ˚opamanam
.
Ed (unm.) jqb sv¯ atantryam
.
tu tath¯ a ] em.; sv¯ atantran tu yath¯ a Ed
(Both M VUT ::.:–ï and KJN :¡.sc–s¡b are followed by passages on mr
.
takotth¯ apana, reanimating
corpses, and paradehaprave´sana, entering another’s body.)
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ++
a man becomes immortal. When [there is] a taste like ghee, o goddess,
then independence arises.”
The idea of a progression of tastes presented in the M ¯ alin¯ıvijayottaratantra and
Kaulaj ˜ n ¯ ananirn
.
aya passages is nowhere mentioned in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, but is found
at Goraks
.
a´sataka
N
:¡, (=Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a +.¡,) and Gheran
.
d
.
asam
.
hit ¯ a +.+:–+:.
ï:
The next passage is another from the Kaulaj ˜ n ¯ ananirn
.
aya, in a difficult section
found at o.:s–:ï. The goddess asks Bhairava about k ¯ alava˜ ncana, “cheating Death”. In
reply, Bhairava answers:
ï+
“Stretching the uvula (dantar¯ ayam) until he can reach the aperture of
Brahm¯ a (brahmabilam),
ï¡
the wise man extracts the best of amr
.
tas with
the tip of his tongue. Truly indeed, o great ascetic lady, he conquers death
in a month. Putting the tongue at the root of the palate, he should gently
breathe in. He should practise for six months, o goddess; he will be freed
from great diseases.”
Various benefits arise from the practice: the yogin is free of old age and death,
he knows the past and future, has long-distance hearing and vision, is not affected by
poison and is impervious to attack. Then at :+–:o we read:
ïs
ï:
Govind D¯ as Yog¯ır¯ aj said that the liquid tasted fishy at first, then salty, then like butter, then like ghee
and finally had a taste that could not be described. Biixaio (:,ï::oï) reported “At first it was thick,
heavy, and slimy; eventually, it became thick, clear, and smooth”.
ï+
KJN o.:ï–:,:
pras¯ arya dantar¯ ayam
.
tu y¯ avad brahmavilam
.
gatah
.
|
amr
.
t ¯ agram
.
ras¯ agren
.
a duhyam ¯ anah
.
sudh¯ır api :ï
m ¯ asena jinayen mr
.
tyum
.
satyam
.
satyam
.
mah¯ atape |
rasan ¯ am
.
t ¯ alum ¯ ule tu kr
.
tv ¯ a v ¯ ayum
.
pibec chanaih
.
:,
s
.
an
.
m ¯ asam abhyased devi mah¯ arogaih
.
pramucyate |
iSu dantar¯ ayam
.
] em.; dantur¯ ay¯ an Ed iSJ duhyam¯ anah
.
] conj. Saxoiisox; dahyam¯ ana
Ed igu jinayen ] em. Saxoiisox; jitayen Ed igc rasan¯ am
.
] em.; rasan¯ a Ed zou
˚m¯ asam ] em.; ˚m¯ as¯ ad Ed
ï¡
The dantar¯ aya is the r¯ ajadanta, on which see footnote :¡c; brahmabila is a synonym of brahma-
randhra, on which see footnote :::.
ïs
KJN o.:+–:o:
yad r¯ ajadantamadhyastham
.
bindur ¯ upam
.
vyavasthitam |
amr
.
tam
.
tad vij ¯ an¯ıy¯ ad val¯ıpalitan ¯ a´sanam :+
´s¯ıtalaspar´sasam
.
sth¯ ane rasan ¯ am
.
kr
.
tv ¯ a tu buddhim ¯ an |
val¯ıpalitanirmmuktah
.
sarvavy¯ adhivivarjitah
.

na tasya bhavate mr
.
tyur yogay¯ anaparah
.
sad¯ a |
rasan ¯ am
.
t ¯ alum ¯ ule tu vy¯ adhin ¯ a´s¯ aya yojayet :s
tis
.
t
.
ha˜ n j ¯ agran svapa˙ n gacchan bhu ˜ nj ¯ ano maithune ratah
.
|
+¡ Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
“[The yogin] should recognise that which is in the middle of the uvula in
the form of a drop to be amr
.
ta, which destroys wrinkles and grey hair. The
wise man should put his tongue in the place of cool touch; he becomes
free of wrinkles and grey hair and devoid of all disease. Always devoted to
the way of yoga, death cannot happen to him. He should insert his tongue
into the base of the palate to destroy disease. Standing, awake, asleep,
moving, eating [or] delighting in sexual intercourse, he should curl [back]
his tongue constantly, joining it with its own mouth (svavaktren
.
a).”
ïo
The yogin defeats death and becomes free (svacchandagah
.
) (vv.:¬–:ï).
The last of these passages describing the conquering of death is from the Kubjik ¯ a-
matatantra:
ï¬
“And now I shall teach another practice, which destroys Death. Contract-
ing the Base cakra, [the yogin] should straight away concentrate on the
place of generation. After rubbing and pressing [it], he should open up
the uvula. Satiated by the amr
.
ta from the uvula he doubtless conquers
Death. By carrying out this practice, o beautiful goddess, he destroys fever,
consumption, excessive heat or extreme discolouration [of the body].
ïï
Putting the tongue in the void, without support, not touching the teeth
with the teeth nor joining the lips together, eschewing [any] contact of
rasanam
.
ku ˜ ncayen nityam
.
svavaktren
.
a tu sam
.
yutam :o
z¿u yad ] conj.; dvau Ed • r¯ ajadanta˚ ] em.; r¯ ajada∗˚ Ed z¿c tad ] em.; tam
.
Ed zqu
´s¯ıtala˚ ] em.; ´s¯ıtalam
.
Ed zjc rasan¯ am
.
] em.; rasan¯ a Ed z6b bhu ˜ nj¯ ano ] em. Goooaii
(:oab =KM T ï.¬ïcd); bhu ˜ njan Ed (unm.)
ïo
This “mouth” probably refers to the opening above the uvula. See footnote +c:.
ï¬
KM T :+.:sï–:o::
ath¯ anyam
.
api vaks
.
y¯ ami prayogam
.
mr
.
tyun ¯ a´sanam |
sa˙ nkocya m ¯ ulacakram
.
tu janmastham
.
dh¯ arayet ks
.
an
.
¯ at :sï
sa˙ nghat
.
t
.
am
.
p¯ıd
.
anam
.
kr
.
tv ¯ a lambakam
.
tu vid¯ arayet |
lambak ¯ amr
.
tasantr
.
pto jayen mr
.
tyum
.
na sam
.
´sayah
.
:s,
d¯ aham
.
´sos
.
am
.
tu sant ¯ apam
.
vaivarn
.
am
.
v ¯ a mahadbhutam |
n ¯ a´sayeta var¯ arohe anen ¯ abhy¯ asayogatah
.
:oc
rasan ¯ am
.
´s¯ unyamadhyasth¯ am
.
kr
.
tv ¯ a caiva nir¯ a´sray¯ am |
na dantair da´san ¯ an spr
.
s
.
t
.
v ¯ a os
.
t
.
hau naiva parasparam :o:
tyajya spar´sanam etes
.
¯ am
.
jinen mr
.
tyum
.
na sam
.
´sayah
.
|
es
.
a mr
.
tyu ˜ njayo yogo na bh ¯ uto na bhavis
.
yati :o:
ijgusam
.
ghat
.
t
.
am
.
] em.; sam
.
ghat
.
t
.
e Ed i6oud¯ aham
.
´sos
.
am
.
tu sant ¯ apam
.
] em.; d¯ aha´sos
.
as
tu sant ¯ apo Ed i6ib nir¯ a´sray¯ am ] em.; nir¯ a´srayam Ed
ïï
Cf. KhV :.ï:c–ïïd.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a +s
these, [the yogin] doubtless defeats Death. This yoga that is the Conquest
of Death has not been [taught] before, nor will it be [taught again].”
As I have said above, these five passages describing techniques for the conquest of
death are all scriptures of possession-based Yogin¯ı cults or their Kaula derivatives. They
contain the first references to practices in which the tongue enters the hollow above
the palate. Thus it may be that the technique has roots in rites of possession. The
tongue’s entry into the cavity above the palate has been reported to occur spontaneously
as a result of altered mental states which themselves can be precipitated by breathing
practices and drugs.
ï,
In the above passages the yogin is instructed to put his tongue
into the cavity; there is no suggestion of spontaneity. Thus these techniques may derive
from attempts to recreate a state of possession.
,c
With the tongue inserted in the cavity,
it is difficult for the yogin to swallow and saliva/ amr
.
ta collects in the mouth.
The last passage from the texts of tantric
´
Saivism that I shall examine is found in the
Kularatnoddyota, a work of the Pa´scim¯ amn¯ aya’s Kubjik¯ a cult. It is the earliest example,
that I have located, of a practice involving the tongue being called khecar¯ımudr¯ a. This
khecar¯ımudr¯ a is the first of eight mudr¯ as described in the text:
,:
ï,
This has happened to Dr. T
.
h¯ akur when practising pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama for long periods and to his son when
holding his breath while swimming. Saty¯ ananda Saiasvar¯ı (:,,+::ïc) reports “when prana is awakened in
the body, the tongue will move into [the khecar¯ımudr¯ a] position spontaneously”. I have been introduced
to a man who had no knowledge of yogic techniques but whose tongue assumed the khecar¯ımudr¯ a position
while he was under the influence of iso.
Pran
.
av¯ anand Saiasvar¯ı (:,ï¡::c+–¡) says that before birth a baby’s tongue is in the khecar¯ımudr¯ a
position and has to be flicked out after parturition. This breaks the baby’s yoga-nidr¯ a (“yogic sleep”), it
starts to breathe, experiences hunger and thirst, and beholds sam
.
s¯ ara. A difficult passage attributed to
“the hat
.
hayogic tradition” (hat
.
hayogasam
.
prad¯ ayah
.
) in the Hat
.
haratn ¯ aval¯ı (f. ::v
11
–f. :+r
3
—see page +:s of
the appendices) seems to say the same. However, Dr. L.Colfox of Bristol has told me that babies are born
with their tongues in their mouths.
,c
Cf. Vasuoiva’s definition of mudr¯ a which is cited on page +,.
,:
The eight mudr¯ as correspond to the eight m ¯ atr
.
s listed at KM T :s.o–¬.
KRU +.:cs–:cï (I am grateful to Somdev Vasudeva for providing me with his unpublished edition of
KRU +.,sa–::,b, to which I have added the variants from witness V):
sarvadv ¯ ar¯ an
.
i sam
.
rudhya m ¯ arutam
.
sam
.
niyamya ca |
lalan ¯ a ghan
.
t
.
ik ¯ antasth¯ a antah
.
srotonirodhik ¯ a :cs
¯ aku ˜ ncya karap¯ adau tu mus
.
t
.
ibandhena suvrate |
¯ urdhvonnatam
.
mukham
.
kr
.
tv ¯ a khastham ardhapras¯ aritam :co
stabdhe ca t ¯ arake kr
.
tv ¯ a ¯ aku ˜ ncy¯ adh¯ araman
.
d
.
alam |
vyomam ¯ argagat ¯ am
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
im
.
manah
.
kr
.
tv ¯ a tad¯ a´srayam :c¬
catvarastham
.
var¯ arohe karan
.
aivam
.
vidham
.
matam |
mudreyam
.
khecar¯ı prokt ¯ a sarvamudre´svare´svar¯ı :cï
————–
Q=NAK s¡:¬ (NGMPP A ¡c/ ::), palmleaf, Kut
.
ila, ca. ::th cent.ci; R=NAK ::o
(NGMPP A:co/ :c), paper, Nev¯ ar¯ı, dated sam
.
vat ¬s¡ (=:o+¡ci); S=NAK ss:¡: (NGMPP
A:¡¬/ :c), paper, Devan¯ agar¯ı; T=NAK ss:s: (NGMPP :¡,/ :), paper, Nev¯ ar¯ı; U=NAK
+o Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
“[The yogin] should block all the doors of the body and restrain the breath.
The tongue should be placed at the tip of the uvula, blocking the internal
channel. Tensing the hands and feet, with clenched fists, o great ascetic
lady, raising the face upwards, half-stretched out into space, and fixing the
pupils [of the eyes], clenching the Base region, fixing the gaze in the way
of the ether and making the mind have [the ether] as its support at the
crossroads (catvarastham),
,:
o beautiful lady: the technique is understood
thus. This is called khecar¯ımudr¯ a, the queen of all the mudr¯ a-regents.”
This practice is in the tradition of the pre-¯ agamic tongue practices cited earlier
rather than those of the tantric
´
Saiva passages above. Here and in the passages from the
P¯ ali canon, the Vis
.
n
.
usmr
.
ti and the M aitr¯ ayan
.
¯ıyopanis
.
ad, the yogin is to exert himself,
straining to hold his breath and tensing the body, whereas in the other ¯ agamic passages
(and in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a) the yogin is to relax,
,+
breathing freely,

as his body is flooded
with amr
.
ta. The absence of amr
.
ta in the Kularatnoddyota passage and the description
of the tongue as ghan
.
t
.
ik ¯ antasth¯ a, “at the tip of the uvula”, make it likely that the tongue
was to be held at the uvula rather than inserted into the cavity above it. The absence
of amr
.
ta is made more striking in the light of the third mudr¯ a described in the passage,
the ´sa´sin¯ı, “lunar”, mudr¯ a:
,s
¡:¡s¡ (NGMPP A :¡o/ o), paper, Nev¯ ar¯ı; V=Chandra Shum Shere c.+¡ï, paper, Nev¯ ar¯ı.
————–
ioju sam
.
rudhya ] QSTU; sam
.
rudhy¯ am
.
R, sam
.
rundhya V iojc lalan¯ a ] QSTUV; lalan¯ a-
m
.
R iojJ˚sroto˚ ] em. Vasuoiva;˚´sron
.
i˚ R, ˚srota˚ SV, ˚´srota˚ QTU io6u ¯ aku ˜ ncya karap¯ adau
ca ] RSV; ¯ aku ˜ ncya karap¯ adau tu Q, ¯ aku ˜ ncya karap¯ ado tu T, ¯ akutra kalap¯ ado tu U io6b
˚bandhena ] QST; ˚bandhana R, ˚v¯ an ¯ una U, ˚v¯ andhana V io6J khastham
.
] QRSUV;
khasth¯ am
.
T io~u stabdhe ca ] QTV; tathaiva R, soks
.
ava˚ S, st ¯ ava U io~c˚gat ¯ am
.
] QSUV;
˚gat ¯ a R, ˚gatam
.
T io~J manah
.
] QRSTU; mama V • tad¯ a´srayam ] conj. Maiiixsox;
mam¯ a´srayam V, sam¯ a´srayam cett. ioSu catvarastham
.
] em. Saxoiisox; tvacc¯ arastham
.
QRV, catv¯ arastham
.
STU ioSb karan
.
aivam
.
vidham
.
] R; karan
.
evam
.
vidham
.
QSTUV
,:
The “crossroads” (catvara/catus
.
patha/catus
.
kik ¯ a) is in the region of the brahmarandhra. See T
¯
A :s.,¡
and Jayaratha ad loc., Tantr¯ alokaviveka ad s.ssa and N T U p.:¡¬, l.:ï. I am grateful to professor Sanderson
for providing me with these references.
,+
JRY Bhairav ¯ ananavidhi Bh ¯ umik ¯ apat
.
ala :s,a.

KJN o.:,d.
,s
KRU +.::ca–:::b (for details of the witnesses see footnote ,:):
sv ¯ adhis
.
t
.
h¯ anasya v ¯ am ¯ a˙ nge datv ¯ a cittam
.
sure´svari |
param ¯ amr
.
tasam
.
p¯ urn
.
am
.
smarec cakram an ¯ amayam ::c
sahasr¯ aram
.
mah¯ am ¯ aye vidy¯ ayoginisam
.
yutam |
pl¯ avayann amr
.
taughena sarvam
.
deham
.
vicintayet :::
mudreyam
.
´sa´sin¯ı prokt ¯ a sarvak ¯ ary¯ arthas¯ adhan¯ı |
iiiu sahasr¯ aram
.
] QRSV; sahast ¯ aram
.
T, sahasr¯ aya U iiib yogini ] short final i metri
causa iiic pl¯ avayann ] QRSV; pl¯ avayenn TU iiiJ sarvam
.
deham
.
] Q; sarv¯ am
.
deh¯ am
.
R; sarvadeham
.
ST, sarvadeha˚ U, sarv¯ a deham
.
V iizu ´sa´sin¯ı ] QRSTV; ´sakhin¯ı U
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a +¬
“Placing his mind at the left side of the Sv¯ adhis
.
t
.
h¯ ana, o queen of the gods,
[the yogin] should visualise the Sahasr¯ ara cakra as spotless and full of the
supreme amr
.
ta, o great goddess of illusion. Flooding [it] with a stream of
amr
.
ta he should visualise his entire body as joined with the Vidy¯ ayogin¯ı.
This mudr¯ a is called ´sa´sin¯ı and accomplishes all ends.”
Khecar¯ımudr ¯ a in Tantric Texts.
The passages cited above that describe the conquest of death indicate that physical
practices very similar to the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s khecar¯ımudr¯ a were used by s¯ adhakas of
various tantric traditions before the composition of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Like the Khecar¯ı-
vidy¯ a’s khecar¯ımudr¯ a these practices were connected with the raising of breath/ Kun
.
-
d
.
alin¯ı and enabled the yogin to drink amr
.
ta and thereby be free of old age, disease and
death. However, despite there being descriptions of many different khecar¯ımudr¯ as in
the texts of tantric
´
Saivism, it is not until the relatively late Kularatnoddyota that we
find the first instance of a practice involving the tongue being called by that name, and
even then that practice is somewhat different from the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s khecar¯ımudr¯ a.
,o
M udr¯ a in tantric
´
Saivism is a large and complex subject and I shall not attempt
to explore it in detail here.

Instead I shall examine only the khecar¯ımudr¯ a in tantric
´
Saiva texts and in particular those khecar¯ımudr¯ as which are in some way related to the
hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a, in order to help explain the adoption of the name for the
hat
.
hayogic practice.
In the texts of tantric
´
Saivism, a Khecar¯ı is a particular type of Yogin¯ı,

and lives
among the Khecaras, “sky-dwellers”. Becoming a Khecara, sporting with them, being
worshipped by them and reaching their abode (khecarapada) are mentioned throughout
the Bhairav¯ agama as goals of s¯ adhana, and khecar¯ımudr¯ a is often the means.
,,
The
,o
The Kularatnoddyota must postdate the Kubjik ¯ amatatantra since much of it is derived from that work.
The Kubjik ¯ amatatantra itself postdates the root tantras of Trika
´
Saivism (Saxoiisox :,ïo::o+–:o¡). The
earliest witness of the Kularatnoddyota is a Nepalese palm leaf manuscript from about the ::th century ci
(see footnote ,:).

For detailed studies of mudr¯ a in tantric
´
Saivism see Vasuoiva :,,¬ and Paooux :,,cb.

KM T o.ï:c–ï:b gives a nirvacana explanation of the name Khecar¯ı: khagatir hy ¯ urdhvabh¯ avena
khagam ¯ argen
.
a nitya´sah
.
| carate sarvajant ¯ un ¯ am
.
khecar¯ı tena s¯ a smr
.
t ¯ a “Motion in the ether arises through
the higher existence (?). Of all creatures, she who always goes (carate) by way of the ether (khagam ¯ argen
.
a)
is known as Khecar¯ı.”
In the Siddhayoge´svar¯ımata (which is devoted to the Yogin¯ı cult—see pat
.
alas :+, :: and :, for detailed
descriptions of Yogin¯ıs), Khecar¯ı seems to be used as a synonym of Yogin¯ı at :,.:c. Saxoiisox (:,ï¬::s)
describes Yogin¯ıs as “both supernatural apparitions and human females considered to be permanently
possessed by the mother goddesses [cf. SYM ::.sab]. They were to be invoked and/ or placated with
offerings of blood, flesh, wine and sexual fluids by power-seeking adepts. . . ”
,,
See JRY mudr¯ as
.
at
.
ka :.o+oa, o¡¡d (f.+:r), o¡ïd (f.+:v); Par¯ atr¯ı´sik ¯ a :; Yogin¯ıhr
.
daya cakrasa˙ nketa sd
+ï Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
Kubjik ¯ amatatantra describes a hierarchy of five groups of feminine deities in pat
.
alas
:¡–:o: Dev¯ıs, D ¯ ut¯ıs, M¯ atr
.
s, Yogin¯ıs and Khecar¯ıs, of which the Khecar¯ıs are the highest
and are distinguished from Yogin¯ıs. In the Kaulaj ˜ n ¯ ananirn
.
aya Khecar¯ı is described as
the overall mother of all siddhiyogin¯ıs.
:cc
The same verse of the Kaulaj ˜ n ¯ ananirn
.
aya
lists two other types of Yogin¯ı: Bh ¯ ucar¯ı and Gocar¯ı.
:c:
Ks
.
emar¯ aja describes four groups
of deities (devat ¯ acakr¯ an
.
i) in the sequence of manifestation of ´sakti at Spandanirn
.
aya
:.:c: Khecar¯ı, Gocar¯ı, Dikcar¯ı and Bh ¯ ucar¯ı, of which the most refined is Khecar¯ı.
:c:
In his
´
Sivas¯ utravimar´sin¯ı (:.s) the same author describes Khecar¯ı as ˚parasam
.
vitsvar ¯ u-
p¯ a, “having the form of the highest consciousness”. Ks
.
emar¯ aja’s formulations are
sophisticated interpretations of the less metaphysically refined yogin¯ı-cult. In both
systems Khecar¯ı, however she is understood, occupies an exalted position, and the
same is true of her mudr¯ a. Thus, in the +:nd ¯ ahnika of the Tantr¯ aloka, which is
devoted to mudr¯ a, we read:
:c+
“Among these (i.e. the mudr¯ as taught in the M ¯ alin¯ıvijayottaratantra) the
most important is khecar¯ı [since it is the one] whose essence is a deity.”
The importance of khecar¯ımudr¯ a is stressed again later in the same chapter:
:c¡
“There is one seed-syllable, that of emission, whose power resides in all
mantras; and there is one mudr¯ a, khecar¯ı, which animates all mudr¯ as.”
Similarly, at Jayadrathay¯ amala ¡.:.o¡sc khecar¯ımudr¯ a is described as “the queen amongst
all mudr¯ as” (sarvamudr¯ asu r¯ aje´s¯ı), and we saw above how Kularatnoddyota +.:cïd calls
khecar¯ımudr¯ a “the queen of all mudr¯ a-regents” (sarvamudre´svare´svar¯ı).
Thus khecar¯ımudr¯ a is a key component of tantric practice. But what is it? In his
analysis of the mudr¯ as of the M ¯ alin¯ıvijayottaratantra, Vasuoiva (:,,¬::s–:c) follows
the divisions found in the text in identifying three types of mudr¯ a: liturgical, iconic
and yogic. Yogic mudr¯ as are so called “not because they are primarily employed in
etc. (The Bhairav¯ agama is the entire corpus of Tantras of the Mantram¯ arga, excepting those of the
´
Saiva
Siddh¯ anta. For an explanation of the different categories of texts in tantric
´
Saivism see Saxoiisox :,ïï.)
:cc
KJN ,.:ab: sarvasiddhiyogin¯ın ¯ am
.
khecar¯ım
.
sarvam ¯ atar¯ım | Cf. KM T :s.:c, where the eight m ¯ atr
.
s are
said to be born from the bodies of the Khecar¯ıs: khecar¯ıtanusam
.
bh ¯ ut ¯ a´s c¯ as
.
t
.
au m ¯ atryah
.
. In the Buddhist
Hevajratantra, Khecar¯ı is located at the top of the circle of Yogin¯ıs (H T :.ï.:s, :.,.::).
:c:
At KJN :¡.,+ param ¯ amr
.
ta is located at the khecar¯ıcakra. KM T :¡.os–o¬ and :s.ï: say that the D ¯ ut¯ıs
and Yogin¯ıs flood the world with amr
.
ta when disturbed (ks
.
ubdh¯ ah
.
) but this is not said in the description
of the Khecar¯ıs in pat
.
ala :o.
:c:
cf. KM T :s.::¡.
:c+
T
¯
A +:.¡ab: tatra pradh¯ anabh ¯ ut ¯ a ´sr¯ıkhecar¯ı devat ¯ atmik ¯ a |
:c¡
T
¯
A +:.o¡:
ekam
.
sr
.
s
.
t
.
imayam
.
b¯ıjam
.
yadv¯ıryam
.
sarvamantragam |
ek ¯ a mudr¯ a khecar¯ı ca mudraughah
.
pr¯ an
.
ito yay¯ a o¡
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a +,
yoga but rather beacause their practice involves yogic principles” (ibid.::ï). The khe-
car¯ımudr¯ as of tantric
´
Saivism fall into this yogic category. In the +:nd ¯ ahnika of his
Tantr¯ aloka, Abhinavagupta describes nine variants of the khecar¯ımudr¯ a. These involve
esoteric yogic techniques and require the yogin to assume bizarre physical attitudes in
imitation of the mudr¯ a-deities that he seeks to propitiate.
:cs
At the beginning of the
chapter (+:.:) he cites the Devy¯ ay¯ amala’s definition of mudr¯ a as bimboday¯ a and analyses
the compound in two ways: either mudr¯ a is “that which arises from the original” or
“that from which the original arises”. Thus, as Vasuoiva says (ibid.::,):
. . . these extreme Khecar¯ımudr¯ as are reflections, imprints or replications
(pratibimba) of the dynamism of consciousness (Khecar¯ı). The corollary
is. . . the direct experience of Khecar¯ı, or to use different terminology the
possession by the goddess Khecar¯ı, manifests itself in the practitioner with
these bizarre symptoms.
Thus the two levels of sophistication possible in the interpretation of Khecar¯ı-
mentioned above are also possible in her mudr¯ a. On the level of Khecar¯ı as etheric
Yogin¯ı, khecar¯ımudr¯ a brings about possession by her; on the level of Khecar¯ı as supreme
consciousness, khecar¯ımudr¯ a brings about experience of that consciousness. In the
Jayadrathay¯ amala the lelih¯ an ¯ amudr¯ a, (one of the nine types of khecar¯ımudr¯ a described
by Abhinavagupta) is said to be sarvad¯ ave´sak ¯ arik ¯ a, “always effecting possession”;
:co
Ks
.
emar¯ aja says that khecar¯ımudr¯ a is so called “because [it brings about] movement in
the ether, i.e. the sky of awakened consciousness” (khe bodhagagane caran
.
¯ at).
:c¬
The khecar¯ımudr¯ a of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a has many of the attributes of the possession-
oriented mudr¯ as of the Bhairav¯ agama, and these are the key to its understanding rather
than the sophisticated interpretations of the Kashmiri exegetes. The Jayadrathay¯ a-
mala’s mudr¯ as
.
at
.
ka describes several extremely bizarre mudr¯ as and many of these result
in yogin¯ımelaka and khecaratva, the aims of khecar¯ımudr¯ a as described in the earliest
layer of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
:cï
:cs
At T
¯
A +:.:o the kara˙ nkin¯ı variant of the khecar¯ımudr¯ a is described. As well as adopting other physical
gestures, the yogin is to touch his palate with his tongue—jihvay¯ a t ¯ alukam
.
spr
.
´set. This brings to mind
the meditational techniques described in the passages cited above from the Pali canon, the Vis
.
n
.
usmr
.
ti
and the M aitr¯ ayan
.
¯ıyopanis
.
ad and is one of the first instances of such practices being linked with the
name khecar¯ımudr¯ a. However this should not be seen as significant in the development of the hat
.
hayogic
khecar¯ımudr¯ a. It adds nothing to what is found in the pre-¯ agamic passages cited above and appears to
be simply an instruction on what should be done with the tongue during s¯ adhana on the same lines
as, say, instructions to gaze at the tip of the nose. Instructions to press the tongue to the palate in the
manner of those pre-¯ agamic passages are found elsewhere in the texts of tantric
´
Saivism and hat
.
hayoga (see
e.g. M r
.
gendratantra yogap¯ ada :ïc–:,b, KM T ¬.ïsa, H P :.¡s–¡o and DY
´
S ¬c) and the occurrence of such
an instruction in the Tantr¯ aloka’s description of a variant of khecar¯ımudr¯ a is probably just coincidence.
:co
JRY ¡.:.s,¬d.
:c¬
N etratantroddyota ¬.+:.
:cï
Perhaps surprisingly, no specific mention is made of flying in the KhV. Khecaratva, “being a Khecara”,
¡c Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
Why was the hat
.
hayogic practice called khecar¯ımudr ¯ a?
The purpose of mudr¯ as in hat
.
hayoga is to awaken Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı.
:c,
As we have seen above,
causing breath or Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı to rise up the central channel is mentioned as an aim of
many of the practices described in the ´saiv ¯ agama in which the tongue enters the cavity
above the palate. Thus it is appropriate that such a practice should be called mudr¯ a in
the texts of hat
.
hayoga. But why should it be called khecar¯ımudr¯ a?
::c
Many of the practices of hat
.
hayoga can be understood as tantric ritual within the
realm of the yogin’s own body.
:::
The hat
.
hayogin can accomplish the ends of tantric
is often said to be a reward of the practice but this state of being is never specifically said to entail the
ability to fly. Khecaratva and flying are distinguished in many texts: a list of siddhi s at KJN :¡.:o–:,
has both bh ¯ umity¯ aga, “leaving the ground”, at :¬a, and khecaratva at :,b; SSP s.+s–¡: contains a list of
siddhi s attained after different durations of practice: in the seventh year the yogin becomes ks
.
itity¯ ag¯ı and
in the ninth he becomes a Khecara; A
´
S p.¡ ll.::–:: gives a list of siddhi s starting with bh ¯ umity¯ aga and
culminating in khecaratvapratis
.
t
.
h¯ a. In his translation of V ¯ atulan ¯ athas¯ utra :, M.K.
´
S¯ astr¯ı adds “Khecara
denotes the man who has made a remarkable progress in the spiritual realm and has, as a result thereof,
occupied that state in which one always lives and moves in the ether of consciousness” (translation p.:
n.:).
Explicit mentions of flying are common in the bhairav ¯ agama. Many of the JRY ’s mudr¯ as result in
the s¯ adhaka rising into the air: at ¡.:.s,:d in the description of the dam
.
s
.
t
.
rin
.
¯ımudr¯ a we read trisapt ¯ ah¯ at
kham utpatet, “after three weeks he rises up into the air”; at ¡.:.o+:a the result of kara˙ nkin¯ımudr¯ a is
prahar¯ ardh¯ at plaved vyomni, “after ninety minutes he floats in the void”. The Kashmiri exegetes did not
take such passages literally: commenting on T
¯
A +:.:oc, where Abhinavagupta has quoted a description
of the tri´s¯ ulin¯ımudr¯ a from the Yogasam
.
c¯ ara by which “[the yogin] leaves the ground” (tyajati medin¯ım
.
),
Jayaratha writes medin¯ım
.
tyajat¯ıti deh¯ adyahant ¯ apahastanena parabodh¯ ak ¯ a´sac¯ ar¯ı bhaved ity arthah
.
, “when
the text says that he leaves the ground it means that he will move in the sky of absolute consciousness
by throwing off identification with the body, [the mind, the vital energy] and [the void]” (Professor
Sanderson’s translation). Perhaps the composer(s) of the KhV also took this position. We know that folk
tales of flying yogins were current at the time of its composition (Dicny :,¬c:::–:s) and other hat
.
hayogic
texts do mention bh ¯ umity¯ aga but not in the context of khecar¯ımudr¯ a (see e.g. DY
´
S :ss, GhS s.so; but
cf. M aSam
.
:ï.s: which mentions ks
.
itity¯ aga as the result of a dhy¯ ana in which, among other physical
attitudes, the tongue is to be placed above the palate). The absence of any mention of khecar¯ımudr¯ a in
Ball¯ ala’s explanation of trailokyabhraman
.
am ad KhV +.o is telling: antariks
.
am ¯ argen
.
a gut
.
ik ¯ avat, “going by
way of the atmosphere like [when one consumes] a pill”. Today khecar¯ımudr¯ a is often said by yogins to
bestow the power of flight (see footnote :¡o). It is perhaps this association which led Wuiri (:,,o::o,)
to translate the title of the KhV with “The Aviator’s Science; or The Arcane Science of Flight”.
:c,
See
´
SS ¡.:¡ (=H P +.s).
::c
Not everywhere in the texts of hat
.
hayoga is the practice called khecar¯ımudr¯ a. In the descriptions at
G
´
SN :+:–:s:,
´
SS +.o,–ï+ and SSP o.ï¡ it is not named. In A
´
S pp.:–+ it is said to be a s¯ aran
.
¯ a. M KSG
::.,ooa–:c:cb calls the technique simply rasan ¯ ayoga, “tongue yoga”. G
´
SN ¬c and H P +.+o give alternative
names for khecar¯ımudr¯ a: nabhomudr¯ a and vyomacakra respectively. GhS +., also calls the practice nabho-
mudr¯ a.
:::
Although I distinguish between tantric
´
Saivism and hat
.
hayoga, and between the texts of both, it
should be stressed that there is no clear-cut division between the two. The
´
Sivasam
.
hit ¯ a, an archetypal
hat
.
hayogic manual, calls itself a tantra (¡.¡). The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a does the same (:.:o) and itself exemplifies
the futility of trying to distinguish between tantric and hat
.
hayogic works. The origins of many of the
practices that are considered quintessentially hat
.
hayogic can be traced in tantric works (e.g. the hat
.
ha-
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ¡:
practice without external ritual or a consort with whom to engage in sexual rites.
Goraks
.
a´sataka ¬:–¬s locates both bindu, sperm, and rajas, menstrual fluid, in the body
of the yogin. By combining the two, the hat
.
hayogin can produce within his own
body the supreme tattva of the tantric sexual rite.
:::
There are two processes at work
in this interiorisation of tantric ritual. Firstly, it is a way of effecting independence
similar in some ways to both the vedic renouncer’s internalisation of the sacrifice
::+
and the Kashmiri
´
Saiva exegetes’ transformation of tantric ritual into a mental process.
Secondly, it is the result of a deliberate strategy of the redactors of the texts of hat
.
hayoga.
By adopting the terminology of tantric works the writers of these texts would have lent
them the authority of the ¯ agamas. As we have seen above, khecar¯ımudr¯ a was a highly
esteemed part of tantric ritual, and its accommodation within the practices of hat
.
hayoga
would have brought that esteem with it. A half-verse from the Kulac¯ ud
.
¯ aman
.
itantra
cited in Ks
.
emar¯ aja’s
´
Sivas¯ utravimar´sin¯ı (II.s) is found at Tantr¯ aloka +:.o¡ (expanded
into a full verse—see footnote :c¡) and in the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a:
::¡
“There is one seed-syllable, that of emission, and one mudr¯ a, khecar¯ı.”
Parallel to the interiorisation of tantric ritual is a process in which practices of
tantric
´
Saivism are transformed into techniques that work on the human body. I call
this process “corporealisation”. Although the techniques of hat
.
hayoga are the richest
source of examples of this process, it began long before any hat
.
hayogic texts had been
composed, as is evinced by the five passages describing the conquest of death by drinking
amr
.
ta cited earlier in this chapter.
::s
Besides khecar¯ımudr¯ a, the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a describes two more corporealised tech-
niques. The first is the bizarre practice of mathana, “churning” or “kindling”, described
yogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a and the m ¯ ulabandha, on which see footnote :¬,). Similarly, hat
.
hayogic works contain
references to aspects of tantrism that might be thought to have no place in such texts. Thus the yogin who
has perfected s¯ıtk ¯ ar¯ı pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama is said to be “esteemed by the circle of yogin¯ıs” (yogin¯ıcakrasamm ¯ anyah
.
) at
H P :.ss. In the absence of any yardstick by which to evaluate a text’s contents and classify it as hat
.
hayogic
or not, the best method is perhaps to see whether the text considers itself as teaching hat
.
hayoga. However,
for the period prior to the composition of the H P, this would limit us to the Datt ¯ atreyayoga´sastra, the Yoga-
b¯ıja, the
´
S¯ ar ˙ ngadharapaddhati, the Amaraughaprabodha and the
´
Sivasam
.
hit ¯ a. (After the H P, the number
of explicitly hat
.
hayogic works increases considerably but these are for the most part commentaries and
derivative texts, such as the so-called Yoga Upanis
.
ads. Exceptions include the Hat
.
haratn ¯ aval¯ı and the
Gheran
.
d
.
asam
.
hit ¯ a.) At the risk of opening myself to accusations of ativy¯ apti, I include all of the works
identified by Bouy (see my footnote ï) as being used to compile the H P, as well as the
´
S¯ ar ˙ ngadhara-
paddhati, the Amaraugha´s¯ asana and post-H P works which teach hat
.
hayoga, when I talk of ‘hat
.
hayogic
texts’.
:::
On this tattva see e.g. Yonitantra :.:c and its introduction, p.:¬.
::+
On which see Hiisriixax :,o¡:::–:¬.
::¡
H P +.s+ab: ekam
.
sr
.
s
.
t
.
imayam
.
b¯ıjam ek ¯ a mudr¯ a ca khecar¯ı |
::s
Although I refer to corporealisation as a “process”, the traffic was not all one-way. Thus the transfor-
mation by some tantric exegetes of the sex act, or of yogic practices, into mental techniques is the opposite
of corporealisation.
¡: Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
at :.s¬c–o¡d, which involves inserting a probe into the nasal cavity and churning it
about. At Kubjik ¯ amatatantra ::.s¬–os a subtler mathana is described which combines
yogic techniques and visualisation, using sexual intercourse as its explanatory paradigm.
This in turn can be seen as a grosser form of a visualisation given in the Tantr¯ aloka
which, although not called mathana, describes the meditation on the rubbing together
of Soma, S¯ urya and Agni as the aran
.
i, “the kindling stick”, by the agitation of which, the
meditator, “burning brightly, attains success, enjoying the oblation of Mah¯ abhairava
in the great sacrificial fire which is called the heart”.
::o
Jayaratha gives a yogic inter-
pretation of this passage which is similar in some ways to the technique of mathana
described in the Kubjik ¯ amatatantra.
The second corporealised technique in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a is the practice of massaging
the body with various bodily fluids described at :.¬:–¬,. This technique appears to be
a corporealisation of alchemical practices in which various substances are rubbed into
mercury in order to fix it.
::¬
An example of corporealisation from elsewhere in the hat
.
hayogic corpus is the
mudr¯ a called mah¯ avedha, “the great piercing”, described at Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a +.:s–:ï.
The yogin is to sit cross-legged with his left heel under his perineum. Putting his hands
flat on the ground, he should raise his body and then gently drop it, thus making his
heel tap against the perineum, forcing the breath/ Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı into the central channel.
This is a corporealisation of the tantric vedhad¯ıks
.
¯ a, “piercing initiation”. T
¯
A :,.:+o–:ï:
describes several different types of vedhad¯ıks
.
¯ a. Using mantras and visualisations, the
guru causes ´sakti to rise up the pupil’s middle path and pierce the cakras and ¯ adh¯ aras
stationed along it.
The hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a can be seen as a corporealisation of tantric techniques
of cheating death in which the head is visualised as containing a store of lunar amr
.
ta
which, when accessed by means of the breath or Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı, pours out into the rest of the
body, nourishing and immortalising it. The subtle practice is described in many tantric
works.
::ï
The hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a (as well as its tantric predecessors) bestows a
::o
T
¯
A s.::a–:+b:
somas¯ ury¯ agnisam
.
ghat
.
t
.
am
.
tatra dhy¯ ayed ananyadh¯ıh
.
|
taddhy¯ an ¯ aran
.
isam
.
ks
.
obh¯ an mah¯ abhairavahavyabhuk ::
hr
.
day¯ akhye mah¯ akun
.
d
.
e j ¯ ajvalan sph¯ıtat ¯ am
.
vrajet |
::¬
The parallels are described in detail in the notes to the translation.
::ï
See SYM pat
.
ala ::; M VUT :o.s+–s¡; KJN s.s–:+; N T pat
.
ala ¬, in which the second of the two
techniques taught is called khecar¯ımudr¯ a; S
.
CN ¡:–¡o. Cf. SYM pat
.
ala :: and M VUT :¡.::-:s, :s.:o–:,
(on which see footnote •).
It might be argued that just because the physical khecar¯ımudr¯ a is not mentioned in these texts, that
does not mean that it was not practised: many tantric works allude to sexual rites without describing their
practical details. Perhaps it was for the guru to instruct the s¯ adhaka in the physical practice. However
Ks
.
emar¯ aja’s commentary on N T ¬.:o–:: (p.:sï ll.:c–:¬) describes the technique whereby ´sakti enters
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ¡+
concrete ontological status on the amr
.
ta. In the descriptions of the subtle technique the
yogin is to visualise it (verb forms from

smr
.
are used); in the corporealised technique
the tongue is inserted into the cavity above the palate and the yogin drinks the amr
.
ta.
The hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a is also a corporealisation of the tantric ritual practices
of eating meat and drinking wine: the tongue is meat and amr
.
ta is wine. This is
explicitly stated in the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a:
::,
“[The yogin] should constantly eat the meat of the cow and drink the
liquor of the gods. I reckon him to be a Kaula; the others are destroyers
of the kula. By the word ‘cow’ the tongue is meant, because the insertion
of [the tongue] at the palate is the eating of the meat of the cow, which
destroys great sins. The liquid that flows from the moon, brought about
by the fire generated by the tongue’s insertion, is the liquor of the gods.”
The name khecar¯ı, “[she who] moves in the ether”, is particularly appropriate for a
practice in which the tongue enters a hollow space.
::c
In the Goraks
.
a´sataka the name
khecar¯ı is explained thus:
:::
the central channel: the mattagandhasth¯ ana (i.e. the anus—see Tantr¯ alokaviveka ad o.:ïsc–:ïob) is to
be contracted and relaxed (the passage is cited in full in footnote :¬,). Ks
.
emar¯ aja’s mentioning here of
a physical practice not alluded to in the m ¯ ula argues against his having any knowledge of the physical
khecar¯ımudr¯ a. The subtle physiology necessary for it is in place: commenting on ¬.:–s (p.:¡¬ l.:¡) he
cites a passage describing the sixteen ¯ adh¯ aras including the sudh¯ adh¯ ara, “the nectar ¯ adh¯ ara”, which is
lambhikasya [sic] sthita´s cordhve, “situated above the uvula”, and sudh¯ atmakah
.
, “consisting of nectar”
(cf. Svacchandatantroddyota ¬.::ïa–::ob and Tantr¯ alokaviveka s.ss).
The idea of a subtle khecar¯ımudr¯ a persists in the texts of hat
.
hayoga. Thus H P ¡.¡+-s+, in a section
on r¯ ajayoga, describes khecar¯ımudr¯ a and the flooding of the body with amr
.
ta but makes no mention
of tongues. Cf. VS ¡.¡:–¡o, o.:+–¡: and J˜ n ¯ ane´svar¯ı o.:¡¬–:oc (Kiiuxii :,,¬::+ï–,), which describe
similar processes but do not call them khecar¯ımudr¯ a.
::,
H P +.¡o–¡ï (cf. KhV :.oïab and GBS :+¬):
gom ¯ am
.
sam
.
bhaks
.
ayen nityam
.
pibed amarav ¯ arun
.
¯ım |
kul¯ınam
.
tam aham
.
manye itare kulagh¯ atak ¯ ah
.
¡o
go´sabdenodit ¯ a jihv ¯ a tatprave´so hi t ¯ aluni |
gom ¯ am
.
sabhaks
.
an
.
am
.
tat tu mah¯ ap¯ atakan ¯ a´sanam ¡¬
jihv ¯ aprave´sasambh ¯ utavahninotp¯ aditah
.
khalu |
candr¯ at sravati yah
.
s¯ arah
.
s¯ a sy¯ ad amarav ¯ arun
.
¯ı ¡ï
::c
Cf. the JRY passage cited in footnote ¬¡ where the tongue, when “at the aperture of the palate”
(t ¯ alurandhragat ¯ a), is described as “in contact with the void” (´s¯ unyasam
.
game), and “free from the slightest
touch” (¯ıs
.
atspar´savivarj ¯ a).
:::
G
´
SN o,:
cittam
.
carati khe yasm ¯ aj jihv ¯ a carati khe gat ¯ a |
teneyam
.
khecar¯ımudr¯ a sarvasiddhair namaskr
.
t ¯ a o,
¡¡ Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
“The mind moves in the ether (khe) because the tongue moves in the void
(khe); thus there is this khecar¯ımudr¯ a worshipped by all the siddhas.”
This explanation neatly connects the insertion of the tongue above the palate with
a sophisticated interpretation of khecar¯ımudr¯ a similar to that given by the Kashmiri
exegetes.
:::
Khecar¯ımudr ¯ a in hat
.
hayogic texts
If one examines the early texts of hat
.
hayoga different approaches to its practice become
apparent.
::+
At one end of the spectrum is the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, with its roots in Yogin¯ı-cults
and Kaulism. At the other end is the Datt ¯ atreyayoga´s¯ astra which, while still far from
the realm of orthodoxy, is a product of a more renunciatory and ascetic tradition.
::¡
:::
On the Kashmiri exegetes’ interpretation see Ks
.
emar¯ aja ad N T ¬.+: cited on page +,.
::+
By “early texts” here I mean those texts which probably or definitely predate the c.:¡scci H P. The
works which have been used to compile the H P are listed in footnote ï. Besides the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, three
of those texts include descriptions of the hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a: the Goraks
.
a´sataka (o¡–¬c, :+:–:s:),
the Datt ¯ atreyayoga´s¯ astra (:¬:–:¬+) and the
´
Sivasam
.
hit ¯ a (+.o,–ï+, ¡.+:–+¬, s.¡+, s.::¡, s.:s¬). The Siddha-
siddh¯ antapaddhati probably predates the pre-:+o+ci
´
S¯ ar ˙ ngadharapaddhati (the description of nine cakras
at
´
SP ¡+s:–¡+o+ paraphrases that at SSP :.:–,) and describes an unnamed khecar¯ımudr¯ a at o.ï¡. The
Amaraugha´s¯ asana describes an unnamed khecar¯ımudr¯ a on pages :–:. The composition of this work, whose
authorship is ascribed to Goraks
.
an¯ atha, can be dated to before :s:sci, the date of the manuscript from
which it has been edited. It is quite different in style from other hat
.
hayogic works and, uniquely among
such texts, calls the hat
.
hayogic practices described in its first few verses s¯ aran
.
¯ as. S¯ aran
.
¯ a is one of eighteen
processes in the alchemical refinement of mercury described in a quotation in the Sarvadar´sanasa˙ ngraha’s
ninth chapter (p.:cs, l.::).
::¡
These two approaches are later manifestations of the structural poles of
´
Saivism as identified by
Saxoiisox (:,,+:s¬): “
´
Saivism in its great internal diversity is the result of the interplay of two fun-
damental orientations, a liberation-seeking asceticism embodied in the Atim¯ arga and a power-seeking
asceticism of K¯ ap¯ alika character within the Mantram¯ arga.” The distinction between liberation-seekers
and power-seekers is blurred in hat
.
hayogic texts but this division into two poles is still helpful in under-
standing the different approaches to the practice of hat
.
hayoga.
The ideological tensions within the N¯ atha order are explained by the N¯ athas themselves with a legend
that is first found in a fourteenth century Bengali and Sanskrit work, the Goraks
.
avijaya, and which spread
throughout North India. Matsyendran¯ atha, the first human guru of the N¯ athas has become ensnared in
the ways of wine, women and song. He is at the palace of the queen of Kadal¯ıde´sa, “Banana country”,
and passes his time intoxicated, enjoying the company of the sixteen hundred dancing girls who live in
the palace. The queen of Kadal¯ıde´sa, fearing that attempts might be made to rescue her new lover, has
banned men from the palace. Goraks
.
an¯ atha, Matsyendra’s disciple, learns of his downfall and sets out to
rescue him. He disguises himself as a dancing girl, gains entry to the palace and brings his guru back to
his senses by instructing him through song and dance. Goraks
.
a then turns all the women into bats and
the two of them leave Kadal¯ıde´sa.
This is the basic structure of the legend, which is now found in many different versions. It is interpreted
as describing a reformation by Goraks
.
a of the Kaula practices taught by Matsyendra. Matsyendra is often
described as the originator of kaulism or the yogin¯ıkaula tradition: he is the author of the Kaulaj ˜ n ¯ ana-
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ¡s
The two different approaches are summarised succinctly in the
´
S¯ ar ˙ ngadharapaddhati
(the Datt ¯ atreyayoga´s¯ astra practice is given first):
::s
“[The yogin] should insert the previously cultivated mind and breath into
the ´sa˙ nkhin¯ı [n ¯ ad
.
¯ı]
::o
in the rod[-like] pathway at the rear [of the back]
by contracting the m ¯ ul¯ adh¯ ara. Breaking the three knots he should lead
[the mind and breath] to the bee-cave. Then the bindu born of n ¯ ada goes
from there to dissolution (layam) in the void. Through practice the yogin
becomes one whose destiny is assured, chaste ( ¯ urdhvaret ¯ ah
.
), supremely
blissful, and free of old age and death.
Or, by upward impulses of the breath (udgh¯ ataih
.
)
::¬
[the yogin] should
nirn
.
aya and Jayaratha (ad T
¯
A :.¬) says that ‘Macchanda’ is famous for being the propagator of the entire
kula´s¯ astra. Goraks
.
an¯ atha, on the other hand, is portrayed in legend as a more austere and ascetic figure
and this is borne out in the Sanskrit texts attributed to him. The original Goraks
.
a´sataka bears little trace of
any Kaula inheritance. The interpretation of this legend shows that the contradictions within the N¯ athas’
texts were apparent to the N¯ athas themselves but is a simplification of a more complicated situation in
which, for example, the hat
.
hayogic texts attributed to Datt ¯ atreya show less tantric influence than those
of Goraks
.
a.
::s
´
SP ¡+osa–¡+¬:b:
p¯ urv ¯ abhyastau manov ¯ atau m ¯ ul¯ adh¯ araniku ˜ ncan ¯ at |
pa´scime dan
.
d
.
am ¯ arge tu ´sa˙ nkhinyantah
.
prave´sayet ¡+os
granthitrayam
.
bhedayitv ¯ a n¯ıtv ¯ a bhramarakandaram |
tatas tu n ¯ adajo bindus tatah
.
´s¯ unye layam
.
vrajet ¡+oo
abhy¯ as¯ at tu sthirasv ¯ anta ¯ urdhvaret ¯ a´s ca j ¯ ayate |
par¯ anandamayo yog¯ı jar¯ amaran
.
avarjitah
.
¡+o¬
athav ¯ a m ¯ ulasam
.
sth¯ an ¯ am udgh¯ atais tu prabodhayet |
supt ¯ am
.
kun
.
d
.
alin¯ım
.
´saktim
.
bisatantunibh¯ akr
.
tim ¡+oï
sus
.
umn ¯ antah
.
prave´syaiva pa˜ nca cakr¯ an
.
i bhedayet |
tatah
.
´sive ´sa´s¯ a˙ nk ¯ abhe sphurannirmalatejasi ¡+o,
sahasradalapadm ¯ antah
.
sthite ´saktim
.
niyojayet |
atha tatsudhay¯ a sarv ¯ am
.
sab¯ ahy¯ abhyantar¯ am
.
tanum ¡+¬c
pl¯ avayitv ¯ a tato yog¯ı na kim
.
cid api cintayet |
::o
In the descriptions of khecar¯ımudr¯ a found in the SSP (:.o¬, :.o, o.ï¡), A
´
S (p.:, p.:c) and BVU
(¬+–¬o), we find a subtle physiology not referred to in other Sanskrit manuals of hat
.
hayoga in which
amr
.
ta is secreted at the da´samadv ¯ ara, “the tenth door”, at the end of the ´sa˙ nkhin¯ın ¯ ad
.
¯ı, which is located at
the r¯ ajadanta (see footnote :¡c).
´
SP ¡s,:–¡o:: teaches techniques for videhamukti, “bodiless [i.e. final]
liberation”, and k ¯ alava˜ ncana, “cheating death”, similar to those described at Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a +.¡+c–s+b. In
the
´
SP passage, the yogin shuts the nine doors of the body but leaves the tenth open if he wants to abandon
his body; if he wants to enter a trance in which Death cannot take him but from which he can return,
he should shut the tenth door. The tenth door is “frequently referred to in old and medieval Bengali
literature” (Dascuira :,¬o::¡c), such as the Goraks
.
avijaya and also in the Hind¯ı poems of Gorakhn¯ ath:
see GBS :+s and GBP ::.+. Cf. AM s:.:. For analyses of the workings of the ´sa˙ nkhin¯ı n ¯ ad
.
¯ı see Dascuira
:,¬o::+,-:¡+ and Wuiri :,,o::s¡–s.
::¬
On udgh¯ ata, “eruption [of the breath]”, see Vasuoiva :,,,:+:c–+:o.
¡o Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
awaken the sleeping goddess Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı whose abode is the Base [and]
whose form is like a lotus fibre. Inserting her into the sus
.
umn ¯ a [n ¯ ad
.
¯ı]
he should pierce the five cakras. Then he should insert the goddess into
´
Siva, who has the radiance of the moon, a shining faultless light, in the
thousand-petalled lotus, and flood his entire body, inside and out, with
the nectar there. Then the yogin should think of nothing.”
The practices that are taught in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a can be understood in the terms
of the second paradigm. The language and ideas of the first are almost entirely absent,
with just a brief appearance at :.:c¬–::s.
Of all the texts of hat
.
hayoga only the Datt ¯ atreyayoga´s¯ astra describes practices which
conform exactly to the first paradigm. The Datt ¯ atreyayoga´s¯ astra mentions neither Ku-
n
.
d
.
alin¯ı nor cakras. Closest to this position are the original Goraks
.
a´sataka
::ï
and the
Yogab¯ıja, whose descriptions of s¯ adhana match that described in the first alternative
but also include ´saktic¯ alana, a technique for awakening Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı that involves pulling
on the tongue.
::,
Only the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a and the Va´sis
.
t
.
hasam
.
hit ¯ a adhere closely to the
second alternative. All other hat
.
hayogic texts teach both approaches and, as we shall
see below, this results in some inconsistencies.
The standpoint of any particular text can be seen in how it understands the purpose
of khecar¯ımudr¯ a. In the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, as we have seen, khecar¯ımudr¯ a is used to raise Ku-
n
.
d
.
alin¯ı and access the store of amr
.
ta in the head to flood the entire body, rejuvenating
and nourishing it. In the Datt ¯ atreyayoga´s¯ astra the purpose of khecar¯ımudr¯ a is not
explicitly stated, but the practice is grouped with j ¯ alandharabandha, the chin-lock,
which is said to prevent the lunar amr
.
ta from being consumed by the solar fire in
the stomach, thereby rendering the body immortal.
:+c
This aim of khecar¯ımudr¯ a, for
which the name mudr¯ a meaning “seal” is particularly appropriate, is explained in the
Goraks
.
a´sataka
N
:
:+:
“The bindu
:+:
of [the yogin] who has sealed the hollow above the uvula by
means of khecar¯ı does not fall [even] when he is embraced by an amorous
::ï
See footnote o. I have not consulted manuscripts of this unedited text but have relied on the
first adhy¯ aya of the Yogakun
.
d
.
alyupanis
.
ad, which Bouy (:,,¡::c:) has shown to contain eighty of the
Goraks
.
a´sataka’s one hundred verses.
::,
On ´saktic¯ alana see footnote +¡¬.
:+c
DY
´
S :¬ï–:ïc.
:+:
G
´
SN o,a–¬cb (a more detailed description is given at G
´
SN :+:–:¡ï):
khecary¯ a mudritam
.
yena vivaram
.
lambikordhvatah
.
|
na tasya ks
.
arate binduh
.
k ¯ aminy¯ a´sles
.
itasya ca o,
y¯ avad binduh
.
sthito dehe t ¯ avan mr
.
tyubhayam
.
kutah
.
|
:+:
bindu is used more often than amr
.
ta when describing the fluid that is to be stored in the head.
However the two do seem to be interchangeable: at KJN s.:+ in a description of flooding the body we
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ¡¬
woman. As long as bindu is in the body where is the fear of death?”
Thus there are two contradictory aims of khecar¯ımudr¯ a in the texts of hat
.
hayoga.
In one the store of amr
.
ta is to be accessed and used to flood the body; in the other
it is to be kept where it is. Many texts describe both aims. In contrast to the verse
cited above, at Goraks
.
a´sataka
N
:¡,–:s: the body is to be filled with amr
.
ta; the first two
lines of the Goraks
.
a´sataka
N
passage cited above are also found at Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a +.¡:,
while at Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a ¡.s+ab in another description of khecar¯ımudr¯ a we read amr
.
taih
.
pl¯ avayed deham ¯ ap¯ adatalamastakam, “[the yogin] should inundate his body from top
to toe with the amr
.
tas”.
:++
The existence of both ideas in these texts shows how the early manuals of hat
.
hayoga
were attempting to syncretise the practices of different schools. None of the texts that
attempts to describe a complete system of yoga (e.g. the Datt ¯ atreyayoga´s¯ astra, Goraks
.
a-
´sataka
N
or Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a) is entirely coherent. Only the more specialist treatises
such as the Amanaskayoga and the original Goraks
.
a´sataka present an uncontradictory
whole. As mentioned above, the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a has not entirely escaped this syncretism:
:.:c¬–::s is more in keeping with the idea of bindudh¯ aran
.
a than amr
.
tapl¯ avana.
:+¡
find bindudh¯ ar¯ anip¯ atai´s, “with the descent of the flow of bindu ”, while at G
´
SN :¡:b the yogin is instructed
to hold the somakal¯ amr
.
tam in the vi´suddhicakra and keep it from the mouth of the sun.
:++
References to the drying up of the juices of the body as an aim of hat
.
hayogic practice also conflict
with the idea of amr
.
tapl¯ avana: at G
´
SN ¬¬ mah¯ amudr¯ a is said to result in ras¯ an ¯ am
.
´sos
.
an
.
am, “drying up of
fluids”; in a description of kumbhaka, breath-retention, YB :+scd reads recake ks
.
¯ınat ¯ am
.
y¯ ati (em.; y¯ ate Ed)
p¯ urakam
.
´sos
.
ayet sad¯ a, “on exhalation [the yogin] becomes weak; inhalation always dries out [the body]”;
Kiiuxii (:,,¬::+o) reports that according to the J˜ n ¯ ane´svar¯ı (no reference is given), “the liquids of the
body are dried up” by the heat of rising Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı. The R¯ am¯ anand¯ı ascetics with whom I lived during
my fieldwork are intent on the drying out and mortification of the body, to which end they perform
dh ¯ un¯ıtap, the austerity of sitting surrounded by smouldering fires in the midday sun.
:+¡
It is perhaps possible to reconcile bindudh¯ aran
.
a with amr
.
tapl¯ avana by understanding khecar¯ımudr¯ a
as sealing one aperture but opening another, thereby diverting the amr
.
ta away from the fire in the stomach
and into the n ¯ ad
.
¯ıs of the body. Wuiri (:,,o::s+–:ss) hints at this while at G
´
SN :¡: amr
.
ta is said to go
unm ¯ argen
.
a, “by the wrong path”, having cheated the mouth of the sun. However the two aims are never
described together in the texts.
While the theory of bindudh¯ aran
.
a is simple enough, there are problems with it in practice. When the
tongue is placed in the hollow above the palate the throat is sealed off and saliva gradually accumulates
in the mouth (see M VUT ::.¡, cited on page +c). Eventually the mouth fills up with this fluid and
something has to be done with it. Biixaio (:,ï::oï) would at first return his tongue to its normal
position so that he could swallow it. After some time he was able keep his tongue above the palate while
swallowing small amounts. Svonooa (:,ïo::¬,) was taught to practise khecar¯ımudr¯ a while performing
the headstand. He says “Your guru will warn you that whenever you feel something dripping onto your
tongue you should not swallow but instead come down out of the posture and let the secretion flow
from your mouth into your hand. This is Amrita, which should be taken to your guru, who will put it
into a special paan and only then make you eat it.” The passage describing khecar¯ımudr¯ a at G
´
SN :+ï–:s:
comes after instructions for vipar¯ıtakaran
.
a, the headstand, and :¡¡c could be understood as instructing
the yogin to come out of the posture to drink the amr
.
ta that has accumulated.
¡ï Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
Thus the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a seems to be an attempt at reclaiming the hat
.
hayogic khe-
car¯ımudr¯ a by a school of yogins whose roots lay in Kaula tantrism.
:+s
The practice
as described in the Goraks
.
a´sataka
N
is for the most part a technique of bindudh¯ aran
.
a
and may derive from the khecar¯ımudr¯ a described in the Kularatnoddyota (see footnote
,:). The Datt ¯ atreyayoga´s¯ astra, which almost certainly predates the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, also
teaches a bindudh¯ aran
.
a-oriented khecar¯ımudr¯ a. The compiler(s) of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
knew the Goraks
.
a´sataka
N
and pay it respect at Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a :.:o, but give a very different
interpretation of the hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a.
Of all hat
.
hayogic works, the most eclectic is the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a, which borrows
verses from almost every hat
.
hayogic text that we know existed before its compilation.
The Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a is the second work (after the Yogab¯ıja) that claims to belong to
the N¯ atha school and it is the founding of this most eclectic of orders that resulted in
its composition.
:+o
After the composition of the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a, we find a proliferation in the number
of hat
.
hayogic texts and commentaries.
:+¬
The main reason for this increase is the interest
in hat
.
hayoga taken by Advaita Ved¯ antins. Bouy (:,,¡) examines the textual evidence
for this interest in detail. He summarises the situation thus (ibid.:s):
The headstand, the chin-lock and khecar¯ımudr¯ a are the three techniques useful in bindudh¯ aran
.
a. No
root text of hat
.
hayoga groups them together but Ball¯ ala does in the BKhP (f. :ccv
2
): khecary¯ a vipar¯ı-
takaran
.
y¯ a j ¯ alam
.
dharabam
.
dhena cam
.
drasya bandhanena s¯ urye hutavahe (huta˚ ] em. Saxoiisox; hata˚ S)
v ¯ amr
.
tabim
.
dvapatan ¯ ad dehasya j¯ıvanam
.
sidhyat¯ıti tattvam
.
|
:+s
The earliest layer of the KhV mentions melaka and khecaratva as rewards of the practice, and includes
a passage on the worship of madir¯ a, alcohol, thus suggesting roots in Kaulism. However the passages on
the physical practice that were inserted into this earliest layer show fewer Kaula features. The absence of
sexual symbolism or allusions to tantric rites involving the consumption of bodily power-substances (see
footnote +:+) is striking. The insertion of the tongue into the hollow above the palate and the drinking
of the resultant fluid has obvious parallels with such Kaula practices (see e.g. T
¯
A ¡.:+:, M aSam
.
:ï.::;
cf. H T :.¡.+ï–+,). This suggests that the compilers of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a came from a more ascetic or yogic
tradition than the Kaula text which they used as a framework for their compilation.
:+o
Wuiri (:,,o:,,) lists the following groups as coming under the aegis of the N¯ atha order in the twelfth
to thirteenth centuries: P¯ a´supatas, K¯ ap¯ alikas,
´
S¯ aktas, M¯ ahe´svara Siddhas, Rasa Siddhas, and Buddhist
Siddh¯ ac¯ aryas. In later centuries, he continues, members of the following groups were also included:
Datt ¯ atreya’s Vais
.
n
.
ava [?] Avadh ¯ utas, Dasn¯ am¯ı N¯ ag¯ as, Jains, Sufis and snake charmers.
While containing some internal contradictions as a result of its inclusivism, the H P also seems to
deliberately avoid mentioning issues that could cause division among rival groups. Thus, while Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı
and the n ¯ ad
.
¯ıs are described, cakras are mentioned just once, at +.: (=
´
SS ¡.:+), where it is said that they
are pierced by Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı when she is awakened. Descriptions or lists of individual cakras do not appear.
Different schools of yogins had different systems of cakras and by avoiding a specific description of such
a system the H P avoids alienating any schools. At H P :.+ Sv¯ atmar¯ ama says that he has composed the text
for those who do not know r¯ ajayoga because of their being confused in the darkness of many doctrines
(bhr¯ anty¯ a bahumatadhv ¯ ante).
:+¬
A glance through Guaiori and Bioixai’s Descriptive Catalogue of Yoga M anuscripts (:,ï,) quickly
reveals the extent of this growth.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ¡,
The Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a, which is nothing more than an anthology, was com-
piled by Sv¯ atm¯ ar¯ ama during the XVth century. This Hat
.
ha-yogic work
aroused great interest, especially among followers of
´
Sam
.
kara’s Advaita
philosophy. As early as the XVIth–XVIIth centuries, works written by
Advaita Ved¯ antins, such as N¯ ar¯ ayan
.
a’s D¯ıpik ¯ a on a collection of
¯
Atha-
rvan
.
a Upanis
.
ads,
´
Siv¯ ananda Sarasvat¯ı’s Yogacint ¯ aman
.
i, and N¯ ar¯ ayan
.
a T¯ı-
rtha’s commentary on the Yogas¯ utra, entitled the Yogasiddh¯ antacandrik ¯ a,
referred to Goraks
.
a, i.e. the author of the Goraks
.
a´sataka, and quoted from
the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a and N¯ atha treatises on hat
.
hayoga. In other words,
from that time a number of Sanskrit texts belonging to N¯ atha literature
were considered by Advaita adepts to be authoritative on yoga.
The texts of hat
.
hayoga provided material for part of a corpus of one hundred and
eight upanis
.
ads that was compiled in the first half of the eighteenth century. Works on
hat
.
hayoga were used to create new recensions of old upanis
.
ads and to compose entirely
new ones (including the Yogakun
.
d
.
alyupanis
.
ad whose second adhy¯ aya contains ¡, of
the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s first os verses). This is well documented by Bouy (for a summary
see ibid.:o).
What effect did the Advaita interest have on the understanding and practice of
khecar¯ımudr¯ a? We may assume that the N¯ athas continued to practise it as before: few
new Sanskrit N¯ atha texts appear after the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a yet we know that the N¯ athas
attracted considerable patronage until at least the beginning of the nineteenth century
and for a long period were probably the largest ascetic order in North India.
:+ï
It seems
that, textually speaking, they could rest on their laurels with an established corpus of
works, while the Ved¯ antins sought to accommodate the newly fashionable practices of
hat
.
hayoga within their soteriology.
:+,
Other than the Yogakun
.
d
.
alyupanis
.
ad ’s second
adhy¯ aya the upanis
.
adic passages that mention khecar¯ımudr¯ a are all taken from Goraks
.
a-
´sataka
N
o¡–¬: and thus describe it as a method of bindudh¯ aran
.
a.
:¡c
The verses in the
:+ï
On their patronage, see for example the account of the relationship of Mah¯ ar¯ aj¯ a M¯ an Si ˙ nh (fl. :¬ï+–
:ï¡:ci) with Ayas Dev N¯ ath in Goio :,,s. Caiiiwaiir and Biicx’s word-index of devotional Hind¯ı
literature (:,,::q.q.v.) gives many more instances of the vernacular appellation of the N¯ athas, jog¯ı, than
of those of ascetics of other orders, e.g. vair¯ ag¯ı and sanny¯ as¯ı, suggesting their dominance of the ascetic
milieu in the medieval period.
:+,
In the vernacular texts of the N¯ athas composed during this period, the dominant yogic paradigm is
that of ult
.
¯ a s¯ adhan ¯ a, “the regressive process”, which “involves yogic processes which give a regressive or
upward motion to the whole biological as well as psychological systems which in their ordinary nature
possess a downward tendency” (Dascuira :,¬o:::,). Bindudh¯ aran
.
a is a key part of this process.
:¡c
See Y
´
SU s.+,c–¡:d, of which the first of the two lines not found in the G
´
SN describes the yogin as
sam ¯ ahitah
.
while the second has been redacted to avoid G
´
SN o,d’s k ¯ aminy¯ a´sles
.
itasya ca, “and of [the yogin]
embraced by an amorous woman”. DhBU ¬,a-ïob and YCU s:–s, are almost identical to G
´
SN o¡–¬:.
Upanis
.
adbrahmayogin’s commentary to DU o.+¬–+ï (which does not describe khecar¯ımudr¯ a) mentions
amr
.
tapl¯ avana but only of a li ˙ nga in the forehead.
sc Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
Yogakun
.
d
.
alyupanis
.
ad taken from the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a describe the khecar¯ımantra and the
mechanics of the practice without mentioning amr
.
tapl¯ avana. In the Yogacint ¯ aman
.
i of
´
Siv¯ ananda Sarasvat¯ı (c.:occci; see Bouy :,,¡:::,), khecar¯ımudr¯ a is said to be useful in
holding pr¯ an
.
a in the head; bindu is not mentioned (f. or
4−7
). The Advaita Sam
.
ny¯ a-
sins, intent on liberation, concentrated on the renunciatory and controlling aspect of
khecar¯ımudr¯ a, playing down its siddhi -oriented tantric heritage. They added little but
a shift of emphasis to the nexus of ideas surrounding the practice.
A late Vais
.
n
.
ava manual of hat
.
hayoga, the Gheran
.
d
.
asam
.
hit ¯ a, makes no mention of
amr
.
ta when describing the practice, but describes the variously flavoured rasas that
the tongue will taste (+.+cc–+:d).
:¡:
The benefits of khecar¯ımudr¯ a listed at +.:ïa–+cb
and ¬., are purely physical except for sam ¯ adhi. As the orthodox ideologies of ved¯ anta
and bhakti increased their grip on yoga, tantric ideas were slowly squeezed out. The
khecar¯ımudr¯ a of later hat
.
hayogic works has little connection with tantra; indeed it has
more in common with the practice that was current at the time of the composition of
the Pali canon.
:¡:
Khecar¯ımudr ¯ a in modern India
Hat
.
hayogic texts talk of four types of yoga: mantra, laya, hat
.
ha and r¯ aja. These
were different schools that the authors of the early texts sought to unite. R¯ ajayoga was
identified with the as
.
t
.
¯ a˙ nga yoga taught in Pata˜ njali’s Yogas¯ utras and was held by some to
be no more important than the other three.
:¡+
With time, the orthodox roots of r¯ ajayoga
ensured its being held superior to hat
.
ha and this hierarchy is accepted without question
:¡:
The oldest of the ten dated manuscripts of this text listed by Guaiori and Bioixai (:,ï,:oc–os)
is dated
´
Saka :¬:¡ (:ïc:–+ci). As far as I am aware, the text is not cited by any earlier authors.
:¡:
As hat
.
hayoga entered the Ved¯ antic mainstream it was slowly stripped of its tantric heritage. The
GhS (c.:ïth century) turns vajrolimudr¯ a, the practice of urethral suction, into a simple physical posture.
(See GhS +.¡s. The original vajrolimudr¯ a, which was perhaps first used to draw up combined sexual
fluids, is described at DY
´
S :,,–+:¡.) This process of suppression of tantric elements was given a boost
by the Hindu Renaissance of the British period when Hindu apologists felt a need for a monolithic
homogeneous Hinduism with which to enter into a dialogue with Christianity. A generous helping of
Victorian prudery was thrown into the mix and since then all but the most broad-minded commentators
on hat
.
hayoga have dismissed or ignored practices that have left-hand tantric origins. Vasu’s :,:¡ edition
of the
´
Sivasam
.
hit ¯ a omits entirely the description of the original vajrolimudr¯ a “as it is an obscene practice
indulged in by low class Tantrists” (p.s:). Riixii’s commentary on the H P written in :,¬: under the
guidance of B.K.S.Iyengar, a well-known hat
.
hayoga teacher from Pune, describes the vajroli-, sahajoli-
and amaroli- mudr¯ as as “a few obscure and repugnant practices. . . a yoga that has nothing but its name
in common with the yoga of a Patanjali or a Ramakrishna” (:,,::::¬).
:¡+
YB :¡+–¡ teaches that all four are but levels (bh ¯ umik ¯ as) of mah¯ ayoga while H P :.¬o reads hat
.
ham
.
vin ¯ a r¯ ajayogo r¯ ajayogam
.
vin ¯ a hat
.
hah
.
| na sidhyati tato yugmam ¯ a nis
.
patteh
.
samabhyaset “Without hat
.
ha
r¯ ajayoga cannot succeed; without r¯ ajayoga, hat
.
ha [cannot succeed]. So [the yogin] should practise both
until he reaches the ultimate stage”. (Many other verses in the H P anthology do however subordinate
hat
.
ha to r¯ aja.)
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a s:
by yogins in India today. Hat
.
ha is seen as a preliminary for r¯ aja. Some practices are
deemed to have two varieties, one hat
.
ha and one r¯ aja. Thus the bindudh¯ aran
.
a-oriented
khecar¯ımudr¯ a described at Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a +.+:–s+ is the physical hat
.
hayoga practice,
while the khecar¯ımudr¯ a of ¡.¡:–ss in which the tongue is not explicitly mentioned is
the purely mental, and therefore superior, r¯ ajayoga practice.
:¡¡
This is how khecar¯ı-
mudr¯ a was explained to me by Raghuvara D¯ as Yog¯ır¯ aj and he assured me that the
r¯ ajayoga variety was much more important than that of hat
.
hayoga, about which he
was somewhat dismissive. Saty¯ ananda Saiasvar¯ı distinguishes between two types of
khecar¯ımudr¯ a in his commentary on the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a (:,,+::¬,): a hat
.
hayoga khe-
car¯ımudr¯ a, in which the tongue is inserted into the cavity above the palate, and an
implicitly superior, sam ¯ adhi -oriented r¯ ajayoga khecar¯ımudr¯ a, in which the tongue is
pressed against the palate in the manner of the practices described in the Pali canon
and early Sanskrit works. The majority of the khecar¯ımudr¯ a-practising yogins that
I met during my fieldwork emphasised the practice’s importance for entering a state
of sam ¯ adhi. Para´sur¯ am D¯ as Yog¯ır¯ aj called it sam ¯ adhi k ¯ a a˙ ng, “a limb of sam ¯ adhi ”.
By sam ¯ adhi, my less well educated informants meant simply a trance-like meditation
carried out for long periods of time rather than the state of absorption described in,
for example, the Yogas¯ utra and its commentaries.
:¡s
Only two of my informants (Dr. Trip¯ at
.
h¯ı and Sv¯ am¯ı Pran
.
av¯ anand) mentioned
bindudh¯ aran
.
a as an aim of khecar¯ımudr¯ a and I suspect that this is at least partly due to
their having read hat
.
hayogic texts. Both associated bindudh¯ aran
.
a with the raising of
Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı. They did not mention the drinking or tasting of amr
.
ta. In contrast, all my
other informants said that the main aim of the practice is the drinking of amr
.
ta and
associated it with the ability to fly.
:¡o
L¯ al J¯ı Bh¯ a¯ı practises khecar¯ımudr¯ a for at least two
:¡¡
In the colophons of the Kaivalyadh¯ am edition the H P ’s third upade´sa is called the mudr¯ avidh¯ ana
upade´sa and the fourth the sam ¯ adhilaks
.
an
.
a upade´sa. At H P ¡.+ r¯ ajayoga and sam ¯ adhi are said to be
synonyms while DY
´
S s¬–o: explains hat
.
hayoga to be the ten mudr¯ as. L¯ al J¯ı Bh¯ a¯ı added an interesting
slant to the orthodox idea of hat
.
hayoga being a preliminary practice for r¯ ajayoga. He told me that r¯ ajayoga
is itself merely a preliminary for khecar¯ımudr¯ a, which in turn leads to the awakening of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı.
:¡s
On this long-term sam ¯ adhi see footnote ¡c¡. Ascetics who have practised such sam ¯ adhi (often
interring themselves for days or weeks) earn the honorific Hind¯ı title sam ¯ adhis
.
t
.
h, “in sam ¯ adhi ”.
Since khecar¯ımudr¯ a is a part of yogic practice, it is not surprising that it should be seen as a means to
sam ¯ adhi, the summum bonum of all yogas. However the trend for subordinating all yogic practice to the
goal of sam ¯ adhi is sometimes taken to extremes. See for example Suuxia (:,oo:o–¬) where he analyses the
six cleaning practices of hat
.
hayoga, following the interpretation of the GhS. N eti, the cleansing of the nasal
and oral passages, facilitates khecar¯ımudr¯ a, which leads to r¯ ajayoga. Karn
.
adhauti, ear-cleaning, facilitates
the hearing of the internal n ¯ ada, which again leads to sam ¯ adhi. Tr¯ at
.
aka, staring without blinking, cleans
the eyes, facilitating ´s¯ ambhav¯ımudr¯ a, the knower of which “becomes one with Brahman”. Thus, for
Suuxia, the authors of the hat
.
hayogic texts “have all along kept the goal of Advaita in view”.
:¡o
On the absence of textual evidence linking khecar¯ımudr¯ a with flying see footnote :cï. Pran
.
av¯ anand
Saiasvar¯ı (:,ï¡::c¡), while acknowledging that khecar¯ımudr¯ a can make the body so light that it rises into
the air, explains flying by means of khecar¯ımudr¯ a as the upward movement of breath. For him, the aim
s: Tui Har
.
uayocic Kuicai¯ıxuoi¯ a
to three hours every day in order to drink amr
.
ta, which, he said, brings about na´s¯ a,
“intoxication”, like whisky. If he doesn’t drink it every day he feels out of sorts and
cannot apply himself to anything. Govind D¯ as Yog¯ır¯ aj said that amr
.
ta has a taste jisk ¯ a
varn
.
an kiy¯ a nah¯ım
.
j ¯ ayega, “whose taste cannot be described”. Similarly, Nain¯ a D¯ as
Yog¯ır¯ aj said that the goal of the practice is the drinking of amr
.
ta and that its rewards
could not be described but had to be experienced.
:¡¬
Thus, while all are agreed that khecar¯ımudr¯ a is an important means to sam ¯ adhi, the
more educated practitioners of hat
.
hayoga frame their understanding of its aims in the
terms of the prevalent ideology of orthodox asceticism (i.e. sam ¯ adhi by means of bindu-
dh¯ aran
.
a and the raising of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı), but those whose understanding derives from
non-textual sources see it to be also a means to attaining such siddhi s as the drinking
of amr
.
ta, magical flight and the ability to remain in meditation without food or water
for extended periods. Despite the orthodox elite’s attempts to remove or ignore the
power-seeking, siddhi -oriented heritage of the practice (and of hat
.
hayoga in general),
it lives on in the oral tradition of the hat
.
hayogins of today.
Practitioners of khecar¯ımudr ¯ a
What can be said about ascetics who use or have used techniques involving the tongue?
Apart from the passage from the Vis
.
n
.
usmr
.
ti, the evidence from works prior to the
hat
.
hayogic corpus seems to indicate that it was the preserve of unorthodox yogins. In
the M ah¯ asaccakasutta the Buddha includes the technique of pressing the tongue against
the palate amongst extreme ascetic disciplines, such as extended breath-retention and
fasting, that were practised by Jainas and
¯
Aj¯ıvikas. Saxoiisox (:,ïo::::) has pointed
out that the Jayadrathay¯ amala preserves elements of K¯ ap¯ alika practice. The descriptions
of ascetics in the Kaulaj ˜ n ¯ ananirn
.
aya and M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a indicate their P¯ a´supata and
K¯ ap¯ alika heritage.
:¡ï
The practice gained fame as part of the s¯ adhana of the N¯ athas
who continued this tradition of antinomian asceticism. The popularity of the N¯ athas
of yoga is the cleansing of the antah
.
karan
.
a. L¯ al J¯ı Bh¯ a¯ı told me two reasons why he believed flying was
possible through khecar¯ımudr¯ a. Firstly, he once sneaked into a N¯ atha yogin’s meditation room, seeking
initiation, and found him floating above the ground. Secondly, he had had to remove the fan and lamp
from his own meditation room because on more than one occasion he had come out of his meditation
to find himself on the other side of the room, having fallen onto the lamp or with his hair caught in the
fan. He took this to be evidence that he had flown across the room.
:¡¬
As well as emphasising the ineffableness of the fruits of the practice, my informants were adamant
that, contrary to instructions found in hat
.
hayogic texts, guarantees along the lines of “if you do x for y
months, z will happen” cannot be made. Each individual’s experience is unique.
:¡ï
KJN ::.+–, includes descriptions of the vratin as unmatt ¯ akr
.
ti, “resembling a madman”, ka´smala,
“dirty”, and nagna, “naked”. M aSam
.
¡¡.: describes the s¯ adhaka: avadh ¯ uto jat
.
¯ abhasmanar¯ asthikr
.
tabh ¯ us
.
a-
n
.
ah
.
(em.; ˚¯ ah
.
cod ) | maun¯ı kar¯ a´san¯ı bh ¯ utv ¯ a paryat
.
an pr
.
thiv¯ım im ¯ am “Having cast off worldly concerns,
wearing matted hair, ashes and human bones, silent, eating from his hand, wandering the earth”.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a s+
led to other orders adopting their appearance and practices (and, in the case of the
Ved¯ antins, their texts). With their monopoly on the magical asceticism that so appeals
to the Indian public broken, the N¯ athas found it hard to compete for patronage. In :,s¡
Eiiaoi (:,¬+:+c:) described them as showing “all the signs of a sect in decomposition”.
Meanwhile, the most numerous ascetic orders in India today all have sub-orders that
closely resemble the N¯ athas, and many of their members practise hat
.
hayoga.
:¡,
In
my fieldwork in India I found that among hat
.
hayogins of all sects, those who practise
khecar¯ımudr¯ a are rare and are held in respect by their peers. Although the practice has
a long pedigree, I doubt that it has ever been very popular.
As indicated by the inclusion of two householders among my ethnographic infor-
mants, the practice is not restricted to ascetics. Whether this is because of the advent
of printing having increased awareness of hat
.
hayogic practices or whether ascetic gurus
have always initiated lay disciples into such techniques is impossible for me to say. Both
the lay practitioners of khecar¯ımudr¯ a that I met during my fieldwork were acqainted
with the texts of hat
.
hayoga, but both had been initiated into the practice by ascetic
gurus.
:¡,
The two most numerous ascetic orders in India today are the Vais
.
n
.
ava R¯ am¯ anand¯ıs and the
´
Saiva
Dasn¯ am¯ı Sam
.
ny¯ as¯ıs. At the Hardwar Kumbh Mel¯ a in :,,ï a R¯ am¯ anand¯ı Ty¯ ag¯ı mahant estimated that
the R¯ am¯ anand¯ıs numbered :,ccc,ccc and the Sam
.
ny¯ as¯ıs :,scc,ccc. The next most numerous order is
that of the Ud¯ as¯ıs who trace their origin to
´
Sr¯ıcand, the eldest son of Guru N¯ anak. The R¯ am¯ anand¯ı
Ty¯ ag¯ıs and the N¯ ag¯ as of both the Sam
.
ny¯ as¯ıs and Ud¯ as¯ıs closely resemble the N¯ athas in both appearance
and lifestyle. The number of N¯ athas at the Mel¯ a was less than five hundred, as a result of which they
were not allowed to have their own procession (jul ¯ us) on the main bathing days.
s¡ Souicis
Sources
In this description of the sources of the text of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, pat
.
ala and verse
numbers refer to those of the edition unless stated otherwise.
• A (Amritsar)
M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Good condition. c.:ïscci. ::c folios,
numbered at top right and bottom left of verso. +c × :¡ cm. with :: lines to a
side. The text consists of ss pat
.
alas with :¡.: to :¬.: (inclusive) corresponding to
the first three pat
.
alas of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. These are found at ff.+,r-¡,v. Pat
.
ala :¡
(f. +,r
4
–f. ¡:v
5
) corresponds to the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s first pat
.
ala. Pat
.
ala :s (f. ¡:v
5

f. ¡sr
7
) ends at verse ï+ (= KhV :.ï:). Pat
.
ala :o (f. ¡sr
7
–f. ¡,v
3
) consists of ::¡
verses (= KhV :.ï:–+.oïb). The M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a’s pat
.
ala :ï (f. o,v
10
–f. ¬cv
5
)
corresponds to the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s pat
.
ala ¡. There is a title page consisting of a
label from “Bhajan Lal Mss Dealer and Bookseller, Gali Tokrian, Katra Safaid,
Amritsar”. The label has the number o¡os¬ in arabic numerals written at the
top. In addition to the information given above it states that the author of the
manuscript is “Matsya N¯ atha”, the “Recension” is “Kasmir” and it was written
“Near :,cc V.S.”. The “Where from obtained” section has been left blank.
The readings of A are very close to those of J
o
and J
¬
but include more careless
errors. A appears to derive from J
¬
which in turn derives from J
o
.
Beginning (f. :r
1
):
om
.
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
´sr¯ın¯ ath¯ aya namah
.
End (f. ::cr
1
):
iti ´sr¯ımatsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ ay¯ am
.
pam
.
capam
.
c¯ a´sah
.
tpat
.
alah
.
sam¯ aptasam
.
-
p ¯ urn
.
am om
.
y¯ adr
.
´sam
.
pustakam
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v¯ a t ¯ adr
.
´sam
.
likhitam
.
may¯ a yadi
´suddhah
.
m a´sudham
.
v¯ a | mama dos
.
a na d¯ıyate : ⊕ ⊗⊕ ⊗⊕ ⊗ ×
× × ⊕ ⊗⊕ ⊗⊕ ⊗⊕ ⊗
Uncatalogued.
The Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London. MS Sansk. β
:::s.
• J
o
(Jodhpur)
M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Complete and good condition. c. :,th
century. ï+ folios, numbered at top left and bottom right of verso. :o × :c.s
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ss
cm with :: lines to a side. The pat
.
ala and verse numbers correspond to those
of the KhV in the same way as those of witness A described above. :¡.: (=KhV
:.:) is at f. :ov
4
, :¬.: (=KhV +.oï) is at f. +¡r
1
and pat
.
ala :ï (=KhV pat
.
ala ¡) is
at f. ¡ïv
2
–f. ¡,r
3
.
I am grateful to David White for providing me with xerox copies of f.:v, ff.:ov–
¡,r (covering pat
.
alas :¡–:ï) and f.ï+v.
The readings of J
o
are very close to those of A and J
¬
. J
o
appears to be the source
of the readings of J
¬
, and J
¬
the source of those of A.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´sa´s¯ arad¯ agurubhyo namah
.
End (f. ï+v
11
):
iti ´sr¯ımatsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ ay¯ am
.

pam
.
capam
.
c¯ a´sah
.
pat
.
alah
.
sam¯ aptah
.

Described by Vyas and Ksuiisacai (:,ïo::ï¡–s).
MMSL, Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur. MS No. :¬ï¡.
• J
¬
(Jodhpur)
M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Complete. c.:,th century. :¬, folios,
numbered at top left and bottom right of verso. :¬.s × ::.s cm with :c lines to
a side. :¡.: (=KhV :.:) is at f. ssr
8
, :¬.: (=KhV +.oï) is at f. ¬:r
1
and pat
.
ala :ï
(=KhV pat
.
ala ¡) is at f. :c:r
2
–f. :c+r
7
.
I am grateful to David White for providing me with xerox copies of f.:v, ff.ssr–
f.•v (pat
.
alas :¡–:ï), ff.:ccr–:c+r (pat
.
alas :¬ and :ï) and f.:¬,v.
The readings of J
¬
are very close to those of A and J
o
. They appear to derive from
those of J
o
and to be the source of those of A.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ın¯ ath¯ aya namah
.
End (f. :¬,v
9
):
iti ´sr¯ımatsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ ay¯ am
.
pam
.
capam
.
c¯ a´sah
.
pat
.
alah
.
sam¯ aptah
.
Described by Vyas and Ksuiisacai (:,ïo::ï¡–s).
MMSL, Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur. MS No. :•:.
so Souicis
• G (Grantha)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Palm Leaf. Grantha. Incomplete, starting with my verse :.:ca
at the beginning of f.:ïr. At the right hand edge of f.:ïr is written “Fol.:o–:¬
missing”. , folios, numbered at bottom left of recto. ::.s × ¡.c cm. with ::
lines to a side. Condition good, but occasionally worm-eaten, and worn at tops
of ff.:ïv, :,v, :cv and ::v. The text is not divided into pat
.
alas but is numbered
intermittently (usually at every fifth verse) from +c (at the edition’s :.:,) to ¡ï
(i.e. :¡ï, at the edition’s +.¡sc). The fourth pat
.
ala of the edition is not found
in this manuscript. Following the text of the KhV is a work whose colophon
(end of f.:,r) reads iti goraks
.
abodha n ¯ ama yoga´s¯ astram. Dr. Goodall, who had
the manuscript photocopied, reported that the rest of the codex is made up of
small works on Advaita.
Colophon (f. :or
6
):
´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ athaviracite mah¯ ak¯ al
.
ayoga´s¯ astre um¯ amahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade
khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
prathamah
.
pat
.
alah
.
—– ´sivamayam —— nitya-
kaly¯ an
.
isah¯ ayya—— gurave namah
.
Described by Racuavax (:,o,b::ïï).
Institut Franc¸ais de Pondich´ ery. MS RE ::oo+.
• U (Upanis
.
ad)
Yogakun
.
d
.
alyupanis
.
ad. Edited by Mah¯ adev
´
S¯ astri, in T he Yoga Upanis
.
ads (Adyar
Library :,:c). Adhy¯ aya : (pp. +::–+:ï) consists of ¡, of the first o¡ ´slokas of
the first pat
.
ala of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. According to the preface, seven sources were
used for the edition of the twenty “Yoga Upanis
.
ads”:
:. “Adyar Library TR +¡. Devan¯ agar¯ı; containing Minor Upanis
.
ad-s with
Appay¯ ac¯ arya’s commentary.”
:. “Adyar Library ¬sïï+-s. Grantha; containing :cï Upanis
.
ad-s.”
+. “Adyar Library ¬s::¬. Grantha; containing :cï Upanis
.
ad-s.”
¡. “A Grantha MS. of :cï Upanis
.
ad-s lent by Mr. V. Kachchapesvara Iyer,
B.A., B.L., of Vellore.”
s. Adyar Library PM :::. :cï Upanis
.
ads with Upanis
.
adbrahmayogin’s com-
mentary. Devan¯ agar¯ı.
o. Adyar Library ¬s¬c,-:c. :cï Upanis
.
ads with Upanis
.
adbrahmayogin’s com-
mentary. Grantha.
¬. “The printed edition of :cï Upanis
.
ad-s published by Tukaram Javaji, Bom-
bay, :,:+, based on a South Indian MS.”
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a s¬
Upanis
.
adbrahmayogin’s commentary is found at four places in the text:
:. after :¬b(=KhV :.+:b):
j ˜ n¯ anasahitahat
.
hayogasarvasvam
.
pratip¯ adya saprapa˜ ncam
.
lambi-
k¯ ayogam ¯ acas
.
t
.
e – atheti | yath¯ a yath¯ avat :-:: mahyam
.
mattah
.
:+-:s hr¯ım ity¯ adikhecar¯ıb¯ıjap ¯ uray¯ a
“antarlaks
.
yavil¯ınacittapavano yog¯ı sad¯ a vartate
dr
.
s
.
t
.
y¯ a ni´scalat ¯ aray¯ a bahir adhah
.
pa´syann apa´syann api |
mudreyam
.
khalu khecar¯ı bhavati s¯ a laks
.
yaikat ¯ an¯ a ´siv¯ a
´s¯ uny¯ a´s¯ unyavivarjitam
.
sphurati s¯ a tattvam
.
padam
.
vais
.
n
.
avi ”
iti ´srutisiddhakhecar¯ımudray¯ a khecar¯ıyogam
.
yu ˜ njan yah
.
k¯ alam
.
nayati :o sa yog¯ı deh¯ ante khecar¯ adhipatih
.
s¯ uryo bh ¯ utv¯ a khe-
cares
.
u khecaran
.
¯ıyalokes
.
u sad¯ a vaset
:. after :cd(=KhV :.+sd):
melanamantrar¯ ajam uddharati—khecareti | khav¯ acakatay¯ a carat¯ı-
ti khecarah
.
hak¯ arah
.
¯ avasatham iti dh¯ aran
.
¯ a´saktir ¯ık¯ arah
.
reti vahnih
.
ambuman
.
d
.
alam iti binduh
.
| etat sarvam
.
militv¯ a bh ¯ us
.
itam
.
hr¯ım
iti :¬ khecar¯ıb¯ıjam ¯ akhy¯ atam | tenaiva lambik¯ ayogah
.
prasid-
hyati | ´sis
.
t
.
ab¯ıjas
.
at
.
kam apy ambuman
.
d
.
alabh ¯ us
.
itam iti j ˜ neyam
| som¯ am
.
´sah
.
sak¯ arah
.
candrab¯ıjam
.
tatpratilomena tannavakam
.
varn
.
am uddharet bham iti :ï tasm¯ at bhak¯ ar¯ ad anulom-
ena tryam
.
´sakam
.
candrab¯ıjam ¯ akhy¯ atam
.
sam iti | tasm¯ at sak¯ ar¯ at
vilomena aparam as
.
t
.
amam
.
varn
.
am uddharet mam (s
.
am vl ) iti
:, tath¯ a mak¯ ar¯ at vilomena aparam
.
pa˜ ncamavarn
.
am
.
pam (tham
vl ) iti viddhi | punar indo´s ca b¯ıjam
.
sam ity uddharet | bahubhih
.
kak¯ aras
.
ak¯ arabindubhih
.
yukto ’yam
.
k¯ ut
.
ah
.
ks
.
am iti | ¯ ahatya b¯ıj¯ ani
sapta—hr¯ım
.
, bham
.
, sam
.
, mam
.
, pam
.
, sam
.
, ks
.
am
.
, iti :c–::
+. after :¬d(=KhV :.¡:d):
nityam
.
dv¯ ada´sav¯ aram
.
yo japati sa m¯ ay¯ at¯ıto bhavat¯ıty arthah
.

::–:¬
¡. after the last verse, ¡,d(=KhV :.osb):
abhy¯ asakramam ¯ aha – t ¯ alv iti :ï–:, k¯ ary¯ antaram
.
hitveti |
har¯ıtak¯ı pathy¯ a´sabd¯ arthah
.
+c–+: v¯ ag¯ı´svar¯ıdh¯ ama´sirah
.
jihv¯ a-
gram +:–+¡ tiryak cch¯ ak¯ avadhih
.
´sikh¯ am ¯ ulam ity arthah
.

+s–+o durlabh¯ am
.
durlabhat ¯ am +¬ s
.
at
.
svarabhinnay¯ a hr¯ a-
m
.
hr¯ım
.
ity¯ adinety arthah
.
+ï–¡c brahm¯ argalam antarjihv¯ a-
sus
.
iram ¡:–¡¬ evam
.
gurumukh¯ at lambik¯ avidy¯ am abhyasya
dv¯ ada´savars
.
¯ anus
.
t
.
h¯ an¯ at lambik¯ ayogasiddhih
.
bhavati ¡ï ´sar¯ıre
sï Souicis
sakalam
.
vi´svam
.
pa´syat¯ıty anena vir¯ at
.
s¯ utrab¯ıjaturyar ¯ upam
.
kra-
men
.
a pratipadyate | yatra sahasr¯ are r¯ ajadantordhvakun
.
d
.
al¯ı jihv¯ a
prasarati so ’yam
.
m¯ argah
.
brahm¯ an
.
d
.
anibho bhavati, supathya-
tv¯ at | iti´sabdah
.
lambik¯ ayogasam¯ aptyarthah
.
, dvit¯ıy¯ adhy¯ ayasam¯ a-
ptyartha´s ca bhavati ¡,
Section headings are found at four places in the text:
:. at the beginning:
khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
:. before :¬c (KhV :.+:c):
khecar¯ımantrar¯ ajoddh¯ arah
.
+. before ::a (KhV :.+oa):
mantrajap¯ at khecar¯ısiddhih
.
¡. before :ïa (KhV :.¡+a):
khecaryabhy¯ asakramah
.
• T (Madras, Tamil Nadu)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Paper transcription in Devan¯ agar¯ı from a Kannada manuscript in
bad condition. It was transcribed on ¡th May :,¡¬ from manuscript R :ï+:(e)
folios ïcr-ï¡r into a bound book, and covers seven pages of the book with twenty
lines per page. It consists of the first o¡ ´slokas of pat
.
ala : of the edited KhV and
contains several careless errors.
Beginning:
khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
End (p.¬):
iti khecar¯ıvidy¯ a sam
.
p ¯ urn
.
am
iti ´sr¯ıma´s ´sam
.
kar¯ ac¯ aryapad¯ aravim
.
d¯ abhy¯ am
.
namah
.
harih
.
om
.
kr
.
s
.
n
.
¯ arpan
.
am astu
Copied By S.R.Raghuthanachar [sic]
Darsanakovida ¡/ s/ ¡¬
Restored in :,¡¬-¡ï from a library ms. R :ï+:
Uncatalogued.
Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras. MS R••.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a s,
• S (Scindia Oriental Research Institute, Ujjain)
Br
.
hatkhecar¯ıprak ¯ a´sa. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Complete. ::¬ folios, numbered at
top left of verso up to only ::: because there are two folios numbered :+, three
numbered ¡: and three numbered ïo. I refer to these folios as :+(:), :+(:), ¡:(:),
¡:(:),
:sc
¡:(+),
:s:
ïo(:), ïo(:) and ïo(+) and thus adhere to the numbering found
in the manuscript. +:.s × :+.c cm. with , or :c lines to a side. Good condition.
c.:¬sc–:ïccci.
:s:
The manuscript consists of the text of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, the
verses of which are written in the middle of each folio, with a t
.
¯ık ¯ a by Ball¯ ala.
Sometimes the text of the t
.
¯ık ¯ a, having filled up the page, runs from the bottom
right of the page up the right hand margin, occasionally even running around
the top of the folio upside down relative to the main body of text. At many places
in the manuscript comments, corrections, and additions have been made in the
margins by later hands. There are very few errors in the text of the commentary.
From variant readings given in the commentary it is clear that Ball¯ ala had access
to manuscripts in the traditions of groups α and β.
Beginning (f. :v
1
, after a ma˙ ngala invoking Hanum¯ an written in the top margin
of f.:v by a later hand):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
om
.
namah
.
´siv¯ aya namah
.
sarasvatyai gan
.
¯ a-
dhyaks
.
am
.
namaskr
.
tya ´sivam am
.
b¯ am
.
sarasvat¯ım
.
prak¯ a´sam
.
kheca-
r¯ın¯ amny¯ a bruve ball¯ al
.
an¯ amakah
.
: jayati sad¯ a ´sivat¯ırthah
.
k¯ a´sy¯ am
.
yasm¯ ad av¯ aptav¯ an es
.
ah
.
vidy¯ am
.
khecarasam
.
j ˜ n¯ am
.
s¯ abhy¯ as¯ am
.
suhita-
pustak¯ am
.
s¯ am
.
g¯ am
.
:atah
.
s¯ aram
.
sam¯ alocya gram
.
thebhyas tatvato
may¯ a ´saktye vy¯ akhy¯ asye khecar¯ıvidy¯ apat
.
alam iti ´sabdatah
.
+ ¯ a-
din¯ atham
.
ca matsyem
.
dram
.
goraks
.
am
.
c¯ anyayoginah
.
namaskurmo
hat
.
hasy¯ asya r¯ ajayogasya c¯ aptaye ¡ guror ¯ aj ˜ n¯ am
.
sam¯ alam
.
bya dur-
bodh¯ am api khecar¯ım
.
ap ¯ urvat
.
¯ık¯ am
.
savy¯ akhy¯ am
.
kurve yogijana-
priy¯ am
.
s
Then follows the commentary on the first verse of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
End of commentary on the first pat
.
ala (f. :ïv
9
):
iti ´sr¯ımajj¯ amadagnyagotrab¯ ab ¯ ubhat
.
t
.
¯ atmaja ´sr¯ırudrabhat
.
t
.
[...] sarva-
vidy¯ anidh¯ anayogatam
.
traprav¯ın
.
a´sr¯ıball¯ al
.
aviracite khecar¯ıpat
.
alaprak¯ a-
:sc
f.¡:(:) is an expansion (introduced with “prasam
.
g¯ at”), in a later hand, of the commentary found on
f.¡:(:)v.
:s:
There is writing on only one side of f.¡:(+).
:s:
While Samvat and
´
Saka dates corresponding to :ï¡cci are found in the final colophon, these probably
refer to a date when the manuscript changed hands. The inserted lines are written in a different hand
from the rest of the codex.
oc Souicis
´se upodgh¯ at ¯ adidv¯ ada´sav¯ ars
.
ik¯ abhy¯ asanir ¯ upan
.
am
.
n¯ ama prathama ud-
yotah
.
sam
.
p ¯ urn
.
ah
.
cha
End of KhV (f. :::r
8
):
iti ´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ athanir ¯ upite mah¯ ak¯ alopavartini um¯ amahe´svarasam
.
v¯ a-
de khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
caturthah
.
pat
.
alah
.
sam
.
p ¯ urn
.
ah
.
ccha
End of t
.
¯ık ¯ a (f. :::r
5
):
b¯ ab ¯ ubhat
.
t
.
atan ¯ ujarudratanujah
.
s¯ am
.
be ´sive bhaktim¯ an evam
.
sadgu-
rup¯ adayor atha janitror anyas¯ adhus
.
v api ball¯ al
.
o ’racayat prak¯ a´sam
atulam
.
´s¯ astraikasiddh¯ am
.
tajam
.
khecary¯ as tam imam
.
vibh¯ avanapar¯ a
gr
.
h

n
.

am
.
tv aho bh¯ avak¯ ah
.
: mukt ¯ aphal¯ am
.
tararasagrahan
.
¯ a hi
ham
.
s¯ a ¯ araktacam
.
cucaran
.
¯ a madhur¯ asadacch¯ ah
.
´sukty¯ arat ¯ as taditare



rasam¯ am
.
sabh¯ av¯ a ek¯ aks
.
avr
.
s
.
n
.
atanavo vicaram
.
ti loke : s¯ adhv¯ı
m¯ at ¯ a p¯ arvat¯ı ∗yadbhary¯ a rukmin
.
¯ı tath¯ a v¯ asudevah
.
soman¯ atho
putraugadhe pi n¯ ama ca + ten¯ atra sad asat proktam
.
ks
.
am
.
tavyam
.
tan mah¯ atmabhih
.
b¯ alakasya pral¯ apo hi ks
.
amyate gurubhih
.
kila ¡
prak¯ a´san¯ at kal¯ ad¯ın¯ am
.
p¯ am
.
d
.
ityasya parasya ca j ˜ n¯ anaikar ¯ up¯ı sarv¯ a-
tm¯ a ´sivah
.
pr¯ın
.
¯ atu kevalah
.
s sam
.
kars
.
an
.
o mah¯ abuddhir br¯ ahman
.
o
hi jan¯ ardanah
.
tadann¯ a´srayato n ¯ unam
.
vyekat
.
¯ am
.
n
.
n
.
¯ a sah¯ ayatah
.
o
ag¯ am
.
ka

maja

:ï,¬cam
.
dr¯ akhye vatsare vyam
.
gatas tath¯ a ´sake
saptem
.
duke :¬o

:

p ¯ urn
.
ah
.
paurn
.
am¯ asy¯ am
.
´sucer bhuvi ¬ iti
´sr¯ımajj¯ amadagnyagotrab¯ ab ¯ ubhat
.
t
.
¯ atmaja´sr¯ırudrabhat
.
t
.
as¯ unusarvavi-
dy¯ anidh¯ anayogatam
.
traprav¯ın
.
a´sr¯ıgovim
.
d¯ aparan¯ ama´sr¯ıball¯ al
.
aviracite
´sr¯ıkhecar¯ıvidy¯ apat
.
ala∗´se yogopayuktaus
.
adh¯ıvy¯ akhy¯ ane ca-
turtham
.
pat
.
alam
.
sam
.
p ¯ urn
.
at ¯ am agamad iti :(f.112v) iti
br
.
hatkhecar¯ıprak¯ a´sah
.
sam
.
p ¯ urn
.
ah
.

At f. :v
2
there is a benediction to “Sad¯ a´sivat¯ırtha” from whom the commentator
obtained the text of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. In the margin, the note sam
.
ny¯ as¯ıty arthah
.
has been added by a later hand confirming that the name refers to a Da´san¯ am¯ı
ascetic (sam
.
ny¯ as¯ı). The T¯ırtha suborder of the Da´san¯ am¯ıs consists of Dan
.
d
.
¯ı
sam
.
ny¯ as¯ıs of Brahmin birth. We thus have some indication of the milieu in
which the commentary was composed. Ball¯ ala, however, appears to have no
particular axe to grind, be it that of advaitaved¯ anta or brahmanic orthodoxy. He
has no hesitation in giving descriptions of extreme ascetic practices that go far
beyond what is found in other hat
.
hayogic texts and commentaries that I have
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a o:
read.
:s+
Ball¯ ala mentions and quotes from several works in his commentary (a list of all
the works cited and the location(s) in the manuscript of their citations is found
in the appendices, pp.:,¡–,). I have quoted from the commentary extensively
in the notes to the translation. Unless indicated otherwise, the quotations are
exactly as found in the manuscript.
Described by Racuavax (:,o,b::ïï).
Scindia Oriental Research Institute Library, Ujjain. MS :¡s¬s.
• N (N asik)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Complete and in good condition. c.:cth
century. ¡: folios, numbered at bottom right of verso. Approximately :ï × ,
cm. s lines to a side.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
´sr¯ıgurubhyo namah
.

After the edition’s final verse N has (f. ¡:r
5
):
| cha y¯ avam
.
naiva pravi´sati caranm¯ aruto madhyam¯ argam
.
y¯ avad
vim
.
dur na bhavati dr
.
d
.
hah
.
pr¯ an
.
av¯ atapraba(f.¡+v)ddhah
.
y¯ avat vyo-
mn¯ a sahajasadr
.
´sam
.
j¯ ayate naiva cittam
.
y¯ avat j ˜ n¯ anam
.
vadati manujo
dam
.
bhamithy¯ apral¯ apah
.
: ´sr¯ıbhav¯ an¯ı´sam
.
kar¯ arpan
.
am astu cha
N and W
:
are very similar. At :.::cc both contain an extra section consisting of
Goraks
.
a´sataka
N
:ï¡–,c, :,: and :,¬–ï. N concludes the second pat
.
ala after this
section; W
:
has the final :¡ ´slokas of the KhV ’s second pat
.
ala. The passage in N
runs as follows (f. :ïr
2
–f. :,v
5
):
dh¯ aran
.
¯ a pam
.
can¯ ad
.
¯ıs
.
u dhy¯ ana dvisaptan¯ ad
.
ikam
.
dinadv¯ ada´sakenaiva sam¯ adhi pr¯ an
.
asam
.
yam¯ at
anasam
.
dh¯ ana yo yogai sod
.
am
.
lasatin¯ am
.
gin¯ am
.
tath¯ atmanasayor aikyam
.
sam¯ adhih
.
so bhidh¯ıyate
tath¯ a sam
.
ks
.
¯ıyate pr¯ an
.
o m¯ anasam
.
ca pral¯ıyate
tath¯ a (f.28v) samarasatvam
.
ca sam¯ adhih
.
so bhidh¯ıyate
yat samatvam
.
dvayor atra j¯ıv¯ atm¯ aparam¯ atmanoh
.
:s+
See for example his description of the coprophagic ajar¯ı kriy¯ a at f. ¡¬v
2−4
, quoted in my notes to the
translation of :.¬oc–¬¬b, or his detailed description of the preparation for and technique of vajrol¯ı mudr¯ a
at f. :c+v
1
–f. :c¡r
6
, which goes far beyond what is found in any other hat
.
hayogic text and suggests at least
close acquaintance with a practitioner of the technique, if not mastery by the commentator himself.
o: Souicis
nas
.
t
.
asamastasam
.
kalpa sam¯ adhih
.
so bhidh¯ıyate
im
.
driy¯ an
.
i manovr
.
tti sarvaj¯ıv¯ a´srayam
.
bhavet
atha yat tad gate j¯ıve na mano nem
.
driy¯ an
.
i ca
na gam
.
dho na raso r ¯ upam
.
na spar´sah
.
´sabdatanmayam
.
n¯ atm¯ anam
.
na param
.
vetti yog¯ı yuktim
.
sam¯ adhi(f.29r)na
kh¯ adyate na sa k¯ alena b¯ adhyate na sa karman
.
¯ a
b¯ adhyate na sa ken¯ api yog¯ı yuktisam¯ adhitah
.
na ca j¯ an¯ ati ´s¯ıtos
.
n
.
am
.
na duh
.
kham
.
na sukham
.
tath¯ a
na m¯ anam
.
n¯ avam¯ anam
.
ca yog¯ı yuktasam¯ adhitah
.
avadhya sarva´s¯ astr¯ an
.
¯ am ab¯ adhyah
.
sarvadehin¯ am
.
agr¯ ahyo mam
.
tratam
.
tr¯ an
.
¯ am
.
yog¯ı yuktasam¯ adhitah
.
nir¯ adyam
.
ca nir¯ alam
.
bam
.
nih
.
prapam
.
cam
.
nir¯ a´sra(f.29v)yam
.
nir¯ aya ca nir¯ ak¯ aram
.
tatvam
.
tatvavido viduh
.
dugdhe ks
.
¯ıram
.
ghr
.
te sarpir agnau vahnir iv¯ arpayet
tanmayatvam
.
vraje yog¯ı sa l¯ınah
.
parame pade
sak¯ ara sarvavarn
.
es
.
u yuktaces
.
t
.
as tu sarvatah
.
yukt ¯ ani dr¯ avabodhas tu yas tatvam
.
sa ca vim
.
dati
bhavabhaya bhavavahnir muktisop¯ anapam
.
ktih
.
prakat
.
itaparam¯ arthe y¯ ani guhyam
.
The P.D.Chandratre mentioned as the owner of a manuscript of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
in the NCC (Racuavax :,o,b::ïï) gave all his manuscripts to the Sarvajanik
Library, Nasik. The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a MS is No. :,¬+; acc. No. s/ + in the library
hand-list.
• W
:
(Wai Praj ˜ n¯ ap¯ at
.
ha´s¯ al¯ a)
Yoga´s¯ astrakhecar¯ımudr¯ apat
.
ala. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. Complete and in good con-
dition. Dated
´
Saka :¬¬¬ (:ïssci). :s folios numbered at bottom right of verso.
::.s × :s.c cm. :c lines to a side. On the front cover is written:
atha yoga´s¯ astrakhecar¯ımudr¯ apat
.
alapr¯ aram
.
bhah
.

On the back (f.:sv) is written:
iti yoga´s¯ astrakhecar¯ımudr¯ apat
.
alasam¯ aptah
.

Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
´sr¯ısarasvatyai namah
.
´sr¯ıgurubhyo namah
.
End (f. :¡v
9
):
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a o+
iti ´sr¯ı ¯ adin¯ athanir ¯ upite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre um¯ amahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade
(f.25r) khecar¯ımudr¯ ab¯ıjam
.
n¯ ama caturthapat
.
alam
.
sam
.
p ¯ urn
.
am
.

´sr¯ıkr
.
s
.
n
.
¯ arpanam astu ´sake :¬¬¬ r¯ aks
.
asan¯ amasam
.
vatsare bh¯ adrapa-
dakr
.
s
.
n
.
as
.
as
.
t
.
hy¯ am
.
tithau im
.
duv¯ asare taddine pustakam
.
sam¯ aptah
.

´subham
.
bhavatu cha
As mentioned above, both N and W
:
contain an extra section of :: ´slokas,
consisting of Goraks
.
a´sataka
N
:ï¡–,c, :,: and :,¬–ï at :.:::c. N concludes the
second pat
.
ala after this section; W
:
has the usual last :¡ verses. In W
:
this section
is as follows (f. :sr
3
–f. :or
2
):
satatadhy¯ anatah
.
param
.

dh¯ aran
.
¯ a pam
.
can¯ ad
.
¯ıs
.
u dhy¯ anam
.
dvih
.
saptan¯ ad
.
ikam
.

dinadv¯ ada´sakenaiva sadhih
.
pr¯ an
.
asam
.
tram¯ at
anusam
.
dh¯ ana yo yogai soham
.
lasatin¯ am
.
gin¯ am
.

tath¯ atmamanasayor aikyam
.
sam¯ adhih
.
so bhidh¯ıyate
yath¯ a sam
.
ks
.
¯ıyate pr¯ an
.
o m¯ anasam
.
ca pral¯ıyate
tath¯ a samarasatvam
.
ca sam¯ adhih
.
so bhidh¯ıyate
yat samatvam
.
dvayor atra j¯ıv¯ atm¯ aparam¯ atmanoh
.

nas
.
t
.
ah
.
samastasam
.
kalpah
.
sam¯ adhih
.
so bhidh¯ıyate
im
.
driy¯ an
.
i manovr
.
tti sarvaj¯ıv¯ a´srayam
.
bhavet
atha yat tad ga(f.15v)te j¯ıve na mano nem
.
driy¯ an
.
i ca
na gam
.
dho na raso r ¯ upam
.
na spar´sah
.
´sabdatanmayam
.

n¯ atm¯ anam
.
na param
.
vetti yog¯ı yuktah
.
sam¯ adhin¯ a
kh¯ adyate na sa k¯ alena b¯ adhyate na sa karman
.
¯ a
b¯ adhyate na sa ken¯ api yog¯ı yuktah
.
sam¯ adhin¯ a
na ca j¯ an¯ ati ´s¯ıtos
.
n
.
am
.
na duh
.
kham
.
na sukham
.
tath¯ a
na m¯ anam
.
n¯ apam¯ anam
.
ca yog¯ı yukta sam¯ adhitah
.

abadhyah
.
sarva´s¯ astr¯ an
.
¯ am ab¯ adhyah
.
sarvadehin¯ am
.

agr¯ ahyo mam
.
tratam
.
tr¯ an
.
¯ am
.
yog¯ı yukta sam¯ adhitah
.

nir¯ adyam
.
ca nir¯ alam
.
bam
.
nis
.
prapam
.
ca nir¯ a´srayam
.

nir¯ amayam
.
nir¯ ak¯ aram
.
tatvam
.
tatvavido viduh
.

dugdhe ks
.
¯ıram
.
ghr
.
te sarpir agn¯ ar agnir iv¯ arpayet
tanmayatvam
.
vrajet yog¯ı sa l¯ınah
.
parame pade
sak¯ ara sarvavarn
.
es
.
u yuktaces
.
t
.
as tu sarvatah
.

yukta(f.16r)nidr¯ avab¯ adhas tu yas tatvam
.
sa ca vim
.
dati
bhavabhaya va∗bhe vahnir muktisop¯ anapam
.
ktih
.

prakat
.
itaparam¯ arthe y¯ ani guhyam
.
W
:
also has an additional passage at the end of the text which is not found in N
(f. :+v
4
–f. :¡v
9
):
o¡ Souicis
´sr¯ıs¯ urya´sastra : cam
.
dra´sastra : rudra´sastra + bhav¯ an¯ı´sastra ¡ ga-
n
.
apati´sastra s im
.
dra´sastra o brahma´sastra ¬ cohy¯ as¯ısiddha´sastra ï
navan¯ atha´sastra , kum
.
bha´sastra :c ´svetaraja´sastra :: nakha´sastra ::
roma´sastra :+ c¯ apa´sastra :¡ kaim
.
ca´sastra :s siddha´sastra :oet ¯ ani ´sastr¯ a-
n
.
i khecar¯ıchedan¯ artham
.
tena vr
.
ddhig¯ am¯ı bhavati jihv¯ a etat [T he
next section, up to khecar¯ıpat
.
ele, is also found in the colophon of
K
:
] ¯ı´svara uv¯ aca khecar¯ısamarpan
.
am
.

sa tu khecar¯ımam
.
tragram
.
thokta some´s¯ an navamam
.
varn
.
am ity¯ adi
gamanasaphalam
.
s
.
ad
.
¯ aks
.
arakhecar¯ıb¯ıjam
.
hr¯ım
.
k¯ ar¯ a khecar¯ıpa-
t
.
ele pa´so anekayoge´svar¯ as¯ adhitale upade´sakramam
.
[T here follows
a s
.
at
.
kon
.
a star with om
.
at the top, sa to the right, kha at the bottom
and phrom
.
to the left. In the points are, starting at the top and going
clockwise, gam
.
, sam
.
, na, ma, pha and lam
.
. In the centre is hr¯ım
.
.]
asya ´sr¯ıkhecar¯ımam
.
trasya kapila r
.
s
.
ih
.
siddhir an¯ ay¯ ase khecar¯ımu-
dr¯ apras¯ adasidhyarthe jape viniyogah
.
atha ny¯ asah
.
gam
.
hr
.
day¯ aya
namah
.
sam
.
´sirase sv¯ ah¯ a nam
.
´sikh¯ ayai vas
.
at
.
ma kavac¯ aya hum
.
pha netratray¯ aya vaus
.
at
.
lam
.
astr¯ aya phat
.
hr¯ am
.
hr¯ım
.
hr ¯ um
.
hraim
.
hraum
.
hrah
.
iti s
.
ad
.
am
.
gah
.
¯ adh¯ arapadmabhavena khecarar¯ a-
jaham
.
sam atar mah¯ agaganav¯ asavibh¯ apralekham
.
¯ annam
.
dab¯ıjakam
anam
.
garipoh
.
puram
.
dhr¯ım ¯ abrahmalokajanan¯ım abhiv¯ adaye tv¯ am
.

m ¯ ul¯ alav¯ alakuhar¯ ad udit ¯ a bhav¯ an¯ım
.
om
.
hr¯ım
.
gasanasaphalam
.
am
.
-
sakhaphrom
.
iti mam
.
trah
.

Throughout the manuscript several incorrect “corrections” have been made in
the margin.
Described by Racuavax (:,o,b::ïï).
Praj ˜ n¯ ap¯ at
.
ha´s¯ al¯ a, Wai, Maharashtra. List No. o-¡/ +,ï.
• M (Mysore)
Khecar¯ıpat
.
ala. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. :+ folios, numbered on bottom right of
verso. Approximately :: × ï cm, with :: lines to a side. Complete and in good
condition. c.:,th century. Untidy hand.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
¯ı´svara uv¯ aca
End (f. :+r
8
):
iti siddhaus
.
adh¯ ani
The first three pat
.
alas end:
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a os
iti ´sr¯ı ¯ adin¯ athaviracite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre khecary¯ am
.
[amukah
.
] pa-
t
.
alah
.
Described by Racuavax (:,o,b::ïï).
Oriental Research Institute, Mysore. MS +¡,¬, C.:¬c.
• K
:
(Kathmandu)
Catalogued as M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astra, but first two folios have khe pat
.
at top left of
verso while subsequent folios have khe vi. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. Complete and in
good condition. :+ folios numbered at top left of verso. :ï × ::.s cm. with ,
lines to a side. c.:,th century. Similar to K
+
and equally full of careless errors.
However both K
:
and K
+
often have good readings which they share only with
µ. Unusually, final -m and infix nasals are not written as anusv ¯ ara.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
om
.
namah
.
´sr¯ı gan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
om
.
namah
.
´siv¯ aya
End (f. :+r
9
):
iti ´sr¯ımah¯ a(f.13v)¯ adin¯ athena nir ¯ upite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre khecary¯ a-
m
.
vidy¯ ay¯ am
.
m aus
.
adhayogo n¯ ama caturtha pat
.
alah
.
¡ ¯ı´svara uv¯ aca
´sr¯ıkhecar¯ısamarpan
.
asatu khecar¯ımantragranthoktasomem¯ atuvasam
.
-
varn
.
amity¯ adi gamanasaphalam
.
s
.
ad
.
¯ aks
.
arakhecar¯ıb¯ıjam hr¯ım
.
k¯ ar¯ a
khecar¯ıpat
.
alepa
NAK s-osoï. NGMPP Reel A :c¬/ ,.
• K
+
(Kathmandu)
M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astra Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. :¬ folios, numbered at
bottom right of verso. :+.: × :c.s cm with , lines to a side. Complete and in
good condition. c.:cth century. Similar to K
:
and equally full of careless errors.
However, as stated above, both K
:
and K
+
often have good readings which they
share only with µ.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
om
.
namah
.
´siv¯ aya
End (f. :¬v
3
):
iti ´sr¯ımah¯ a ¯ adin¯ athena nir ¯ upite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre khecary¯ am
.
vi-
dy¯ ay¯ am aus
.
adhyogo n¯ ama caturthah
.
pat
.
alah
.
¡sam¯ apt ¯ a ´subhm(sic)
o
oo Souicis
Kesar Library, Kathmandu MS No. +:o. NGMPP Reel C +:/ ::. (Retake of
Cïo/ o).
• J
:
(Jodhpur)
Khecar¯ıpat
.
alah
.
. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. :, folios, numbered at bottom right of
verso. Approximately :+ × :c cm with ï lines to a side. Complete and in good
condition. Untidy hand. Dated Samvat :¬ï+ and copied in K¯ a´s¯ı. From f. :sv
7
to the end of pat
.
ala ¡, the verse order is different from that of all other witnesses
apart from J
¡
. +::¬c-ssb are found at the end of the manuscript (f. :¬v
8
onwards)
with just the last : p¯ adas of pat
.
ala ¡ after them. +.:¬c–+cb can also be found as
a marginal insertion on f.:sv, indicating that an attempt at sorting out the order
has been made.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
End (f. :,v
4
):
iti ´sr¯ımah¯ adin¯ athanirupite mah¯ ak¯ alayogah
.
caturthah
.
pat
.
alah
.
sam-
¯ apt ¯ ah
.
sam
.
vat :•+ likhitam
.
k¯ a´sy¯ am
.
madhye man
.
ikarn
.
ik¯ asan¯ıpe
subham astu ´sr¯ır¯ ama ´sr¯ı ´sr¯ır¯ ama ´sr¯ır¯ ama ´sr¯ır¯ ama ´sr¯ı-
visvesvara
Described by Vyas and Ksuiisacai (:,ïo::oï–,).
MMSL, Jodhpur. MS No. :+¬s.
• J
¡
(Jodhpur)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. :s folios, numbered at top left of verso.
Approximately :+ × :c.s cm. with , lines to a side. Complete and in good
condition. Dated Samvat :¬¡c and copied in K¯ a´s¯ı. As in J
:
, from +.:¬b (f. ::v
1
)
the verse order is different from that of other witnesses. +.:¬c to +.ssc is found at
the end of the manuscript (f. :¡r
5
to f. :sv
5
). +.:¬c-:,d is also given in its usual
position at f. ::v
1−3
. +.ssc to the end of pat
.
ala ¡ is found after this, at f. ::v
3

f. :¡r
5
.
On f.:r is written twice, in different hands, a ny¯ asa of a six-syllable mantra. The
first is in the same hand as the rest of the manuscript and is easy to read:
anyany¯ asa ham
.
hr
.
day¯ aya namah
.
sam
.
sirase sv¯ ah¯ a s
.
am
.
sikh¯ aya vau-
s
.
at
.
pham
.
kavac¯ aya h ¯ um
.
ram
.
netratray¯ aya bas
.
at
.
im
.
str¯ aya phat
.

hsphr¯ım
.

Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a o¬
The second is upside-down relative to the first, in a different hand and very
unclear, with some parts so faded as to be illegible:
ham
.
∗day¯ aya namah
.
sam
.
´sirase sv¯ ah¯ a kham
.
∗i∗¯ aya vaus
.
at
.
pham
.
kavac¯ aya h ¯ um
.
ram
.
netratray¯ aya ∗∗∗¯ım
.
astr¯ aya phat
.
¬ [Above
in a different hand ] hskhphr¯ım
.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
atha khecar¯ıpat
.
ala likhyate
End (f. :sv
5
):
iti ´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ athanir ¯ upite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre˚(sic) caturthah
.
pat
.
alah
.
¡ sam
.
vat :¬¡cagahanakr
.
s
.
n
.
a ekama raviv¯ asara likhitam
.
gam
.
g¯ a-
n¯ athena k¯ asy¯ am
.
madhye svargadv¯ ar¯ısiddhip¯ıt
.
he man
.
ikarn
.
ik¯ at ¯ ara-
kesvarasam¯ıpe pustakam
.
sam
.
p ¯ urn
.
am
.
sam¯ aptam
.
lekhakap¯ at
.
hak¯ an¯ am
.
subham
.
bhuy¯ at ´sr¯ı¯ adin¯ ath¯ aya namah
.
devyai namah
.

Described by Vyas and Ksuiisacai (:,ïo::oï–,).
MMSL, Jodhpur. MS No. :+¬¬.
• V (Vad
.
odar¯ a)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. :c folios, numbered on bottom right of
verso. Approximately :¡ × :: cm. with , or :c lines to a side. Complete and in
good condition. c.:,th century. From the beginning of pat
.
ala + (f. :¡v
8
) to the
end of the manuscript another hand has deliberately altered the text to produce
nonsense. For example, at +.:c (f. :¡v
10
) bhitv ¯ a rasanay¯ a yog¯ı has been altered
to bhitv ¯ a resam
.
mayo yog¯ı. Corrected forms of these alterations have been used
in the critical edition; the uncorrected forms are included in the full collation
in the appendix. Uncorrected readings are marked V
ae
, corrected readings V
pe
(ante/post emendationem).
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ı gan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
´sr¯ı gurubhyo namah
.

End (f. :cv
4
):
iti ´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ athanir ¯ upite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre um¯ amahe´svarasam
.
-
v¯ ade khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
caturthah
.
pat
.
alah
.
¡
After the colophon is written in a different hand from the rest of the manuscript
(f. :cv
7
):
oï Souicis
om
.
hr¯ım
.
gam
.
sam
.
nam
.
mam
.
pham
.
lam
.
phrem
.
s
.
at
.
d¯ırghabh¯ aj¯ a
om
.
hr¯ım
.
gam
.
sam
.
nam
.
mam
.
pham
.
lam
.
am
.
sam
.
kham
.
Described by Racuavax (:,o,b::ïï).
Oriental Institute, Baroda. MS No. ¡:c,.
• K
¡
(Kathmandu)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. :: folios, numbered at top left and bottom
right of verso. :¬.: × ::.¡ cm. with :c lines to a side. Complete and in good
condition. c.:ïth century. K
¡
is very similar to J
:
but shows contamination
with the manuscript tradition of J
o
at :.:ïc and with those of µGSα at :.:ïb.
There are some idiosyncracies in writing style: tu looks like nu, dh¯ a is written as
dhya, ca and ja in conjunct consonants are written vertically; -o is often wrongly
written for -¯ı and there are many incorrect anusv ¯ aras.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
End (f. ::v
3
):
iti ´sr¯ımah¯ adin¯ athanir ¯ upite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
um¯ a-
mahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade caturthah
.
pat
.
alah
.
sam¯ aptah
.
NAK ¡-:ï:¬. NGMPP Reel A ::ï,/ ,.
• K
:
(Kathmandu)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. :s folios, numbered at top left and bottom
right of verso. :ï.o × :: cm. with :: lines to a side. Complete and in fair
condition. c.:,th century. Full of simple errors and very close to the readings of
P but occasionally unique (e.g. +.+:b, +.s,b).
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ımatam
.
r¯ am¯ anuj¯ aya namah
.
om
.
End (f. :¡v
9
):
iti ´sr¯ımah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre um¯ amahe´svarasamv¯ ade ¯ adin¯ athaviracite ca-
turthapat
.
alah
.
¡ ⊕ ⊗
After the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a the codex has two short works: from f. :¡v
9
– f. :sv
10
is a
work describing a mantra and its effects whose colophon reads:
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a o,
itty ¯ atharvan
.
avede upanis
.
adah
.
pr¯ atemr
.
ttyul¯ am
.
g¯ ulam
.
(f.15v) sam¯ a-
ptam ⊕ ⊗
The second work (f. :sv
1−10
) has the following colophon:
iti ´sr¯ı atharvan
.
avedokta allopanis
.
at sam¯ apt ¯ a ⊕ ⊗ ⊕ ⊗ ⊕ ⊗ ⊕ ⊗ ⊕ ⊗ ⊕ ⊗
Found in Janakpur. From the private collection of R¯ amakr
.
p¯ ala´saran
.
a. NGMPP
Reel M :+/ :c.
• P (Pune)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. :s folios, numbered at top left and bottom
right of verso. Approximately :: × :: cm. with , lines to a side. Complete and
in good condition. Dated Samvat :ïcs and copied in K¯ a´s¯ı.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
End (f. :sv
3
):
iti ´sr¯ımadin¯ athanirupite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
um¯ a-
mahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade caturtham
.
h
.
pat
.
alah
.
sam
.
p ¯ urn
.
am
.
sam
.
vat :ïcs ´samai
n¯ ama agahanam¯ ase ´suklu paks
.
e ca pam
.
cam¯ıy¯ am
.
rav¯ıv¯ a´sare lih
.
k¯ a-
´sy¯ a madhye ked¯ aragh¯ at
.
any¯ are hanum¯ anagh¯ at
.
a |
Described by Racuavax (:,o,b::ïï).
Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune. MS ::, of A:ïï:-+.
:s¡
• J
+
(Jodhpur)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. :+ folios, numbered at bottom right of verso.
The sixth and seventh folios are numbered o; all subsequent folios are thus
numbered one less than they should be. Approximately :s × :: cm. with ¬ lines
to a side. Complete and in good condition. c.:ïth century.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
atha khecar¯ıpat
.
a likhyate ´sr¯ı´siva uv¯ aca
End (f. :+v
3
):
:s¡
Piriisox (:ïï+:::¬) lists a manuscript entitled M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astre Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. It is ascribed to
¯
Adin¯ atha, is dated Samvat :ïcs and consists of +cc verses in :s folios. I have assumed this to be MS P
and have not listed it among the unconsulted manuscripts.
¬c Souicis
iti ´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ atheprokte mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre um¯ amahe´svarasam
.
va-
de khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
caturthapat
.
alah
.
sam¯ aptam
.
hasta aks
.
a vi´svan¯ a-
thena likhitam
.
cha cha cha cha cha cha cha
Described by Vyas and Ksuiisacai (:,ïo::oï–,).
MMSL, Jodhpur. MS No. :+¬o.
• F (Institut Franc¸ais de Pondich´ ery)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Telugu. Paper. +¬ pages, numbered in arabic numerals at the
top of each page. :¬.s × :: cm. with :, lines to a side. c.:ïsc ci. Pat
.
ala : is
written in a neat hand. Pat
.
ala : onwards (from page , l.ï) is written in a less tidy
hand which becomes progressively untidier. This second hand has also made
some corrections to pat
.
ala :. Aspirated and unaspirated consonants are often
confused. In sandhi final -h
.
assumes the form of a following sibilant. Initial e-
is written ye-.
Beginning (p.: l.:):
´sr¯ım¯ atre namah
.
´sr¯ısaccid¯ anandasadguruparabrahmane namah
.
´sr¯ı-
mah¯ agan
.
¯ adhipataye namah
.
´sukl¯ ambaradharam
.
vis
.
n
.
um
.
´sa´sivarn
.
am
.
caturbhujam
.
prasannavadanam
.
dhy¯ ayet sarvavighnopa´s¯ antaye
End (p.+¬ l.¡):
iti ´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ athanir ¯ upite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
ca-
turthah
.
pat
.
alah
.
harih
.
om
.
tat sat sarvam
.
´sr¯ı kr
.
s
.
n
.
¯ arpan
.
am astu
Described by Racuavax (:,o,b::ïï).
Institut Franc¸ais de Pondich´ ery. MS RE :,c:¬.
• K
s
(Kathmandu)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Good condition. :¡ folios numbered : to :s with
folio :: missing. Numbered at top left and bottom right of verso. :¬ × ::.¬
cm. with , lines to a side. Dated :ï:+ci. Readings generally match β but
are occasionally unique (e.g. ´sam
.
karap¯ ujan ¯ at at :.::d) and in pat
.
ala ¡ show
conflation with witnesses of α especially M (see e.g. ¡.+c).
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıkr
.
s
.
n
.
¯ aya namah
.
End (f. :sr
2
):
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ¬:
iti ´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ athanir ¯ upite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre um¯ amahe´svarasam
.
v¯ a-
de khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
caturthah
.
pat
.
alah
.
¡´subham astugram
.
thasam
.
khy¯ a-
:ïsom
.
ma˙ ngalam ma˙ ngalan¯ atho ma˙ ngalam ma˙ ngal¯ a sutah
.
ma-
˙ ngalam ma˙ ngal¯ a nitya˙ n karotu mama mam
.
dire:om
.
ma˙ ngalam
bhagav¯ an vis
.
n
.
ur ma˙ ngala˙ n garud
.
adhvajah
.
ma˙ ngalam
.
pun
.
d
.
arik¯ a-
ks
.
o ma˙ ngal¯ ayatano harih
.
: y¯ adr
.
´sam
.
pustakam
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v¯ a t ¯ adr
.
´sam
.
likhitam
.
may¯ ayadi ´suddham a´suddham
.
v¯ a ´sodhan¯ıy¯ a mahajjanaih
.
+
idam
.
pustakam
.
´sr¯ı∗∗∗∗∗∗∗∗ (these syllables have been deliberately
obscured) sya´sr¯ıh
.
´sr¯ıvikram¯ adityasam
.
vat :ï¬c´sr¯ı´saliv¯ ahan¯ıya´s¯ ake
:¬+s´sr¯ınaip¯ al¯ avde ,++vai´s¯ akham¯ asi sitetaradale vy¯ alatithau vudha-
v¯ asare likhitam idam pustakam p¯ a´supataks
.
atre ´subham bh ¯ uy¯ at

MS No. o-:o+o from the R¯ as
.
t
.
r¯ıy¯ abhilekh¯ alaya. NGMPP Reel A ,,,/ ¬.
• K
o
(Kathmandu)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı and Nev¯ ar¯ı. :c folios numbered :–:: with
: and :: missing due to damage. Numbered at bottom right of verso. c.:,th
century. Starts in reasonably tidy Devan¯ agar¯ı but at f. sr
2
becomes Nev¯ ar¯ı with
occasional reversions to Devan¯ agar¯ı, giving the impression that the scribe was
copying from a Devan¯ agar¯ı witness but slipped into his native hand. Readings
generally tally with those of β but some contamination is evident, e.g. with α
:
at +.osb. Infix nasals are usually assimilated with following consonants and not
written as anusv ¯ aras; sch is written for sth. Neither of these idiosyncracies is
reported in the collations.
NGMPP Reel No. E::¡s/ ::.
• C (Chandra Sham Shere)
Khecar¯ıvidh¯ ana. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. ¬ folios. Good condition. Incomplete,
ending at :.:¡d. c.:,th century.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
Uncatalogued.
Bodleian Library, Oxford. MS e.:ss(s) in the Chandra Sham Shere collection.
• J
:
(Jodhpur)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. :o folios, numbered at bottom right of verso.
:¬ × :+ cm. with , lines to a side. Complete and in good condition. c.:ïth
century.
¬: Souicis
Beginning (f. :r
1
):
´sr¯ın¯ ath¯ aya namah
.
End (f. :or
8
):
iti ´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ athaniropite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
um¯ a-
mahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade caturthah
.
pat
.
alam
.
sam¯ aptam iti ´sr¯ıkaly¯ an
.
am
astu
Described by Vyas and Ksuiisacai (:,ïo::oï–,).
MMSL, Jodhpur. MS No. :+¬¡.
• J
s
(Jodhpur)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. , folios, numbered at top left and bottom
right of verso. :,.s × :s.s cm with :¡ lines to a side. Complete and in good
condition. c.:ïth century. For sth the scribe writes sch—this is not reported in
the collations.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıyoge´svar¯ aya namah
.
End (f. ,v
12
):
iti ´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ athaniropitem
.
mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
um¯ a-
mahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade caturthah
.
pat
.
alam
.
cha cha cha
Described by Vyas and Ksuiisacai (:,ïo::¬c–:).
MMSL, Jodhpur. MS No. :+•.
• W
:
(Wai Praj ˜ n¯ ap¯ at
.
ha´s¯ al¯ a)
Khecar¯ımudr¯ apat
.
ala. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. :ï folios, numbered at bottom right
and top left of each folio. ::.s × ::.s cm. with :c lines to a side. Complete and
in good condition. c.:,th century. The covering folio has hat
.
t
.
ad¯ıpik ¯ a written
in its centre and the rest of the codex (ff.:ïv–+,r) consists of the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a
of Sv¯ atmar¯ ama.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.

End (f. :ïr
9
):
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ¬+
iti ´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ athaniropite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
um¯ a-
mahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade caturthapat
.
alam
.
¡ gratha :¬, cha
Described by Racuavax (:,o,b::ïï).
Praj ˜ n¯ ap¯ at
.
ha´s¯ al¯ a, Wai, Maharashtra. List No. o-¡/ +,,.
• R (RASB)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. ¡ï folios, numbered at bottom right of verso.
:ï.c × ::.¬ cm. ¡ or s lines to a side. Complete and in good condition.
c.:,th century. M.Ram of Marseille kindly provided me with photostat copies
of xeroxes from a microfilm of the manuscript. F.:¬v (:.:¡d ˚´s¯ acora˚–:.:oc trik ¯ a-
laj ˜ nah
.
) is missing from the copy. Due to a copyist missing a folio and then
noticing his mistake, f.+s is found after f.+, and +.:ob–:¬d and +.:, are found
twice, on f.+or and at f. +¬r
1
–f. +¬v
1
(where +.:ï is also found). The manuscript
contains many minor mistakes.
:ss
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
om
.
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
End (f. ¡ïr
3
):
iti ´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ athaniropite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
um¯ a-
mahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade caturthah
.
pat
.
alam
.
sam¯ aptam iti ´sr¯ıgurun¯ ar¯ an
.
a


syan
.
a

Described by Racuavax (:,o,b::ïï).
Library of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta. MS sïs¡.
• B (Bombay)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. :¬ folios, numbered at bottom right of verso.
Approximately :: × :: cm. with :c lines to a side. Complete and in good
condition. c.:,th century. The codex continues with the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a of
Sv¯ atm¯ ar¯ ama. The text often shows signs of scribal emendation: in many places
where the other members of γ have corrupt readings a meaningful reading can
be found in B which is not found in any other witness.
Beginning (f. :v
1
):
:ss
The readings of R are very similar to those of J: , more so in fact than those of Js which is paired with
J: to make the sub-group γ:. The large number of minor errors in R has, however, meant that J: and Js
match one another more often than do J: and R. To keep the apparatus as concise as possible J: and Js have
been considered as a sub-group.
¬¡ Souicis
´sr¯ımam
.
galam ¯ urtaye namah
.
´sr¯ımadavadh ¯ utadigam
.
var¯ aya namah
.

End (f. :¬r
4
):
iti ´sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ athaviracite mah¯ ak¯ alayoga´s¯ astre um¯ amahe´svarasam
.
v¯ a-
de khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯ am
.
caturtham
.
pat
.
alam
.
sam¯ aptam
.
¡
Described by Racuavax (:,o,b::ïï).
Bombay University Library. MS :c:o.
There is another manuscript of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a in the Bombay University
Library, No. :c:s. It is a xerox copy of a poor reconstruction of a badly damaged
paper manuscript and is full of lacunae. The crumbling original is also in the
library but is little more than a collection of fragments. Where the reconstruction
is legible, it is virtually identical to :c:o and its readings have not been collated.
However it seems that neither is a direct copy of the other since the introductory
ma˙ ngala are different. :c:s has:
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯ aya namah
.
´sr¯ısarasvatyai namah
.
´sr¯ıgurubhyo namah
.

Testimonia
• D (D¯ıpik¯ a)
N¯ ar¯ ayan
.
a’s D¯ıpik ¯ a on one hundred and eight upanis
.
ads cites the KhV in three
places. Readings from the text have been included in the apparatus of the
critical edition and the full collation, for which two editions of the text have
been consulted:
:. D
:
:
´
Sr¯ın ¯ ar¯ ayan
.
a´sa˙ nkar¯ anandaviracitad¯ıpik ¯ asamet ¯ an ¯ am upanis
.
ad¯ am
.
samuccayah
.
.
¯
Anand¯ a´srama Sanskrit Series :,. Poona. :ï,s.
:. D
:
:
¯
Atharvvan
.
opanis
.
adah
.
N ¯ ar¯ ayan
.
akr
.
tad¯ıpik ¯ asahit ¯ ah
.
, ed. R¯ amamaya Tarkaratna.
Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal (New Series No. :¡,). :ï¬:.
Bouy (:,,¡:+c), following Gooi (:,+ï:::ï–+:), dates N¯ ar¯ ayan
.
a to between
:sccci and :¬ccci. The KhV passage cited ad Brahmavidyopanis
.
ad ï is without
the corrupt interpolation of :.¬sab found after :.¬:b in Sαβγ. The later limit
of N¯ ar¯ ayan
.
a’s dates can thus be put back to before :oï+ci, the date that J
¡
was
copied.
The passages from the KhV which are cited are as follows:
:.¡s–¡,, ssc–sod, o¡ ad Ks
.
urikopanis
.
ad ::. (“khecary¯ am”). This citation is not
found in D
:
.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ¬s
:.¬:a–¬+b ad Brahmavidyopanis
.
ad ï. (Ascribed with the preceding quotation to
Y¯ aj ˜ navalkya in D
:
; “khecaryy¯ am” in D
:
.)
+.+:c–¡¬d ad Ks
.
urikopanis
.
ad ::. (“khecar¯ıpat
.
ale”).
+.¡:c–¡:d ad Yoga´sikhopanis
.
ad :.+. (“khecary¯ am”).
• H (H at
.
haprad¯ıpik¯ a)
The Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a includes four verses which it has borrowed from the Khecar¯ı-
vidy¯ a.
:so
I have used the Lon¯ aval¯ a edition of Sv¯ am¯ı Digambarj¯ı and Dr. P¯ıtambar
Jh¯ a to note variants from the critical edition of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. The passages
are as follows:
H P +.++–+s = KhV :.¡¡–¡o
H P ¡.¡: = KhV +.:,
• O (Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute, Jodhpur.)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Devan¯ agar¯ı. Paper. :: folios. Good condition. c. :,th century.
Approximately :: cm × :c cm. ¬ lines to a side. This manuscript consists of a
short treatise on physical yoga, composed mainly of citations (from the Khecar¯ı-
vidy¯ a, the
´
Sivasam
.
hit ¯ a, the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a, the Hat
.
hasam
.
ketacandrik ¯ a and the
Yogasam
.
graha), with sections on the khecar¯ımantra, tur¯ıy¯ avasth¯ a, kut
.
¯ıprave´sa,
aus
.
adhikalpa and ´siv ¯ ambup¯ ana. The following three passages from the edited
KhV are cited:
:. :.+cc–++b, +sc–¡¡d at f. :v
7
–f. +v
6
. (Introduced with “yath¯ a coktam
.
khecar¯ı-
pat
.
ale” and finished with “iti khecar¯ıpat
.
al¯ at khecar¯ıvidy¯ a”.) Between :.¡:b
and ¡:c is an explanatory section:
prast ¯ arah
.


h

sphrem
.
khecaryai namah
.
asya ´sr¯ı khecar¯ı-
mam
.
trasya bhagav¯ an ¯ adin¯ atho r
.
s
.
ih
.
g¯ ayatr¯ı chandah
.
´sr¯ıkhecar¯ı-
siddhiprad¯ a khecar¯ı devat ¯ a

om
.
h

sphrem
.
v¯ıja namah
.
´saktih
.
mama yogasiddhyartham
.
jape viniyogah
.
om
.
hr¯ am
.
am
.
gus
.
t
.
h¯ a-
bhy¯ am
.
hr
.
day¯ aya namah
.
om
.
hr¯ım
.
tarjan¯ıbhy¯ am
.
´sirase sv¯ ah¯ a
om
.
hrah
.
karatalakarapras
.
t
.
¯ abhy¯ am
.
astr¯ aya phat
.

atha dhy¯ anam
.
(f.3r) m ¯ ul¯ adibrahmaram
.
dhr¯ am
.
tavisatam
.
tunipas¯ım
.

udyats¯ uryaprabh¯ aj¯ alavidyutkot
.
isamam
.
prabh¯ am
.

:so
Bouy (:,,¡:ï:) has shown how the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a is for the most part an anthology of passages
from other works.
¬o Souicis
cam
.
drakot
.
iprabh¯ ad ¯ ava trailokyaikaprabh¯ amay¯ a
a´ses
.
ajagadutpatisthitisam
.
h¯ arak¯ arin
.
¯ım
.
:s
dhy¯ ayed yath¯ a mano devi ni´scalam
.
j¯ ayate tatah
.

sahaj¯ anam
.
dasam
.
dohamam
.
diram
.
bhavati ks
.
an
.
¯ at :o
mano ni´scalat ¯ am
.
pr¯ aptam
.
´siva´saktiprabh¯ avatah
.

sam¯ adhi j¯ ayate tatra sam
.
j ˜ n¯ advayavijr
.
m
.
bhitah
.

´sam
.
bhavena ca vedhena sukh¯ı bh ¯ uy¯ an nirantaram
.

atra sus
.
umn
.
¯ adhy¯ anamahimn¯ a manasthairya svayam eva y¯ a-
tini ´saktih
.
sus
.
umn
.
¯ asarvasr
.
s
.
t
.
imay¯ı m ¯ ulaprakr
.
tih
.
(f.3v) ´sivas
tadantargatacitr¯ am
.
tah
.

r ¯ upa

pam
.
cadev¯ atmakam
.
vale iti dhy¯ a-
tv¯ a japet
:. +.:cd at f. ¡r
1
, introduced with “tad uktam
.
khecar¯ıdhavale”. There follows
a description of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı (up to f. sr
1
) of which only the first two lines
are found in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
+. ¡.¡ at f. ïv
7
–f. ,r
4
. This verse is not introduced as a quotation. It follows
a verse about “mum
.
d
.
¯ıkalpa” and is followed by “iti v ¯ aroh¯ıkam
.
dakalpah
.
”.
MS No. +¡,¡o in the collection of the Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute,
Jodhpur. Reported as ‘ “Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a” (O)’ in the testimonia apparatus.
:s¬
• Goraks
.
asiddh¯ antasam
.
graha
The Goraks
.
asiddh¯ antasam
.
graha (pp.:c–::) quotes three verses from a Khecar¯ı-
sam
.
hit ¯ a of which only the first is found in the KhV (+.:s). The text of the
quotation runs as follows:
utsr
.
jya sarva´s¯ astr¯ an
.
i japahom¯ adi karma ca |
dharm¯ adharmavinirmukto yog¯ı yogam
.
samabhyaset
varn
.
¯ a´sram¯ abhim¯ anena vartate ´srutikim
.
karah
.
|
abhim¯ anavih¯ınas tu vartate ´srutim ¯ urddhani
na vedo veda ity ¯ ahur ved¯ avedo nigadyate |
par¯ atm¯ a vidyate yena sa vedo veda ucyate
This text’s readings have not been collated.
:s¬
Three other manuscripts entitled Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a were described in the Institute’s catalogue but could
not be found by the library staff (No. :ï¬ on p.:o¡ of Part :c of the catalogue, dated Samvat :ïo¬, ¬ folios;
No. s+:: in part ::, :cth century, : folios, incomplete; No. :ï+¬o on p.:+o of part ¡, :cth century, :¡
folios). By their descriptions it would appear that they contain the work found in MS O rather than that
found in the other KhV manuscripts.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ¬¬
Manuscripts of the KhV not consulted
:. M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a MS No. :¬ï+ in the collection of the MMSL, Jodhpur. Paper.
Devan¯ agar¯ı. Complete. Good condition. :¬: folios. :: lines per page. +c letters
per line. :+.+ × :ï.s cm. (Vyas and Ksuiisacai :,ïo::ï¡–s.)
:. M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a MS No. :¬ïs in the collection of the MMSL, Jodhpur. Paper.
Devan¯ agar¯ı. Complete. Good condition. s: folios. :c lines per page. +c letters
per line. (It thus appears that this manuscript is considerably shorter than others
of the M atsyendrasam
.
hit ¯ a.) ::.c ×:¬.ï cm. (Vyas and Ksuiisacai :,ïo::ï¡–s.)
+. Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. MS No. :¬¡ in a list in the Municipal Museum, Allahabad.
(Racuavax :,o,b::ïï.)
¡. Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a by
´
Siva. :c folios. :c lines per page. No date. “In possession of
Yaj ˜ ne´svara
´
S¯ astr¯ı, Surat”. (B¨ uuiii :ï¬+:A :–+.)
:sï
s. Khecar¯ıpat
.
ala. MS No.::¬, in the collection of the library of the Maharaja of
Bikaner. Paper. Devan¯ agar¯ı. :, folios. :: lines per page. “On secret worship
of Pi´s¯ ach¯ıs or female imps to bring them under subjugation. An extract from
a Tantra.” (Miria :ïïc:sï,.) I was unable to locate this manuscript on a visit
to Bikaner in February :cc:. It is not mentioned in the Anup Sanskrit Library
Catalogue at the Lalgarh Palace nor in the library catalogue at the Bikaner
Oriental Research Institute. Dr. Usha Goswami suggested that it may have been
moved to Jodhpur since no works on Tantra or Yoga are held in Bikaner.
o. Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. No. ::+: in Hiiaiai :,:o (p.:cï). “Author—
¯
Adin¯ atha. Subject—
Yoga. Is a part of Mah¯ ak¯ ala Yoga
´
S¯ astra by
¯
Adin¯ atha. Owner—Puttel¯ al Gauri´sa-
˙ nkar of Valgaon (Amraoti district).”
¬. Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a of
¯
Adin¯ atha. Reported by Wisriicaaio (:ï¡o:,). Codex XII(:).
Palm leaf. Telegu. oo folios. The first ¡c folios are of the P¯ at
.
ha[sic]prad¯ıpik ¯ a.
The KhV is on f.¡cr–f.s,v. It is part of the K¯ alayoga´s¯ astra. It opens with om
.
namah
.
kapile´s¯ aya mah¯ adev ¯ aya ´sambhave vi´svatattvapa[sic]d¯ atre [ca] vi´svasiddhi-
prad¯ ayine. The manuscript is summarised thus: “
´
Siva expounds to the goddess
Uma the magical science of flying through the air”.
:s,
ï. Khecar¯ıtantra. No. :oo+ Ain the collection of Dacca University, Dacca, Bangladesh
(Racuavax :,o,b::ïï.)
:sï
This is very likely to be MS V.
:s,
“. . . facere C¸ ivam deae Umae exponentem magicam per aerem incedendi scientiam” (loc.cit.).
• Souicis
,. Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Tantra MS :, listed by Kiiiuoix (:ﬡ:+ï) and said to be in the
possession of Ch¯ and¯ a Gad
.
¯ıpanta Pat
.
alav¯ ara. Attributed to “Mad¯ adi” (presum-
ably
´
Sr¯ımad¯ adin¯ atha). :, folios, , lines to a side. +¡: ´slokas. c.:ï:sci.
:oc
:c. M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astram. Oriental Research Institute, Mysore. MS No. +scc¬
C¡co+/ ¡. Kannada.
::. Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Incomplete MS listed on p.+c of the Catalogue of Sanskrit
Manuscripts in the Punjab University Library, Lahore Vol. : (Racuavax:,o,b::ïï.)
::. Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. No. :s in a list of MSS belonging to Pt. Radhakrishnan of Lahore
(Racuavax :,o,b::ïï.)
:+. Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. No. ¡: in the above list.
:¡. Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal MS No. ï¡c,. “:c × ¡
1
2
inches.
Folia, ::. Lines, :c on a page. Extent in ´slokas, ++c. Character, N¯ agara.
Appearance, old and pasted. Complete in + chapters.” (Suasrii :,+,:+c+.)
:s. Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal MS No. ïï:¬. The following
is taken from Su¯ asri¯ı (:,+,:+c¡): “Substance, country-made paper. , × ¡
1
2
inches. Folia, :–:¡. Lines, :: on a page. Extent in ´slokas, ¡sc. Character,
N¯ agara. Date, Sa ˙ mvat :¬so. Appearance, old. Incomplete.
“But for the first leaf the MS is complete in ¡ chapters.
“Post Colophon :—
´subham astu | sambat 1756 ´s¯ ake 1721 m ¯ arga´s¯ırs
.
a dutiy¯ ay¯ am
.
guruv ¯ asare
l¯ıs
.
ata durg¯ apras¯ ada t¯ıv ¯ ari ´subhah
.
|
“After the Post Colophon there occur several lines dealing with khecar¯ı mantra,
m ¯ alak ¯ agul¯ıkalpa, etc. A colophon found in this portion runs :—
iti khecar¯ımudr¯ ab¯ıjayam
.
tra n ¯ ama pa˜ ncamah
.
pat
.
alah
.
|”
Ethnographic Sources
In the introductory chapters and the footnotes to the translation I have occasionally
used ethnographic data. I have primarily drawn on the experiences of hat
.
hayogins
that I met during my fieldwork, but have also used reports of others who have met
hat
.
hayogins that practise khecar¯ımudr¯ a, and published accounts.
:oc
This could be J:. The date and number of folios correspond but J: has ï rather than , lines to a side.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ¬,
I met the following hat
.
hayogins during my fieldwork:
:o:
´
Sr¯ı B¯ alyog¯ı R¯ am B¯ alak D ¯ as J¯ı Though not a practitioner of khecar¯ımudr¯ a, R¯ am B¯ alak
D¯ as has been a hat
.
hayogin since early childhood. His insights into hat
.
hayogic practice
have helped me considerably with my research and he introduced me to several of my
other informants. He is an itinerant R¯ am¯ anand¯ı Ty¯ ag¯ı s¯ adhu.
´
Sr¯ı Para´sur¯ am D ¯ as J¯ı Yog¯ır¯ aj Another R¯ am¯ anand¯ı Ty¯ ag¯ı, Para´sur¯ am D¯ as has been
practising khecar¯ımudr¯ a for many years. I first met him at the Da´sahar¯ a festival in
Kullu, Himachal Pradesh in October :,,o, where he demonstrated the technique and
discussed it with me.
´
Sr¯ı Govind D ¯ as J¯ı Mah¯ aty¯ ag¯ı Again a R¯ am¯ anand¯ı, but of the Mah¯ aty¯ ag¯ı suborder,
Govind D¯ as showed me the technique at an ¯ a´sram near Surat, Gujarat, in November
:,,o. He had not practised it for some years and had difficulty in doing so when I
asked him to demonstrate it.
D r. K.M.Trip¯ at
.
h¯ı I met Dr. Trip¯ at
.
h¯ı in December :,,o when he was working at the
Yoga Centre at Benares Hindu University. He showed me a khecar¯ımudr¯ a different
from that described in hat
.
hayogic texts and demonstrated to me by other yogins. It
involved placing the tip of the tongue behind the upper front teeth and holding it
there while opening the mouth as wide as possible. This action was to be repeated at
least a thousand times a day. By doing thus, pressure is exerted on the merudan
.
d
.
a and
Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı is awakened.
D r. Ashok T
.
h¯ akur Dr. T
.
h¯ akur is an ¯ ayurvedic doctor from Mumbai. I met him in Jan-
uary :,,¬. He first experienced khecar¯ımudr¯ a when his tongue spontaneously adopted
the position while he was practising pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ am
.
a. He demonstrated the technique to
me and introduced me to his son who rarely practises yoga but is a keen swimmer and
has found that his tongue also spontaneously adopts the position when he holds his
breath for long periods.
´
Sr¯ı Nain¯ a D ¯ as J¯ı Yog¯ır¯ aj Nain¯ a D¯ as is a R¯ am¯ and¯ı N¯ ag¯ a s¯ adhu who lives in Delhi. I met
him in February :,,¬. A well-respected ascetic, he had mastered various hat
.
hayogic
techniques, including both khecar¯ı- and vajroli- mudr¯ as but did not practise them any
more.
Sv¯ am¯ı Pran
.
av¯ anand Sarasvat¯ı I met Sv¯ am¯ı Pran
.
av¯ anand at his ¯ a´sram in Rishikesh
in February :,,¬. A well-educated
´
Saiva Dasn¯ am¯ı Sam
.
ny¯ as¯ı, he has been practising
hat
.
hayoga for many years and has written a book called J˜ n ¯ an Bher¯ı which includes a
chapter on yoga.
:o:
The majority of my informants are Vais
.
n
.
ava R¯ am¯ anand¯ı Ty¯ ag¯ıs. This is because I have spent more
time in their company than that of other orders, but also reflects their being the most numerous ascetic
order in India today (on which see footnote :¡,).
ïc Souicis
´
Sr¯ı B¯ alyog¯ı L¯ al J¯ı Bh¯ a¯ı A neighbour of Sv¯ am¯ı Pran
.
av¯ anand, I met L¯ al J¯ı Bh¯ a¯ı at his
¯ a´sram in Rishikesh in February :,,¬. Initiated a R¯ am¯ anand¯ı Ty¯ ag¯ı, he had also studied
under N¯ athapanth¯ı s¯ adhu s. Well-read in Sanskrit and Hind¯ı, he has been practising
khecar¯ımudr¯ a for many years and is a fount of information on the subject.
´
Sr¯ı Raghuvar D ¯ as J¯ı Yog¯ır¯ aj Agurubh¯ a¯ı of R¯ am B¯ alak D¯ as, Raghuvar D¯ as lives in Jaipur.
I had met him several times before he surprised me by demonstrating khecar¯ımudr¯ a to
me at the :,,ï Hardwar Kumbh Mel¯ a.
I heard accounts of the following practitioners of khecar¯ımudr¯ a:
´
Sr¯ı Prahl¯ ad D ¯ as J¯ı Yogir¯ aj The guru of R¯ am B¯ alak D¯ as and Raghuvar D¯ as, Prahl¯ ad
D¯ as was an itinerant R¯ am¯ anand¯ı Ty¯ ag¯ı who had mastered the practices of hat
.
hayoga.
A cel¯ a of the famous Devr¯ ah¯ a B¯ ab¯ a, he died in :,,:.
´
Sr¯ı R¯ am D ¯ as J¯ı Yog¯ır¯ aj Another cel¯ a of Prahl¯ ad D¯ as, R¯ am D¯ as lives in Jaipur.
Sampat N ¯ ath A N¯ athapanth¯ı ascetic living near Ajmer, Rajasthan, Sampat N¯ ath is said
to be an expert practitioner of khecar¯ımudr¯ a whose tongue can reach his forehead.
Sv¯ am¯ı R¯ am¯ anand An ascetic of the Caitanya tradition, Sv¯ am¯ı R¯ am¯ anand lived at the
Kaivalya Dh¯ am Yoga Research Institute in Lonavala, Maharashtra.
The following published accounts of the practice of khecar¯ımudr¯ a have been con-
sulted:
Biixaio :,ï: pp.os–o,.
Biuxrox :,,s p.::¬.
Giivis :,¬c pp.:c:–:
Pran
.
av¯ anand Saiasvar¯ı :,ï¡ pp.:c+–¡.
Saty¯ ananda Saiasvar¯ı :,,+ pp.:¬ï–:,ï, ¡¬¡–¡,c
Svonooa :,ïo pp.:¬ï–,.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ï:
Conventions in the Apparatus
There are four registers in the apparatus of the critical edition. Of the four, the second
and third are found on every page. The second is the key to the manuscript groups
and the third reports variants from the edited text. On the first page of each pat
.
ala the
second register also reports all the witnesses for that pat
.
ala. The first register reports
testimonia and parallel passages from other texts. The fourth register reports omissions
and additions found in the witnesses.
:o:
With +c witnesses of the text, a critical edition with a full collation would have
an unwieldy and uninviting apparatus. I have therefore presented the text as a critical
edition with only significant variants reported in the apparatus. In this case, the
criteria for significance are, of course, subjective, so I have included a full collation as
an appendix for those who want to be sure of having all available evidence.
In the critical edition, I have reported all variants whenever there is considerable
disagreement between witnesses or if I am at all unsure of which reading to choose
for the edited text. If only one or two witnesses differ from the edited text, I have
considered the importance of both variant and witness. Thus, if a variant appears
insignificant but is from a witness that is often the only one to preserve a good reading
(i.e. A, J
o
, J
¬
, or G), then I am much more likely to report it
:o+
than if it is from a
witness that is rarely or never the only one to preserve a good reading
:o¡
or if it is from
a witness that is part of a manuscript group and the variant can easily be explained as a
corruption of the form found in the other members of that group.
:os
However, if one
of these less individual witnesses has a variant that is interesting in its own right, then
even if I think it unlikely that it might be useful in establishing an older stage of the
text, I do report it. Thus I report all the variants found in U, the Yogakun
.
d
.
alyupanis
.
ad.
The following half-verse has been composed, with a hypothetical apparatus, to
illustrate most of the conventions and abbreviations used in the third register of the
apparatus of the critical edition:
´sivokt ¯ a khecar¯ıvidy¯ a †katham
.
† sam
.
p¯ adit ¯ a may¯ a ¡¬
q~c ´sivokt ¯ a ] conj. Divaoarra; devyukt ¯ a codd. • khecar¯ı˚ ] em.;
´s¯ ambhav¯ı˚ A, ´s¯ ambhav¯ı J
o
J
¬
, khecara˚ cett. (unm.) •
:o:
When additions are reported in the bottom register of the apparatus of the critical edition, they
always follow the p¯ ada under whose verse number and letter they are reported.
The details of major omissions and transpositions are not reported in the full collation, and are only
found in the fourth register of the apparatus of the critical edition.
:o+
E.g. :.:¬d where µ has devi for the pr¯ıty¯ a found in all the other witnesses and I report it.
:o¡
E.g. :.¡sc where K: has˚jy¯ ad for the readings sy¯ ad, ˚khy¯ a and ˚sth¯ ad found in the other witnesses and
I do not report it.
:os
E.g. :.oïb where K+ has yogam
.
na for the other witnesses’ yogena and I do not report it (-am
.
and -e
are easily confused in Devan¯ agar¯ı).
ï: Coxvixrioxs ix rui Aiiaiarus
˚vidy¯ a ]˚∗dy¯ am
.
A, ˚

v

idy¯ a G, yath¯ a γ (unm.) q~J †katham
.
† ] µGUTβ
:
;
par¯ a Sα, s¯ adhu K
:
P, na su˚ J
+
FK
s
K
o
C, tath¯ a γ
:
, pari˚ B
ac
, yath¯ a B
pc

sam
.
p¯ adit ¯ a may¯ a ] transp. µ (unm.), sam
.
p¯ adit ¯ a tva[.] G, sam
.
p¯ adit ¯ a y¯ a N
The verse number and p¯ ada letter precede the apparatus entries for each p¯ ada.
Entries for different elements within a p¯ ada are separated by a spot (•). The lemma
word or phrase is followed by the lemma sign ( ] ). If the lemma word or phrase is found
in the majority of witnesses then the apparatus is negative; if not, or if the distribution of
witnesses whose readings match the lemma word is not clearly split within manuscript
groups, then the apparatus is positive. When the apparatus is positive, all witnesses
whose readings match the lemma word are given after the lemma sign, followed by
a semi-colon, after which the readings of the other witnesses are reported, separated
by commas. When the apparatus is negative, all the variant readings are separated
by commas. The witnesses’ readings are always reported in the order in which the
witnesses are listed in the description of sources (µGUTSαβγDH).
In the above example, in p¯ ada ¡¬c, ´sivokt ¯ a has been conjectured by Devadatta. All
the witnesses (“codd.”) have the reading devyukt ¯ a.
In the next entry, that of khecar¯ı˚, the sign “˚” is used to indicate that khecar¯ı is part
of a longer word or compound. The abbreviation em. indicates that I have emended
the readings of the witnesses. Where I have emended the text to khecar¯ı, witness A
has ´s¯ ambhav¯ı. The “” and “” signs show that ´s¯ ambha is found in the witness as a
k ¯ akapada or addition in the margin. Witnesses J
o
and J
¬
have ´s¯ ambhav¯ı. The rest of
the witnesses (“cett.’) have khecara which is unmetrical (“(unm.)”).
At the next entry, for vidy¯ a, the apparatus is negative. Thus all witnesses except
AGγ have vidy¯ a. Witness A has an illegible syllable (“∗”) followed by dy¯ am
.
. Witness
G has

v

idy¯ a, indicating that the letter “v” is written unclearly (the “i” part of the
syllable is clear).
:oo
The manuscript group γ has yath¯ a which is unmetrical.
In p¯ ada ¡¬d, the reading katham
.
is marked with crux marks (“†”) because it is
spurious and I have been unable to conjecture anything better. It is found in witnesses
µGUTβ
:
; Sα have par¯ a; K
:
and P have s¯ adhu ; J
+
FK
s
K
o
and C have na su˚, with the
“˚” sign indicating that I think that su should be construed with the following word;
γ
:
has tath¯ a; B originally (B
ac
, i.e. B before correction, “ante correctionem”) had pari
(with the “˚” sign again indicating that pari is to be read with the following word); B
has been corrected (B
pc
, “post correctionem”) to read yath¯ a.
All the witnesses except µGN have the reading sam
.
p¯ adit ¯ a may¯ a. µ has may¯ a sam
.
-
p¯ adit ¯ a which is unmetrical. G has sam
.
p¯ adit ¯ a tva followed by a syllable missing due
to damage to the manuscript (“[.]”–the number of full stops indicates the number of
:oo
I have used small asterisks to indicate when an aks
.
ara is legible (to me) only with external help
(usually the readings of the other witnesses).
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ï+
syllables omitted). In N the scribe has deliberately left a gap before the syllable y¯ a
(“y¯ a”).
A word or phrase that is not reported in the apparatus of the critical edition has
no significant variants.
The same conventions are followed in the full collation with the exception that
the sign “˚” is used much more sparingly. It is only used when a variant reading has
word-breaks at different places from those of the lemma, as in the case of witness M in
the following example:
2.12b riay¯ ao nuavari vai ´ sivi
tray¯ ad ] Sαβγ; traye µG • bhavati ] µGSα
:
α
+
βγ; ¯ urdhvam
.
bha˚M •
vai ´sive ] µSα
:
α
+
βγ
:
W
:
B; p¯ arvati G, ˚vechive M, ve ´sive R
There is some falsification of the witnesses’ readings in the apparatus of the critical
edition and the full collation. I have reported neither the punctuation nor the verse
numbering of any of the witnesses. Neither has been helpful in establishing the text
(in pat
.
ala ¡ the punctuation of some witnesses only added to the confusion caused by
the different metres). Where the apparatus is positive and I have reported that readings
match the lemmata, they often do not match them exactly. This is because the lemmata
are reproduced as they are found in the edited text and the Sanskrit of the edited text
has been standardised: -m at the end of a half-verse is written as such but is found as
-m
.
in almost all the witnesses; infix nasals have been written in their appropriate form
in the edited text while again almost all the witnesses use only anusv ¯ ara.
In order to keep the apparatus of the critical edition to a manageable size, I have
occasionally sacrificed veracity for economy of space. When grouping readings to-
gether, I have ignored gemination and degemination of consonants in ligature with
semivowels,
:o¬
variant spellings,
:oï
and confusion of v with b and s with ´s. I do not
report variants that are the result of different effects of sandhi caused by variants that I
do report.
:o,
When the reading of one or two members of a manuscript group differs
from the rest of the group in a way that I consider insignificant, I ignore the variant
and report that the group agrees on that reading.
:¬c
Occasionally I report a variant in
a corrected form.
:¬:
I have only corrected readings in this way when I am confident
that I am not obscuring any important detail. If I am unsure of the reading adopted
in the edited text then I include all available information.
:o¬
E.g. k ¯ aryya for k ¯ arya and tatva for tattva.
:oï
E.g. ¯ urdhva written as ¯ urdha, ¯ urddha and ¯ urdva at +.:ob.
:o,
E.g. cintayed vrat¯ı at +.+¬b where I report ca t ¯ am
.
and priye as variants of vrat¯ı but do not report the
corresponding forms cintayec and cintayet.
:¬c
E.g. :.sïa where J+ has the unmetrical gun
.
¯ıtah
.
but I report that β has gun
.
ayutah
.
.
:¬:
E.g. :.::c where I have reported that J: and K: agree with VPC in reading n ¯ arpayed when in fact
they read n ¯ aryayed and n ¯ aryayad respectively.
ï¡ Coxvixrioxs ix rui Aiiaiarus
In both apparatuses, every individual variant is reported exactly as it is found in
the witness.
Symbols and Abbreviations in the Apparatus
A
ac
witness A before correction (ante correctionem).
A
pc
witness A after correction (post correctionem).
A
mg
marginal addition in witness A.
A
vl
variant reading in A (varia lectio).
add. A denotes readings added by witness A (addidit).
om. A denotes readings omitted by witness A (omisit).
transp. A denotes words transposed by witness A (transposuit).
codd. all the available witnesses (codices).
cod. the single available witness (codex).
codd. all the available witnesses with insignificant variants in some
individual witnesses.
cett. all the other available witnesses (ceteri).
em. I have emended (emendavi).
conj. I have conjectured (conieci).
em. Divaoarra Devadatta has emended (emendavit).
conj. Divaoarra Devadatta has conjectured (coniecit).
(unm.) denotes an unmetrical reading.
cit. denotes an attributed citation (citavit).
] lemma sign preceding variant readings.
• divides lemmata within the same p¯ada.
∗ denotes an illegible aks
.
ara.
∗ ∗
enclose unclear letter(s).
˚ marks where a lemma or variant breaks off from a longer
word or compound.
enclose text added in a marginalium.
† † enclose corrupt passages for which a diagnostic conjecture
has not been made.
denotes a gap deliberately inserted by a scribe.
enclose material added by the editor.
[. . . ] indicates a part of the text lost due to physical damage.
(The number of dots denotes the number of missing aks
.
aras.)
X=Y passages X and Y are identical.
XY passages X and Y are similar.
f. ::v
3−4
folio :: verso, lines + to ¡.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a ïs
f. ::r
3
folio :: recto, line +.
× ⊕ ⊗ ornamental marks, found at the beginning of
witnesses and in colophonic statements.
[ ] enclose material added in translations.
( ) enclose additional clarificatory comments.
Divaoarra refers to a listing in the bibliography under Divaoarra.
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 89
Prathamah
.
Pat
.
alah
.
¯ı´svara uv¯ aca
atha devi pravaks
.
y¯ ami vidy¯ am
.
khecarisam
.
j˜ nit¯ am |
yay¯ a vij˜ n¯ atay¯ a ca sy¯al loke ’sminn ajar¯ amarah
.
1
mr
.
tyuvy¯ adhijar¯ agrastam
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v¯ a vi´svam idam
.
priye |
buddhim
.
dr
.
d
.
hatar¯ am
.
kr
.
tv¯ a khecar¯ım
.
tu sam¯a´srayet 2
jar¯ amr
.
tyugadaghn¯ım
.
yah
.
khecar¯ım
.
vetti bh¯ utale |
granthata´s c¯arthata´s caiva tadabhy¯ asaprayogatah
.
3
tam
.
devi sarvabh¯ avena gurum
.
natv¯ a sam¯a´srayet |
durlabh¯ a khecar¯ıvidy¯ a tadabhy¯ asa´s ca durlabhah
.
4
abhy¯ aso melakam
.
caiva yugapan naiva sidhyati |
abhy¯ asam¯atranirato na vindeteha melakam 5
abhy¯ as¯al labhate devi janmajanm¯ antare kva cit |
melakam
.
janman¯ am
.
tat tu ´sat¯ante ’pi na labhyate 6
abhy¯ asam
.
bahujanm¯ ante kr
.
tv¯ a sadbh¯ avas¯adhitam |
Witnesses for the first pat
.
ala: AJ6J7SNW1MK1K3J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5CJ1J5W2RB; G from 20b;
U (1a–13b, 20cd, 26ab, 29a–30b, 31a–61d, 62c–65b); T (1a–10c, 13b–65b); K6 from 8a; O (30c–
33b, 35c–44d); D (45–49, 55c–56d, 64); H (46–48).
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
iu atha devi ] ath¯aha sam
.
˚U, atha dev¯ım
.
α3 • khecari˚] khecara˚µMK2, khe-
car¯ı˚VF (unm.) • ˚sam
.
j˜ nit¯am ] ˚sam
.
hit¯am
.
µ, ˚sam
.
j˜ nik¯am U, ˚sam
.
j˜ nakam
.
J3 ic yay¯ a ]
µα3β1; yath¯a UTPJ3C, yasy¯a Sα1FK5γ1, yasy¯ah
.
B • vij˜ n¯atay¯a ca sy¯al ] β1K5C; vij˜ n¯ayate
bhy¯as¯at µ, vij˜ n¯atav¯an asya UT, vij˜ n¯anav¯an asya U
vl
, vij˜ n¯anam¯atren
.
a SαK2J3F, vij˜ n¯atay¯am
.
ca
sy¯ a P, sam
.
j˜ n¯anam¯atren
.
a γ zu ˚grastam
.
] ˚grasto U, ˚grast¯a T zb vi´svam
idam
.
priye ] vidy¯am im¯am
.
mune U zJ khecar¯ım
.
tu sam¯a´srayet ] µNMα3; khecar¯ım
.
tu samabhyaset UT, khecar¯ım
.
ca sam¯a´srayet SW1, khecar¯ım
.
ca sam¯acaret βγ2, khecar¯ıcaram
¯acaret W2, khecar¯ı ca sam¯acaret R, khecar¯ıvaram ¯apnuy¯at B ¿u ˚ghn¯ım
.
] Sα1K1β1CB;
˚ghn¯ı µK3K2PJ3γ1, ˚ghno UT • yah
.
] UTSα1K5; y¯ a µK3, y¯am
.
K1, yo β1K2PJ3FCγ
¿c granthata´s c¯arthata´s ] µUTα3; gram
.
th¯ad ¯ac¯aryata´s Sα1βγ • caiva ] c¯api µ ¿J
tadabhy¯asa˚] taks
.
ay¯asa˚A qu tam
.
devi ] µTSα1J2J4K4; tam
.
mune U, t¯am
.
sarva˚α3, tam
.
dev¯ı VPC, t¯ am
.
dev¯ım
.
K2, t¯am
.
dev¯ı J3F, tan devam
.
K5, t¯am
.
devi γ • sarvabh¯avena ] ˚bh¯avena
gurum
.
α3 qb gurum
.
] t¯am
.
ca K1, t¯am
.
va K3 • natv¯a ] SMVK2K5γ; matv¯a µUTα2K3J2-
J4K4PJ3FC, om. K1 qc ˚vidy¯a ] ˚mudr¯a α3 qJ ˚abhy¯asa´s ca ] Sα1β1FK5; ˚abhy¯asam
.
ca µ, ˚abhy¯aso pi UT, ˚abhy¯as¯a´s ca K1, ˚abhy¯asas ta K2, ˚abhy¯asasya PCγ1, ˚abhy¯asa su˚ J3,
˚abh¯aso pi R, ˚abhy¯asas tu B • durlabhah
.
] durlabham
.
µW2, durlabh¯a α3J4, durllabh¯ah
.
K2 ju abhy¯aso ] MFB; abhy¯asa µK3, abhy¯asam
.
cett. • melakam
.
] S; melanam
.
cett.
jc ˚m¯atranirato ] J6J7α3; ˚m¯atravirato A, ˚nirat¯a devi S, ˚m¯ananirat¯a K2, ˚matranirat¯a
J2K4, ˚mam
.
tranirat¯a J4, ˚m¯atranirat¯a cett. jJ na ] vim
.
˚F • vindeteha ] µ; vim
.
dam
.
te
ha UT, vim
.
dant¯ıha SMJ2J4K4PJ3B, vim
.
dam
.
ti ca N, ca vim
.
dati W1, vindat¯ıha α3C (unm.),
vim
.
dati sa K2, ˚dam
.
ti na ca F, vadam
.
ti hi J1, vidam
.
ti ha J5 • melakam ] µα3J3; melanam
.
cett. 6u abhy¯as¯al ] µα3; abhy¯aso B, abhy¯asam
.
cett. • labhate ] labhyate J6J7J4B
• devi ] brahman U, dev¯ım
.
α3 6b janma˚ ] yog¯ı T 6c melakam
.
] em.; melane A,
melanam
.
J6J7UT, abhy¯asa˚Sα2βγ • janman¯am
.
tat tu ] U; bhujag¯an¯am
.
ca AJ7, bhujag¯a n¯ama
J6, tatvajanm¯ırn
.
am
.
T, ˚m¯atranirat¯a Sα2βγ 6J ´sat¯ante ’pi na labhyate ] UT; janm¯am
.
te
tu na labhyate µ, na ca vim
.
dam
.
ti melanam
.
Sα2J4VK4J3, na ca vim
.
dam
.
ti melakam
.
J2PFK5Cγ,
na vim
.
dati hi melanam
.
K2 ~u abhy¯asam
.
] abhy¯asa˚T ~b sad˚] A; tad˚J6J7UT •
˚s¯ adhitam ] µU; ˚s¯adhitah
.
T
jcJ om. VK5W2 6ub om. J3W2 6cJ om. Mα3J3J1 ~ub om. Sαβγ
90 Pat
.
ala 1
melakam
.
labhate devi yog¯ı janm¯ antare kva cit |
yad¯ a tu melakam
.
k¯ am¯ı labhate parame´svari 7
tad¯ a tat siddhim ¯ apnoti yad uktam
.
´s¯astrasam
.
tatau |
granthata´s c¯arthata´s caiva melakam
.
labhate yad¯ a 8
tad¯ a ´sivatvam ¯apnoti vimuktah
.
sam
.
sr
.
ter bhay¯ at |
´s¯astram
.
vin¯ a sam¯aboddhum
.
guravo ’pi na ´saknuyuh
.
9
tasm¯at sudurlabhataram
.
labhyam
.
´s¯astram idam
.
priye |
y¯ avan na labhyate granthas t¯ avad g¯ am
.
paryat
.
ed im¯am |
yad¯ a sa labhyate devi tad¯ a siddhih
.
kare sthit¯ a 10
na ´s¯astren
.
a vin¯ a siddhir at
.
ato ’pi jagattraye |
tasm¯an melakad¯ at¯ aram
.
´s¯astrad¯ at¯ aram ¯ı´svari 11
tadabhy¯ asaprad¯ at¯ aram
.
´sivam
.
matv¯a sad¯a yajet |
tantr¯ a´s ca bahavo devi may¯ a prokt¯ ah
.
sur¯ arcite 12
na tes
.
u khecar¯ısiddhir ¯ akhy¯ at¯ a mr
.
tyun¯ a´sin¯ı |
mah¯ ak¯ alam
.
ca m¯artan
.
d
.
am
.
vivek¯ adyam
.
ca ´s¯abaram 13
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
~u melakam
.
] melake µ, melanam
.
UTMJ4 • devi ] ka´s cid U ~b yog¯ı ] janma˚S,
yoge α3, yogi˚ V ~c yad¯a tu ] tad¯a tan˚ µ • melakam
.
] malakam
.
J6J7, melanam
.
U
• k¯ am¯ı ] karma µ, yog¯ı UTR, caiva N, devi M ~J parame´svari ] µSNMJ4VK4K5K6Cγ;
guruvaktratah
.
U, parame´svar¯ı TW1J2PJ3F, parame´svar¯ım α3K2 Sb uktam
.
] ukt¯a U,
uktam
.
U
vl
• ˚sam
.
tatau ] ˚sam
.
matau J4, ˚sam
.
mat¯am
.
J3, ˚sam
.
tataih
.
J6, ˚sattamaih
.
γ Sc
granthata´s ] abhy¯as¯a˚ M, gram
.
th¯ad ¯a˚ K2 • c¯arthata´s ] ch¯astrata´s M, c¯aryata´s J4K2J3γ
SJ melakam
.
labhate ] transp. µ, melanam
.
labhate UM, melakam
.
labhyate J3γ • yad¯a ]
tad¯a AJ7 gb vimuktah
.
] µ; nirmuktah
.
cett. • sam
.
sr
.
ter ] Sα1β1FK5CB; sam
.
sr
.
ti˚µα3
(unm.), sarvasam
.
˚ U, sam
.
smr
.
ti T (unm.), sa mr
.
ter K2PJ3γ2R, sa sr
.
ter K6, sam
.
mr
.
ter W2 •
bhay¯at ] Sα1βγ; ˚vr
.
t¯an A, ˚vra

j

¯at J6, ˚vr
.
t¯at J7, ˚sr
.
teh
.
U, praj¯at Tα3 gc sam¯aboddhum
.
]
Sα2J4K4PJ3FK5K6C; sam¯avod
.
hum
.
A, sam¯avod
.
ham
.
J6J7, pi sam
.
boddhum
.
U, pi sam
.
bhoktum
.
T, bodhayitum
.
M, samam ¯avoddhum
.
K1 (unm.), mas¯avoddhum
.
K3, sam¯avoddham
.
J2K2, sam¯a-
boddhu V, samobodham
.
γ2, samoboddhum
.
W2B, sam¯avoddham
.
vai R (unm.) iou
su˚ ] sa AJ7K6γ1, tu α2, dhi M, ca K2 iob labhyam
.
] AJ6Uα3; labhy¯am
.
J7, tebhyah
.
cett. • priye ] mune U iou labhyate ] J6J7Uα3J2J4K4J3; labhate Aα1VK2PFK5K6Cγ,
labhyate S • granthas ] µSα2VPFK6Cγ; gram
.
tham
.
Mα3K5, gram
.
tha J2J4K4, gram
.
thah
.
K2, ´s¯astram
.
U, ´s¯astra J3 iob t¯avad g¯am
.
paryat
.
ed ] t¯avan na paryat
.
ed N, t¯avat paryat
.
ate
γ • im¯am ] yatih
.
U, i´s¯am
.
α3, di´s¯a γ2W2, di´s¯am
.
R, di´sah
.
B ioc yad¯a ] y¯avat K5 • sa
labhyate ] µ; sam
.
labhyate USα3β1PJ3K5γ1, sam
.
labhate α2K2FK6C, sa labhate M, ca labhate B
• devi ] ´s¯astram
.
UMα3 ioJ siddhih
.
] muktih
.
M iib at
.
ato ’pi ] dr
.
s
.
t
.
¯a caiva
U • ˚traye ] µUMF
ac
; ˚trayam
.
cett. iic melaka˚ ] melana˚ U iiJ ¯ı´svari ]
acyutam U izu ˚prad¯at¯aram
.
] ˚pradam
.
devi M izb ´sivam
.
] gurum
.
S • sad¯a yajet ]
µSα1PK5Cγ; sam¯a´srayet U, tad¯a´sraye T, sad¯a japet α3J2J4K4K2K6, sad¯a jayet V, sad¯a vrajet
F izc tantr¯a´s ] µ; mam
.
tr¯a´s cett. izJ prokt¯ah
.
] prokt¯a TJ2J4K4K2PJ3FK5K6Cγ1
• sur¯arcite ] sure´svar¯ı T, sure´svari S i¿b ¯akhy¯ at¯a mr
.
tyun¯a´sin¯ı ] vikhy¯ at¯amr
.
tav¯asin¯ı
γ i¿c m¯artan
.
d
.
am
.
] µSα1K1β1K2PK5K6CJ1B; m¯art¯am
.
d
.
am
.
T, m¯artt¯ad
.
am
.
K3, m¯artam
.
d
.
o
J3, m¯art¯am
.
d
.
a F, m¯arttad
.
am
.
J5W2R (unm.) i¿J ˚¯ adyam
.
] µβγ; ˚¯artham
.
T, ˚¯ad
.
hyam
.
S, ˚¯akhyam
.
α • ´s¯abaram ] conj.; ´s¯abharam
.
A, ´s¯am
.
varam
.
J6J7, ´sobhanam
.
α3, ´s¯am
.
bhavam
.
cett.
~cJ om. K2J1 ~c start of readings from K6 • tad¯a ´sivatvam ¯apnoti vimuktah
.
sam
.
sr
.
tivr
.
t¯a

t

add. A ioJ–i¿u om. T iib abhy¯asam¯atranirat¯a na ca vim
.
dam
.
ti (vim
.
dati R) melakam
.
melakam
.
labhate devi yog¯ı janm¯am
.
tare kva cit (cf. 5cd, 7cd) add. J1R i¿c–zob om. U
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 91
vi´suddhe´svarasam
.
j˜ nam
.
ca tath¯ a vai j¯ ala´sam
.
varam |
etes
.
u tantravaryes
.
u tadabhy¯ asah
.
prak¯ a´sitah
.
14
kva cit spas
.
t
.
am
.
tath¯ aspas
.
t
.
am
.
kva cit tanmelak¯ adikam |
asmin tantravare divye melak¯ adi prak¯ a´sitam 15
yad yaj j˜ neyam
.
bhavet kim
.
cid durj˜ neyam
.
khecar¯ımate |
tat tat sarvam ih¯ asm¯abhis tava pr¯ıty¯ a prak¯ a´sitam 16
tasm¯ac ch¯astram
.
pralabhyeta mayoktam idam adbhutam |
gopan¯ıyam
.
mahe´s¯ani na sarvatra prak¯ a´sitam 17
manmukh¯ amburuh¯ aj j¯ atam
.
yas tu ´s¯astr¯amr
.
tam
.
vadet |
sa eva hi guruh
.
satyam arthato vetti yah
.
punah
.
18
sa c¯adhikatamah
.
khy¯ ato gurur n¯ asti tato ’dhikah
.
|
labdhv¯ a ´s¯astram idam
.
guhyam anyes
.
¯am
.
na prak¯ a´sayet 19
suvic¯ arya pravaktavyam etanm¯ argopaj¯ıvin¯ am |
ya idam
.
paramam
.
´s¯astram
.
yatra tatra prak¯ a´sayet 20
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
iqu vi´suddhe´svara˚] tam
.
tram
.
vi´suddha˚M • ˚sam
.
j˜ nam
.
] ˚tam
.
tram
.
T iqb tath¯a ]
´s¯astram
.
M, tathya T • vai j¯ ala˚] vet¯ala˚T • ˚´sam
.
varam ] µα1J2K4PK5C; ˚´sam
.
baram
.
T, ˚´s¯abaram
.
S, ˚sam
.
j˜ nitam
.
M, ˚mam
.
vare α3, ˚sam
.
varam
.
VK2, ˚m eva ca J3, ˚sam
.
bharam
.
F,
˚´sam
.
va

r¯am
.

K6, ˚´sam
.
bhavam
.
γ1, ˚sam
.
bhavam
.
B iqc tantra˚] µα1β1K5; mam
.
tra˚TSα3-
K2PJ3FK6Cγ • ˚varyes
.
u ] ˚caryes
.
u α3K2 iqJ tadabhy¯asah
.
] tadabhy¯asa˚ µγ2W2;
tad¯abhy¯asa˚TK2R • prak¯a´sitah
.
] SαVK2J3K5K6CW2B; prak¯a´sitam
.
µJ2J4K4, prak¯a´satah
.
T, prak¯ırtitah
.
SF, prak¯a´sit¯ah
.
γ2, prak¯a´sita R iju spas
.
t
.
am
.
tath¯aspas
.
t
.
am
.
] spr
.
s
.
t
.
am
.
tath¯aspr
.
J6J7 (unm.), spas
.
t
.
as tath¯aspas
.
t
.
ah
.
M, spr
.
s
.
t
.
am
.
tath¯aspas
.
t
.
am
.
K1, spr
.
s
.
t
.
am
.
tath¯apyas
.
t
.
am
.
K3 ijb
tan˚ ] TSαK5; tam
.
µβ1K2PJ3FK6Cγ • ˚¯ adikam ] ˚¯adik J6J7 (unm.), ˚¯adhikam
.
α3 ijc
asmin ] asmim
.
s N • tantra˚ ] tam
.
tre AJ7, tam
.
trai J6, mam
.
tra˚α3 i6u yad yaj
j˜ neyam
.
] STK2F
ac
K5C; yady aj˜ neyam
.
µβ1BF
pc
, yadi j˜ neyam
.
α, yady aheyam
.
P, yad aj˜ neyam
.
J3, yad yad veyam
.
K6, yady abhayam
.
J1, yad yad j˜ nayam
.
J5, yad yad a∗yam
.
W2 • kim
.
cid ]
loke S i6b durj˜ neyam
.
khecar¯ımate ] µTK2J3F; durj˜ neyam
.
khecar¯ım r
.
te Sα1J2VK4PK5C,
durj˜ ney¯a khecar¯ımat¯a α3, durgeyam
.
khecar¯ım
.
mate J4, taj˜ neyam
.
khecar¯ım r
.
te K6, guruj˜ neyam
.
khecar¯ımate γ1 (unm.), gurugamyam
.
ca khecar¯ı B i6c tat tat sarvam ih¯asm¯abhis ] tatah
.
samyag ih¯asm¯abhis µ, tat tat sarvam
.
may¯a devi MJ3, tat tat sarvam
.
mah¯atm¯abhis K2P, mate
tat sarvam ¯asm¯abhis B i6J pr¯ıty¯a ] devi µ i~u pralabhyeta ] µα3FR; pral¯ıbhyate T,
pralabhyaitan cett. i~b mayoktam ] yathoktam α3 i~c gopan¯ıyam
.
] guhy¯ad guhyam
.
T, suguhyatv¯an VK5 • mahe´s¯ani ] suguptatv¯a A, suguhyatv¯an mahe´s¯ani J6K4 (unm.), sugu-
ptatv¯an mahe´s¯ani J7 i~J na sarvatra ] µ; samyak satyam
.
T, samyak sarvam
.
β1K5, yatah
.
sarvam
.
cett. iSb vadet ] µα3; dadet Sα2K5γ, ca tat T, dadat MJ2K4K2PK6C, dad¯at J4,
datat V, mahat J3, dhadhat F iSJ arthato vetti yah
.
] vedayed yah
.
punah
.
α2, yo vetti
ca punah
.
M igu sa ] µSF; na cett. • c¯adhikatamah
.
] S; c¯adhika sam¯a˚ A, c¯adhikah
.
sam¯a˚J6J7, c¯adhikas s∗m¯a˚T, c¯adhikatam¯a W1J2PK6Cγ, v¯ adhika

ta

m¯a K1, v¯ adhikastam¯a K3,
v¯ adhikatamay¯a J4 (unm.), v¯adhikatam¯a VK4J3, c¯adhikamay¯a K2, hityadhikam¯a F, c¯adhikatay¯a
K5 • khy¯ ato ] kh¯ato J2VK4 igb gurur n¯asti tato ’dhikah
.
] na gurus tena c¯adhikah
.
µ igc
guhyam ] mahyam UT, guhyam U
vl
igJ na ] ma AJ7, tat J2K4, nat J4 zou suvi-
c¯arya ] µMSα3β; vic¯aryeva T, suvic¯ary¯a α2, savic¯arya γ2W2, sarvav

a

rya R, samyag vic¯a˚ B
• pravaktavyam ] µTSW1α3β1FK5; pravaktavya NM, prakarttavyam K2PCK6γ1, prakarttavyah
.
J3, ˚rya kartavyam B zob etanm¯argopaj¯ıvin¯am
.
] SPFK6C; ekam¯argopaj¯ıvin¯a µ, etad¯atmo-
paj¯ıvinam
.
T, es
.
a m¯argo paj¯ıvin¯am NMβ1K5, es
.
a m¯argo ’pi j¯ıvanam
.
W1, ekam
.
m¯argopaj¯ıvinam
.
K1, ekam
.
m¯argopaj¯ıvitam
.
K3, etatm¯argopraj¯ıvan¯am
.
K2, tena m¯argopaj¯ıvin¯a J3, etanm¯argo pi
j¯ıvanam
.
J1R, etanm¯arge pi j¯ıvanam
.
J5W2, etanm¯arge ca j¯ıvanam
.
B zoc ya idam
.
paramam
.
´s¯astram
.
] s
.
at
.
padam
.
paramam
.
´s¯astram
.
µ, prak¯a´sitam
.
yadi punar G, japadam
.
paramam
.
´s¯astram
.
K2 zoJ yatra tatra prak¯a´sayet ] yath¯a tath¯a prak¯a´sayet µ (unm.), mm¯ ud
.
hen¯atm¯abhiy¯atin¯a
G, yatra kutra prak¯a´sayet TSα
ac
1
iScJ om. NMα3 zoub om. NM igb kah
.
: start of readings from G ziub om. G
ziu–zjb om. U
92 Pat
.
ala 1
sa ´s¯ıghram
.
bhaks
.
yate devi yogin¯ıbhih
.
´siv¯aj˜ nay¯ a |
granthim
.
nodgranthayed asya vin¯ a kaulikatarpan
.
¯at 21
p¯ ujitam
.
´subhavastrastham
.
divyadh¯ upasudh¯ upitam |
´sr¯avayed vijanasth¯ ane yogine yoga´s¯aline 22
yasminn ap¯ ujitam
.
´s¯astram idam
.
tis
.
t
.
hati vai gr
.
he |
tatr¯ agniruggrah¯ ar¯ atip¯ıd
.
¯a bhavati ni´scitam 23
yatredam
.
p¯ ujitam
.
grantham
.
gr
.
he tis
.
t
.
hati p¯ arvati |
tatra sarv¯ arthad¯ ayinyo vasanti kuladevat¯ ah
.
24
tasm¯at sarvaprayatnena gopan¯ıyam
.
vij¯ anat¯ a |
yas tu yog¯ı may¯ a prokt¯ a im¯ah
.
siddh¯ıh
.
sam¯ıhate 25
sa yog¯ı sarvabh¯ avena gopayet pustakam
.
tv idam |
aham
.
tasya gurur devi yatr¯ aste pustakam
.
svayam 26
gun
.
¯agun
.
am
.
mahe´s¯ani pustakasya ca raks
.
an
.
¯at |
prakat
.
am
.
ca may¯a proktam id¯ an¯ım
.
khecar¯ım
.
´sr
.
n
.
u 27
yatr¯ aste ca gurur devi divyayogapras¯ adhakah
.
|
tatra gatv¯ a ca tenokt¯ am
.
vidy¯ am
.
sam
.
gr
.
hya khecar¯ım 28
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
ziu bhaks
.
yate ] vadyate G zic granthim
.
] em.; gram
.
thi µ, ´srajam
.
T, gram
.
tham
.
cett. • nodgranthayed asya ] µ; samarpayet tasya G, sad¯accayekr
.
sya T, tu n¯arpayed devi SJ2-
VK4K2PK5K6C, samarpayed asya α1, sam¯arpayed yasya α3, tu n¯arcayed devi J4F, tu n¯aye devi
J3 (unm.), tu c¯arcayed devi γ ziJ vin¯a kaulikatarpan
.
¯at ] vin¯a ca gurutarpan
.
¯at G, vin¯a
kaus
.
akadarpan
.
am T, vin¯a kaulikatarpan
.
am
.
α, n¯astike kaulatarppan
.
¯at K2, vin¯a ´sam
.
karap¯ ujan¯at
K5 zzu p¯ ujitam
.
] p¯ ujite T • ´subhavastrastham
.
] ´subhravastren
.
a G, tu bhavet svastham
.
T, ´subhavastren
.
a Sα1, ´subhavastustham
.
γ1 zzb ˚dh¯ upasu˚ ] ˚dh¯ upai´s ca TS, ˚dh¯ upais
tu J2K4 zzc vijanasth¯ane ] vijane sth¯ane µ, dvijasam
.
sth¯ane Sα2 zzJ yogine ]
yogin¯ı M • ˚´s¯aline ] µGTMα3J3K5γ; ˚´s¯ıline SNJ2K4PFC, ˚´s¯ılane W1J4VK2K6 z¿u
ap¯ ujitam
.
] p¯ ujitam
.
nu G, vai p¯ ujitam
.
γ z¿b tis
.
t
.
hati ] tis
.
t
.
ham
.
ti µTJ4J3J5W2 • vai
gr
.
he ] vigrahe A, vai grahe TJ3, caiva hi α2, sundari M, ya∗he B z¿c ˚ruggrah¯ar¯ati˚ ]
SK5; ˚rudgah¯ar¯atri˚ AJ6, ˚rudgr
.
h¯ar¯atri˚ J7, ˚coraj¯a p¯ıd
.
¯a T, ˚rugrah¯ar¯ati˚ α2J2K4FB, ˚rar¯a-
t¯ın
.
¯am
.
M
ac
(unm.), ˚v¯arr¯ar¯at¯ın
.
¯am
.
M
pc
, ˚rugnah¯ar¯atri˚ α3, ˚rugr¯ah¯ar¯ati J4, ˚rugmah¯ar¯ati˚ V,
˚rugragr¯ah¯artti˚K2, ˚ruggnah¯ar¯arti˚P, ˚ruggrah¯ar¯arti˚J3, ˚stagrah¯ar¯artti˚K6, ˚rugrah¯ar¯arti˚
C, ˚rugn
.
ah¯ar¯ati˚ γ2W2, ˚∗gn
.
ah¯ar¯atti˚ R z¿J ˚p¯ıd
.
¯a bhavati ni´scitam ] bhavaty eva hi
ni´scayam T zqu yatredam
.
] yatremam
.
µ, yatr¯ayam
.
TB, yatreyam
.
γ1 • p¯ ujitam
.
]
p¯ ujite γ • grantham
.
] ´s¯astram
.
W1MC
pc
, gram
.
the γ zqb gr
.
he ] grahe AVK2 zjb
vij¯ anat¯a ] prayatnatah
.
G, vij¯ anatah
.
α3, vij¯ anat¯ah
.
K4K6 zjc yas tu ] Gα1; yo ’smin µ, ya´s ca
T, yasmin Sβγ, tasmin α3 • yog¯ı ] yogi A, yoge Sγ, yogo J2, yog∗ P, yog¯a J3 • may¯a prokt¯a ]
α2; mayokt¯ani µGTSα3β1PJ3FK5Cγ, im¯am
.
prokt¯am
.
M, may¯a prokt¯an K2, mayo bhakt¯a K6
zjJ im¯ah
.
siddh¯ıh
.
] W1; sam
.
siddh¯ıni µ, sam
.
siddh¯ani G, sam
.
siddhir na Tα3, siddhav¯aky¯ ani
Sβγ, im¯ah
.
siddhi N, may¯a siddhim
.
M • sam¯ıhate ] µGTα; sam
.
vadet Sβγ z6c tasya
gurur ] tas tu gurum
.
µ z6J svayam ] tv idam
.
GMK5B z~u ˚gun
.
am
.
] ˚´sun
.
am
.
AJ7,
˚gun
.
¯a G, ˚gun
.
au T, ˚gun
.
a K2K6γ z~b raks
.
an
.
¯at ] raks
.
an
.
e µTα z~c prakat
.
am
.
ca may¯a
proktam ] prakat
.
¯am
.
ca may¯a prokt¯am G, prakat
.
atvam iti proktam
.
S, prakat
.
am
.
ca may¯a prokt¯am
.
W1F zSu ca ] µGUTMF; sa S
pc
β1K2PJ3FK5Cγ, sad S
ac
J3, tva N, tvad W1, c¯a α3, san K6
• gurur ] guru ATM
ac
, gurum
.
J6J7, guror K2 • devi ] brahman U, dev¯ı TNβ1, dev¯ım
.
α3
zSb ˚pras¯adhakah
.
] ˚prabh¯avatah
.
G, ˚prad¯ayakah
.
U, ˚sya s¯adhakah
.
S zSc tenokt¯am
.
]
tenokta˚U, tenoktam
.
U
vl
SαJ4J3FJ1R zSJ vidy¯ am
.
sam
.
gr
.
hya khecar¯ım ] divy¯am
.
sam
.
gr
.
hya
khecar¯ım
.
G, sam
.
pradh¯arya prayatnatah
.
α1, sam
.
prad¯ayatrayatnatah
.
α3
zqb vai – zjb tis
.
t
.
hati om. G (eye-skip tis
.
t
.
hati–tis
.
t
.
hati) z6c–zSJ om. U
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 93
tenoktam
.
samyag abhy¯ asam
.
kury¯ ad ¯ ad¯ av atandritah
.
|
vidy¯ am
.
ca khecar¯ım
.
devi pravaks
.
ye yogasiddhid¯ am 29
na tay¯ a rahito yog¯ı khecar¯ısiddhibh¯ ag bhavet |
khecary¯ a khecar¯ım
.
yu˜ njan khecar¯ıb¯ıjap¯ urvay¯ a 30
khecar¯ adhipatir bh¯ utv¯ a khecares
.
u sad¯a vaset |
[mantroddh¯arah
.
]
khecar¯ avasatham
.
vahnim amb¯ aman
.
d
.
alabh¯ us
.
itam 31
vy¯ akhy¯ atam
.
khecar¯ıb¯ıjam
.
tena yogah
.
prasidhyati |
mastak¯akhy¯ a mah¯ acan
.
d
.
¯a ´sikhivahnikavajrabhr
.
t 32
p¯ urvab¯ıjayut¯ a vidy¯ a vy¯ akhy¯ at¯ a hy atidurlabh¯ a |
s
.
ad
.
a˙ ngavidy¯ am
.
vaks
.
y¯ ami tay¯ a s
.
at
.
svarabhinnay¯ a 33
kury¯ ad devi yath¯ any¯ ayam
.
sarvasiddhy¯ aptihetave |
30c–33b cit. “Khecar¯ıvidy¯a” (O) f.1v
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
zgu tenoktam
.
] GSβJ1R; tenokte µ, tenoktah
.
U, tenokta U
vl
T, samyag a˚ α, tenokt¯am
.
J5W2B • samyag abhy¯asam
.
] ˚bhy¯ asam
.
yatnena MK3, ˚bhy¯ asayatnena α2K1 zgb
¯ad¯av atandritah
.
] ¯ah¯av atlam
.
dritah
.
A, ¯ ah¯av alam
.
dritah
.
J7, vett¯a atam
.
dritah
.
α3, ¯adau ca tam
.
tatah
.
γ zgc vidy¯am
.
ca ] t¯am
.
vidy¯ am
.
G • devi ] dev¯ım
.
GW1 zgJ yoga˚ ] gan
.

α2α3, sarva˚M ¿ou na tay¯a rahito ] µα3βO;

¯adau hi ka´sito

G, anay¯a vidyay¯ a U, anay¯a
sahito T, naitay¯a rahito Sα2, naitay¯a khecar¯ı M, na khecary¯a hito γ2W2B, na khecary¯a vin¯a R
¿ob khecar¯ı˚ ] rahito M ¿oc khecary¯a ] khecaryo A, khecary¯am
.
Gα3 • khecar¯ım
.
]
µUSα2α3J3K5CO; khecar¯ı GTMβ1K2PFγ, om. K6 • yu˜ njan ] µUTSJ2VK4PFK5; yujan
GC, yum
.
jy¯ at α2, p¯ ujy¯ a M, yojy¯ a K1, yojy¯ at K3, pum
.
jan J4O, jam
.
pan K2, cyuban J3, om. K6,
yum
.
j¯ an γ2R, pum
.
j¯ an W2B ¿oJ ˚p¯ urvay¯ a ] ˚p¯ urvakam
.
G, ˚p¯ uray¯a Uα3, ˚p¯ urvay¯ah
.
J2J4K4
¿ib khecares
.
u ] khecar¯ıs
.
u K2 ¿ic khecar¯a˚] khecar¯ı˚GJ3γ • ˚vasatham
.
] AJ7UTSα1-
β1PJ3FK5CO; ˚vasam
.
tham
.
J6 (unm.), ˚vasatam
.
G, ˚vasatha α3, ˚hastravam
.
K2, ˚vasatha

m
.

K6, ˚vasat¯am
.
J1R, ˚vasath¯am
.
J5W2B • vahnim ] vahnir µ, vahni MK6, vahnim
.
α3, vahnirm
J2K4, vavrajvim V (unm.) ¿iJ amb¯a˚] SJ4VK4K2PK5CγO; ahn¯ı˚µ, am
.
bho˚G, ambu˚
U, abhra˚ T, am
.
d
.
av¯a˚ N (unm.), ¯ay¯a˚ W1, vad
.
av¯ a˚ M (unm.), sarv¯a α3, av¯a˚ J2, ath¯a˚ J3,
¯ab¯a˚F, v¯ ama K6 • ˚bh¯ us
.
itam
.
] ˚bh¯ us
.
it¯am
.
FW2B ¿zu vy¯ akhy¯ atam
.
] ¯akhy¯atam
.
UT,
vy¯ akhy¯at¯a K2, vy¯ akhy¯anam
.
γ ¿zb yogah
.
] yog¯ı α3 ¿zc mastak¯akhy¯ a ] em.; masta-
k¯ akhyo µ
a
, ´sanaih
.
´sanai´s G, ´sanaih
.
´sanair cett. • mah¯acan
.
d
.
¯a ] µ
a
; ´sirovyoma˚ G, mastak¯a´s ca
α3, mastak¯argha V, mastak¯ac ca cett. ¿zJ ´sikhi˚ ] J7; ´sivi˚ A
a
, ´sim
.
khi˚ J
a
6
, saha˚ α3,
mah¯a˚ cett. • ˚vahni˚ ] µ
a
; ˚vastram
.
µ
b
, ˚vajra˚ GUTSαJ3, ˚vastra˚ β1PK5K6Cγ, vastr¯a˚
F • ˚kavajra˚ ] µ
a
; ˚kap¯at
.
a˚ A
b
J
b
7
Sαβ1PJ3FK5K6Cγ, ˚kay¯ at
.
a˚ J
b
6
, ˚kav¯ at
.
a˚ GUT •
˚bhr
.
t ] µ
a
; ˚dhr
.
k µ
b
βγ, ˚vit G, ˚bhit UTSα ¿¿u p¯ urva˚ ] p¯ urvam
.
U • ˚b¯ıjayut¯a˚ ]
b¯ıjayut¯am
.
GW1, ˚v¯ıjojit¯a˚α3 • vidy¯a ] vidy¯ am
.
GW1 ¿¿b vy¯ akhy¯ at¯a ] µ
a
TSMβ1F; ˚py
¯akhy¯at¯a A
b
, khy¯ at¯a J
b
6
J
b
7
(unm.), vy¯akhy¯ at¯am G, hy ¯akhy¯ at¯a U, vikhy¯ at¯a Nα3γ, vikhy¯ at¯am
.
W1,
vy¯ akhy¯at¯ad K2PK5C, vikhy¯at¯ad J3 • hy atidurlabh¯a ] µ
a
S; y¯atidurlabh¯a µ
b
β1K2PJ3K5Cγ;
atidurlabh¯a∗ G, y¯ ati durlabh¯am
.
UT, c¯anyadurlabh¯am
.
α2, c¯anyadurlabh¯a M, ˚tisudurlabh¯a α3,
˚py atidurlabh¯a F, y¯at¯ad¯ u

r

llabh¯a K6 ¿¿c s
.
ad
.
a˙ ngavidy¯am
.
vaks
.
y¯ ami ] µ
a
; tasy¯ah
.
s
.
ad
.
-
am
.
gam
.
kurvam
.
ta J2J4K4J3F, tasy¯ah
.
s
.
ad
.
am
.
gam
.
kurvam
.
ti K2K6, tasy¯ah
.
s
.
ad
.
a˙ ngam
.
kurv¯ıta cett.
¿¿J tay¯a ] tath¯a µ
a
µ
b
• s
.
at
.
svara˚ ] µ
a
GUTα; s
.
at
.
dv¯ ara˚µ
b
, s
.
ad
.
d¯ırgha˚ Sβγ ¿qu
devi ] dev¯ı GK3, evam
.
UT, dev¯ım
.
K1, divi J3 • yath¯any¯ayam
.
] yath¯a ny¯asam
.
A
a
J
a
7
GK5K6,
karany¯asam
.
UT, yath¯aty¯asram
.
J2, yath¯a´s¯astram
.
J4, yath¯aty¯am
.
sram
.
K4 ¿qb ˚siddhy¯apti˚]
µ
b
Sβ; ˚vidy¯apti˚µ
a
, sidhyam
.
ti G, ˚siddhy¯adi˚UT, ˚siddhipra˚α1, ˚siddh¯artha˚γ • ˚hetave ]
˚hetavah
.
G
¿ocJ om. U ¿ic 32c–33b and 35c–36b transp. R ¿zc 33c–35b is found after 53d in all
the witnesses that report it (µUTSαβγ). µ has the passage twice, both at 33c–35b (µ
a
=A
a
J
a
6
J
a
7
)
and after 53d (µ
b
=A
b
J
b
6
J
b
7
).
94 Pat
.
ala 1
some´s¯an navamam
.
varn
.
am
.
pratilomena coddharet 34
tasm¯at trim
.
´sakam ¯akhy¯ atam aks
.
aram
.
candrar¯ upakam |
tasm¯ad apy as
.
t
.
amam
.
varn
.
am
.
vilomen¯ aparam
.
priye 35
tath¯ a tatpa˜ ncamam
.
devi tad¯ adir api pa˜ ncamah
.
|
indro ’pi bindusam
.
bhinnah
.
k¯ ut
.
o ’yam
.
parik¯ırtitah
.
36
gur¯ upade´salabhyam
.
ca sarvalokaprasiddhidam |
yatasya dehaj¯ a m¯ay¯ a vir¯ up¯ a karan
.
¯a´sray¯ a 37
svapne ’pi na bhavet tasya nityam
.
dv¯ ada´saj¯apyatah
.
|
ya im¯am
.
pa˜ nca laks
.
¯an
.
i japed atisuyantritah
.
38
tasya ´sr¯ıkhecar¯ısiddhih
.
svayam eva pravartate |
na´syanti sarvavighn¯ ani pras¯ıdanti ca devat¯ ah
.
39
val¯ıpalitan¯ a´sa´s ca bhavis
.
yati na sam
.
´sayah
.
|
evam
.
labdhv¯ a mah¯ avidy¯ am abhy¯ asam
.
k¯ arayet tatah
.
40
anyath¯ a kli´syate devi na siddhih
.
khecar¯ıpade |
35c–44d cit. “Khecar¯ıvidy¯a” (O) f.2r
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
¿qc some´s¯an ] some´s¯a GO, som¯am
.
´sa UT, some´san γ1, some´sam
.
B • navamam
.
] navame
G, navakam
.
U, navam¯a F, nam
.
vamam
.
O • varn
.
am
.
] varn
.
a AK3, varn
.
e G
ac
¿ju tasm¯at ]
tasy¯as µ, tasm¯ad TM, tasy¯a J4, tatas K2, tasm¯ıs P • trim
.
´sakam ] µGSJ2VK4PFK5K6CγO;
tryam
.
´sakam U, tryambakam U
vl
, am
.
´sam T (unm.), trim
.
´s¯aks
.
a˚α2α3, vi´sam
.
ti M, tri

´sim
.
∗¯ak

am
J4, m¯annim
.
´sam K2, tri´sakam J3 • ¯akhy¯atam ] ˚ram
.
´s¯astram α2, mam
.
´s¯astram M, ˚ra´s¯astram
α3, ¯akhy¯atam
.
O ¿jb aks
.
aram
.
] mak¯aram
.
O • ˚r¯ upakam ] ˚bh¯ us
.
itam
.
G, ˚s¯ uryakam
.
M ¿jc apy as
.
t
.
amam
.
] GUT; apy as
.
t
.
akam
.
µ, ath¯as
.
t
.
amam
.
Sα1βγ, adh¯ama va˚ α3 •
varn
.
am
.
] varn
.
e µ, ˚rn
.
am
.
ca α3 ¿jJ vilomen¯aparam
.
] GUSα2β1PFK5CγO; vilomenya
varam
.
A, vilomen¯avaram
.
J6J7, vilomen¯apuram
.
TK6, vilomena param
.
MK2, vilomam
.
paramam
.
α3, vilomen¯apriyam
.
J3 • priye ] mune U ¿6u tath¯a ] tad¯a U
vl
, tasm¯at α • tatpa˜ nca-
mam
.
] Sβ1PJ3FK5K6Cγ1O; tatvam
.
came A, tatvam
.
camam
.
J6J7, tatvam
.
cam¯am
.
G, tatparamam
.
U, tatpuraman T, pam
.
camam ity α1, paramam ity α3, t¯am
.
pam
.
camam
.
K2, ˚nyat pam
.
camam
.
B • devi ] viddhi U, uktam
.
α ¿6b pa˜ ncamah
.
] pam
.
camam
.
µTK2J3R, pam
.
cam¯a
U ¿6c indro ’pi ] im
.
do´s ca UT, cam
.
dro yam
.
M, id¯api K2, indr¯api γ1 • bindusam
.
bhi-
nnah
.
] Sα1K2FK5; bim
.
dusam
.
bhinnam
.
µα3β1J3PK6Cγ, bim
.
dusam
.
bhim
.
n¯am
.
G, bahubhinnam
.
ca
U, bahubhi´scala T, bhinnasam
.
bhinnam
.
O ¿6J k¯ ut
.
o ] moks
.
o G • ˚k¯ırtitah
.
] ˚k¯ırtitam
.
AJ7T ¿~u gur¯ upade´sa˚ ] µGUTK3; gur¯ upade´s¯al cett. ¿~b sarvaloka˚ ] GSβγ;
sarvayoga˚ µU, sa vai yoga˚ T, sarvaloke α • ˚siddhidam ] ˚siddhi

d

ah
.
G, ˚siddhidah
.
F
¿~c yatasya ] K2γO; yat tasya µGUJ2J4K4C, yuktasya T, na spr
.
´sed Sα1, y¯ a tasya α3VK5,
yatrasya PF, prata

ks
.

ya J3, y¯ atrasy¯a K6 • dehaj¯a ] UT; devaj¯a µGα2J2VK4K5K6, devat¯a
SMK2PJ3FCγO, devay¯a α3J4 • m¯ay¯ a ] m¯ay¯ am
.
MK2 ¿~J vir¯ up¯a ] µCO; vir¯ upa˚
GSα1β1K2PJ3FK5K6γ, niruddha˚U, nir¯ ud
.
ha˚T, tadr¯ upa˚α3 • karan
.
¯a´sray¯a ] k¯aran
.
¯a´sray¯a
µ, karan
.
¯a´sray¯am
.
M, karan
.
¯a´srayah
.
α3 ¿Su svapne ] svapno µGNMα3K2K6 • na ] n¯a
K2PK6J1W2RB • bhavet tasya ] labhet tasya U, bhavet asya J4γO ¿Sb ˚j¯ apyatah
.
]
˚japyatah
.
UT, ˚bh¯avatah
.
J3, ˚j¯ apatah
.
K5, ˚j¯ apyateh
.
K6 ¿SJ atisu˚ ] µ; ¯asam
.
ni˚ G,
api su˚UTSα1βγO, api sva˚α3 • ˚yantritah
.
] ˚yam
.
tritam
.
J6J7, ˚yatnatah
.
α1, ˚y¯ am
.
tritah
.
K6
¿gu tasya ´sr¯ı ] UTSβγO; tasm¯at ´sr¯ı µ, tasy¯asti α2α3, tasy¯api M ¿gJ pras¯ıdanti ]
pras¯ıdati AJ7, pras¯ıdam
.
te α3 • ca ] tha AJ7, ∗ J6, na K2 • devat¯ah
.
] devat¯a AJ6K2J3
qou ˚n¯a´sa´s ca ] µUα1K5BO; ˚n¯a´sam
.
ca GSα3β1K2PJ3FK6Cγ1, sarvam
.
ca T, n¯a´syam
.
ti J4
qoJ abhy¯asam
.
k¯ arayet tatah
.
] abhy¯asam
.
k¯ arayet budhah
.
G, abhy¯as¯at ko ’pi s¯adhayet K2
qiu kli´syate ] kli´syato µ, kle´sato G • devi ] dev¯ı GTW1, brahman U, brahma U
vl
qib
siddhih
.
] siddhim
.
A • khecar¯ıpade ] khecar¯ıpathe U, khecar¯ım
.
vin¯a α
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 95
yady abhy¯ asavidhau vidy¯ am
.
na labheta sudh¯ amay¯ım 41
tatah
.
sam
.
melak¯adau ca labdhv¯ a vidy¯ am
.
samujjapet |
anay¯ a rahito devi na kva cit siddhibh¯ ag bhavet 42
yadedam
.
labhyate ´s¯astram
.
tad¯ a vidy¯ am
.
sam¯a´srayet |
tatas tatrodit¯ am
.
siddhim ¯ a´su sam
.
labhate priye 43
[khecaryabhy¯asakramah
.
]
t¯ alum¯ ulam
.
samudghr
.
s
.
ya saptav¯ asaram ¯atmavit |
svagur¯ uktaprak¯ aren
.
a malam
.
sarvam
.
vi´sodhayet 44
snuh¯ıpatranibham
.
´sastram
.
sut¯ıks
.
n
.
am
.
snigdhanirmalam |
sam¯ad¯ aya tatas tena romam¯atram
.
samucchinet 45
chittv¯ a saindhavapathy¯ abhy¯ am
.
c¯ urn
.
it¯ abhy¯ am
.
praghars
.
ayet |
punah
.
saptadine pr¯ apte romam¯atram
.
samucchinet 46
evam
.
kramen
.
a s
.
an
.
m¯asam
.
nityodyuktah
.
sam¯acaret |
s
.
an
.
m¯as¯ad rasan¯ am¯ ula´sir¯ abandhah
.
pran
.
a´syati 47
45–49 cit. N¯ar¯ayan
.
ad¯ıpik¯a (D) ad Ks
.
urikopanis
.
ad 11,
¯
ASS 29, p.151
45a–57b Hat
.
haratn¯aval¯ı f.12v
7−11
46 =Hat
.
haratn¯aval¯ı f.13r
3−4
46–48 =Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik¯a (H) 3.33–35
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
qic yady abhy¯asa˚] µ; yath¯abhy¯asa˚GSαJ2J4K2PJ3FK6CO, yadabhy¯asa˚U, yad¯abhy¯asa˚
T, ya´s c¯abhy¯asa˚ VK5, yath¯abhyasa˚ K4, yath¯abh¯asa˚ γ • vidy¯am
.
] devi A, vi J7 (unm.),
vidy¯am α1 qiJ na labheta ] K5; labhed ya´s ca µ, na labhed yah
.
GUTSβγ, ¯alabhyem¯am
.
α1,
n¯alabheye K1, n¯alabheyam
.
K3, na labhevyah
.
O • ˚may¯ım ] ˚mayam
.
A, ˚may¯am
.
J6J7K4,
˚may¯ı VJ3γ qzu tatah
.
] µGUTSα; n¯atah
.
J2J4K4PFCγ2W2BO, j¯atah
.
VK5K6, n¯ata J3-
R • sam
.
˚ ] µGUT; s¯a γ2, ´s¯a R, sa cett. • ˚melak¯a˚ ] ˚mel
.
an¯a˚ G, melek¯a˚ R qzb
labdhv¯a ] lavdh¯am
.
α3 • vidy¯am
.
] vidy¯ a GW1V, vidy¯ am M • samujjapet ] SJ2VK4K5J5-
W2B; samujjayet µα2α3J1, samajite G, sad¯a japet UT, amum
.
japet M, samuccayet J4, samujuyet
P, samum
.
jayet J3, samuddharet F, samam
.
japet K6, samujupet C, sam¯ajjayet R, samujapet O
qzc anay¯a ] SαVK5; n¯anay¯a µGJ2J4K4PJ3FCγ2W2BO, n¯anyath¯a UT, na tay¯a K6, n¯atay¯a
R • rahito ] sahito AJ7 • devi ] brahman U, dev¯ı TV, vidy¯a N qzJ na kva cit ]
kutra cit G, na kim
.
cit UTJ3 • siddhibh¯ag bhavet ] siddhim es
.
yati α1J3 q¿u yadedam
.
]
J6J7Sβ1PK5CO; yad idam
.
AGUTK6γ, yadi tam
.
U
vl
, yadaiva α, yad etal F • labhyate ]
labhate α2α3FK6 q¿c tatro˚ ] αVPK5Cγ; tam
.
tro˚ µSJ2F, tratro˚ G, tado˚ UTJ4,

vrac

e˚ K2, tato˚ K4J3 q¿J sam
.
labhate ] J6; ´sam
.
lanate A, t¯am
.
labhyate γ, t¯am
.
labhate
cett. • priye ] munih
.
U qqu ˚udghr
.
s
.
ya ] GSJ2VJ3K5K6Cγ; ˚utkr
.
s
.
ya AJ7T, ˚u∗s
.
ya J6,
˚utkr
.
pya U, ˚udghars
.
ya N, ˚uddhars
.
ya W1, ˚ud∗r
.
tya M, ˚uddhr
.
tyai α3, ˚udghr
.
tya J4, ˚udva-
s
.
ya K4, ˚ughr
.
s
.
ya K2, ˚udghas
.
ya P, ˚uddhr
.
tya F, ˚utkr
.
tya D qqc ˚¯ uktaprak¯aren
.
a ]
˚¯ uktena m¯argen
.
a G qqJ vi´sodhayet ] vi´sos
.
ayet D qju snuh¯ı˚ ] snuhi˚ GUMJ4K4W2,
sahi˚T, suhi J2, papn¯ı J3, snuh¯a F, snuha γ2R • ˚patra˚] patram
.
AJ6K6, yam
.
tram
.
J7, parva
K3 qjb sut¯ıks
.
n
.
am
.
snigdha˚] suks
.
mam
.
snigdham
.
ca V • ˚nirmalam ] nirmalah
.
A qjc
˚¯ ad¯aya ] ˚¯adh¯aya AW2B, ˚¯ad¯ay¯a˚G • tatas tena ] ˚tha jihv¯adho G, yatas tena D qjJ
roma˚ ] loma˚ U • samucchinet ] samucchidet SK2D q6u chittv¯a ] hitv¯a UTα3, tatah
.
H, ¯adau H
vl
• saindhava˚ ] sajava˚ T q6b c¯ urn
.
it¯abhy¯am
.
] pran
.
¯ıt¯abhy¯am
.
T, c¯ urn
.
am
.
tena D • praghars
.
ayet ] prakars
.
ayet UT, ca ghars
.
ayet α2, ca cars
.
ayet M, pradar´sayet α3
q6J samucchinet ] samucchidet SD q~b nityodyuktah
.
] UTSW1VK2PJ3FK5C, nityo
yuktah
.
µJ2J4K4K6, ity udyuktas G, nityodvaktra N, nityayuktah
.
MDH, nityam
.
sam
.
dar´s˚ α3,
nity¯apyuktah
.
γ1, nityam
.
yuktah
.
BH
vl
, nityayuktam
.
H
vl
• sam¯acaret ] ˚an¯at priye α3 q~c
˚m¯ ula˚ ] ˚m¯ ulam
.
UTK2γ, ˚m¯ ule V q~J ´sir¯a˚ ] ´sil¯a˚ H
vl
• ˚bandhah
.
] ˚bam
.
dham
.
U,
˚bajam
.
T, ˚m¯ ulam
.
K5, ˚bam
.
dh¯at γ
qzc–qqb om. K2 qqub om. J3 qjub found after 45d in α2 q~ om. K6
96 Pat
.
ala 1
atha v¯ ag¯ı´svar¯ıdh¯ ama´siro vastren
.
a ves
.
t
.
itam |
´sanair utkars
.
ayed yog¯ı k¯ alavel¯ avidh¯ anavit 48
punah
.
s
.
an
.
m¯asam¯atren
.
a nityasam
.
kars
.
an
.
¯at priye |
bhr¯ umadhy¯ avadhi s¯ abhyeti tiryak karn
.
abil¯ avadhi 49
adha´s ca cibukam
.
m¯ ulam
.
pray¯ ati kramak¯ arit¯ a |
punah
.
sam
.
vatsar¯ an
.
¯am
.
tu tritay¯ ad eva l¯ılay¯ a 50
ke´s¯antam ¯ urdhvam
.
kramati tiryak ´sa˙ nkh¯ avadhi priye |
adhast¯ at kan
.
t
.
hak¯ up¯ antam
.
punar vars
.
atrayen
.
a tu 51
brahmarandhr¯ antam ¯ avr
.
tya tis
.
t
.
haty amaravandite |
tiryak c¯ ulitalam
.
y¯ ati adhah
.
kan
.
t
.
habil¯ avadhi 52
´sanair eva prakartavyam abhy¯ asam
.
yugapan na hi |
yugapad ya´s caret tasya ´sar¯ıram
.
vilayam
.
vrajet 53
tasm¯ac chanaih
.
´sanaih
.
k¯ aryam abhy¯ asam
.
varavarn
.
ini |
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
qSu v¯ ag¯ı´svar¯ı˚ ] v¯ ag¯ı´svari N, v¯ag¯ı´svar¯ım
.
MJ2K4D • ˚dh¯ama˚ ] devi α1, ˚dhast¯a˚ α3,
˚madhya˚ J3, n¯ama D qSb ˚´siro ] sikta˚ G, ´sive J1 • ves
.
t
.
itam ] µ; ves
.
t
.
ayet cett.
qSc utkars
.
ayed ] utghars
.
ayed G, uddh¯ars
.
ayed α3 qSJ ˚vel¯a˚ ] ˚de´sa˚ M qgb
nitya˚ ] µCγ2; nityam
.
GUTSαβ1K5K6R, yoni˚ K2F, ni P (unm.), yon¯ı˚ J3, nisa W2, nih
.
´se˚ B
• ˚sam
.
kars
.
an
.
¯at ] α1β1K2PJ3FK5C; ˚sam
.
ghars
.
an
.
¯at µTSK6, sam
.
ghars
.
ayet G, sam
.
ghars
.
an¯an
U, ˚sam
.
dar´san¯at α3, sam
.
kars
.
ayet J1R, ´sakars
.
at J5 (unm.), ´sakars
.
an
.
¯at W2, ˚s
.
am
.
kars
.
an
.
¯at B •
priye ] mune U qgc s¯abhyeti ] G; c¯abheti AJ4, c¯abhyeti J6J7α2α3K5, c¯apyeti UTJ2VPJ3-
FK6Cγ, vardheta S, labhyeta M, c¯apopyeti K4 (unm.), c¯apnoti K2 jou adha´s ca ] UT;
adha sv¯a AJ7, adhah
.
sv¯ a J6, atha sva˚ GF
pc
J1R, adhast¯ac Sα, adha sva˚ J2J4K4J5W2, adhah
.
sva˚ VPJ3F
ac
K5K6CB, adhah
.
´sasva K2 (unm.) • cibukam
.
] µW1β; cubuke G, cubukam
.
UNB, abrakar T, cibuka˚ SM (unm.), civuke α3, cubakam
.
γ1 job pray¯ati ] prav¯ati γ
• krama˚ ] µGUTSNMα3; bhrama˚ βJ1W2, ´srama˚ W1J5B • ˚k¯ arit¯a ] µSαβ; ˚k¯ arik¯a
Gγ2W2B, ˚c¯arit¯a U, ˚c¯aritah
.
U
vl
, ˚c¯arit¯am U
vl
T, ˚k¯arak¯a R joJ tritay¯ad ] µT; tr
.
t¯ıye
GB, tr
.
t¯ıy¯ad Uαβ, dvit¯ıy¯ ad S, tr
.
t¯ıy¯ a γ • eva ] deva G, devi γ jiu ke´s¯antam ] ke´s¯am
.
te α2,
ke´s¯am ¯ u˚ B • ¯ urdhvam
.
] µUTSVFK5; ¯ urdhva GK3C, ¯ urdhvam M, m¯ urdham N, m¯ urddham
W1, ¯ urddha K1J4K4J3K6, urddha J2P, urddham
.
K2, ¯ urdha γ1, ˚rdha kra˚ B • kramati ] µU-
TSJ2J4K4J3F
ac
K5K6C; kraman
.
¯a G, ¯ akramya α1, kr¯ ampam
.
ti α3, kramam iti V (unm.), kramate
K2, kram¯ati Pγ2W2, kramat∗h
.
F
pc
, kram¯a t¯ı˚ R, ˚m¯a tiryak B jib tiryak ] UTSα1J2-
VK4K2J3FK5K6C; ryak µJ1R (unm.), tiryaka GP (unm.), tiryag α3J4, ˚ryak mi J5, ˚ryaks
.
i W2,
´sikh¯a B • ´sa˙ nkh¯avadhi ] Sα1VPJ3FK5CJ5W2RB; sakh¯avadhi µ, karn
.
¯avadheh
.
G, ´s¯akh¯avadhir
U, ´sam
.
k¯ apati T, vatsarav¯a˚ α3, ¯akhyavadhi J2J4, y¯ am
.
kh¯ avadhi K4, sam
.
khy¯ avadhi K2K6 •
priye ] mune U, ˚vadhi K1, ˚vidhi K3 jic kan
.
t
.
ha˚ ] kam
.
t
.
ham
.
A, ka∗ G, karn
.
a˚ M,
kam
.
va˚ J2, kam
.
t
.
a˚ VPK6, k¯ ut
.
a˚ K2 jzu ˚randhr¯antam ¯avr
.
tya ] ˚ram
.
dhram
.
sam¯avr
.
tya
U, ˚rajjum
.
sam¯apratya T, ˚ram
.
dhr¯am
.
tam ¯avr
.
ty¯a R jzb tis
.
t
.
haty amaravandite ] tis
.
t
.
hed
eva na sam
.
´sayah
.
U jzc tiryak c¯ ulitalam
.
] tiryak c¯ ul¯ıtale A, tiryak c¯ ul¯ıtalai J6J7, tasm¯ad
¯as
.
atalam
.
T jzJ adhah
.
kan
.
t
.
ha˚] µUF
pc
; adhah
.
kan
.
¯a˚T, atha karn
.
a˚Sαβ1K2PJ3K5K6Cγ,
adha kat
.
ha˚F
ac
• ˚bil¯avadhi ] ˚bil¯avadhih
.
U, bil¯ad adhah
.
S
pc
j¿u ´sanair eva ] Sβγ;
´sanaih
.
´sanaih
.
µ, anenaiva G, ´sanair evam
.
U, ´sanair imam
.
α1, ´sanair iyam
.
α3 • ˚kartavyam ]
˚kartavyo GS, ˚kurv¯ıta α1, ˚kartavy¯am γ1 j¿b abhy¯asam
.
] hy abhy¯aso G, bhy¯asa´s ca S,
abhy¯aso B j¿c yugapad ] yugapan T • ya´s caret ] em.; ya´s vared A, ya´s cared J6J7,
ya[..]s G, vartate U, mucyate T, yatate S, ya´s ca tat NW
ac
1
, yasya tat W
pc
1
, kurvatas M, yasvate
α3, yata J2K4 (unm.), kr
.
pata J4, yatatas VK2PJ3FK5K6Cγ1, yatatah
.
B • tasya ] asya µ,
yasya UT, pum
.
sah
.
B jqu chanaih
.
´sanaih
.
] chanair iyam
.
α2, chanair idam
.
M, chanair
asam
.
α3 • k¯ aryam ] kury¯ad G, k¯ ary¯a α2, k¯ arya B jqb abhy¯asam
.
] abhy¯aso GB, abhy¯as¯ad
α2 • varavarn
.
ini ] munipum
.
gava U, yugapan na hi M
j¿cJ om. G jj om. K5 jqb prakartavyam
.
tam abhy¯asam
.
k¯ arayed vara

n
.
i

ni add. G
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 97
yad¯ a ca b¯ahyam¯ argen
.
a jihv¯ a brahmabilam
.
vrajet 54
tad¯ a brahm¯ argalam
.
devi durbhedyam
.
trida´sair api |
a˙ ngulyagren
.
a sam
.
ghr
.
s
.
ya jihv¯ am
.
tatra nive´sayet 55
evam
.
vars
.
atrayam
.
kr
.
tv¯ a brahmadv¯ aram
.
pravi´syati |
[mathanam]
brahmadv¯ are pravis
.
t
.
e tu samya˙ n mathanam ¯ arabhet 56
mathanena vin¯ a ke cit s¯adhayanti vipa´scitah
.
|
khecar¯ımantrasiddhasya sidhyate mathanam
.
vin¯ a 57
japam
.
ca mathanam
.
caiva kr
.
tv¯ a ´s¯ıghram
.
phalam
.
labhet |
svarn
.
aj¯ am
.
raupyaj¯ am
.
v¯ api lohaj¯ am
.
v¯ a ´sal¯akik¯ am
.
58
niyojya n¯ asik¯arandhre dr
.
d
.
hasnigdhena tantun¯ a |
pr¯ an
.
¯an nirudhya hr
.
daye dr
.
d
.
ham ¯ asanam ¯asthitah
.
59
´sanai´s ca mathanam
.
kury¯ ad bhr¯ umadhye nyasya caks
.
us
.
¯ı |
s
.
an
.
m¯as¯an mathan¯ avasth¯ a t¯ avataiva praj¯ ayate 60
samyaksam
.
ruddhaj¯ıvasya yoginas tanmay¯ atmanah
.
|
yath¯ a sus
.
uptir b¯ al¯ an¯ am
.
tath¯ a bh¯ avas tad¯ a bhavet 61
55c–56d cit. N¯ar¯ayan
.
ad¯ıpik¯a (D) ad Ks
.
urikopanis
.
ad 11 (
¯
ASS 29, p.151)
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
jqc b¯ahya˚] v¯ ayu˚α3 jqJ brahma˚] m¯ ula˚G • ˚bilam
.
] ˚kilam
.
α3 jju devi ]
brahman U jjc a˙ ngulyagren
.
a sam
.
ghr
.
s
.
ya ] am
.
gulyagre samutghr
.
s
.
ya G, am
.
gus
.
t
.
h¯agren
.
a
sam
.
ghr
.
s
.
ya S
ac
jjJ jihv¯ am
.
tatra ] D; jihv¯ amam
.
tram
.
A, jihv¯ am atra J6J7SK3K2PFK5K6C,
jihv¯ amam
.
∗am
.
G, jihv¯ am¯atram
.
UTB, jihv¯amam
.
tre˚ N, jihv¯ amam
.
tra W1J3, jihv¯ am
.
matre˚ M,
jihv¯ amatram
.
K1, jihv¯ am¯atra β1γ1 • nive´sayet ] ˚n
.
a ve´sayet NM, prave´sayet W1K6D j6b
pravi´syati ] pravi´sati A (unm.), prapa´syati U
vl
, prave´sate α2, prave´sati M, pravi´syati J2, pra-
ve´syati VK6, pravi´syam
.
ti K4, prave´syati C j6c ˚dv¯ are ] ˚dv¯aram
.
AJ4K2 • pravis
.
t
.
e ]
pra´suddhe α2α3 j6J samya˙ n ] sad¯a G • mathanam ] mam
.
thanam S • ¯arabhet ] ¯acaret
GUTαJ4J3γ j~u mathanena ] mam
.
thanena S • ke cit ] devi β1K2PJ3FCγ, naiva K5,
dev¯ı K6 j~b vipa´scitah
.
] vicaks
.
an
.
¯ah
.
α1, vicaks
.
an
.
aih
.
α3 j~c khecar¯ı˚ ] khecaro
J2K4 • ˚siddhasya ] sidhyam
.
te α2, ˚siddh¯as te M, ˚siddhih
.
sy¯ at α3, ˚sidhyartham
.
B j~J
sidhyate ] sidhyam
.
te Tα2J4, kurvate M, siddh¯a te K6 • mathanam
.
] mam
.
thanam
.
µS jSu
mathanam
.
] mam
.
thanam
.
µS jSb labhet ] vrajet G, bhavet α jSc svarn
.
aj¯ am
.
raupya-
j¯ am
.
] µGUTW1α3; svarn
.
aj¯a raupyaj¯a SNMβγ jSJ lohaj¯am
.
v¯ a ´sal¯akik¯ am
.
] µGUTW1α3;
lohaj¯a v¯a ´sal¯akik¯ a SNMβγ jgu niyojya ] niyojy¯ a µNMC, niyojyam
.
V • ˚randhre ]
˚randhram
.
U jgb dr
.
d
.
hasnigdhena ] dugdhasiktena U jgc pr¯an
.
¯an ] pr¯an
.
am
.
GU
vl
jgJ dr
.
d
.
ham ] sukham UT • ¯asanam ¯asthitah
.
] ¯asanam ¯atmanah
.
U, ¯asanasam
.
sthitah
.
α2,
¯asanasam
.
sthite α3 6ou ca ] Sβγ; sa AJ6, sam
.
˚J7α, tu G, su˚U, sr
.
T • mathanam
.
]
mam
.
thanam
.
AS • kury¯ ad ] k¯aryam
.
α 6ob nyasya ] nyasta˚ GUSγ • caks
.
us
.
¯ı ]
J6J7Tα1β1PK5Cγ; caks
.
¯ us
.
¯ı A, caks
.
us
.
i GUK6, locanah
.
S, caks
.
us
.
¯am
.
α3, vaks
.
as
.
¯ı K2, caks
.
us
.
¯a J3-
F 6oc s
.
an
.
m¯as¯an ] s
.
an
.
m¯asam
.
U
vl
6oJ t¯avataiva ] J7GSα2K4PK5K6CR; t¯avanaiva A,
t¯avan naiva J6, bh¯avenaiva UT, tadvinaiva M, t¯avan naiva α3, t¯avaitaiva J2J4Vγ2W2B, bh¯ava-
naiva K2, t¯avataitaiva P (unm.), syatam
.
vaiva J3, t¯avadaiva F 6iu samyak˚ ] sam
.
j˜ n¯a˚
G • ˚sam
.
ruddha˚ ] µTSα; niruddha G, sam
.
rudha J2K4, sam
.
rudhya J4K2PFCγ1, sam
.
r¯ udhya
V, sam
.
dradhya J3, sam
.
r¯ udha K5, sam
.
ruddhya K6, sam
.
ruhya B 6ib tanmay¯atmanah
.
]
sy¯ an manonman¯ı S, sy¯ an mano yath¯a α1, tanmano yath¯a α3 6ic yath¯a sus
.
uptir b¯al¯an¯am
.
]
UTSβγ; yath¯a sus
.
upti valin¯am
.
µ, yath¯a sus
.
uptir bahul
.
¯a G, sus
.
uptir b¯alak¯an¯am
.
ca α 6iJ
tath¯a bh¯avas ] VK2PFK5K6Cγ; yath¯a bh¯avas µGUT, tath¯a vai s¯a S, yath¯a vai s¯a α2, yath¯a saiva
M, b¯alak¯an¯am
.
α3, tath¯a bhaves J2, tath¯a bh¯avet J4, tath¯a bhavas K4, tad¯a bh¯avas J3 • tad¯a
bhavet ] GK2PFK6Cγ; tath¯a bhavet µUTα3β1J3K5, praj¯ayate Sα1
jScJ om. K2 6zub om. U 6iJ 41a–43b repeated G
98 Pat
.
ala 1
na sad¯ a mathanam
.
´sastam
.
m¯ase m¯ase sam¯acaret |
sad¯a rasanay¯ a devi m¯ argam
.
tu parisam
.
kramet 62
evam
.
dv¯ ada´savars
.
¯ante sam
.
siddhih
.
parame´svari |
´sar¯ıre sakalam
.
vi´svam
.
pa´syaty ¯ atm¯avibhedatah
.
63
[amr
.
tap¯anam]
brahm¯ an
.
d
.
e yan mah¯ am¯argam
.
r¯ ajadantordhvaman
.
d
.
ale |
bhr¯ umadhye tad vij¯ an¯ıy¯ at trik¯ ut
.
am
.
siddhasevitam 64
can
.
ak¯ a˙ nkurasam
.
k¯ a´sam
.
tatra sam
.
yojayen manah
.
|
lihan rasanay¯ a tatra sravantam
.
param¯ amr
.
tam 65
´sanair abhy¯ asam¯argastha´s caturvars
.
am
.
pibet priye |
val¯ıpalitan¯ a´sa´s ca sam
.
siddhih
.
param¯ a bhavet 66
sarva´s¯astr¯ arthavett¯ a ca j¯ıved vars
.
asahasrakam |
khany¯ abilamah¯ıv¯ adarasav¯ ad¯ adisiddhayah
.
67
yoginah
.
sam
.
pravartante pa˜ ncavars
.
en
.
a p¯ arvati |
samyag rasanay¯ a yog¯ı sravantam amr
.
todakam 68
sam
.
p¯ıtvopavaset svastho vratastho dv¯ ada´s¯abdakam |
anen¯ abhy¯ asayogena val¯ıpalitavarjitah
.
69
64 cit. N¯ar¯ayan
.
ad¯ıpik¯a (D) ad Ks
.
urikopanis
.
ad 11 (
¯
ASS 29, p.151)
68 Hat
.
haratn¯aval¯ı f.13v
6
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
6zu na sad¯a ] sa tath¯a G • ´sastam
.
] ´saktim
.
G, sahyam
.
S, k¯aryam
.
α1, saktam
.
h
.
J4 6zb
m¯ase m¯ase ] m¯asi m¯asi A, m¯asi m¯ase J6J7 6zc sad¯a ] yad¯a GMJ2J4K4 • devi ] yog¯ı GUT,
m¯argam M 6zJ m¯argam
.
] m¯argam α2, upary M, m¯arge α3 • tu pari˚ ] na pari˚ UT,
copari SW1, upari NM 6¿u ˚vars
.
¯ante ] µGUTD; ˚vars
.
en
.
a SVK2PJ3FK5K6CJ1R, ˚vars
.
am
.
ca α2α3, ˚vars
.
e ca M, ˚vars
.
¯an
.
i J2J4K4B, ˚vars
.
an
.
a J5W2 6¿b ˚siddhih
.
] ˚siddhi Aα3γ1,
˚siddhe M, ˚siddhah
.
J3F, ˚siddhim
.
B • parame´svari ] bhavati dhruv¯a U, bhavati dhruvam
U
vl
, parame´svar¯ı Tα3K2J3K6 6¿J pa´syaty ] pa´syam
.
n G • ¯atm¯a˚] J6J7UTJ3; ¯atma˚
cett. 6qu brahm¯an
.
d
.
e ] brahm¯an
.
d
.
o UT • yan ] man A, ’yam
.
UT • ˚m¯argam
.
]
˚m¯arge AK2γ, ˚m¯argo GU, ˚m¯arga α2 6qb ˚man
.
d
.
ale ] ˚kun
.
dal¯ı UT, ˚mam
.
d
.
alam
.
J4γ
6qc ˚madhye ] ˚madhyam
.
M • tad ] F ; tam
.
cett. 6qJ trik¯ ut
.
am
.
] bhr¯ ukut
.
am
.
A,
bhr¯ uk¯ ut
.
am
.
J6J7 • siddha˚] siddhi˚µK3K2γ1 6jb ˚yojayen ] ˚kocayen G, ˚yojya yan
α3, ˚yojayan γ 6jc tatra ] tam
.
tu µ 6jJ sravantam
.
] sravam
.
ta˚µGNM, sam
.
varttam
.
K1, sam
.
vartta K3 66u ˚m¯argastha´s ] ˚m¯argasya µJ4, ˚m¯argen
.
a K2F 66b pibet ]
piban J2VK4PK5C 66c ˚n¯a´sa´s ] ˚n¯a´sam
.
Sβγ 66J sam
.
siddhih
.
param¯a ] µ; sam
.
siddhi´s
ca par¯a GJ2J4J3K5K6, siddhi´s ca param¯a Sα2γ, param¯amr
.
tato M, sam
.
siddhir ni´scal¯a α3, sam
.
-
siddha´s ca paro VPC, sam
.
siddhi´s ca paro K4, sa siddha´s c¯aparo K2, sam
.
siddhasya paro F
6~c khany¯abilamah¯ıv¯ ada ] em. Sanderson; kany¯ avilam
.
mah¯ıp¯ada˚ A, kany¯avilamah¯ıp¯ada
J6J7, kany¯ abalamah¯av¯ada˚ G, khany¯ad vilam
.
mah¯av¯ade S, khany¯abila NM, khany¯avilam
.
W1,
khanity¯avimah¯av¯ade α3, khany¯avilamah¯av¯ ade β1K5K6C, svarn
.
¯adidh¯atuv¯ad¯ani K2, khany¯avilam
.
mah¯av¯ade PJ3J1W2B, khany¯anilamah¯av¯ade F, svany¯avilam
.
mah¯av¯at
.
e J5R 6~J ˚rasa-
v¯ ad¯adi˚] ˚rasav¯ad¯a´s ca G, ˚rasan¯ad¯adi S, ˚rasan¯ad¯ıni α3 • ˚siddhayah
.
] µGα3; ˚siddhaye cett.
6SJ amr
.
todakam ] µ; tam
.
par¯amr
.
tam
.
G 6gu sam
.
p¯ıtvopavaset ] G; p¯ıtv¯a p¯ıtv¯a vi´set
cett. • svastho ] svastham
.
µα3 6gb vratastho ] µGSJ2VK4K5K6C; vratasyo α3, vastho
J4 (unm.), yatasthe K2, yatastho Pγ, y¯ atasyo J3, yatasth¯a F
ac
, yatnas∗∗ F
pc
• ˚¯ abdakam ]
˚¯ atmakam α3K2, ˚¯avdake J2J4K4K6, ˚¯as
.
t
.
akam
.
J3, ˚¯abdakah
.
γ
6qb end of witnesses UT 6Sc ˚mah¯ı to ~iu ˚k¯ ayo om. α1(eye-skip from ˚mah¯ı to mah¯a)
6g om. Sαβγ 6gb p¯ıtv¯ a p¯ıtv¯a vi´ses
.
en
.
a dvau prasthau dv¯ada´s¯abdakam
.
add. G ~ocJ om.
K2
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 99
vajrak¯ ayo mah¯ ayog¯ı vars
.
alaks
.
am
.
sa j¯ıvati |
da´san¯ agasahasr¯an
.
¯am
.
balena sahitah
.
priye 70
sa d¯ uradar´sana´s caiva d¯ ura´sravan
.
a eva ca |
nigrah¯ anugrahe ´saktah
.
sarvatra balav¯ an bhavet 71
et¯a hi siddhayo devi bhr¯ umadhye sam
.
bhavanti hi |
¯ak¯ a´se rasan¯am
.
kr
.
tv¯ a dantapa˙ nktim
.
nip¯ıd
.
ayet 72
k¯ akaca˜ ncuput
.
am
.
vaktram
.
kr
.
tv¯ a tadamr
.
tam
.
pibet |
p¯ an¯ ad vatsaratah
.
satyam
.
jar¯ amaran
.
avarjitah
.
73
khecaratvam av¯ apnoti j¯ıvaty ¯ acandrat¯ arakam |
p¯ aduk¯ akhad
.
gavet¯alasiddhidravyamanah
.
´sil¯ah
.
74
a˜ njanam
.
vivaram
.
caiva cet
.
akam
.
yaks
.
in
.
¯ı tath¯ a |
yat kim
.
cit siddhisamayam
.
vidyate bhuvanatraye 75
tat sarvam eva sahas¯a s¯adhayet s¯ adhakottamah
.
|
iti ´sr¯ımad¯adin¯athaprokte mah¯ak¯alayoga´s¯astre um¯amahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade
khecar¯ıvidy¯ay¯am
.
prathamah
.
pat
.
alah
.
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
~ob sa j¯ıvati ] praj¯ıvati µα3, sam
.
j¯ıvati B ~oJ balena ] balav¯an J2J4K2PJ3Cγ,
valam
.
v¯ a K6 ~iu sa ] su˚ J6J7α1, sam
.
˚ G • ˚dar´sana´s ] Sα2α3K2P; ˚dar´sanam
.
µGβ1FK5K6Cγ, ˚´sravan
.
a´s M, ˚´sravan
.
¯a J3 • caiva ] labdhv¯a J3, veda F ~ib d¯ ura˚] d¯ ur¯a˚
α3γ2B • ˚´sravan
.
a ] Sα2; ˚´sravan
.
am µGβ1K2PFK5K6Cγ1, ˚dar´sanam MJ3, ˚chravan
.
am α3B
~ic ´saktah
.
] ´saktih
.
µ ~zu et¯a hi ] et¯adya µ, et¯a´s ca α3 ~zb bhr¯ u˚] bh¯ u˚J6J7
~zJ ˚pa˙ nktim
.
] ˚pam
.
ktir A, ˚pam
.
kt¯ır J6J7, ˚pam
.
kti NK3PJ3J5, pam
.
kt¯ a K2, pam
.

kti

h
.
F
• nip¯ıd
.
ayet ] na p¯ıd
.
ayet AK3, nip¯ıjyet J6 (unm.) ~¿u ˚put
.
am
.
] padam
.
α3 • vaktram
.
]
kr
.
tv¯ a α1, cakram
.
α3 ~¿b kr
.
tv¯a ] cakram
.
α2, vaktram
.
M, datv¯a VK5 ~¿c p¯an¯ad
vatsaratah
.
] Gα; bh¯anuvatsaratah
.
µ, ten¯abda´satas¯a˚ SF, ten¯avd¯an¯ı´satam
.
J2, tena c¯avr
.
s
.
atam
.
J4, ten¯as
.

u

sam
.

´sa

tam
.
V, ten¯avda´satam
.
K4 (unm.), ten¯as
.
t
.
a´satas¯a˚ K2J3, ten¯avda´satah
.
PW2
(unm.), ten¯avd¯an¯am
.
´satam
.
K5, tena n¯ad¯at smr
.
ta K6, ten¯avd¯at smr
.
tah
.
C (unm.), ten¯avr
.
´satah
.
γ2 (unm.), ten¯avr
.
tah
.
R (unm.), tenaiv¯abda´satam
.
B • satyam
.
] ˚hasram
.
SJ3F, ˚hasryam
.
K2
~qu khecara˚] khecar¯ı˚R ~qb j¯ıvaty ¯acandrat¯arakam ] j¯ıvec cam
.
dr¯arkat¯arakam
.
G, j¯ıved
¯acam
.
drat¯arakam
.
S, j¯ıved vars
.
asahasrakam
.
α1 ~qc p¯aduk¯a˚ ] p¯aduke S • ˚khad
.
ga˚ ]
˚khad
.
gar A, ˚s
.
ad
.
a˚α3, khad
.
gah
.
V (unm.), ˚khard
.
ga˚K4, ˚khad
.
gu˚J3, ˚khecar¯ı˚R (unm.)
• ˚vet¯ala˚ ] J7SMFK6γ; ˚vetolah
.
AJ6, ˚vet¯alam
.
α2K3, ˚vet¯a

la

˚ K1, ˚vet¯al¯a˚ J2J4K4PK5C,
˚vait¯al¯a˚VJ3, ˚vet¯al¯ah
.
K2 ~qJ ˚siddhi˚] ˚siddha˚µVK5K6, ˚siddhim
.
α3 • ˚dravya-
manah
.
´sil¯ah
.
] AK6; ˚dravyamanah
.
´sil¯a J6J7β1K2PJ3FK5C, ˚dravyam abh¯ıpsitam
.
Sα, ˚dravyam
aneka´sah
.
γ ~jb cet
.
akam
.
] khet
.
akam
.
µ, cet
.
ak¯a S • yaks
.
in
.
¯ı ] c¯aks
.
in
.
¯ı α1, yaks
.
an
.
¯ı
K1β1K5γ1 ~jc yat kim
.
cit ] ye ke cit α3, pam
.
ktivit β1K6C • siddhisamayam
.
]
α1K2FW2; siddhamayam
.
A (unm.), sidhamayam
.
J6J7 (unm.), sa tu yam
.
j˜ n¯atva G
ac
, saphalam
.
j˜ n¯atva G
pc
, siddhasamayam
.
Sα3β1J3PK5K6C, siddhisamaye γ2RB ~jJ vidyate ] vidy¯ane
A, vidy¯a te J6J7, bhidyate G ~6u tat ] tvat A ~6b s¯adhayet ] sevayas γ1, sevayet B
• s¯adhakottamah
.
] t¯arakottamah
.
γ
~iub found after 72b in γ ~jcJ om. G ~~ub om. V
100 Pat
.
ala 2
Dvit¯ıyah
.
Pat
.
alah
.
[brahmadv¯ar¯argalakal¯ah
.
]
yatra brahm¯ argaladv¯ aram
.
durvij˜ neyam
.
mahe´svari |
kal¯ acatus
.
kam
.
tatrastham
.
caturvarg¯ atmakam
.
param 1
p¯ urvabh¯ age kr
.
t¯ a n¯ ama gupt¯ a daks
.
in
.
agocar¯a |
´siv¯a pa´scimadigbh¯ age par¯ apara´sivottare 2
tad dv¯ aram
.
rasan¯ agren
.
a bhittv¯ a p¯ urvakal¯ amr
.
tam |
yad¯ a pibati vai yog¯ı m¯as¯ad dharm¯ adhipo bhavet 3
yad¯ a gupt¯ amr
.
tam
.
daks
.
e yog¯ı rasanay¯ a lihet |
m¯as¯ad eva na sam
.
dehah
.
s¯aks
.
¯ad arthe´svaro bhavet 4
tatpa´scimakal¯aj¯ atam amr
.
tam
.
jihvay¯ a pibet |
yad¯ a tad¯ a mah¯ ayog¯ı m¯as¯at k¯ ame´svaro bhavet 5
uttarasthakal¯ aj¯ atam amr
.
tam
.
prapibed yad¯ a |
tad¯ asau parames
.
t
.
h¯ın¯ am ¯adhipatyam av¯ apnuy¯ at 6
tad¯ urdhvaman
.
d
.
ale l¯ınam
.
brahmarandhre par¯ amr
.
tam |
yad¯ a pibati yog¯ındro j¯ıvanmuktah
.
´sivo bhavet 7
m¯asam¯as¯avadhi yad¯ a dv¯ ada´s¯abdam
.
sam¯acaret |
sarvarogavinirmuktah
.
sarvaj˜ no munip¯ ujitah
.
8
j¯ ayate ´sivavad yog¯ı loke ’sminn ajar¯ amarah
.
|
Witnesses for the second pat
.
ala:
AJ6J7GSNW1MK1K3J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6J1J5W2RB; C up to 14d; D (72a–73b).
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
iu yatra ] µ; tac ca G, yat tad Sβ1PJ3FK5CJ5W2B, etad α1J1R, yat taj α3, yat tu K2, tatra
K6 • brahm¯argala˚ ] J6J7Gβ1K2PFγ1; brahm¯argalam
.
ASJ3K5K6CB, guhy¯argala˚ α1, jihv¯ a-
rgala˚α3 • ˚dv¯aram
.
] devi S, dev¯ı J3 ib durvij˜ neyam
.
] durjeyam
.
vai F • mahe´svari ]
mahe´svar¯ı AJ6J4VK2K6CW2B, sure´svari G, kule´svar¯ı J3 ic ˚catus
.
kam
.
] ˚caturkva A,
˚caturs
.
ka J6J7 • tatra˚] tam
.
tra˚J3γ iJ ˚varg¯atmakam
.
param ] ˚vaktr¯atmakam
.
param
.
AJ7, ˚vargaphalapradam
.
G zb ˚gocar¯a ] ˚gocaram
.
G, ˚gocare α3 zc ´siv¯a ]
µGSMVK5K6; ´sivah
.
α2PJ3FC, div¯a α3, ´siva J2J4K4γ, ´siv¯aya K2 (unm.) zJ par¯a˚] par¯at
G • ˚´sivottare ] ˚´sivottar¯a βγ ¿c yad¯a ] yadi γ1 ¿J m¯as¯ad dharm¯adhipo ]
G; m¯as¯arddhe m¯adhipo A, m¯as¯a dharm¯adhipo J6J7, m¯as¯ardham adhipo Sαβ1PK6Cγ2W2, m¯as¯a-
rddham adhi yo K2J3R, m¯as¯ardhem adhipo F, m¯as¯arddh¯ad adhipo K5, m¯as¯arddham api yo B
qu yad¯a ] tad¯a W1K1, yadi J3W2B • daks
.
e ] datte γ qb lihet ] pibet GSα1 qc
m¯as¯ad eva ] m¯as¯ardhena α qJ arthe´svaro bhavet ] sa khecaro bhavet G, artho bhaven narah
.
α2, arthe bhaven narah
.
M ju tat pa´scima˚ ] pa´sciman tu α3, yat pa´scima˚ J5W2R, yat
pa´scimam
.
J1 • ˚kal¯aj¯ atam ] ˚kal¯aj¯ alam
.
µ, ˚kal¯ay¯ atam α2, ˚kal¯ay¯am
.
tam α3 jb amr
.
tam
.
jihvay¯ a pibet ] ´suddham
.
pivati jihvay¯a µ, sudh¯am
.
pibati ji[.]y¯a G 6u uttarastha˚ ]
uttasth¯a A (unm.), uttarasya α3J4, uttarasth¯a γ 6b yad¯a ] µ; yadi cett. 6c
parames
.
t
.
h¯ın¯am ] p¯arames
.
t
.
h¯ın¯am µG ~u ˚¯ urdhva˚ ] J6J7Sα2J2VK4K5K6γ; ˚¯ urdhvam
.
AGMJ4K2PJ3FC, ˚ordhvam
.
α3 • l¯ınam
.
] l¯ıne AJ7 ~c yad¯a pibati yog¯ındro ] M;
yad¯a tad¯asau pibati µGSW1βB, yad¯asau sam
.
pibati N, yad¯asau pivate yoge α3, yad¯a tad¯aso pibati
γ1 Su m¯asam¯as¯avadhi ] m¯ase m¯ase vidhi A, m¯asam¯asavidhi J6J7, m¯as¯an m¯as¯avadhir G,
m¯asam¯as¯av api α2, m¯asam
.
m¯asam
.
pibed M • yad¯a ] y¯ava G, evam
.
M, yad v¯a γ SJ
sarvaj˜ no munip¯ ujitah
.
] sarvaj˜ nagun
.
ap¯ uritah
.
µ, sarvaj˜ nas sarvap¯ ujitah
.
G, sarvalaks
.
an
.
asam
.
yutah
.
α1, sarvasam
.
p¯ urn
.
alaks
.
an
.
ah
.
α3, sarvato munip¯ ujitah
.
J4γ
q added in margin by later hand K6 j om. K5B, found after 7 J1R jb–6u om. α1K2 6ub
om. K6
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 101
catus
.
kal¯ amr
.
tam
.
v¯ ari p¯ıtv¯ a p¯ıtv¯ a mahe´svari 9
brahmasth¯ ane tath¯ a jihv¯ am
.
sam
.
niyojy¯ amr
.
tam
.
pibet |
susv¯adu ´s¯ıtalam
.
hr
.
dyam
.
ks
.
¯ıravarn
.
am aphenilam 10
m¯asam¯atraprayogena j¯ ayate devavat svayam |
dvim¯ ase sarva´s¯astr¯artham
.
samyag j¯ an¯ ati p¯ arvati 11
svatantrah
.
´sivavan m¯ asatray¯ ad bhavati vai ´sive |
caturm¯ as¯an mahe´s¯ani sarvaj˜ natvam
.
pravartate 12
pa˜ ncam¯ase mah¯asiddhas trailokyam api pa´syati |
s
.
an
.
m¯ase param¯anandagun
.
asadbh¯ avap¯ uritah
.
13
j¯ ayate n¯ atra sam
.
deho j¯ıvanmuktah
.
par¯ apare |
saptam¯ase mah¯abh¯ utapi´s¯acoragar¯ aks
.
asaih
.
14
saha sam
.
vartate nityam
.
svecchay¯a hr
.
s
.
t
.
am¯anasah
.
|
as
.
t
.
ame m¯asapary¯ aye devaih
.
sam
.
melanam
.
bhavet 15
navame m¯asy adr
.
´syatvam
.
s¯ uks
.
matvam
.
caiva j¯ ayate |
da´same k¯amar¯ upatvam
.
sarvalokaprak¯ a´sakam 16
ek¯ada´se trik¯alaj˜ nah
.
sarvaloke´svarah
.
prabhuh
.
|
j¯ ayate ´sivavad devi satyam etan mayoditam 17
[ked¯arakal¯ah
.
]
yatra c¯ ulitalam
.
proktam
.
ked¯aram
.
pr¯ ahur ¯ı´svari |
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
gc v¯ ari ] dv¯api µ gJ mahe´svari ] mahe´svar¯ı AK3J4J3K6γ1, ˚mare´svar¯ı B iou
tath¯a ] tad¯a GF, nij¯ am
.
M, sthit¯a α3 • jihv¯ am
.
] jihv¯ a α3J4K4PJ3K5K6γ2W2 ioJ
aphenilam ] manoharam
.
G iib j¯ ayate ] j˜ n¯ayate β1PJ3C • devavat ] ´sivavat µ,
devat¯a S izu svatantrah
.
] µS
vl
α1; svatam
.
tra˚ G, svayam
.
ca S, svatam
.
tram
.
α3,
svatatvam
.
J2VK4K5C, svatatram
.
J4, svatulmam
.
K2, svatalam
.
Pγ, svatulyam
.
J3, svastalam
.
F,
svata

tva

K6 • ´sivavan ] ˚vad vasan G izb ˚tray¯ad ] ˚traye µG • bhavati vai ´sive ]
bhavati p¯arvati G, ¯ urdhvam
.
bhavechive M, bhava∗ vai ´sivo K6 izc caturm¯as¯an ] GαVK2-
F; caturm¯ase µSJ2J4K4J3K5K6C, caturm¯asa P, dh¯atum¯am
.
sa γ2, dh¯atubh¯asa W2, dh¯atubh¯as¯a
B i¿u ˚m¯ase ] ˚m¯as¯an F • ˚siddhas ] Sα2VK4J3K5K6; ˚siddhis µGMα3J2J4K2γ,
˚siddha´s PC, ˚siddhim
.
F i¿c param¯ananda˚ ] param¯anam
.
dam
.
µ, ´sivasatbh¯ava˚ G,
param¯anam
.
do Sα, param¯anam
.
dah
.
K2 i¿J ˚gun
.
asadbh¯ava˚ ] ˚param¯anam
.
da˚ G, ˚gun
.
ah
.
sadbh¯ava˚α1 • ˚p¯ uritah
.
] em. Sanderson; ˚p¯ ujitah
.
codd. iqb par¯apare ] par¯avareh
.
A, par¯avare J6J7Sα2, par¯atpare GK2 iqc saptam¯ase ] µ; saptame ca GK5, saptamena
cett. • mah¯abh¯ uta˚] µG; mah¯ak¯ayah
.
SMα3β, mah¯ak¯ ay¯a α2, mah¯ak¯ ayo γ iju saha
sam
.
vartate ] sad¯a sam
.
ves
.
t
.
ito G ijb hr
.
s
.
t
.
a˚ ] µGSK1VF; tus
.
t
.
a˚ α1, dr
.
s
.
t
.
a˚ K3PJ3, dr
.
s
.

J2K4, dr
.
s
.
ya˚ J4, dr
.
d
.
ha˚ K
pc
5
γ, dr
.
´sa˚ K
ac
5
, d¯ us
.
t
.
¯ u˚ K6 ijc m¯asa˚ ] m¯asi α2J2VK4PK6B,
˚m¯ase J4 • ˚pary¯aye ] ˚pary¯ayair K2J5W2, ˚praj¯aye J4, ˚pary¯ayai PJ3K6B, ˚pary¯apte K5
ijJ devaih
.
sam
.
melanam
.
] vais
.
n
.
avam
.
melanam
.
N, sahas¯a melanam
.
W1, devasam
.
m¯ılanam
.
α3
i6u navame m¯asy ] µMB; navam¯ases
.
u G, navame sy¯ad K5, navam¯ase hy cett. i6c
da´same ] da´s¯abhih
.
N, da´sabhih
.
W1 i6J ˚loka˚ ] ˚loma˚ A, ˚j˜ natva˚ M • ˚prak¯a´sa-
kam
.
] ˚prak¯a´san¯a AK6, prak¯a´sat¯a J7, ˚prak¯a´sitam
.
G, prak¯a´sanam
.
K6 i~b ˚loke´svarah
.
]
˚loke´svara˚AJ7K3 i~c devi ] yog¯ı MFK
ac
5
γ, viddhi α3, dev¯ı K6 i~J satyam ] tatvam
α3 iSu c¯ ulitalam
.
] SαK4PK5K6W2B; t¯ ul¯ıtal¯am
.
AJ7, t¯ ul¯ıtalam
.
J6, col
.
utam
.
G (unm.),
v¯ ulitalam
.
J2V, c¯ ulatalam
.
J4, ∗hilinalam
.
K2, c¯ ulitaram
.
J3, c¯ ul¯ıtalam
.
F, culittaram
.
J1, culittalam
.
J5, culitaram
.
R iSb ¯ı´svari ] ¯ı´svar¯ı α3K2J3K6J1W2R
i¿cJ om. J3 iqJ ´s¯acoraga˚–i~u trik¯alaj˜ nah
.
om. R (f17v missing) • iqJ ˚r¯ aks
.
a. . .
end of MS C i6b–i~u om. K2
102 Pat
.
ala 2
tatra somakal¯ a´s c¯as
.
t
.
au vikhy¯ at¯ a v¯ıravandite 18
amr
.
t¯ a pratham¯ a devi dvit¯ıy¯ a m¯anad¯ ahvay¯ a |
p¯ us
.
¯a tus
.
t
.
i´s ca pus
.
t
.
i´s ca rati´s caiva dhr
.
tis tath¯ a 19
´sa´sin¯ı c¯as
.
t
.
am¯ı sarv¯ ah
.
par¯ amr
.
tamah¯ arn
.
av¯ ah
.
|
taddh¯ am¯abhimukh¯ım
.
jihv¯ am
.
yad¯ a yog¯ı karoti ca 20
as
.
t
.
adh¯ a sravate tatra tad¯ a tuhinasam
.
tatih
.
|
tad¯ apl¯ avanasam
.
yog¯at kalevaragadaks
.
ayah
.
21
as
.
t
.
abhir m¯ asapary¯ ayaih
.
khecaratvam
.
praj¯ ayate |
[somaman
.
d
.
alakal¯ah
.
]
bhr¯ umadhyam
.
n¯ ama yad dh¯ ama tat proktam
.
somaman
.
d
.
alam 22
kal¯ acatus
.
kam
.
tatroktam
.
par¯ amr
.
taniketanam |
candrik¯ akhy¯ a ca k¯anti´s ca jyotsn¯ a ´sr¯ı´s ceti n¯amatah
.
23
tatra jihv¯ am
.
sam¯ave´sya p¯ıtv¯ a p¯ıtv¯ a sam¯apibet |
yog¯ı m¯asacatus
.
ken
.
a j¯ ayate nirupadravah
.
24
vajrak¯ ayo bhavet satyam
.
tad¯ apl¯ avanap¯ anatah
.
|
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
iSc soma˚] sauma˚µ • ˚kal¯a´s ] µGNMJ2VK4; ˚kal¯a cett. • c¯as
.
t
.
au ] c¯as
.
t
.
a GF
pc
,

´s¯a

s
.
t
.
a
F
ac
iSJ vikhy¯ at¯a ] vikhy¯ at¯as G • v¯ıravandite ] µα3; suravam
.
dite G, ’maravam
.
dite
S, amar¯arcite α2, bhramar¯arcite M, ˚maravandite βγ igb m¯anad¯ahvay¯a ] m¯anad¯atuy¯a
M, m¯anav¯ahvay¯a α3 igc p¯ us
.
¯a tus
.
t
.
i´s ca pus
.
t
.
i´s ca ] GSVK4K2PJ3K5K6B; p¯ us
.
¯a tus
.
t
.
i´s ca µ
(unm.), supus
.
t
.
i´s c¯atha tus
.
t
.
i´s ca α2, p¯ us
.
¯a pus
.
t
.
i´s c¯atha tus
.
t
.
¯ı M, pus
.
t
.
i´s c¯atha tus
.
t
.
i´s ca α3 (unm.),
pus
.
¯a tus
.
t
.
i´s ca pus
.
t
.
i´s ca J2γ1, p¯ us
.
¯a tus
.
t
.
a´s ca pus
.
t
.
i´s ca J4, p¯ us
.
¯a tus
.
t
.
i´s ca yus
.
t
.
i´s ca J3F
ac
, p¯ us
.
¯a
tus
.
t
.
i´s ca mas
.
t
.
i´s ca F
pc
igJ rati´s ] ´s¯am
.
ti´s SJ3, ´sakti´s K2, smati´s F zou ´sa´sin¯ı ] GSα1-
β1FK5B; ´sam
.
khin¯ı µK6, s¯atm¯ıni α3, a´sin¯ı K2, ´sa´sin¯a PJ3, r¯asin¯ı J1W2, r¯asini J5, ´sasin¯ı R •
sarv¯ah
.
] µMα3; sarva N, sarv¯a W1βγ zob par¯amr
.
ta˚ ] GSαβB; param¯amr
.
˚µ, par¯amr
.
t¯a˚
γ1 • ˚mah¯arn
.
av¯ah
.
] GSF; ˚tah¯arn
.
av¯ah
.
A, ˚tamah¯arn
.
av¯ah
.
J6J7 (unm.), ˚ras¯arn
.
av¯a N, ˚ras¯a-
rn
.
ava W1, ˚ras¯arn
.
av¯ah
.
Mα3, ˚mah¯arn
.
av¯a J2PJ3K5K6, ˚mah¯aran
.
av¯ a J4 (unm.), ˚mah¯arn
.
av¯ı
Vγ, ˚marharn
.
av¯ a K4 (unm.), ˚mah¯arn
.
ad¯a K2 zoc ˚mukh¯ım
.
] J6J7GSVPB; ˚mukh¯ı AK2-
K6γ1, ˚mukham
.
α2α3J2J4K4, ˚mukh¯am
.
MFK5, ˚mukhim
.
J3 • jihv¯ am
.
] jihv¯ a α3J4K4K6γ1
ziu sravate ] cyavate β, dravate γ zic ˚¯ apl¯avana˚ ] ˚¯aplavana˚µα2α3, ¯ap[...] G,
˚¯ a´sravan
.
a˚ M • ˚sam
.
yog¯at ] ˚sam
.
yogah
.
α1, ˚sam
.
yoge α3 ziJ ˚gada˚ ] ˚vada˚ G,
˚mata˚ K2 zzb praj¯ayate ] prapedire βγ zzc bhr¯ umadhyam
.
] µG; bhr¯ umadhye
Sα1βγ, bhr¯ umadhyo˚ α3 • n¯ama yad dh¯ama ] G; n¯ama yudv¯ama A, n¯ama yud dh¯ama J6J7,
dh¯ama yat proktam
.
Sα1βγ, ˚rdhvam
.
may¯a proktam
.
α3 zzJ proktam
.
] prabho α3 •
˚man
.
d
.
alam ] ˚mam
.
d
.
ale S z¿u tatroktam
.
] tam
.
troktam
.
AB z¿b par¯amr
.
ta˚ ] para-
m¯amr
.
ta˚µγ (unm.) z¿c candrik¯a˚] cam
.
d
.
ik¯ a˚µK4, cam
.
dik¯a α3, cam
.
drak¯a˚J4γ • ˚khy¯ a
ca k¯anti´s ca ] ˚khy¯atha k¯am
.
ti´s ca G, navak¯am
.
ti´s ca α, ˚khyam
.
cam
.
drak¯am
.
ti B z¿J ´sr¯ı´s
ceti ] ´sr¯ı pr¯ıti F, su´sreti γ zqu jihv¯ am
.
] jihv¯ a Nα3J4K2γ1 • sam¯ave´sya ] sam¯ave´sy¯ a Sα
zqb p¯ıtv¯a p¯ıtv¯ a ] ˚mr
.
tam
.
p¯ıtv¯a Sα1 • sam¯apibet ] conj. Sanderson; sam¯alihet G, samam
.
vi´set W1, sam¯avi´syet J4, sam
.
vi´set R (unm.), sam¯avi´set cett. zqc yog¯ı m¯asacatus
.
ken
.
a ]
conj.; devabh¯asacatus
.
kona AJ7; devabh¯asacatus
.
ken
.
a J6, devi m¯asacatus
.
ken
.
a cett. zjb
tad˚ ] µGMJ4; sad˚ cett. • ˚¯ apl¯avana˚ ] ˚¯apavana˚ J6F, ˚¯aptavana˚ J7, ˚¯ap¯avana˚ NMα3J1R
• ˚p¯anatah
.
] AGSJ2VK4PFK5K6J5W2B; ˚p¯atatah
.
J6, ˚p¯avanah
.
α, ˚m¯anatah
.
J4, ˚p¯atanah
.
K2,
˚y¯ atatah
.
J3, ˚pl¯avanatah
.
J1 (unm.), ˚pl¯anatah
.
R
zzJ–z¿u om. J4 zq to ¿o found in margin of f.29v J6 (eye-skip tatra–tatra)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 103
[khecaraman
.
d
.
alakal¯ah
.
]
tad¯ urdhvam
.
vajrakand¯ akhyam
.
´sil¯a khecaraman
.
d
.
alam 25
lal¯ at
.
¯ante vij¯ an¯ıy¯ at tatra devi kal¯ atrayam |
pr¯ıtis tath¯ a˙ ngad¯ a p¯ urn
.
¯a tatra jihv¯ am
.
prave´sayet 26
ks
.
¯ıradh¯ ar¯ amr
.
tam
.
´s¯ıtam
.
sravantam
.
jihvay¯ a pibet |
m¯asatrayen
.
a deve´si sarvavy¯ adhivivarjitah
.
27
acchedyah
.
sarva´sastrai´s ca abhedyah
.
sarvas¯adhanaih
.
|
acintyah
.
sarvavij˜ n¯ anair vir¯ upavis
.
ay¯ anvitaih
.
28
bhairav¯ abho bhavet satyam
.
vajrakandaprabh¯ avatah
.
|
[r¯ajadantakal¯ah
.
]
n¯ asik¯adho ’dharos
.
t
.
hordhvam
.
r¯ ajadantam
.
mah¯ apadam 29
tatra p¯ urn
.
¯amr
.
t¯ a devi ´s¯ıtal¯ a ca kal¯advayam |
sam
.
pr¯ apya kumbhak¯ avasth¯ am
.
rasan¯ agren
.
a sam
.
spr
.
´set 30
tatra sam
.
j¯ ayate devi susv¯ adu ´s¯ıtalam
.
jalam |
svamanas tatra sam
.
yojya piben m¯ asatrayam
.
vrat¯ı 31
ajar¯ amarat¯ am eti sarvavy¯ adhivivarjitah
.
|
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
zjc ˚¯ urdhvam
.
] J6J7SMα3K2J3FK6J1B; ˚¯ urdhva˚ Aα2PJ5W2, ˚¯ urdhv G (unm.), ˚¯ urdhve
J2VK4K5, ˚¯ urddhem
.
J4, ˚urdvem
.
R • vajra˚] vajre G • ˚kand¯akhyam
.
] µSα1β1K2J3K5;
nam
.
d¯akhyam
.
G, ˚kam
.
d¯akhya˚ α3PF, ˚kad¯ akhyam
.
K6, ˚kand¯akhy¯ a γ zjJ ´sil¯a ] ´sir¯a K5
• khecara˚ ] rase ca α3, khecar¯ı R • ˚man
.
d
.
alam
.
] ˚madhyagam
.
µG, ˚mam
.
d
.
alah
.
F z6u
lal¯at
.
¯ante ] SW1β; lal¯at
.
am
.
tam
.
µGNM, lal¯ at
.
¯antam
.
α3, lal¯at
.
¯am
.
to γ z6b kal¯atrayam ] kal¯a-
nvitam
.
G, kal¯ atraye J2J4K4 z6c tath¯a˙ ngad¯a ] GF; tath¯am
.
gaj¯a µ, tath¯am
.
gad¯a M, tath¯a
gaj¯a cett. • p¯ urn
.
¯a ] pun
.
y¯ a α3 z~u ks
.
¯ıra˚] etat sudh¯amayam
.
ks
.
¯ıra˚G (unm.) • ´s¯ıtam
.
]
´sitam
.
J6J7 (unm.), ´s¯am
.
tam
.
J3 z~c ˚trayen
.
a ] µαFJ1R; ˚m¯ atren
.
a GSβJ5W2B zSu
acchedyah
.
] abhedyah
.
α3, avedyah
.
J3 • ˚´sastrai´s ca ] J6J7G, ˚´sastre´s ca A, ˚´s¯astraughair J3K6,
˚´sastraugha R, ˚´sastraughair cett. zSb abhedyah
.
] µGαK4; alaks
.
yah
.
SJ2PFK5, alaks
.
ah
.
J4K2, alabhyah
.
V, alaks
.
a J3, alakhyah
.
K6, ullikhya J1, ullaks
.
yah
.
J5W2B, nallikhya R •
˚s¯ adhanaih
.
] G; ˚loka´sai A, ˚lekhakaih
.
J6Sα3VK4PJ3FK5γ, ˚le´sakaih
.
J7, ˚bhedakaih
.
α1, ˚lauki-
kaih
.
J2, ˚lokakaih
.
J4K6, ˚laks
.
yakaih
.
K2 zSJ vir¯ upa˚ ] µGMα3; nir¯ upo S, vir¯ upam
.
N,
nir¯ upam
.
W1, nir¯ upa˚β1PJ3FK6γ, ar¯ upa˚K2, nir¯ upyo K5 • ˚vis
.
ay¯ anvitaih
.
] ˚vis
.
am¯anvitaih
.
µ, vis
.
ay¯anvitah
.
K6 zgu ˚¯ abho ] ˚¯am
.
go M, ˚¯am
.
bho α3 zgb ˚kandapra˚] ˚kandarpa˚
γ zgc n¯asik¯adho ] GSJ2J4VK2FK5K6; n¯asikordho AJ7, n¯asikorddho J6, n¯asik¯adhom
.
˚
α1, n¯asik¯adh¯a˚α3, n¯asik¯a∗˚K4, n¯asik¯adyo˚Pγ, ´sa´sim
.
k¯ adyo˚J3 • ’dharos
.
t
.
hordhvam
.
] em.;
˚dharos
.
t
.
r¯a¯ı A (unm.), ˚dharaus
.
t
.
h¯arddha˚J6, dharaus
.
t
.
r¯ardra J7, dharos
.
t
.
hordhve G, ˚ttaros
.
t
.
ho-
rdhve S, ˚taros
.
t
.
hodho N, ˚tas
.
t
.
orodho W
pc
1
, ˚tas
.
t
.
or¯adho W
ac
1
, ˚taros
.
t
.
h¯adho M, ˚taros
.
t
.
ordhvo α3,
˚ttaros
.
t
.
hordhvam
.
β, ˚taros
.
t
.
¯adhah
.
γ zgJ ˚dantam
.
] ˚dam
.
ta˚ MJ4γ • ˚padam ] βγ;
˚path¯am
.
AJ7, ˚patham
.
J6Gα1K
ac
5
, ˚padah
.
α3 ¿ou p¯ urn
.
¯amr
.
t¯a ] GSVK6; p¯ urn
.
¯amr
.
tam
.
AJ7α1, p¯ urn
.
¯amr
.
te J6, p¯ urn
.
¯amaham
.
α3, purn
.
¯amr
.
to J2J4K4K2PF, p¯an
.
imr
.
t¯a J3, p¯ urn
.
¯anan¯a K5,
p¯ urn
.
¯a tato γ ¿ob ´s¯ıtal¯a ] GSβγ; ´s¯ıtat¯a AJ7, ´s¯ılat¯a J6, ´s¯ıtalam
.
α • kal¯advayam ]
kal¯ahvay¯am
.
µ, kal¯ahvay¯a G ¿oc sam
.
pr¯apya ] p¯ urn
.
¯api α • kumbhak¯a˚] kulak¯a˚J3 •
˚vasth¯am
.
] ˚vasth¯a Mα3K2PFK6γ ¿oJ rasan¯agren
.
a sam
.
spr
.
´set ] rasan¯agram
.
prave´sayet B
¿iu devi ] om. µ, satvam
.
α1, satyam
.
α3 ¿ib susv¯adu ´s¯ıtalam
.
jalam ] µ; jalam
.
susv¯adu
´s¯ıtalam
.
G, sukhadam
.
´s¯ıtalam
.
jalam
.
Sαβγ ¿ic svamanas ] sumanas α3, svam
.
manas B
¿iJ piben ] piban SJ4PFγ1 • m¯asatrayam
.
vrat¯ı ] µ; m¯asadvayam
.
praye G, m¯asadvayam
.
vrat¯ı Sβγ, m¯asacatus
.
t
.
ayam
.
α
zjc ´siva´s ´sikhar¯ı man
.
d
.
alam
.
tad¯ urdhvam
.
vajrake´s¯akhyam
.
add. G
104 Pat
.
ala 2
[¯adh¯arakal¯ah
.
kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı´sakti´s ca]
gudab¯ıj¯ antarasth¯ anam ¯ adh¯ aram
.
parik¯ırtitam 32
tatra pa˜ nca kal¯ ah
.
prokt¯ ah
.
pragalatparam¯ amr
.
t¯ ah
.
|
sudh¯ a sudh¯ amay¯ı praj˜ n¯ a k¯ alaghn¯ı j˜ n¯ anad¯ ayin¯ı 33
kal¯ ah
.
pa˜ nca sudh¯ adh¯ ar¯ ah
.
k¯ırtit¯ ah
.
sarvasiddhid¯ ah
.
|
tatrasth¯ a param¯ a ´saktir ¯ ady¯ a kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı ´sive 34
tatr¯ aku˜ ncanayogena kumbhakena sur¯ arcite |
m¯ ula´sakty¯ a sam¯as¯adya tatrastham
.
´s¯ıtal¯ amr
.
tam 35
sus
.
umn
.
ay¯ a sam¯an¯ıya sv¯ adhis
.
t
.
h¯ an¯ adipa˙ nkaj¯ at |
tatsudh¯ avr
.
s
.
t
.
isam
.
siktam
.
smared brahm¯ an
.
d
.
ak¯ avadhi 36
tatrastham amr
.
tam
.
gr
.
hya ´saktih
.
´sr
.
¯ıkun
.
d
.
al¯ı par¯ a |
sus
.
umn
.
¯am¯argam ¯ as¯adya brahmadh¯ am¯antam ¯ıyus
.
¯ı 37
m¯ ulapa˜ ncakal¯ aj¯ atasudh¯ atr
.
ptipariplut¯ a |
¯ap¯ adamastaparyantam
.
vy¯ apayant¯ım
.
tanum
.
smaret 38
pa˜ ncam¯asaprayogena pa˜ ncabh¯ utalayo bhavet |
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
¿zc ˚b¯ıj¯ antara˚] ˚b¯ıj¯ am
.
taram
.
S, ˚b¯ıj¯ am
.
kura˚α ¿¿u pa˜ nca ] soma˚G • kal¯ah
.
] kal¯a
J6J7Gα2α3K2J3K
ac
5
K6γ1 • prokt¯ah
.
] p¯ urn
.
¯ah
.
G, prokt¯a NMα3K2J3, sakt¯ah
.
J4, proktah
.
PJ5,
prokta J1R ¿¿b pragalat ] prasravat G, vigalat M • ˚mr
.
t¯ah
.
] µGSα1β1PFK5K6; ˚mr
.
tah
.
K1, ˚mr
.
tam
.
h
.
K3, ˚mr
.
t¯am
.
K2J5W2, ˚mr
.
t¯a J3, ˚mr
.
tam
.
J1RB ¿¿c praj˜ n¯a ] pr¯aj˜ n¯a Gβ1J3-
K5K6J5W2B, dh¯ar¯a J1R ¿¿J k¯ alaghn¯ı ] kalaghn¯ı α2J4VB • j˜ n¯anad¯ayin¯ı ] j˜ n¯anad¯ayak¯ a µ,
k¯ amad¯ayin¯ı GF ¿qu kal¯ah
.
pa˜ nca ] Sα1; kal¯a pam
.
ca µα3J3, kal¯a

h
.

pam
.
ca G, kalpam
.
pam
.
ca
J2J4, kalpa pam
.
ca VK4PFK6, kal¯ah
.
ca J3 (unm.), kasya pam
.
ca K5, kalpaya ca γ1, kalpayec ca
B • sudh¯adh¯ar¯ah
.
] sudh¯ar¯a´s ca α1, sadh¯ar¯a ca α3 ¿qb k¯ırtit¯ah
.
] k¯ırtit¯a AJ7α3γ1 •
˚siddhid¯ah
.
] ˚siddhid¯a α3J3K
ac
5
γ1 ¿qc tatra˚] mam
.
tra˚J4 • ´saktir ] ´sakti µM, ´saktih
.
α2,
´saktih
.
r J3B ¿qJ ¯ady¯a ] m¯ay¯a µG, khy¯ at¯a α1, aks
.
¯a α3, ¯adh¯a VK2 • ´sive ] par¯a S, ´siv¯a
α2, sit¯a α3, priye B ¿ju tatr¯a˚] tatra MK2PJ3, tatr¯am
.
γ1 ¿jc ˚´sakty¯ a ] ˚´saktim
.
G ¿jJ tatrastham
.
] tatragam
.
µG ¿6u sus
.
umn
.
ay¯a ] AJ
pc
6
J7VK5; sus
.
umnay¯a J
ac
6
GJ2-
K4J3PFB, sus
.
umn¯ay¯am
.
SW1α3, sus
.
umnay¯am
.
N, sus
.
umn
.
¯ay¯ am
.
M, sus
.
umn¯ay¯a J4J1, sus
.
umn
.
¯ay¯ a
K6R, sus
.
umr
.
g¯ay¯a J5W2 • sam¯an¯ıya ] GSβγ; samunnayya A, samunnadhya J6J7, sam¯as¯ın¯a
α2, sam¯as¯ınah
.
M, sam¯as¯ına α3 ¿6b ˚s
.
t
.
h¯an¯adi˚ ] ˚s
.
t
.
h¯an¯adya˚α2 • ˚pa˙ nkaj¯ at ] ˚pam
.
ka-
j¯ an VJ3, ˚pam
.
cak¯at K2B ¿6c tatsudh¯avr
.
s
.
t
.
i˚ ] G; vasudh¯avr
.
s
.
t
.
i˚ µ, tam
.
sudh¯arasa˚ K5,
tatsudh¯arasa˚cett. • ˚sam
.
siktam
.
] ˚sam
.
sikt¯am
.
Sα2 ¿6J smared ] smarad γ1, sravad
B • ˚k¯ avadhi ] ˚vat

su

dh¯ıh
.
G, ˚k¯ aryadh¯ıh
.
α3 ¿~u tatrastham amr
.
tam
.
] µG; tatra
sth¯ane mr
.
tam
.
Sα, tatra sam
.
sth¯amr
.
tam
.
βγ • gr
.
hya ] µ; guhyam
.
GSα2α3β, may¯ı M, guhya
γ ¿~b ´sr¯ıkun
.
d
.
al¯ı ] µK3β1K5K6; kum
.
d
.
alin¯ı GSα1, kum
.
d
.
al¯ı K1J3 (unm.), kud
.
alan¯ım
.
K2, th¯ı
kum
.
d
.
al¯ı P, s¯ a kum
.
d
.
al¯ı F, yat kum
.
d
.
alik¯a J1R (unm.), yat kum
.
d
.
ali J5W2, ya kum
.
d
.
alin¯ı B (unm.)
• par¯a ] par¯ah
.
A, par¯am
.
K2P, pur¯a B ¿~c sus
.
umn
.
¯a˚] sus
.
umn¯a˚J
ac
6
α3J2J4K4PJ3FB
¿~J ˚dh¯am¯antam ] J6GSα2K5B; ˚dh¯amam
.
tam AJ7α3, ˚dh¯am¯atam J2J4K4, ˚dh¯am¯am
.
ta
VJ3Fγ1, ˚dh¯ay¯am
.
na K2, ˚dh¯am¯ata P, ˚dh¯am¯am
.
ttar K6 • ¯ıyus
.
¯ı ] µSW1J2J4K4K5K6B; ¯ayus
.
¯ı
GNα3, p¯ıyus
.
¯ı VPγ1, p¯ıyus
.
¯a K2, y¯ ayus
.
¯a J3, p¯ıyus
.
i F ¿Su ˚pa˜ nca˚] ˚parva˚α3 • ˚kal¯a˚]
˚kas¯a˚ A • ˚j¯ ata˚ ] GSJ2VK4K2PFK5; ˚j¯ at¯a µα2K6γ, ˚j¯ at¯ah
.
M, ˚y¯ at¯a α3, ˚j¯ atam
.
J4J3
¿Sb ˚tr
.
pti˚] ˚vapti˚J2, ˚tapti˚γ2R • ˚plut¯a ] ˚plut¯ah
.
MK5 ¿Sc ˚masta˚] µ; ˚tala˚
cett. ¿SJ vy¯ apayant¯ım
.
] µSMK1J2K4PK5; vikhy¯ ayam
.
t¯ı N, vy¯ apayam
.
t¯ı W1K3J4VK2FB,
vy¯ apayam
.
tim
.
J3, vy¯ apat¯ıta K6, vy¯ apayam
.
ti γ1 • tanum
.
] J6J7SMK1; tanu Aα2K3, tu t¯am
.
β1PJ3FK5K6γ, tu sam
.
˚ K2 ¿gb ˚layo bhavet ] ˚jayam
.
labhet µ
¿¿c–¿qb om. K2 ¿jJ–¿6u om. K2 ¿~cJ om. M ¿ScJ om. G ¿gu–qoJ om. α3
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 105
´sivas¯amyo bhavet satyam
.
trik¯ al¯ abhy¯ asayogatah
.
39
[sv¯adhis
.
t
.
h¯anakal¯ah
.
]
li ˙ ngasth¯ anam
.
hi yad devi sv¯ adhis
.
t
.
h¯ anam
.
tad ucyate |
tatra divy¯ amr
.
tamayam
.
kal¯ atrayam ud¯ıritam 40
sus¯ uks
.
m¯a param¯ ahl¯ ad¯ a vidy¯ a ceti prak¯ırtit¯ ah
.
|
p¯ urvavat kumbhak¯ avasth¯ am
.
pr¯ apya ´saktim
.
prabodhya ca 41
n¯ıtv¯ a brahm¯ an
.
d
.
aparyantam
.
pl¯ avayec ca svak¯am
.
tanum |
yog¯ı trim¯ asapary¯ aye p¯ urvoktam
.
labhate phalam
.
42
[ven
.
udan
.
d
.
akal¯ah
.
]
gudamed
.
hr¯ antaram
.
yad vai ven
.
udan
.
d
.
am
.
tad ucyate |
kal¯ acatus
.
kam
.
tatroktam
.
par¯ amr
.
taras¯atmakam 43
su´s¯ıt¯ a ca mah¯ atr
.
ptih
.
palitaghn¯ı valiks
.
ay¯ a |
tatra ´saktim
.
samudbodhya p¯ urvavat pl¯ avayet tanum 44
caturm¯ asaprayogena p¯ urvoditaphalam
.
labhet |
pi ˙ ngal¯ a raviv¯ ahy¯ a sy¯ad id
.
¯a sy¯ac candrav¯ ahin¯ı 45
vis
.
av¯ aho ravih
.
proktah
.
sudh¯ av¯ aho ni´s¯akarah
.
|
abhy¯ asah
.
s¯ uryav¯ ah¯ akhye candrav¯ ahe ca ´sasyate 46
†dh¯ aran
.
¯a candrav¯ ahe ca† yog¯ı kumbhakam ¯ acaret |
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
¿gJ trik¯al¯a˚ ] trividh¯a˚ G qou li ˙ ngasth¯anam
.
hi yad ] G; n¯abhisth¯anam
.
hi yad
µ, n¯abhisth¯an¯ad adho cett. qoc ˚mayam
.
] ˚may¯ı γ qiu sus¯ uks
.
m¯a ] sus
.
u-
mn
.
¯a Sαγ • param¯ahl¯ad¯a ] GSJ4K6; param¯a hr
.
dy¯a α1, param¯ahl¯ada cett. qib vidy¯ a
ceti ] kal¯a vidy¯a G, n¯amn¯a devi M • prak¯ırtit¯ah
.
] J6GMK5; prak¯ırtit¯a cett. qiJ
pr¯apya ] pr¯an
.
a˚ α1 • prabodhya ] prayodhya AJ7 qzu n¯ıtv¯a brahm¯an
.
d
.
aparyantam
.
]
p¯ıtv¯a vrahm¯am
.
d
.
aparyam
.
tam
.
µ, kal¯am
.
pr¯apya p¯ıtv¯a brahm¯adiparyam
.
tam
.
G (unm.) qzb
pl¯avayec ca svak¯am
.
] pl¯avayed yah
.
svak¯ am
.
µ, pl¯avayitv¯a svak¯ am
.
G, pl¯avayed ¯atmanas M qzc
˚pary¯aye ] ˚pary¯ayaih
.
Sα1K2J3, ˚pary¯aya γ1, ˚pary¯ay¯at B q¿u guda˚] guhya˚α3 •
˚¯ antaram
.
yad ] ˚¯am
.
tatam
.
tur G q¿b ven
.
u˚] v¯ın
.
¯a˚G q¿J ˚ras¯a˚] ˚na´s¯a˚J4 qqu
su´s¯ıt¯a ca ] sugatam
.
ca G, su´s¯am
.
t¯a ca J3, su´s¯ıtal¯a B • mah¯atr
.
ptih
.
] par¯a tr
.
ptih
.
α, mah¯atr
.
pti
J2VK4PJ3γ qqb palitaghn¯ı ] valighn¯ı ca G, tadam
.
ghr¯ıva N • vali˚] pari˚G qqJ
pl¯avayet ] bh¯avayet SPJ3Fγ qjc ravi˚ ] vis
.
a˚ G • ˚v¯ ahy¯a ] AJ6SJ2J4K4PK6γ;
˚v¯ ajy¯ a˚J7, ˚v¯ ah¯a GW1MK5, ˚v¯ aha Nα3F, ˚v¯ ahya VK2J3 • sy¯ ad ] ˚khy¯a µG, ˚sth¯ad α2 qjJ
id
.
¯a sy¯ ac ] id
.
¯akhy¯a µ, ced
.
¯akhy¯a G • candra˚] cha´si˚M q6u vis
.
av¯aho ] µα1γ; vis
.
av¯ah¯a G,
vis
.
av¯ah¯ı S, vis
.
av¯ahas α3, vis
.
am aho β1PJ3, vis
.
amam
.
ho K2, vis
.
av¯aha F, vis
.
amah¯a K5, vis
.
am¯aho
K6 • ravih
.
proktah
.
] B; raver b¯ahuh
.
A, raver v¯ ahuh
.
J6J7K6, raver v¯ah¯a G, raver v¯ ahah
.
SMJ2K4PF, raver v¯ aha α2, tu khe v¯ahah
.
K1, tu rave v¯ahah
.
K3 (unm.), rave vahih
.
J4, r¯araver
v¯ ahah
.
V (unm.), race vahih
.
K2, rave vahnih
.
J3, raviv¯ ahah
.
K5 (unm.), raver k¯ahah
.
γ1 q6b
sudh¯av¯aho ] sudh¯av¯ah¯a GK2, ks
.
udh¯av¯ aho α3, sudh¯av¯ ah

e

F • ni´s¯akarah
.
] ni´s¯akare µGα2α3,
ni´s¯akaram
.
V q6c abhy¯asah
.
] abhy¯asam
.
µ, abhy¯asa W1K2FJ1R • ˚v¯ ah¯akhye ] µα3;
˚v¯ ahasya G, ˚v¯ah¯ac ca SK4K2J3FK6, ˚v¯ ah¯akhya N, ˚v¯ ah¯akhya´s W1, v¯ ah¯akhyah
.
M, ˚v¯ ahac ca
J2V, ˚v¯ av¯a ca J4, ˚v¯ aha ca P, ˚v¯ah¯adye K5, ˚v¯ ahe ca γ q6J candra ] ´si´si M • ˚v¯ ahe ]
˚v¯ aha˚ G, ˚v¯ aha´s NM, v¯ ahah
.
W1, ˚v¯ aho V
ac
J3 • ca ´sasyate ] J6J7NMα3; ca ´samyate A,
˚sya ´sasyate G, pra´sasyate W1β1PJ3FK5γ, prak¯a´syate K2, pra´s¯asyate K6 q~u †dh¯aran
.
¯a† ]
Sα2VK4γ; dh¯aran
.
am
.
µJ2, dh¯aran
.
¯am
.
GJ3K5, dh¯ırah
.
sy¯ ac M, na raks
.
¯a α3, dh¯arah
.
n
.
¯a J4, dh¯aran
.
¯ac
K2PF, dh¯aran¯ac K6 • †˚v¯ ahe ca† ] ˚v¯ ahena µ
qzJ labhate tanu sam
.
gam add. G • qzJ labhate–q¿c tatroktam
.
om. V
106 Pat
.
ala 2
´sa´siv¯ahena pavanam
.
p¯ urayed ¯ atmanas tanum 47
raviv¯ ahena cotsargah
.
´sasyate dehavr
.
ddhaye |
etat te vy¯ ahr
.
tam
.
devi kal¯ asth¯ anam
.
caturgun
.
am 48
[par¯amr
.
tamah¯apadam]
atah
.
param
.
pravaks
.
y¯ ami par¯ amr
.
tamah¯ apadam |
vajrakandam
.
lal¯ at
.
e tu prajvalaccandrasam
.
nibham 49
lam
.
garbham
.
caturasram
.
ca tatra devah
.
parah
.
´sivah
.
|
devat¯ ah
.
samup¯ asante yoginah
.
´saktisam
.
yutam 50
c¯ ulitale mah¯ adevi laks
.
as¯ uryasamaprabham |
trikon
.
aman
.
d
.
alam
.
madhye devam
.
li ˙ ng¯ atmakam
.
´sivam 51
ram
.
garbhamadhyamam
.
devi sva´sakty¯ ali ˙ ngitam
.
param |
devat¯ agan
.
asam
.
jus
.
t
.
am
.
bh¯ avayet parame´svari 52
daks
.
a´sa˙ nkhe mah¯ abh¯ age s
.
ad
.
binduvalay¯ anvitam |
yam
.
garbham
.
dh¯ umravarn
.
am
.
ca tatra devam
.
mahe´svaram 53
li ˙ ng¯ ak¯ aram
.
smared devi ´saktiyuktam
.
gan
.
¯avr
.
tam |
v¯ ama´sa˙ nkhe ’rdhacandr¯ abham
.
sapadmam
.
man
.
d
.
alam
.
´sive 54
vam
.
garbham
.
ca dr
.
d
.
ham
.
madhye tatra li ˙ ngam
.
sudh¯ amayam |
goks
.
¯ıradhaval¯ ak¯ aram
.
´saraccandr¯ ayutaprabham 55
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
q~c ˚v¯ ahena ] ˚v¯ahe ca βγ • pavanam
.
] pavanaih
.
K5 q~J p¯ urayed ¯atmanas ]
p¯ urayitv¯atmanas G • tanum ] padam
.
K2 qSu raviv¯ ahena ] vis
.
av¯ahena G, raviv¯ahe
ca γ1, raviv¯ ahe ta˚ B • cotsargah
.
] tvotsargah
.
α2, votsargah
.
VK4, ˚thotsargah
.
B qSb
˚vr
.
ddhaye ] ˚siddhaye G qSc etat ] evam
.
AB • vy¯ ahr
.
tam
.
] kathitam
.
S, vy¯ akr
.
tam
.
α3 qSJ caturgun
.
am ] ca tadgun
.
ah
.
AJ7, ca tadgun
.
am
.
J6 qgb ˚mah¯apadam ] µ;
mah¯apatham
.
GSMα3β1PFK5K6γ, mah¯amr
.
tam
.
α2, mah¯amatham
.
K2, mah¯ıpatham
.
J3 qgc
˚kandam
.
] ˚kam
.
de µ, ˚kam
.
da α2, ˚kum
.
da J1R • lal¯at
.
e tu ] lal¯at
.
oktam
.
S, lal¯at
.
e ca αJ3
jou lam
.
garbham
.
] µG; lam
.
garbhe Sβγ, lam
.
b¯ıjam
.
N, lam
.
bitam
.
W1, lam
.
b¯ıjam
.
M, l¯ıgalam
.
K1, l¯am
.
galam
.
K3 • caturasram
.
] caturasre VK5 job tatra devah
.
parah
.
´sivah
.
] tatra devam
.
para ¯avaram
.
G (unm.), t¯avad eva parah
.
´sivah
.
α3 joc devat¯ah
.
] S
pc
α3J2VK4K5; devat¯as
µ, devat¯a GJ4PJ3γ1, tad dev¯ah
.
S
ac
, te dev¯ah
.
N, tam
.
dev¯ah
.
W1, ta dev¯ah
.
M, devat¯am
.
K2FK6B
• samup¯asante ] tam up¯asam
.
te J6, tum up¯asam
.
te AJ7, samup¯asate J2, samup¯asatte VK4,
´saktisam
.
yukt¯a M joJ yoginah
.
] Sα1B; yoginyah
.
µG, yoginy¯ ah
.
α3, yog¯ıbhyah
.
β1K2PK5K6,
yog¯ınyah
.
J3, yogibhya´s F, yogibhy¯am
.
γ1 • ´saktisam
.
yutam ] µβγ1; ´saktisam
.
yut¯ah
.
Sα2α3,
samup¯asate M, ´saktisam
.
yut¯am
.
B jiu c¯ ulitale ] culitale A, c¯ ul¯ıtale J6J7K1K2FK5γ, c¯ ul
.
¯ıtale
G, c¯ ulit¯ale α2 • ˚devi ] ˚bh¯age G jib ˚prabham ] ˚prabh¯am
.
γ jic ˚man
.
d
.
alam
.
]
˚man
.
d
.
ala˚W2, ˚man
.
dale B jiJ devam
.
] deva α2J2J4PFK6, devi K2γ • ´sivam
.
] µSαV;
´sive GJ2J4K4K2PJ3FK5K6γ jzu ˚garbha˚ ] ˚garbham
.
GSαVF • ˚madhyamam
.
]
˚madhyagam
.
µG, ˚paramam
.
α3, ˚madhyama˚γ1 jzb ˚li ˙ ngitam
.
] ˚lim
.
git¯am
.
γ • param ]
pare G jzc ˚sam
.
jus
.
t
.
am
.
] ˚sam
.
v¯ıtam
.
G, ˚sam
.
yuktam
.
αJ4, ˚sam
.
tus
.
t
.
am
.
K2, ˚jus
.
tam
.
ca γ
jzJ bh¯avayet ] pl¯avayet J2, s¯avayet J4, l¯avayet K4 • parame´svari ] parame´svar¯ı K3J4K2K6,
parame´svaram
.
J3B j¿u ˚´sa˙ nkhe ] ˚´s¯akhe α3, ˚sam
.
khye K6 j¿b ˚¯ anvitam ] ˚¯am
.
kitam
.
M, ˚¯anvite α3γ2R j¿c ˚garbham
.
] ˚garbha˚ NJ2J4VPγ1, ˚garbhe B j¿J devam
.
mahe´svaram ] devo mahe´svarah
.
SαK6 jqb ´saktiyuktam
.
] ´sivayukta α3, ´saktiyukti K2
• gan
.
¯avr
.
tam ] gun
.
¯avr
.
tam
.
K2, gun
.
¯anvitam
.
J3 jqc ˚´sa˙ nkhe ] ˚´sam
.
kho µJ2J4γ1, ˚´s¯akhe
α3, ˚sam
.
kho K2, ˚sakhe P, ˚sekhe J3 jqJ sapadmam
.
] svapadmam
.
µ, sapadma˚ K2γ1,
p¯apaghnam
.
J3 jju vam
.
˚ ] va˚ µ, ya˚ K3, tam
.
˚ J3 • ca dr
.
d
.
ham
.
] t
.
ad
.
ham
.
paks
.
ya˚ A
(unm.), dr
.
d
.
ham
.
paks
.
a˚ J6J7 (unm.), ca k¯ uritam
.
G (unm.), ca t
.
r
.
t
.
am
.
M, candr¯adya˚ K6
jjb li ˙ ngam
.
] lim
.
ga˚γ1
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 107
sva´saktisahitam
.
sarvadevat¯ agan
.
asevitam |
evam
.
devi caturdiks
.
u sth¯ an¯ any ukt¯ ani vai may¯ a 56
tes
.
¯am
.
madhye mah¯ avr
.
ttam
.
ham
.
garbham
.
tatra p¯ arvati |
parame´sah
.
parah
.
´sambhuh
.
sva´saktisahitah
.
sthitah
.
57
li ˙ ng¯ ak¯ aro gan
.
ayutah
.
s¯ uryakot
.
isamaprabhah
.
|
pr
.
thivyadhipatir bh¯ ale pa´scime s¯ uryan¯ ayakah
.
58
daks
.
a´sa˙ nkhe ’nilapatir v¯ ame jalapatih
.
´sive |
madhye vyom¯ adhipah
.
´sambhusth¯ an¯ ah
.
pa˜ nca mayodit¯ ah
.
59
vyom¯ adhipasya devasya ´sirordhve catura˙ ngulam |
jyotirman
.
d
.
alamadhyastham
.
kot
.
icandrasamaprabham 60
divy¯ amr
.
tamayam
.
bh¯ an
.
d
.
am
.
m¯ ulabandhakap¯ at
.
akam |
¯ urdhvacandram
.
mah¯ a´sailam abhedyam amr
.
t¯ aspadam 61
´s¯ıtal¯ amr
.
tamadhye tu vil¯ınam
.
li ˙ ngam ¯ı´svari |
trasaren
.
uprat¯ık¯ a´sam
.
kot
.
icandrasamaprabham 62
heyop¯ adeyarahitam aj˜ n¯ anatimir¯ apaham |
at¯ıtya pa˜ nca sth¯ an¯ ani paratattvopalabdhaye 63
par¯ amr
.
taghat
.
¯adh¯ arakap¯ at
.
am
.
kumbhak¯ anvitam |
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
j6u sva´sakti˚ ] sam
.
´sakti˚ N, sa´sakti˚ W1, su´sakti˚ γ • sarva˚ ] µGα1K1K2K6B; sarvam
.
SK3J2VK4FK5γ1, sarve J4, sam
.
rva P, tatra J3 j~u ˚vr
.
ttam
.
] µGSα2α3VK5;
˚vr
.
tte M, ˚vr
.
ks
.
am
.
J2PJ3FK6γ, ˚vr
.
tam
.
J4K4, ˚vr
.
ks
.
¯am
.
K2 j~b ˚garbham
.
] ˚garbhe
Mγ1 • tatra ] tava M, tattva α3 j~c parame´sah
.
] µFK5; pare´svara˚ G, parame´svarah
.
SNJ2VK4K2PK6γ (unm.), pare´svarah
.
W1Mα3J4, parame J3 (unm.) • parah
.
] para˚ B •
´sambhuh
.
] ´sambhu GFJ5W2 j~J sva´sakti˚ ] sva´sakty¯ a µG, svasina˚ K1, khasita˚ K3,
sva´saktih
.
J3K6 • ˚sahitah
.
sthitah
.
] J6SNMJ2J4K4PJ3F; ˚sahitasthitah
.
AJ7GW1VK2K6,
˚´saktisam
.
sthitah
.
α3, ˚sahitah
.
´sivah
.
K5, ˚paratah
.
sthitah
.
γ1, ˚parisevitah
.
B jSu ˚¯ ak¯ aro ]
˚¯ ak¯are NK3J2K6, ˚¯ak¯arair W1, ˚¯ak¯ara M, ˚¯ak¯ arai K1 • gan
.
a˚] J6J7GK6B; gun
.
a˚ASβ1K2-
PFK5γ1, gun
.
air α, gun
.
¯ı˚J3 • ˚yutah
.
] ˚yuktah
.
α jSb s¯ uryakot
.
i˚] kot
.
is¯ urya˚G jSc
pr
.
thivya˚] pr
.
thivy¯a˚AMα3βW2B • ˚patir ] J6J7Gα1K2; ˚pati Aβ1, ˚patih
.
SPJ3FK5K6γ,
˚pater α3 • bh¯ale ] µα2α3; j¯ ale G, l¯abhe M, p¯ urve SVK5K6γ, purve J2, p¯ urva J4K2F, v¯ame
K4, purvair P, p¯ urvaih
.
J3 jgu daks
.
a˚] tath¯a G, daks
.
i˚γ1 • ˚´sa˙ nkhe ] ˚´s¯akhe α3 •
nila˚] n¯ıla˚µ jgb ´sive ] ´sivah
.
µGM jgc madhye ] om. G • vyom¯adhipah
.
] µ; vyo-
m¯adhipa˚G, vyomapatih
.
SNK5γ2W2B, vyomapati˚W1Mα3β1K2PFR, somapati˚J3, y¯ amapatih
.
K6 • ´sambhu˚] µ; sth¯an¯any Gβγ, sth¯ane Sα jgJ ˚sth¯an¯ah
.
] µ; et¯ah
.
G, ete Sα, es
.
¯am
.
J2J4K4PJ3FK5K6γ, es
.
¯a VK2 • mayodit¯ah
.
] J6GSW1MK1; mayodit¯a AJ7NK3R, mayoditam
.
β1PK5K6B, mayodita K2, mayoditah
.
J3F, mayodit¯am
.
γ2W2 6ob ´sirordhve ] J6J7SFK5;
´sirorddhe Aα1β1K2PJ3FK6, ´sirordhva´s G, ´sirordhe α3, siddham
.
ca γ • ˚a˙ ngulam ] SJ2PJ1-
RB; ˚a˙ ngule µGαJ4VK4K2K5K6, ˚a˙ ngul¯am
.
J5W2 6iu ˚mayam
.
] µGSαK5; ˚maye
β1K2PK6γ, ˚mayo F • bh¯an
.
d
.
am
.
] µGSαK5; bh¯am
.
d
.
e J2J4K2PK6γ, bh¯am
.
d
.
a V 6ib
kap¯at
.
akam ] kav¯at
.
akam
.
AGK4, kav¯ at
.
hakam
.
J6J7 6ic ¯ urdhvacandram
.
] K5B; ¯ urdhver
urdhva˚ A, ¯ urdhver ¯ urddhva˚ J6, ¯ urdhver ¯ urdhva˚ J7, ¯ urdhvaram
.
dhra˚ G, ¯ urdhvacam
.
dra SαJ2-
J4K4K2PJ3Fγ2W2, ¯ urdhva´sailam
.
V, ¯ urdvac∗andra K6, urdvam
.
cam
.
dram
.
R • mah¯a´sailam ]
tath¯a cam
.
dra˚V 6iJ abhedyam ] µGαK5; abhedam SJ2J4K4K2PF, bhavedam V, abhed¯am
J3, ah¯abhed K6, amedam γ • amr
.
t¯aspadam ] amr
.
tam
.
param
.
α3, amr
.
t¯atmakam
.
J4 6zu
´s¯ıtal¯amr
.
ta˚] ´s¯ıtaramr
.
ta G (eye-skip to 64a) 6zb ¯ı´svari ] ¯ı´svaram
.
βγ 6zJ ˚candra˚]
s¯ urya S 6¿c at¯ıtya ] abh¯ıs
.
ta α • pa˜ nca ] ˚tatva˚M • sth¯an¯ani ] ´s¯ uny¯ani α 6¿J
paratattvopalabdhaye ] param
.
tatve pi labhyate α2α3, paratatve ca labhyate M, paratattvopa-
labhyate J3, param
.
tatve

pi

lavdhaye K5 6qu ˚ghat
.
¯adh¯ara˚ ] J6J7; ˚cat
.
¯adh¯ara˚ A,
˚ghad
.
¯adh¯ara˚ G, ˚s
.
ad
.
¯adh¯ara˚ SK3J4VK4PJ3FK5K6γ, ˚s
.
ad
.
¯adh¯aram
.
α1K1J2, ˚s
.
ad
.
¯adh¯ar¯a˚ K2
6qb ˚kap¯at
.
am
.
] ˚kav¯ at
.
am
.
µG; kap¯ alam
.
α1, kap¯ala α3
6oc–6iu om. J3 6zu ˚madhye tu–6qu par¯amr
.
ta˚ om. G
108 Pat
.
ala 2
manas¯a saha v¯ ag¯ı´s¯am ¯ urdhvavaktr¯ am
.
pras¯ arayet 64
niruddhapr¯ an
.
asam
.
c¯aro yog¯ı rasanay¯ argalam |
l¯ılayodgh¯ at
.
ayet satyam
.
sam
.
pr¯ apya manas¯ a saha 65
´s¯ıtaleks
.
urasasv¯ adu tatra ks
.
¯ır¯ amr
.
tam
.
himam |
yogap¯ anam
.
pibed yog¯ı durlabham
.
vibudhair api 66
tatsudh¯ atr
.
ptisam
.
tr
.
ptah
.
par¯ avasth¯ am upetya ca |
unmany¯ a tatra sam
.
yogam
.
labdhv¯ a brahm¯ an
.
d
.
ak¯ antare 67
n¯ adabindumayam
.
m¯am
.
sam
.
yog¯ı yogena bhaks
.
ayet |
etad rahasyam
.
deve´si durlabham
.
parik¯ırtitam 68
sarvaj˜ nena ´sivenoktam
.
yat phalam
.
´s¯astrasam
.
tatau |
tat phalam
.
labhate satyam
.
s
.
an
.
m¯as¯an n¯ atra sam
.
´sayah
.
69
sam
.
pr¯ apya siddhisam
.
t¯ anam
.
yo yogam imam ¯ı´svari |
na vetti tasya vaktavyam
.
na kim
.
cit siddhim icchat¯ a 70
na j¯ ananti gurum
.
devam
.
´s¯astrokt¯ an samay¯am
.
s tath¯ a |
dambhakaut
.
ilyanirat¯ as tes
.
¯am
.
´s¯astram
.
na d¯ apayet 71
[amr
.
ten¯a˙ ngamardanam]
jihv¯ am¯ ule sthito devi sarvatejomayo ’nalah
.
|
tadagre bh¯ askara´s candras bh¯ alamadhye pratis
.
t
.
hitah
.
72
72a–73b cit. N¯ar¯ayan
.
ad¯ıpik¯a (D) ad Brahmavidyopanis
.
ad 8,
¯
ASS 29, p.341
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
6qc v¯ ag¯ı´s¯am ] Sα1J3; v¯ ag¯ı´s¯ım µGα3FK5, v¯ ag¯ı´sim J2J4K4PK6γ1, v¯ ag¯ı´sam V, v¯ag¯ı´sa K2,
v¯ ag¯ı´s¯ı B 6qJ ¯ urdhva˚] ¯ urdhvam
.
Gα3RB • ˚vaktr¯am
.
] vaktre G 6ju niruddha˚]
sam
.
ruddh¯a A, sam
.
ruddha J6J7G, niruddh¯a J2P 66u ´s¯ıtaleks
.
u˚ ] ´s¯ıtalaks
.
n
.
a˚ A,
´s¯ıteks
.
ura˚ α • ˚rasasv¯adu ] ˚rasasv¯adam
.
S, ˚sasusv¯adam
.
α, rasah
.
sv¯ adu γ1 66b tatra
ks
.
¯ır¯amr
.
tam
.
] µ; hr
.
dyam
.
ks
.
¯ıropamam
.
G, tat ks
.
¯ıram amr
.
tam
.
Sα2α3β1K2PFK5γ, tat ks
.
aram amr
.
-
tam
.
M, tat ks
.
¯aram amr
.
tam
.
J3,

tat

ks
.
iram amr
.
tam
.
K6 • himam ] hitam
.
µK2, param
.
α
66c yogap¯anam
.
] par¯amr
.
tam
.
G • pibed yog¯ı ] GSα; piben madhyam
.
µ, pibet ks
.
¯ıram
.
β1K2PFK6γ, pibet ks
.
¯aram
.
J3, bhavet ks
.
¯ıram
.
K5 66J vibudhair ] vividhair µK2, trida´sair S
6~u ˚tr
.
pti˚ ] ˚p¯ana˚ G, ˚rasa˚ M • ˚tr
.
ptah
.
] GSK5; ˚taptah
.
µ, ˚tr
.
ptyai α2, ˚tr
.
ptya M,
˚tr
.
pto cett. 6~c unmany¯a tatra ] unmanyam
.
te tra˚α2, tanmayam
.
netra˚α3, unman¯a
tatra K5 6~J labdhv¯a ] badhv¯a γ • ˚k¯ antare ] ˚k¯ananam
.
G 6Su m¯am
.
sam
.
] m¯asam
.
AJ6W1J4J3B, m¯asa W2R 6SJ parik¯ırtitam ] trida´sair api M 6gu sarva-
j˜ nena ] sarvaj˜ n¯anam
.
G, sarvam
.
tena γ 6gb yat phalam
.
] µ; saphalam
.
cett. • ˚sam
.
tatau ]
˚sam
.
matau J4, ˚sam
.
sr
.
tau P, ˚sam
.
matam
.
B 6gc phalam
.
] µ; sarvam
.
cett. • labhate ]
labhyate α2α3γ • satyam
.
] nityam
.
G, siddha N, siddham
.
W1 6gJ ˚m¯as¯an ] ˚m¯as¯am
.
G,
˚m¯ase α2 ~ou siddhi˚] siddhim
.
AJ2VK2 • ˚sam
.
t¯anam
.
] µGJ2VK4FK5K6γ; ˚sop¯anam
.
Sα1, ˚sam
.
p¯anam
.
α3, ˚sam
.
j˜ n¯anam
.
J4, ˚sam
.
t¯an¯am
.
K2, ˚sat¯am
.
n¯am
.
P, ˚sam
.
t¯ano J3 ~ob yo
yogam imam¯ı´svari ] yogagamyam ap¯ı´svari A, yogayogamam¯ı´svari J6J7, yo yogam imam¯ı´svaram
K5,

y

ogagamyam
.
mahe´svari B ~oJ kim
.
] kva µ, ca α • cit siddhim ] siddhim
.
pra˚
α1, siddhim
.
ni˚α3 • icchat¯a ] µSK2PJ3FK6; icchat¯am
.
Gγ, icchatah
.
S
vl
J2J4K4K5, ˚yachati
α1, ˚yacchasi K1, ˚yakvasi K3, icchati V ~iu gurum
.
] gur¯ un F ~ib ˚okt¯an ] ˚okta˚
Gγ2, ˚oktam
.
K1W2, ˚oktah
.
K3 • samay¯am
.
s tath¯a ] samayam
.
tath¯a G, samay¯an punah
.
K5
~ic dambhakaut
.
ilyanirat¯as ] ye dam
.
bhyakut
.
il¯as tebhya´s G ~iJ tes
.
¯am
.
´s¯astram
.
] ´sastram
etam
.
G ~zu ˚m¯ ule ] ˚m¯ ula˚ G • sthito ] sthiti A, sthite J6, sthit¯a Gα3 • devi ] dev¯ı
α3J4J3K6, devah
.
D1 ~zb ’nalah
.
] nilah
.
J4B, jalah
.
J3 • ~zc ~zJ bh¯alamadhye ]
µ; t¯alum¯ ule GM, t¯alumadhya˚ K5, t¯alumadhye cett. • pratis
.
t
.
hitah
.
] vyavasthitah
.
G
6~ found after 68 J3 ~zb all witnesses except µGD insert corrupt versions of 75ab; see full
collation for readings ~zb–~¿u om. V
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 109
evam
.
yo vetti tattvena tasya siddhih
.
praj¯ ayate |
mathitv¯ a man
.
d
.
alam
.
vahneh
.
samudbodhya prayatnatah
.
73
tadus
.
n
.
as¯aradravitam
.
bh¯ alajam
.
candraman
.
d
.
alam |
bh¯ askar¯ adhis
.
t
.
hit¯ agren
.
a rasanena sam¯a´srayet 74
tac candragalitam
.
devi ´s¯ıtalam
.
param¯ amr
.
tam |
n¯ asik¯arandhraniry¯ atam
.
p¯ atren
.
a parisam
.
grahet 75
ten¯ a˙ ngamardan¯ at satyam
.
n¯ ad
.
¯ı´suddhih
.
praj¯ ayate |
gudali ˙ ngodgatam
.
p¯ atre nirgatam
.
c¯amar¯ırasam 76
kaks
.
¯amr
.
tam
.
ca sam
.
lod
.
ya sam
.
skr
.
tam
.
c¯adhar¯ arasaih
.
|
ten¯ a˙ ngamardanam
.
kr
.
tv¯ a yog¯ı loke nir¯ amayah
.
77
balav¯ a˜ n j¯ ayate satyam
.
val¯ıpalitavarjitah
.
|
jihv¯ am¯ ulam
.
samudghr
.
s
.
ya tatra j¯ atam
.
mah¯ adravam 78
svadeham
.
mardayet p¯ urvam
.
rasan¯ a vatsar¯ardhatah
.
|
catura˙ ngulavr
.
ddh¯ a ca j¯ ayate n¯ atra sam
.
´sayah
.
79
[khecar¯ımudr¯a]
utkr
.
s
.
ya rasan¯ am ¯ urdhvam
.
daks
.
in
.
¯a˙ ngulibhih
.
´sive |
v¯ amahast¯a˙ ngul¯ıbhi´s ca ghan
.
t
.
ik¯ am
.
sphot
.
ayec chive 80
mathitv¯ a p¯ avakasth¯ anam ¯ urdhvavaktram
.
´sanaih
.
´sanaih
.
|
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
~¿u tattvena ] deve´si µ, tatvaj˜ nas G ~¿b praj¯ayate ] prayujyate γ ~¿c
vahneh
.
] vanhim
.
G ~qu tadus
.
n
.
as¯aradravitam
.
] GB; us
.
n
.
as¯aradravitam
.
A (unm.),
dus
.
n
.
as¯aradravitam
.
J6J7 (unm.), tadus
.
n
.
atvadrav¯ıbh¯ utam
.
Sα1, tadus
.
n
.
am
.
cam
.
drav¯ıbh¯ utam
.
α3-
, tadvis
.
n
.
us¯aradravitam
.
K5 (β1K2PJ3Fγ1 have corruptions of tadus
.
n
.
as¯aradravitam
.
) ~qb
bh¯alajam
.
] µ; taj jalam
.
α3, vahnijam
.
K5, t¯alujam
.
cett. • ˚man
.
d
.
alam ] ˚mam
.
d
.
ale α3
~ju tac ] µK6B; tvam
.
γ1, tam
.
cett. • candra˚] cam
.
dr¯a˚A ~jb ´s¯ıtalam
.
] ´s¯ıtam
.

G, ´sital¯a γ1 • param¯amr
.
tam
.
] tat paayom
.
r
.
tam
.
A (unm.), yat payomr
.
tam
.
J6, tat payomr
.
tam
.
J7, ya

m
.
pa

yog¯ı tam
.
G ~jJ p¯atren
.
a ] p¯atre ca α3 ~6u ten¯a˙ nga˚ ] tadam
.
ga˚
G, tebhy¯am
.
ga˚ γ • ˚mardan¯at satyam
.
] ˚marddan¯am
.
nityam
.
G ~6b n¯ad
.
¯ı˚ ] n¯ad
.

AGJ3, nad¯a˚ R • ˚´suddhih
.
] ˚siddhih
.
µ ~6c guda˚ ] guhya˚ J3, gud
.
a˚ K6, g¯ ud
.
ha˚ γ
• ˚li ˙ ngodgatam
.
] GSJ2VPJ3FK5γ; ˚li ˙ ngohatam
.
µK6, ˚lim
.
gadrutam
.
α2, ˚lim
.
gam
.
drutam
.
M,
˚lim
.
g¯ad drutam
.
α3, ˚lim
.
g¯ahr
.
tam
.
J4, ˚lim
.
gohr
.
tam
.
K4, ˚lim
.
g¯agatam
.
K2 • p¯atre ] devi µ ~6J
nirgatam
.
] nirgamam
.
µ, nirmathyam α1, nirmathy¯a α3, nirgata˚ K2FK6 • c¯amar¯ı˚ ] µG; yo
mar¯ı˚ SJ4J3, amar¯ı˚ α1, sa´sar¯ı˚ α3, vyomar¯ı˚ J2VK4PFK5γ, ˚ttyomar¯ı˚ K2, ˚sy¯ amar¯ı˚ K6 •
˚rasam ] ˚rakam
.
α3 ~~u kaks
.
¯amr
.
tam
.
] kal¯amr
.
tam
.
µ, kaks
.
y¯ amr
.
tam
.
α3, kaks
.
¯amatam
.
J2V,
kam
.
ks
.
¯amr
.
tam
.
P, sam
.
khy¯ amr
.
tam
.
J3, kath¯amr
.
tam
.
γ • ˚lod
.
ya ] ˚yojya M, ˚lepa K2, ˚lodya P,
˚ledya J3, ˚lepya γ ~~b sam
.
skr
.
tam
.
] Sα1J2VK2FK5K6B; sam
.
skr
.
tyam
.
µ, sam
.
skr
.
tya G, sa
satyam
.
α3, saskr
.
tam
.
J4K4, sam
.
skr
.
jam
.
P, sam
.
sk¯ aryam
.
J3, sam
.
skr
.
t¯am
.
γ1 • c¯adhar¯a˚] sv¯ amar¯ı˚
G, v¯ adhar¯a˚ B • ˚rasaih
.
] ˚rasam
.
G, ˚rasah
.
α3, ˚rasau J2J4K4 ~~J yog¯ı loke ] yog¯ı
sy¯ at tu G, transp. Sβγ ~Sc samudghr
.
s
.
ya ] GW2; sam¯ udghr
.
s
.
ya A, samuddhr
.
s
.
ya
J6J7, ca sam
.
ghr
.
s
.
ya Sα1, ca sam
.
mardya α3, sam
.
mudgh

r
.

khya J2, samuddhr
.
tya J4VK5, samud-
vr
.
tya K4, samutkr
.
s
.
ya K2PB, samudghas
.
ya J3, samughr
.

s
.
y

a K6, samud∗us
.
ya γ2, samus
.
t
.
¯as
.
ya R
~SJ j¯ atam
.
] j¯ ata˚ GK2 • mah¯adravam ] madadravam
.
µ ~gu svadeham
.
] svadehe
AJ2J4K4K2 • p¯ urvam
.
] p¯ urv¯ad µ, p¯ urva˚ α2 ~gb rasan¯a ] rasena Mα3 ~gc
˚vr
.
ddh¯a ] µJ3; ˚vr
.
ddhy¯a cett. Sou utkr
.
s
.
ya ] ¯akr
.
s
.
ya G • ¯ urdhvam
.
] ¯ urdhve J6J7,
¯ urdhva˚ α2β1K2PJ3FK6 SoJ ghan
.
t
.
ik¯ am
.
] GSNJ2K5; rasan¯am
.
M, gham
.
t
.
ik¯ a cett.
Siu p¯avakasth¯anam
.
] v¯ amakam
.
sth¯anam
.
µ, p¯avak¯asth¯ane G, p¯avakam
.
sth¯anam
.
F Sib
˚vaktram
.
] µSJ2J3FR; ˚vaktrah
.
Gα1K5, ˚vaktra K1J4K4, ˚cakra K3K6, ˚cakrah
.
V, ˚cakram
.
K2Pγ2W2B
~j om. J3 Soub om. J4K2F
110 Pat
.
ala 2
trik¯ ut
.
ordhve ca candr¯ am
.
´se ´sivasth¯ anam
.
sam¯a´srayet 81
es
.
¯a te khecar¯ımudr¯ a kathit¯ a mr
.
tyun¯ a´sin¯ı |
[bhat
.
anat
.
ados
.
¯ah
.
]
evam abhy¯ asa´s¯ılasya tadvighn¯ artham
.
bhavanti hi 82
bhat
.
abhed¯ a´s ca catv¯aro nat
.
abhed¯ as tathaiva ca |
a˙ nga´sos
.
ah
.
ks
.
udh¯ alasyam
.
kan
.
d
.
¯ ur dehavivarn
.
at¯ a 83
bhat
.
asya pratyay¯ a ete tes
.
¯am
.
´sr
.
n
.
u ca bhes
.
ajam |
mano nirvis
.
ayam
.
kr
.
tv¯ a trim¯ asam amar¯ırasam 84
deham udvartayet tena dehavr
.
ddhih
.
praj¯ ayate |
tris trir udvartanam
.
kury¯ ad div¯ a r¯ atrau tathaiva ca 85
rasan¯ am ¯ urdhvam ¯ ayojya vajrakandapadonmukh¯ım |
tatsudh¯ am
.
lihatah
.
satyam
.
ks
.
udh¯ alasyam
.
ca na´syati 86
tatsudh¯ am amar¯ım
.
devi gr
.
h¯ıtv¯ a c¯a˙ ngamardan¯ at |
sva´sar¯ıravivarn
.
atvam
.
kan
.
d
.
¯ u´s c¯api pran
.
a´syati 87
nat
.
abhed¯ a´s ca catv¯aro bahudh¯ a sam
.
sthit¯ ah
.
priye |
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
Sic ˚rdhve ca ] GNM; ˚rdhvam
.
ca µ, ˚rdhve rdha˚ SF, ˚rddhe ca W1, ˚rdhvor ca K1,
˚rdhvordha ca K3, ˚rddhaidva J2, ˚rddhaim
.
dvam
.
J4, ˚rddhe dya V, ˚rddhe dyam
.
K4, ˚rddham
.
K2 (unm.), ˚rdve P (unm.), ˚rddhe rddha˚ J3K6, ˚rdhve tha K5, ˚dgh¯at
.
a˚ J1J5R, ˚dgh¯at
.
ya
W2B • candr¯am
.
´se ] SMβ1FK5K6; vajr¯ am
.
tyo µ, vajr¯ am
.
te G, c¯am
.
dr¯am
.
´se α2, cakr¯am
.
´se α3,
cam
.
dr¯am
.
so K2, cam
.
dr¯a´se P, cam
.
dr¯atam
.
J3, ˚yac cam
.
dro J1, cam
.
drom
.
´se J5, cam
.
dro´se W2, ˚yac
cam
.
dr¯a R, cam
.
dr¯am
.
´sam
.
B SiJ sam¯a´srayet ] sam¯acaret G Szu es
.
¯a ] es
.
¯am
.
AJ4Vγ1
SzJ ˚vighn¯artham
.
] vij˜ n¯anam
.
G, ˚vidy¯ artham
.
α3, ˚vidy¯ a´s ca J2J4, ˚vij˜ n¯artham
.
J3, ˚vighn¯a´s
ca K6 • bhavanti hi ] bhavati hi A, bhavaty atha G, bhavem
.
ti hi J2, bhaveti hi J4, bhavan
na hi K2 S¿u bhat
.
a˚ ] µB; hat
.
a˚ Gα2J2K5, hat
.
ha˚ SMK1J4K4K2FK6, ha˚ K3 (unm.),
hara˚ V, hava˚ P, deha˚ J3, ma˚ J1R (unm.), bha˚ J5W2 (unm.) S¿b nat
.
a˚ ] nara˚ V,
nat
.
˚ P (unm.) S¿c ˚´sos
.
ah
.
] µSα1K5; ˚dos
.
ah
.
G, ˚´sos
.
a˚ α3J
pc
2
, ˚soka˚ J4γ1, ˚´sos
.
ka˚ V,
˚´soka˚ J
ac
2
K4K2PJ3K6, ˚´sokah
.
F, ˚seka˚ B • ˚¯ alasyam
.
] ˚¯alasya˚ GK2PFK6γ S¿J
kan
.
d
.
¯ ur ] GSNMVK4F; kam
.
d
.
a Aα3, kam
.
d
.
¯ u J6J7J4K6, kad
.
¯ ur W1, kam
.
d
.
ur J2K2PK5, kum
.
d
.
ar J3,
kat
.
u J1W2B, kad
.
u J5, kadu R Squ bhat
.
asya ] J6J7VPK
ac
5
γ; bhat
.
ah
.
sya A, hat
.
asya GN-
K4FK
pc
5
, hat
.
hasya SW1MJ4, nat
.
asya α3K2J3K6, bhdatasya J2 • pratyay¯a ] pratyay¯a´s µG
• ete ] cete A, caite J6J7, caiva G, ˚py ete α3 Sqb ´sr
.
n
.
u ca ] µGα; transp. Sβγ Sqc
kr
.
tv¯ a ] pud
.
ak¯a A (unm.), pud
.
k¯ a J6, pudak¯a J7 SqJ ˚m¯asam ] ˚m¯as¯ad G, ˚v¯ aram B •
amar¯ırasam ] µG; amr
.
t¯arasaih
.
B, amar¯ırasaih
.
cett. Sju tena ] α3B; tasya cett. Sjc
tris trir udvartanam
.
] trir udvarttanakam
.
µ, nirudvarttanakam
.
α3 SjJ div¯a ] µM; sapta˚
G, ahni cett. • r¯atrau ] ˚r¯atram
.
G S6u S6b ˚padon˚] ˚paron˚AJ6, ˚vad un˚G •
˚mukh¯ım
.
] ˚mukh¯ı α3J2K4K2K6γ S6c ˚sudh¯am
.
] ˚sudh¯a α3K2γ • lihatah
.
] lihitah
.
K5,
lihitam
.
γ S~u amar¯ım
.
devi ] G; amar¯ı dev¯ı A, amar¯ı devi J6J7, amr
.
tam
.
c¯api SFK5γ,
amar¯ım
.
c¯api M, amar¯ı c¯atha α3, amr
.
ta´s c¯api J2VK4K2PK6, amr
.
tam
.
J4 (unm.), amr
.
tam
.
tr¯api J3
S~b gr
.
h¯ıtv¯a ] gr
.
h¯ıtv¯am
.
A, kas
.
itv¯a G S~c sva´sar¯ıravivarn
.
atvam
.
] µGMα3; sarvam
.
´sar¯ıra-
vaivarn
.
yam
.
cett. S~J kan
.
d
.
¯ u´s c¯api pra˚] SMα3J4K4F; kam
.
d
.
¯ utvam
.
ca pra˚µ, kam
.
d
.
¯ ukatvam
.
ca G, kam
.
du´s c¯api pra˚J2PJ3K5γ1, kad
.
¯ usy¯api pra˚V, kun
.
d
.
a´s c¯am
.
pra˚K2 (unm.), kantu´s c¯api
pra˚ K6, kam
.
d
.
¯ u´s c¯api vi˚ B SSu nat
.
abhed¯a´s ] nabhat
.
ed¯a´s A, navabhed¯a´s J4 SSb
bahudh¯a ] hi mud¯a G • sam
.
sthit¯ah
.
] J6GSMF; sam
.
sthit¯a AJ7W1J2J4K4K2PJ3γ1, sam
.
sthit¯am
.
NK6, ´sam
.
sin¯a K1, ´sam
.
sit¯a K3, sam
.
sthite VK5, sam
.
sthit¯a´s B • priye ] ca ye B
Szb sarvasiddhiprad¯a devi j¯ıvanmuktiprad¯ayin¯ı iti ´sr¯ımatsyendrasam
.
hit¯ay¯ am
.
pam
.
cada´sah
.
pa-
t
.
alah
.
add. µ S6cJ om. J4(eye-skip from tat to tat) S~ om. α2
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 111
netrarogo ’ ˙ ngavepa´s ca d¯aho bhr¯ antis tathaiva ca 88
bhedam ekam
.
may¯a proktam
.
dvit¯ıyam adhun¯ a ´sr
.
n
.
u |
dantaruk c¯ alpasattvam
.
ca dehal¯ aghavan¯ a´sanam 89
tr
.
t¯ıyabhedam
.
ca tath¯ a ´sr
.
n
.
u devi mah¯ ajvarah
.
|
´siroruk ´sles
.
mados
.
a´s ca caturthah
.
sam
.
pradh¯ aryat¯ am 90
vamanam
.
´sv¯asados
.
a´s ca netr¯ andhatvam
.
tathaiva ca |
durjay¯ a ca tath¯ a nidr¯ a tes
.
¯am
.
´sr
.
n
.
u ca bhes
.
ajam 91
m¯ ul¯ adh¯ ar¯ at sus
.
umn¯ ay¯ am ¯ urdhvam
.
kun
.
d
.
alin¯ım
.
nayet |
ni´scal¯am ¯ urdhvag¯ am
.
jihv¯ am
.
kr
.
tv¯ a kum
.
bhakam ¯ a´srayet 92
´saktiks
.
obh¯ an mahe´s¯ani mah¯ an¯ adah
.
pravartate |
yad¯ a ´sr
.
n
.
oti tam
.
n¯ adam
.
tad¯ a muktah
.
sa ucyate 93
cintayed amr
.
t¯ asiktam
.
svadeham
.
parame´svari |
anena devi m¯ asena p¯ urvados
.
aih
.
pramucyate 94
anenaiva vidh¯ anena dvim¯ asam
.
tu yad¯ acaret |
tad¯ a ´sr
.
n
.
oti karn
.
¯abhy¯ am
.
mah¯ agajaravadhvanim 95
p¯ urvavac cintayed deham
.
dvit¯ıyair mucyate gadaih
.
|
trim¯ as¯ad brahman¯ adam
.
ca ´sr
.
n
.
utv¯ a p¯ urvavat smaret 96
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
SSc netrarogo ] netrarog¯a˚ GNα3, netraroga´s K2, netre rogam
.
J3, netrasya ro˚ B • ’ ˙ nga-
vepa´s ] G; m
.
ga´ses
.
a´s A, m
.
ga´sos
.
a´s J6J7SαJ2VK5, m
.
ga´soka´s J4K4K6, ca ´soka´s K2, ´soka´s PJ5W2
(unm.), ca ´sokam
.
J3, pi ´soka´s FJ1R, ˚go ´soka´s B SSJ d¯aho bhr¯antis tathaiva ca ] bhr¯am
.
ti-
d¯ahopa´sos
.
ak¯ah
.
G Sgu bhedam ekam
.
] µα; idam ekam
.
G, eko bhedo S, eko dos
.
o βγ
• may¯a ] tath¯a α • proktam
.
] µGα; prokto Sβγ Sgc ˚ruk ] µGMα3VPJ3K6;
˚rug SFK5, ˚kam
.
N, ˚ka˚ W1, ˚k J2 (unm.), ˚

tuka

J4 (unm.), tukru K4 (unm.), ˚hah
.
K2,
˚ruk∗ J1, ˚rukra J5W2R (unm.), ˚ruka B (unm.) • c¯alpasattvam
.
] J6J7G; v¯ alpasatvam
.
A, ala-
satvam
.
S, k¯ayasatvam
.
N, ˚s
.
¯ayasatvam
.
W1, k¯ aya´sos
.
a´s M, valasatvam
.
K1β1PJ3FK6γ, kala´satvam
.
K3, khalasattvam
.
K2, galasattvam
.
K5 SgJ dehal¯aghava˚ ] deharomavi˚ G gou
tr
.
t¯ıyabhedam
.
ca tath¯a ] tath¯a trit¯ıyam
.
bhedam
.
ca G, tr
.
t¯ıyabhedam adhun¯a B gob devi
mah¯ajvarah
.
] µSα3J2J4VK2PJ3K5; devi mah¯ajvaram
.
G, devi mahe´svari α2, vaks
.
y¯ ami sum
.
dari
M, devi mah¯a

gh

¯arah
.
K4, devi bhayajvarah
.
F, dev¯ı mah¯ajvarah
.
K6, devi mahajjvarah
.
γ goc
˚dos
.
a´s ] ˚´sos
.
a´s M, ˚dos
.
¯a´s F goJ caturthah
.
] Sα2; caturtham
.
µGα3J2J4K4K5, caturtha´s
M • sam
.
pradh¯aryat¯am ] c¯avadh¯aryat¯am
.
M giu vamanam
.
´sv¯ asados
.
a´s ] vamana´sv¯ asa-
dos
.
am
.
A, vamanam
.
´sv¯ asados
.
am
.
J6J7, pam
.
cama

´s

v¯ asados
.
a´s G gib tathaiva ca ] praj¯ayate
S giJ tes
.
¯am
.
´sr
.
n
.
u ca ] J6J7W1Mα3K6; tis
.
¯am
.
´sr
.
n
.
u ca A, tad¯a ´sr
.
n
.
uta G, tes
.
¯am
.
ca ´sr
.
n
.
u
Sβ1K2PJ3FK5γ, ´sr
.
n
.
u devi ca N gzu m¯ ul¯adh¯a˚ ] G; sam
.
m¯ ul¯a A, sam¯ ul¯a J6J7γ1, svam¯ ulo
SW1Mα3, sam¯ ulo NVK4K2J3FK5, sam¯ ul¯at J2J4, sam¯ ul¯ac PK6, sam¯ ul¯am
.
B • ˚r¯at su˚ ] G;
ch¯asa˚A, chv¯asa˚J6J7α2K1VPFK5K6, cchv¯asa˚S, ˚dv¯ana˚M, kv¯asa˚K3, sv¯ asa˚J2, sv¯ a´sa˚J4,
s
.
v¯ asa K4, ˚tth¯asa˚K2, s¯ava˚J3, ca´si˚γ • ˚s
.
umn¯ay¯am ] G; ˚sam
.
yukt¯ am
.
S
ac
, ˚r¯am
.
bhinn¯am B,
˚sambhinn¯am cett. gzb ¯ urdhvam
.
] µMK2K6B; ¯ urdhv¯am
.
F, ¯ urdhva˚cett. • kun
.
d
.
alin¯ım
.
]
kum
.
d
.
alin¯ı W1Mα3K2PJ3K6γ1 gzJ ¯a´srayet ] ¯acaret F g¿b mah¯an¯adah
.
] jalan¯adah
.
µ, mah¯an¯am
.
dah
.
γ2R g¿J sa ucyate ] sa mucyate J2K4PJ3, pramucyate VK5 gqu
cintayed ] secayed G • amr
.
t¯asiktam
.
] amr
.
t¯am
.
jr¯ abhi G, amr
.
t¯a´saktim
.
α3, amr
.
t¯a´saktam
.
J3
gqc anena devi ] tena deve´si F gqJ p¯ urva˚ ] sarva˚µV • pramucyate ] vimucyate G
gjb dvim¯asam
.
tu ] dvim¯as¯am
.
ta A, dvim¯as¯am
.
tam
.
J6J7G, dvim¯asam
.
ca K2J1R • yad¯acaret ]
sam¯a´srayet M, yad¯a

dh

aret J2, yad¯a dharet J4K4, sam¯acaret K2K6 gjJ ˚gaja˚] ˚r¯aja˚
α2 • ˚rava˚ ] GMF; ˚vara˚ µSα2α3K2J3, ˚varam
.
J2VK4PK5γ, ra J4 (unm.), ˚ravam
.
K6
g6u cintayed ] kum
.
bhayed M • deham
.
] devi Gα1J4, dehe J2, deha γ g6b dvit¯ıyair ]
µM; dvit¯ıyo α3, dvit¯ıyai K4, dvit¯ıya K2K5, dvit¯ıyam
.
F, dvit¯ıye cett. • gadaih
.
] bhramaih
.
G
g6c trim¯as¯ad brahman¯adam
.
ca ] trim¯as¯at sim
.
han¯adam
.
ca µ, trim¯as¯aj jihvay¯ a n¯adam
.
G,
trim¯asam
.
brahman¯adam
.
ca N, trim¯ase brahman¯adam
.
ca MF g6J ´srn
.
utv¯a ] µ; ´sr
.
n
.
uy¯at
cett.
Sgbc om. J4 goJ–giu om. VK2PJ3Fγ gqub om. K2
112 Pat
.
ala 2
tr
.
t¯ıyabhedados
.
ai´s ca mucyate n¯ atra sam
.
´sayah
.
|
meghan¯ adam aghor¯ akhyam
.
caturthe m¯ asaparyaye 97
´srutv¯ a p¯ urvavad abhyasya bhr¯ antidos
.
aih
.
pramucyate |
evam
.
sthiramatir dhy¯ anam abhy¯ asam
.
ca trik¯ alatah
.
98
s¯adhayet tryabdatah
.
satyam
.
j¯ ayate hy ajar¯ amarah
.
|
bhat
.
ados
.
acatus
.
kasya nat
.
ados
.
asya caiva hi 99
niv¯ aran
.
am
.
may¯a proktam
.
bh¯ uyah
.
´sr
.
n
.
u sur¯ adhipe |
yo ’smin ´s¯ante pare tattve yoge yog¯ı sukh¯ atmake 100
pravis
.
t
.
ah
.
sarvatattvaj˜ nas tasya p¯ adau nam¯ amy aham |
[abhy¯asakramah
.
]
prathamam
.
c¯alanam
.
devi dvit¯ıyam
.
bhedanam
.
bhavet 101
tr
.
t¯ıyam
.
mathanam
.
´sastam
.
caturtham
.
ca prave´sanam |
t¯ alum¯ ulam
.
samudghr
.
s
.
ya jihv¯ am utkars
.
ayet priye 102
c¯alanam
.
tad vij¯ an¯ıy¯ ad brahm¯ argalavibhedanam |
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
g~u tr
.
t¯ıya˚ ] tr
.
t¯ıye Gγ, tr
.
t¯ıyair M g~J caturthe ] caturtham
.
γ • m¯asapa-
ry¯ aye ] K4K2FK5K6; m¯asi paryayet µ, m¯asi pary¯aye GJ3, m¯asi ´sr¯ uyate Sα2α3, ´sr¯ uyate priye M,
m¯ase ∗∗ J2, m¯asa ´sr¯ uyate J4, m¯asaparyayat V, m¯asaparyyaye P, m¯asaparyate γ1, m¯asaparyatah
.
B gSu ´srutv¯a ] smr
.
tv¯a α2J2J4, ´sr
.
n
.
a γ1, ´sr
.
n
.
u B • abhyasya ] µGα2; abhyasyed M,
abhy¯ase α3, abhy¯as¯ad cett. gSb ˚dos
.
aih
.
] GSαFB; ˚dos
.
ai´s µ, ˚´ses
.
aih
.
β1K2PJ3K5K6W2
• pramucyate ] ca mudyate A, ca mucyate J6J7 gSc evam
.
] brahma˚ G • sthira-
matir dhy¯anam ] µSNMα3; sthiramatidhy¯anam GW1, sarvasthiramatidhy¯anam J2 (unm.), sarva-
sthiramatir J4K4J3B, sarvam
.
sthiramatir VPFK5, sthirasarvamatir K2, sarvasthirasaramatir K6
(unm.), sarv¯asthiramatir W2 gSJ abhy¯asam
.
ca ] abhyasec ca µ, abhy¯asena K2 • tri-
k¯ alatah
.
] dvik¯ alakam
.
µ, trik¯alakam
.
G, trik¯ alik¯ah
.
α2, trik¯alikah
.
α3, trik¯alasah
.
J2J4K4 ggu
s¯adhayet ] µMK1VK2; kr
.
tv¯atha G, s¯adhayed SJ2J4K4PJ3FK5K6, dh¯arayat N, dh¯arayet W1,
s¯adhayat K3, s¯adh¯ u yad γ2, s¯adhayad W2, s¯adhyu yad R, sam
.
s¯adha˚ B • tryabdatah
.
] G;
pravr
.
tah
.
AJ7, avr
.
tah
.
J6, abdatah
.
SJ2J4K4PFK5K6, pr
.
s
.
t
.
hatah
.
α1, pas
.
t
.
hatah
.
α3, as
.
t
.
atah
.
VJ3,
dr
.
s
.
t
.
atah
.
K2, bhutah
.
γ2W2 (unm.), bhuta R (unm.), ˚yed bhutah
.
B ggc bhat
.
a˚ ] µ-
VK4K
ac
5
; hat
.
a˚GNJ2PFK
pc
5
γ, hat
.
ha˚SW1MJ4K6, nat
.
a α3, hava˚K2J3 • ˚dos
.
a˚] ˚bheda˚
α1, ˚bhedai´s α3 ggJ nat
.
a˚] bhat
.
a˚J2J4K4PJ3γ • ˚dos
.
asya ] ˚bhedasya M, ˚bheda´s
ca α3 • caiva hi ] j¯ayate α3 ioob sur¯adhipe ] sur¯adhipa A, nar¯adhipe GB, sur¯arcite
α1J2J4F iooc yo ’smin ] µF; yasmin GSβ1K2PJ3K5K6γ, yasminn α2, y¯ a´sma˚ α3 •
´s¯ante ] am
.
te α1, ˚na ´s¯am
.
˚ α3 • pare tattve ] µSβγ; paratatve G, patitv¯a tu α2, patitv¯a
yo M, ˚te patitv¯a α3 iooJ yoge ] µ; jyotih
.
J2, yog¯ı cett. • yog¯ı sukh¯atmake ] J6J7;
yog¯ı suk¯atmake A, yogasukh¯atmani G, yoge sur¯atmake α2, yoge sur¯arcite M, yoge´svar¯atmake
cett. ioiu pravis
.
t
.
ah
.
] pravis
.
t
.
a µJ3R, pravis
.
t
.
¯a J2J4J1, pratis
.
t
.
¯a K4, pravis
.
t
.
¯ah
.
J5 ioib
p¯adau ] p¯adam
.
µGJ2J4K4 ioiJ dvit¯ıyam
.
] dvit¯ıye SPJ3B, dvit¯ıyo γ1 • bhedanam
.
]
conj.; mam
.
thanam
.
M, mathanam
.
cett. iozu tr
.
t¯ıyam
.
] tr
.
t¯ıye S, tr
.
t¯ıyo K2 • mathanam
.
´sastam
.
] conj.; p¯anam uddis
.
t
.
am
.
µGSα1VK4PJ3FK5K6γ, p¯ınam uddis
.
t
.
am
.
α3, p¯amanam uddi-
s
.
t
.
am
.
J2 (unm.), y¯amanam uddis
.
t
.
am
.
J4 (unm.), p¯atam uddis
.
t
.
am
.
K2 iozb caturtham
.
]
caturth¯am
.
A, caturthe SK2 • ca ] µG; tat˚ cett. • prave´sanam
.
] prave´sakam
.
µ, pramelanam
.
G iozc ˚udghr
.
s
.
ya ] GSMJ2J4F
ac
B; ˚udhr
.
s
.
ya A, ˚uddhr
.
s
.
ya J6J7K3F
pc
K6, ˚udghars
.
ya N,
˚uddhars
.
ya W1, ˚udghas
.
ya K1, ˚utkr
.
s
.
ya V, ˚ud∗s
.
ya K4, ˚udis
.
t
.
am
.
K2, ˚us
.
t
.
as
.
ya P, ˚urdgh¯as
.
ya
J3, ˚udghr
.
´sya K5, ˚us
.
t
.
asya γ1 iozJ utkars
.
ayet ] udghars
.
ayet GNM, uddhars
.
ayet W1, ukta
ks
.
ipet J1R io¿u tad ] µGSα3; tam
.
α1βγ io¿b brahm¯argalavi˚] µG; trim¯arg¯argala˚
Sαβ1K2PJ3FK6, tribh¯ag¯argala˚ K5, sam¯argalama˚ J1, sam¯argala˚ J5W2R (unm.), param¯arga˚
B (unm.)
gSbcJ om. γ2R
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 113
bhedanam
.
tad vadanti sma †mathanam
.
tantun¯ a priye 103
lohak¯ılaprave´sena yad¯ a mathanam ¯ acaret |
mathanam
.
tad vij¯ an¯ıy¯ ad† yogavr
.
ddhikaram
.
priye 104
udgh¯ at
.
y¯ argalam ¯ ak¯ a´se jihv¯ am ¯ urdhvam
.
pras¯ arayet |
prave´sam
.
pr¯ ahur ¯ı´s¯ani yogasiddhipravartakam 105
brahm¯ argalaprabhedena jihv¯ asam
.
kraman
.
ena ca |
pratyayah
.
parame´s¯ani ks
.
an
.
¯at satyam
.
praj¯ ayate 106
¯ad¯ av ¯ anandabh¯ avatvam
.
nidr¯ ah¯ anir atah
.
param |
sam
.
gamam
.
bhojanam
.
caiva svalpam¯ atram
.
praj¯ ayate 107
pus
.
t
.
ih
.
sam
.
j¯ ayate tejovr
.
ddhi´s ca bhavati priye |
na jar¯ a na ca mr
.
tyu´s ca na vy¯ adhipalit¯ ani ca 108
¯ urdhvaret¯ a mahe´s¯ani an
.
im¯adigun
.
¯anvitah
.
|
yadi ni´scalabh¯ avena yogam evam
.
pras¯ adhayet 109
tad¯ a prokt¯ an im¯ an samyak phal¯ an labhati p¯ arvati |
jihv¯ agre ´sr¯ı´s ca v¯ag¯ı´s¯a sam
.
sthit¯ a v¯ıravandite 110
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
io¿c bhedanam
.
tad ] S; tam
.
µ (unm.), bhedanam
.
ta∗ G, bhedanam
.
tam
.
α1β1PK5K6B,
bhedam
.
na tam
.
α3, bhedanam
.
te K2J3, bhedan¯am
.
te F, bhedanam
.
ta γ1 • vadanti sma ] vadam
.
ti
sm¯am
.
G io¿J mathanam
.
] µ • tantun¯a ] tam
.
tumat G ioqu lohak¯ıla˚ ]
lohakena G • ˚prave´sena ] ˚prayogen
.
a F ioqb yad¯a ] Sβ1PJ3γ; yath¯a µGαK2K5K6,
yadh¯a F • mathanam ] mam
.
thanam M • ¯acaret ] ¯arabhet µK2 ioqc mathanam
.
]
mam
.
thanam
.
MV • tad ] µSB; tam
.
cett. ioqJ yoga˚ ] yog¯ı µα3 • ˚vr
.
ddhi˚ ]
˚siddhi˚ α • priye ] µMB; bhavet S
pc
α2α3β1PFK5K6γ2W2, param
.
S
ac
K2J3R ioju
udgh¯at
.
y¯ argalam
.
] udarghorgatam A, udgh¯argatam J6J7 (unm.), ubhayorgalam γ2R iojb
jihv¯ am ¯ urdhvam
.
] jihv¯ am¯ ulam
.
α3J1R iojc prave´sam
.
] ¯ave´sam
.
F • pr¯ahur ¯ı´s¯ani ] pr¯ahur
¯ı´s¯an¯ı AVJ5W2, parame´s¯ani G iojJ ˚siddhi˚] ˚vr
.
ddhi˚G • ˚pravartakam ] pra∗∗kam
.
G,
karam
.
param
.
N, prave´sane W1, prad¯ayakam
.
K2 io6u brahm¯argalaprabhedena ] µ; prave´se
t¯alum¯ ulena N, brahm¯argalaprave´sena cett. io6J ks
.
an
.
¯at satyam
.
] ks
.
an
.
¯ardh¯at sam
.
˚
µG io~u ¯anandabh¯avatvam
.
] ¯anam
.
dabh¯av¯ atvam
.
A, anam
.
d¯anubhavo G, ¯anam
.
dabh¯ava´s
ca M, ¯anam
.
dabh¯av¯ati˚ J5B, ¯anam
.
dabh¯av¯ ani W2 io~b nidr¯a˚ ] nim
.
dr¯a˚ A • ˚h¯anir
atah
.
] ˚hanis tatah
.
G, ˚h¯ anis tatah
.
SF, ˚h¯are tatah
.
K1, ˚h¯aram
.
tatah
.
K3, ˚h¯arit¯ah
.
J4 (unm.),
˚h¯ani iti J3, ˚h¯anih
.
matah
.
J5 • param
.
] padam
.
µ io~c sam
.
gamam
.
] µGW1M; sam
.
game
Sβ1PJ3K6J5W2B, sam
.
gama α3, sam
.
gamo K2F • bhojanam
.
] bhojane K5K6 • caiva ] G; devi
cett. io~J svalpa˚ ] svalpam µ, jalpa˚ W1M, svapna˚ K2B • ˚m¯atram
.
] alpam
.
µ
ioSu pus
.
t
.
ih
.
] µα3; sr
.
s
.
t
.
is G, tus
.
t
.
ih
.
cett. ioSb ˚vr
.
ddhi´s ca bhavati ] µ; dehasiddhir
bhavet J1R, dehavr
.
ddhir bhavet cett. ioSc na jar¯a na ca ] nam
.
jar¯a nam
.
ca A, na jar¯a
tasya M ioSJ vy¯ adhi˚ ] AMβγ; vy¯ adhih
.
J6J7GSα2α3 • ˚palit¯ani ca ] α; ˚palitam
.
na
ca µ, palitam
.
tath¯a G, ˚palit¯any api Sβγ iogu ˚ret¯a ] GSα1VK2K5K6RB; ˚yet¯ a A, ˚reto
J6J7α3J2J4K4J3Fγ2W2, ˚rato P iogb ˚gun
.
¯anvitah
.
] µG; ˚catus
.
t
.
ay¯am
.
J3, ˚samanvitah
.
cett. iogJ yogam evam
.
] GSα2FK5; yog¯ı bh¯avam
.
µ, yogam eva M, yogam etat α3, yoga
eva β1PJ3K6γ, yoga evam
.
K2 • pras¯adhayet ] pras¯arayet µK6, pras¯adayet J2VK4K2P
iiou tad¯a ] yath¯a NM, tath¯a W1, yad¯a α3 • prokt¯an im¯an ] proktam imam
.
G • samyak ]
sarvam
.
G, samyag M, sasya α3, satyam
.
J1 iiob phal¯an labhati ] µ; phalam
.
bhavati G,
k¯ am¯an labhati SVK2PK5K6γ, labhate vara˚α1, labhate k¯ama˚α3, k¯ am¯al labham
.
ti J2J4, k¯ am¯a
labhrati K4, k¯ arm¯an labhati J3, karm¯an labhati F
ac
, kam¯al labhati F
pc
• p¯arvati ] ˚varn
.
ini
α1 iioc jihv¯ agre ´sr¯ı´s ca ] jihv¯ agre ´sr¯ı AJ7R (unm.), jihv¯agrastham
.
ca K2 • v¯ ag¯ı´s¯a ]
µSα1β1PJ3FK5; v¯ag¯ı´se G, v¯ ag¯ı´s¯ı α3K6, v¯ag¯ı´s¯am
.
K2, v¯ age´si γ1, v¯ age´s¯ı B iioJ sam
.
sthit¯a ]
sam
.
sthite G, sam
.
sthit¯am
.
K2 • v¯ıravandite ] maravandite G, v¯ıpsatah
.
param
.
N
ioqcJ om. G io~ om. NJ1R
114 Pat
.
ala 2
jihv¯ am¯ ul¯ adh¯ arabh¯ age bandhamr
.
tyuh
.
pratis
.
t
.
hitah
.
|
bandhamr
.
tyupadam
.
sarvam unm¯ ulaya gan
.
¯ambike 111
tadagren
.
a vi´set somadh¯ama ´sr¯ı´sambhusam
.
j˜ nitam |
anena devi yogena manas¯ adhis
.
t
.
hitena ca 112
unmany¯ ave´sam ¯ay¯ ati yog¯ı tallayam ¯ apnuy¯ at |
layasya pratyayah
.
sadyah
.
sam
.
bhavaty avic¯ aratah
.
113
jihv¯ agre mana ¯ adh¯ aya dr
.
´s¯a tad dh¯ ama laks
.
ayet |
m¯ ul¯ at sus
.
umn
.
¯am¯argen
.
a pavanam
.
cordhvam ¯ anayet 114
brahmadh¯ amagato yog¯ı manah
.
´s¯ unye nive´sayet |
dhy¯ ayed evam
.
param
.
tattvam
.
heyop¯ adeyavarjitam 115
¯ak¯ a´saga˙ ng¯ a sravati brahmasth¯ an¯ at su´s¯ıtal¯ a |
prapiban m¯ asam¯atren
.
a vajrak¯ ayo bhaved dhruvam 116
divyadeho bhavet satyam
.
divyav¯ ag divyadar´sanah
.
|
divyabuddhir bhaved devi divya´sravan
.
a eva ca 117
jihv¯ agre kot
.
icandr¯ abh¯ am
.
v¯ ag¯ı´s¯am
.
paribh¯ avayet |
par¯ amr
.
takal¯ atr
.
pt¯ am
.
kavitvam
.
labhate ks
.
an
.
¯at 118
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
iiiu m¯ ul¯adh¯ara˚ ] Mα3J5W2; m¯ ul¯adhare µ, m¯ ule dha

ra

ne G (unm.), m¯ uladhar¯a˚ SW1-
β1K2PJ3K5K6, m¯ ul¯adhar¯a˚FB, m¯ ul¯adh¯ar¯a˚J1, m¯ ul¯adhv¯ara˚R iiib ˚mr
.
tyuh
.
] µGSMF;
˚mr
.
tyu˚W1α3β1K2PK5K6γ, ˚mr
.
tyum
.
J3 • pratis
.
t
.
hitah
.
] pratis
.
t
.
hit¯a α3J3 iiic ˚padam
.
]
AJ7K5γ; ˚pradam
.
J6Sαβ1K2PJ3FK6, ˚bhayam
.
G • sarvam ] sarvem G, sarvam
.
W1Mα3,
sarve γ iiiJ unm¯ ulaya ] µGSVK2FK5K6γ; tanm¯ ulaya W1, m¯ ulam
.
m¯ ula Mα3, unpulaya
J2, unm¯ ula J4 (unm.), unmulaya K4, unm¯ uya P (unm.), ¯ unm¯ ulya J3 (unm.) • gan
.
¯ambike ]
µG; gun
.
¯am
.
tike MVK2FK5, gun
.
¯am
.
kite cett. iizu vi´set soma˚ ] S
ac
α3; vis
.
¯a moham
.
µ,
vin¯apy ekam
.
G, vi´set so ham
.
S
pc
, vin¯a´so ham
.
W1, vin¯a mogham
.
M, vin¯a moham
.
β, vin¯a mevam
.
J1R, vin¯ a meham
.
J5W2B iizb ˚´sambhu˚ ] ˚´subha˚ G • ˚sam
.
j˜ nitam ] ˚sam
.
j˜ nakam
.
µα3F iizJ manas¯adhis
.
t
.
hitena ca ] em.; manas¯a s¯adhite cale µ, ∗ts¯adhis
.
t
.
hite jane
G, manas¯adhis
.
t
.
hitena te SW1β1K2PFK6γ, manas¯a s¯adhitena ca α3, s
.
an
.
m¯asaih
.
s¯adhitena ca M,
dinasaptakam ¯acaret J3, manasy adhis
.
t
.
hitena te K5 ii¿u unmany¯ave´sam ] ¯anmany¯ave´sam
G, unmany ava´syam M, unman¯ıva´sam α3 ii¿c layasya ] µG; layan¯at Sαβ, lam
.
ghan¯at γ
• pratyayah
.
] pratyay¯a β1 ii¿J sam
.
bhavaty ] µSK6; sam
.
bhavetv M, sam
.
pivec α3, sam
.
bha-
vam
.
ty cett. • avic¯aratah
.
] ca vic¯aratah
.
α3 iiqu mana ¯adh¯aya ] µ; manas¯a dhy¯ayan Gα3V,
manas¯a dhy¯ayed SK2J3K6γ, manas¯a dhy¯aye W1J4P , manas¯a dhy¯atv¯a M, manas¯a dhy¯aya J2K4,
rasan¯a dhy¯ayed F iiqb dr
.
´s¯a ] µSW1J2K4PK6; tad¯a G, da´sa MF, da´s¯a α3J4VK2, da´s¯am
.
J3, ras¯an γ • tad dh¯ama ] J6J7GSW1β1K2PFK6; tadv¯ama AJ3, dh¯adh¯ama M, dh¯atama
α3, vaddh¯ama γ iiqc m¯ ul¯at ] m¯ ul¯a A • sus
.
umn
.
¯a˚ ] sus
.
umn¯a˚ K3PFB iiqJ
pavanam
.
] unmany¯a G • ¯anayet ] unnayet M, c¯alayet K3 iiju ˚dh¯ama˚] µGγ; ˚sth¯ana˚
J3, ˚dhy¯ ana˚ cett. iijc dhy¯ayed evam
.
param
.
] SW1β1K2PJ3F; dhy¯ayet parataram
.
µ, dhy¯ayan para´sivam
.
G, dhy¯ ayed devi param
.
Mα3, dhy¯ayed devam
.
param
.
tatvam
.
K6, vy¯ apa-
devam
.
param
.
J1R, vy¯ apidevam
.
param
.
J5W2,

vy¯ ami

devam
.
param
.
B iijJ ˚p¯adeya˚ ]
˚p¯ad¯ana˚ β1K2PK6γ • ˚varjitam ] ˚varjitah
.
J3γ ii6b su´s¯ıtal¯a ] su´s¯ıtalam
.
µα3F,
sul¯ılay¯a M, su´s¯ıtalah
.
γ2 ii6c prapiban ] µ; prapiben G, yah
.
piben cett. • ˚m¯atren
.
a ]
˚trayen
.
a α3 ii~u ˚deho ] ˚k¯ayo µ ii~b divyav¯ ag divyadar´sanah
.
] div¯adiyatva-
dar´sanam
.
G, divyak¯ ary¯adidar´sanam
.
M, divyak¯ ay¯ avadar´sanam
.
α3, divyav¯ ak divyadar´sanam
.
γ1
ii~J divya´sravan
.
a ] em. Sanderson; divyah
.
´sravan
.
a SW1, divya´sravan
.
am cett. iiSb
v¯ ag¯ı´s¯am
.
] v¯ ag¯ı´s¯ım
.
µGJ2J4FK6 • pari˚ ] µG; pravi˚ SW1K2PJ3FK6γ1, om. M, prati˚α3B,
ca vi˚β1 iiSc ˚tr
.
pt¯am
.
] µSα; ˚tr
.
pta G, ˚tr
.
pt¯a β1K2PK6γ, ˚tr
.
pt¯ah
.
J3, ˚tr
.
ptah
.
F iiSJ
kavitvam
.
] kavit¯am
.
µ • ks
.
an
.
¯at ] µGα3; dhruvam
.
cett.
iiiu N omits 111–123, replacing it with Goraks
.
asam
.
hit¯a N 184–190, 192 and 197–198; W1 has
the insertion but keeps 111–123; see description of sources for details ii¿J vic¯aratah
.
—¿.SJ
˚r¯ upin
.
¯ı om. K5 (f.11 missing) iijub om. W1
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 115
jihv¯ agre sam
.
sthit¯ am
.
laks
.
m¯ım
.
par¯ amr
.
tavimodit¯ am |
dhy¯ ayan yog¯ı mahe´s¯ani yogas¯ amr¯ajyam ¯ apnuy¯ at 119
[pa˜nca sahaj¯ah
.
]
sahaj¯ ah
.
pa˜ nca vikhy¯ at¯ ah
.
pin
.
d
.
e ’smin †param¯ atmake† |
yad¯ a sam
.
j¯ ayate deho m¯atr
.
dehe pitr
.
ks
.
ay¯ at 120
tatra s¯ ardham
.
bhavanti sma dehe vr
.
ddhim upeyus
.
i |
¯ady¯ a kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı´saktih
.
sahaj¯ a pratham¯ a smr
.
t¯ a 121
dvit¯ıy¯ a ca sus
.
umn
.
¯akhy¯ a jihv¯ a caiva tr
.
t¯ıyak¯ a |
t¯ alusth¯ anam
.
caturtham
.
ca brahmasth¯ anam
.
tu pa˜ ncamam 122
unn¯ıya sahaj¯ am ¯ady¯ am
.
dvit¯ıy¯ am
.
sahaj¯ am
.
nyaset |
tr
.
t¯ıy¯ am
.
sahaj¯ am ¯ urdhvam
.
caturthe sahaje vi´set 123
caturtham
.
sahajam
.
bhittv¯ a sahajam
.
pa˜ ncamam
.
vi´set |
etad bhedam
.
may¯a proktam
.
durvij˜ neyam
.
kule´svari 124
iti ´sr¯ımad¯adin¯athaprokte mah¯ak¯alayoga´s¯astre um¯amahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade
khecar¯ıvidy¯ay¯am
.
dvit¯ıyah
.
pat
.
alah
.
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
iigu sam
.
sthit¯am
.
] sam
.
sthit¯a W1K3K2J3K6γ • laks
.
m¯ım
.
] laks
.
m¯ı K2K6γ1, laks
.
m¯ıh
.
B
iigb ˚vimodit¯am ] Mα3; ˚vimoditah
.
µ, ˚[.]modit¯am
.
G, ˚vimohin¯ım
.
SW1β1PF, ˚vimohin¯ı
K2K6γ, ˚vimohit¯a J3 iigc dhy¯ayan ] µGMα3; dhy¯ayed SW1βγ • mahe´s¯ani ] mahe´s¯an¯ım
.
G izou sahaj¯ah
.
] sahaj¯a K3VK2J3FK6γ, sahaj¯at J2K4 • vikhy¯ at¯ah
.
] µGSMK1;
vikhy¯ at¯a W1K3J2J4VK2PJ3FK6γ, vikhy¯ at¯am
.
K4 izob †param¯atmake† ] µG; paris¯am
.
kite
S, param¯am
.
tike α, parim¯am
.
tite J2K4, parim¯am
.
tate J4, parim¯am
.
tito V, param¯am
.
kite K2FJ1B,
parim¯am
.
kite PK6J5W2, parim¯akit¯a J3 izoc deho ] Sα3β1K2PJ3K6γ; dehe AF, deham
.
J6J7,
deha G, devi W1M izoJ m¯atr
.
˚] g¯atr
.
˚K4 • ˚dehe ] µSα; ˚deha˚G, ˚deho βγ • pitr
.
-
ks
.
ay¯at ] Sαβ; pitr
.
ks
.
an
.
¯at µ, ˚pariks
.
aye G, pitaks
.
ak¯at γ iziu tatra s¯ardham
.
] J6J7GSPFK6;
tatr¯a s¯ardh¯am
.
A, tat tasy¯ardham
.
α, tatra s¯ardh¯a β1, tam
.
s¯ardham
.
K2 (unm.), tatra s¯arddha
J3γ1, tatra s¯ardh¯am
.
B • bhavanti sma ] bhavati sma P, bhavaty asm¯ad F izib dehe ]
µ; deha˚cett. • vr
.
ddhim ] buddhim γ • upeyus
.
i ] µα3; uveyus
.
e G, upeyus
.
ah
.
SJ3FK6B,
upeyus
.
¯ı W1MV, upayus
.
¯ı J2, upeyas
.
¯ı J4, upeyus
.
o K4, upeyas
.
uh
.
K2, upeyes
.
ah
.
P, upeyasah
.
γ1
izic ¯ady¯a ] ¯adyah
.
α3, atha K2, ¯ady¯am
.
PK6, ¯adya J3 • ´saktih
.
] ´sakti J2J4K4J5W2 iziJ
sahaj¯a pratham¯a ] transp. µ, [..]m¯a sahaj¯a G • smr
.
t¯a ] sthit¯ah
.
A, sthit¯a J6J7, mat¯a J3 izzu
ca ] µG; tu cett. • sus
.
umn
.
¯a˚] sus
.
umn¯a˚Sα3J4P • ˚khy¯ a ] µGW1M, sy¯ aj SPJ3FK6B, sy¯at
α3, sy¯ a J2VK4K2γ1, ˚sth¯aj J4 izzb jihv¯ a ] siddh¯a α3 • tr
.
t¯ıyak¯ a ] tr
.
t¯ıyakam
.
G, tr
.
t¯ıy¯ag¯a
J2, tr
.
t¯ıyag¯a J4K4, tr
.
t¯ıyam¯a V, dvitr
.
t¯ıyak¯ a J3 (unm.), tr
.
t¯ıyak¯ ah
.
γ1 izzc caturtham
.
]
caturthe A • ca ] µG; sy¯ ad cett. izzJ tu ] ca J6J7GJ3 iz¿u unn¯ıya ] GSVK4PJ3-
FK6; unnadhy¯a A, unnadhya J6J7, unnidr¯a W1M, tan nidr¯am
.
α3, unmann¯ı˚ J2, unman¯ı˚ J4,
unmato K2, unman¯ı γ • sahaj¯am ¯ady¯am
.
] Sα3VPJ3Fγ; sahaj¯am ¯ady¯a A, sahaj¯am ¯ay¯ a J6J7,
sahaj¯am ady¯am
.
G, sahaj¯avasth¯a W1M, ˚ya sahaj¯ay¯am
.
J2, ˚ya sahaj¯ady¯am
.
J4, sahaj¯ady¯am
.
K4
(unm.), sahaj¯am¯ay¯am
.
K2, saham¯ady¯anta K6 iz¿b dvit¯ıy¯ am
.
] GS, dvit¯ıy¯ a γ, dvit¯ıye cett.
• sahaj¯am
.
] SB; ´sahaje A, sahaje J6J7αβ1K2PJ3F, sahaj¯a Gγ1, sahajo K6 • nyaset ]
vi´set µ iz¿c tr
.
t¯ıy¯am
.
] SαK6; tr
.
t¯ıya˚ µJ4J3, tr
.
t¯ıy¯ a GVK4PFγ, tr
.
tay¯a J2, tr
.
t¯ıma K2 •
sahaj¯am ] s¯ahaj¯am A, saha

ja

G, sahaj¯any J4 • ¯ urdhvam
.
] em.; ¯ urdhv¯a µ, rddh¯a ca G,
uccai´s Sβγ, ¯ urdhv¯am
.
W1M, ¯ urdhve α3 iz¿J caturthe ] αJ4F; caturtha˚µK2J3, caturtham
.
GJ2VK4PK6γ, caturth¯am
.
S • sahaje ] sahaj¯a µγ, sahajam
.
G, sahaj¯am
.
SK6 izqu
caturtham
.
] caturtha˚ µVJ3J5W2, caturth¯ım
.
G, caturth¯am
.
S, niguhyam
.
N, caturthe α3 •
sahajam
.
] sahaj¯a A, sahaj¯am
.
J6J7GS • bhittv¯a ] nitv¯a R izqb sahajam
.
pa˜ ncamam
.
]
pam
.
came sahaje SMK2, sahaje pam
.
came F • vi´set ] bhyaset A, vrajet G, nyaset K2 izqc
bhedam
.
may¯a ] bhedarayam
.
M, eva may¯a γ izqJ kule´svari ] mahe´svar¯ı K2
izqcJ om. J3 izqJ tat sarvam
.
prayatnena gopan¯ıyam
.
sam¯ahitah
.
add. V
116 Pat
.
ala 3
Tr
.
t¯ıyah
.
Pat
.
alah
.
´siva uv¯ aca
[kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı´saktih
.
]
m¯ ul¯ at kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı´saktim
.
sus
.
umn
.
¯am¯argam ¯agat¯ am |
l¯ utaikatantupratim¯ am
.
s¯ uryakot
.
isamaprabh¯ am 1
pravi´sya ghan
.
t
.
ik¯ am¯argam
.
´sivadv¯ ar¯ argalam
.
´sive |
bhittv¯ a rasanay¯ a yog¯ı kumbhakena mahe´svari 2
pravi´set kot
.
is¯ ury¯ abham
.
dh¯ ama sv¯ayambhuvam
.
priye |
tatr¯ amr
.
tamah¯ ambhodhau ´s¯ıtakallola´s¯alini 3
p¯ıtv¯ a vi´sr¯amya ca sudh¯ am
.
param¯ anandap¯ urn
.
ay¯ a |
buddhy¯ a tatsudhay¯ a tr
.
ptam ¯ atmadeham
.
vibh¯ avayet 4
anena divyayogena j¯ ayate divyadar´sanam |
khecaratvam
.
bhavet satyam
.
sarvarogaks
.
ayas tath¯ a 5
va˜ ncanam
.
k¯ alamr
.
tyo´s ca trailokyabhraman
.
am
.
tath¯ a |
an
.
im¯adigun
.
opetah
.
sam
.
siddho j¯ ayate dhruvam 6
yog¯ındratvam av¯ apnoti gatir avy¯ ahat¯ a bhavet |
Witnesses for the third pat
.
ala: AJ6J7GSNW1MK1K3J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6J1J5W2RB; D (32c–
47d); H (19)
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
iu m¯ ul¯at ] µGS; m¯ ul¯am
.
α2, m¯ ula˚α3β1K2PFK6, m¯ ulam
.
J3γ • kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı˚] kum
.
d
.
alin¯ım
.
α2V • ˚´saktim
.
] ˚´saktih
.
SK2B; ˚´sakti W1J4J3γ1 ib sus
.
umn
.
¯a˚] sus
.
umn¯a˚J
ac
6
GSβ1VP-
J3FB • ˚m¯argam ] ˚m¯arga˚G • ¯agat¯am ] ˚sam
.
sthit¯am
.
G, ¯ agat¯a SK2B, ¯a´srit¯a J3, ¯agatah
.
γ1
ic l¯ utaika˚] tulaika˚γ1, t¯ ulaika˚B • ˚pratim¯am
.
] ˚pratim¯a J2J4K4γ iJ s¯ uryakot
.
i˚]
kot
.
is¯ urya˚µG • ˚prabh¯am ] ˚prabham
.
A, ˚prabh¯a K4B zu pravi´sya ] pr¯ave´sya K2 •
ghan
.
t
.
ik¯a˚] ghat
.
ik¯ a˚AJ4K2J3γ1, ghan
.
t
.
ak¯ a˚G • ˚m¯argam
.
] ˚m¯arge Aγ, ˚m¯arg¯a M, ˚m¯arga
J3 zb ´sive ] priye M, ´sivam
.
α3J3, vi´set K6 zJ mahe´svari ] kule´svari M, mahe´svar¯ı
K1K4K2J3γ1 ¿u pravi´set ] J6J7SW1α3PK4FK6; pravim
.
´set A, pravi´sya G, pr¯avi´set NMJ2-
J4V, prave´sya K2, pr¯ave´set J3, pr¯avi´sat γ2W2B, pr¯avi´sa R • ˚bham
.
] µGMJ2J4K4; ˚bh¯am
.
Sα2α3PJ3K6J5W2, ˚bhy¯ am
.
VJ1R, ˚bh¯a K2B, ˚bhah
.
F ¿b ˚bhuvam
.
] µG
pc
Sα1J4VK4;
˚bhuve G
ac
J3K6, ˚bhuvi α3, ˚bhavam
.
J2K2, ˚bhave Pγ, ˚bhu

ve

F • priye ] ´subhe G, ´site
F ¿c tatr¯amr
.
ta˚ ] par¯amr
.
ta˚ G, tatr¯amr
.
tam
.
MB, tatramr
.
ta˚ α3, tay¯amr
.
ta˚ J3 ¿J
´s¯ıta˚] ´siva˚α3 • ˚´s¯alini ] MFB; ˚m¯alini AG, ˚m¯alin¯ı J6J7, ˚´s¯alin¯ım
.
SN, ˚´s¯ayin¯ı W1, ˚´s¯alin¯ı
α3β1K2PK6γ1, ˚v¯ arin
.
¯a J3 qu vi´sr¯amya ] GS
pc
βγ1; vi´sramya µS
ac
αB • ca sudh¯am
.
]
sudhay¯a G, vasudh¯am
.
J3 qb ˚p¯ urn
.
ay¯a ] p¯ u

rva

y¯ a G qc buddhy¯a ] budhye G •
tatsudhay¯a ] ta

cch

uddhay¯a S, tacchuddhay¯a J3F • tr
.
ptam ] µG; kr
.
s
.
t
.
am SW1, hr
.
s
.
t
.
am NMB,
raks
.
yam α3,

is
.
t
.
a

m J2, dras
.
t
.
am J4K6, dr
.
s
.
t
.
¯am Vγ2W2, om. K4, das
.
t
.
am K2, vr
.
s
.
t
.
am P, das
.
t
.
ah
.
m
J3, dr
.
s
.
t
.
am F, s
.
r
.
¯am R qJ ˚deham
.
] µGSα2α3J3F; ˚deha MPK4, ˚dehe J2J4K2K6γ, ˚ceham
.
V • qJ vibh¯avayet ] M; prabh¯avayet µ, prabodhayet G, subh¯avayet Sα2α3VJ3F, ´subh¯ava-
yet J2K2P, ˚s
.
u bh¯avavayet J4 (unm.), ˚s
.
u bh¯avayet K4K6, tu bh¯avayet γ ju divya˚] devi
µ jb ˚dar´sanam ] µGVK6; ˚dar´sanah
.
cett. jJ ˚ks
.
ayas tath¯a ] ˚ks
.
ayam
.
karam
.
βγ
6u va˜ ncanam
.
] vacanam
.
AJ6, cam
.
canam
.
J7, mocanam
.
G • ˚mr
.
tyo´s ca ] em.; ˚mr
.
tyu´s ca µ,
˚mr
.
tyum
.
ca J3, ˚mr
.
ty¯ un¯am
.
cett. 6b trailokya˚] trailokyam
.
G, trailokye S • ˚bhraman
.
am
.
tath¯a ] kramate ks
.
an
.
¯at G 6c ˚gun
.
opetah
.
] GSαV; ˚gun
.
opetam
.
µJ2J4K4PFK6; gun
.
opetu
K2, ˚gun
.
opet¯am
.
J3γ 6J sam
.
siddho ] J6J7SMK1VPJ3FK6; sam
.
siddhi AJ2K4γ1, prasiddho
G, sa siddho α2, sam
.
siddh¯a K3, sam
.
siddhim
.
J4B, sam
.
siddhir K2 • j¯ ayate ] labhate AJ7B,
bhavati M ~u yog¯ındratvam av¯apnoti ] yogem
.
dratatvam ¯apnoti α3, yogem
.
dratvam av¯apnoti
γ2 ~b avy¯ ahat¯a ] avyahat¯a A, avy¯ah¯at¯a J2P, av¯ ahat¯a J4, avy¯ ahat¯ı J3
iub om. M iu—SJ ˚r¯ upin
.
¯ı om. K5 (f.11 missing)
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 117
navan¯ agasahasr¯an
.
¯am
.
balena sahitah
.
svayam 7
j¯ ayate ´sivavad devi satyam
.
satyam
.
mayoditam |
id
.
¯api ˙ ngalayor madhye sus
.
umn
.
¯a jyotir¯ upin
.
¯ı 8
varn
.
ar¯ upagun
.
ais tyaktam
.
tejas tatra nir¯ amayam |
prasuptabhujag¯ ak¯ ar¯ a y¯ a s¯a kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı par¯ a 9
ga˙ ng¯ a ca yamun¯ a caiva id
.
¯api ˙ ngalasam
.
j˜ nake |
ga˙ ng¯ ayamunayor madhye t¯ am
.
´saktim
.
sam
.
nive´sayet 10
brahmadh¯ am¯avadhi ´sive param¯ amr
.
tar¯ upin
.
¯ım |
tanmayo j¯ ayate satyam
.
sad¯amr
.
tatanuh
.
svayam 11
´sivadh¯ ama gat¯a ´saktih
.
parame´s¯at param
.
padam |
tadbhogatr
.
ptisam
.
tr
.
pt¯ a param¯ anandap¯ urit¯ a 12
si˜ ncant¯ı yogino deham ¯ ap¯ adatalamastakam |
sudhay¯ a ´si´sirasnigdha´s¯ıtay¯ a parame´svari 13
punas tenaiva m¯ argen
.
a pray¯ ati svapadam
.
´sive |
etad rahasyam ¯ akhy¯ atam
.
yogam
.
yog¯ındravandite 14
[k¯alajayah
.
]
utsr
.
jya sarva´s¯astr¯an
.
i japahom¯ adi karma yat |
15 cit. Goraks
.
asiddh¯antasam
.
graha p.4
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
~J balena ] vadet tam
.
PFγ2R, vade tam
.
J3W2, vadena K6 • sahitah
.
] sahita GJ3FK6,
sahit¯a J2J4K4 Su ´sivavad devi ] ´sivapade pi α3 SJ jyotir¯ upin
.
¯ı ] k¯am
.
tim
atyalam
.
G, yonir¯ upin
.
¯ı K2 gu varn
.
a˚ ] van
.
a˚ A • ˚gun
.
ais ] SW1β; ˚gan
.
aih
.
µ, ˚gun
.
air
Gγ, ˚gun
.
aih
.
NMα3 • tyaktam
.
] Sβ1PJ3FK5K6; s¯akam
.
µ; yuktam
.
G, p¯ urn
.
e N, tyakta W1,
p¯ urn
.
am
.
M, p¯ urn
.
ais α3, tyaktah
.
K2, yuktais γ gb tejas tatra ] tena tatra W1, vastutas tu
M, tej˜ nas tatra K5 • nir¯amayam ] µSMVJ3; nir¯alayam
.
cett. gc prasupta˚] sus
.
umn
.
¯a AJ7,
sus
.
umn
.
a J
pc
6
, sus
.
umna J
ac
6
, sus
.
upta˚G, prasupt¯a α3V • ˚g¯ak¯ ar¯a ] ˚g¯ak¯ a´se µ, ˚g¯ak¯ar¯am
.
J4,
˚g¯ak¯aram
.
K2, ˚g¯ak¯ara J3, ˚g¯ık¯ ar¯a γ1, ˚g¯ıveyam
.
B gJ y¯ a s¯a ] yat tat µ, m¯ay¯ a M
iob ˚sam
.
j˜ nake ] µ; ˚sam
.
j˜ nike GSK6, ˚sam
.
j˜ nit¯a α1J3, ˚sam
.
j˜ nik¯a α3, ˚sam
.
j˜ nite β1K2PFK5γ
ioJ ´saktim
.
] ´s¯ akti A, ´s¯aktim
.
MVB iiu ˚dh¯am¯a˚] ˚dv¯ar¯a˚G iib param¯amr
.
ta˚]
param¯anam
.
da˚ GM • ˚r¯ upin
.
¯ım ] µK5; ˚p¯ urn
.
ay¯ a G, ˚r¯ upan
.
¯ım
.
J3, ˚r¯ upin
.
¯ı cett. iic
tanmayo ] tanmano G iiJ sad¯a˚ ] param¯a˚ µ (unm.), par¯a˚ GM, tad¯a˚ K2, sadya˚ γ1,
sadyo B • ˚tanuh
.
] ˚tanum
.
A, ˚tanu J6J7J3J5W2, ˚mayam
.
G, ˚tamah
.
K2 izu ´siva-
dh¯ama ] ´siv¯ agama˚ G, ´sivadh¯am¯a˚α2 • gat¯a ] AGα; gat¯am
.
J7J6β1K2FK5K6, gat¯ım
.
P, gatam
.
J3, gatim
.
γ1, gatih
.
B • ´saktih
.
] AGSαB; ´saktim
.
J6J7β1PFK5K6J1, ´sakt¯ım
.
K2, ´sakti J3J5-
W2R izb parame´s¯at param
.
padam ] parame´s¯aspadam
.
padam
.
µ, parame´sat padam
.
param
.
α3 izc ˚bhoga˚] ˚bh¯aga˚µ, ˚bh¯agya˚γ • ˚sam
.
tr
.
pt¯a ] ˚sam
.
d¯ıptam
.
G, ˚sam
.
tr
.
pt¯am α2
izJ ˚p¯ urit¯a ] ˚r¯ upit¯a µ, ˚p¯ uritam
.
G, ˚p¯ uritah
.
K2 i¿u si˜ ncant¯ı ] J6SMFK5; sicam
.
ti
AK6, sim
.
cam
.
ti J7GJ2VK4P, sam
.
cintya α3, sim
.
citi J4 (unm.), ´sim
.
cim
.
ta K2, sicim
.
t¯ı J3, sam
.
citya
γ i¿c sudhay¯a ] µ; atha s¯a GSαβ1PJ3K5K6, ¯ıs
.
a s¯a K2, adhast¯ac F, ath¯as¯ac γ2W2, ath¯ac
R (unm.), abhy¯as¯ac B • ´si´sirasnigdha˚ ] µ; ´saktira´smistha G, ´sa´sira´smisth¯a Sα, c¯ar¯ırasth¯a
J2 (unm.), rr¯ı´saktisth¯am
.
J4, ´saktira´smisth¯a VK4K
ac
5
, ca ´sar¯ırasth¯a K2FK6, cca ´sar¯arasth¯a P, ca
´sar¯ırastham
.
J3, sva´sar¯ırasth¯a K
pc
5
, ca ´sar¯ırastho γ i¿J ˚´s¯ıtay¯a ] µ; ´s¯ıtal¯a GSαβ, ´s¯ıtal¯am
.
γ • parame´svari ] J6J7GSNMK3P; parame´svar¯ı AW1K1β1K2J3K5K6, t¯a mahe´svari J1B, t¯a
mahe´svar¯ı J5W2R iqu punas ] pr¯an
.
as γ iqb pray¯ati ] pray¯atah
.
µ, p¯ uj¯ ati α3 •
svapadam
.
] svam
.
padam
.
G, svayam
.
α3 (unm.), svapuram
.
K2 • ´sive ] µMJ1R; priye cett.
iqc rahasyam ] rahasam µ • ¯akhy¯atam
.
] deve´si J3 iqJ yogam
.
] yoge α, yog¯ı VK6,
may¯a K5 • yog¯ındra˚ ] yogem
.
dra˚ α3J3γ1 • ˚vandite ] ˚vandit¯am α3, ˚vam
.
ditam
.
J4K6
ijb karma ] ˚kam
.
ca µG • yat ] ca Mα3J3, ˚j¯ at J2J4V
izJ–i¿u om. α2
118 Pat
.
ala 3
dharm¯ adharmavinirmukto yog¯ı yogam
.
samabhyaset 15
rasan¯ am ¯ urdhvag¯ am
.
kr
.
tv¯ a trik¯ ut
.
e sam
.
nive´sayet |
brahm¯ an
.
d
.
e brahmarekh¯ adho r¯ ajadantordhvaman
.
d
.
ale 16
trik¯ ut
.
am
.
tam
.
vij¯ an¯ıy¯ at tatra li ˙ ngam
.
samujjvalam |
k¯ alakramavinirmuktam
.
durvij˜ neyam
.
surair api 17
id
.
¯ay¯ am
.
r¯ atrir uddis
.
t
.
¯a pi ˙ ngal¯ ay¯ am ahah
.
smr
.
tam |
candr¯ adityau sthitau devi nityam
.
r¯ atridiv¯ atmakau 18
na div¯ a p¯ ujayel li ˙ ngam
.
na r¯ atrau ca mahe´svari |
sarvad¯ a p¯ ujayel li ˙ ngam
.
div¯ ar¯ atrinirodhatah
.
19
ahor¯ atrimayam
.
cedam
.
k¯ alakramasvabh¯ avajam |
k¯ alakramanirodhena k¯ alamr
.
tyujayo bhavet 20
k¯ alakramavinirmukt¯ am
.
cintayed ¯ atmanas tanum |
p¯ ujayed bh¯ avapus
.
pen
.
a tarpayet pa˙ nkaj¯ amr
.
taih
.
21
evam
.
s
.
an
.
m¯asayogena j¯ ayate hy ajar¯ amarah
.
|
sarvaj˜ natvam
.
labhet satyam
.
´sivas¯amyo nir¯ amayah
.
22
19 =Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik¯a (H) 4.42
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
ijc ˚mukto ] ˚muktam
.
K2 i6b trik¯ ut
.
e ] µSα; bhr¯ ukut
.
¯ım
.
G, trik¯ ut
.
am
.
β-
γ i6c brahm¯an
.
d
.
e brahma˚] vrahmaram
.
dhre vra˚J1R • ˚rekh¯adho ] µSα1VPJ3FK5K6;
˚rekho

rdh

o G, ˚rekh¯ay¯am
.
α3, ˚rekhy¯ adho J2K4, ˚rekh¯adh¯a J4, ˚royordh¯a K2, ˚hmarekh¯a J1,
˚rekh¯adyo J5, ˚rekh¯adyau W2, ˚hmarekha R, ˚rekh¯adye B i6J r¯ajadantordhvaman
.
d
.
ale ]
µGSα; dam
.
tordhvamam
.
d
.
ale priye J2J4VP, dam
.
tordhvam
.
mam
.
d
.
ale priye K4F, dato yan mam
.
d
.
a-
lam
.
´sive K2, dam
.
tordhvamam
.
d
.
alam
.
priye J3K5, dantordhve mman
.
d
.
alam
.
priye K6, tad¯ urdhvam
.
man
.
d
.
alam
.
priye γ2RB, tad¯ urdhvamam
.
d
.
alam
.
priye W2 i~u trik¯ ut
.
am
.
] bhr¯ ukut
.
¯ım
.
G •
tam
.
vij¯ an¯ıy¯at ] αK2; tam
.
vij¯ an¯ıh¯ı A, tam
.
vij¯ an¯ıhi J6J7, tatra j¯an¯ıy¯ at GS
ac
β1PJ3FK5K6γ, tad
vij¯ aniy¯at S
pc
i~b tatra li ˙ ngam
.
samujjvalam ] trilim
.
gam
.
samam ujjvalam
.
α3 i~c
k¯ alakrama˚] em. Sanderson; kal¯akarma˚G, sarvakarma˚M, k¯alakarma˚cett. • ˚muktam
.
]
˚mukto Sα, ˚mukt¯am
.
J5W2 i~J ˚j˜ neyam
.
] ˚j˜ neyah
.
α1 iSu id
.
¯ay¯ am
.
] µSαVFK5;
id
.
ay¯a GK2γ, id
.
¯ay¯a J2J4K4PJ3K6 • r¯atrir ] µGSαK2K5; r¯atrin J2V, r¯atri J4K4, r¯atrim PJ3-
FK6B, r¯atram γ1 • uddis
.
t
.
¯a ] J6Sα3J2VPFK5K6B; uddis
.
t
.
¯am
.
AJ7γ2R, utks
.
ipt¯a G, udit¯a α1,
tadr
.
s
.
t
.
¯a J4, tuddis
.
t
.
¯a K4, udis
.
t
.
a K2, udis
.
t
.
¯a J3, udvis
.
t
.
h¯am
.
W2 iSb pi ˙ ngal¯ay¯ am ] pim
.
gal¯ay¯ ah
.
V, pim
.
galay¯a B • ahah
.
] aha Aα3K2J3K6, ah¯a G, ∗ruh
.
V • smr
.
tam ] smr
.
tah
.
µJ4-
VK2J3J1R, smr
.
ta J5W2 iSc sthitau ] smitau N, smr
.
tau W1 iSJ div¯a˚ ] µGα3B;
din¯a˚ cett. igu na div¯a ] transp. GW1H igb na r¯atrau ] transp. µ, r¯atrau cai˚
α3H • ca mahe´svari ] parame´svari M, ˚va na p¯ ujayet α3H igc sarvad¯a ] satatam
.
α3
igJ ˚r¯ atri˚ ] ˚r¯atrau AK2K6γ1, ˚r¯atram
.
G • ˚nirodhatah
.
] nirodhav¯ah
.
µ zou
˚r¯ atrimayam
.
] µα3; ˚r¯atramayam
.
Sα1βγ, ˚r¯atram avi˚ G • cedam
.
] Sβγ; devam
.
AJ7α2α3,
vedam
.
J6, ˚cchedam
.
G, lim
.
gam
.
M zob k¯ ala˚ ] k¯alam
.
J4, k¯ alah
.
B • ˚krama˚ ] J4;
˚karma´s PK6, ˚karmam
.
J5W2, ˚karma˚cett. • ˚svabh¯avajam ] ˚svabh¯avakam
.
M, ca bh¯avajam
.
PK6γ zoc ˚krama˚ ] J4; ˚karma˚ cett. zoJ ˚mr
.
tyujayo bhavet ] ˚mr
.
tyujayam
.
labhet µ, ˚mr
.
tyur yath¯a bhavet K1, ˚mr
.
tyu yath¯a bhavet K3, ˚mr
.
tyur jayo bhavet K2PJ3K6γ1
ziu ˚krama˚] em. Sanderson; ˚dharma˚α3, ˚karma˚cett. • ˚mukt¯am
.
] GMB; ˚mukta´s
α2, ˚mukto α3J3, ˚mukt¯a V, ˚muktam
.
cett. zib cintayed ¯atmanas ] cim
.
tay¯ann ¯atma-
nas A, cim
.
tayann ¯atmanas J6J7 • tanum ] tanu AN zic bh¯ava˚ ] r¯ava˚ B ziJ
tarpayet ] µGSNMα3VK5J1B; tarpayam
.
W1J2J4K4K2PJ3FK6J5W2R • pa˙ nkaj¯ amr
.
taih
.
]
µG; tam
.
kal¯amr
.
taih
.
Sα2VPJ3K5γ, t¯am
.
kal¯amr
.
taih
.
M, tam
.
kal¯amr
.
tam
.
α3, tam
.
kal¯amr
.
to J2, tam
.
kal¯amr
.
tau J4K2K4K6, tu kul¯amr
.
taih
.
F
pc
, tu kal¯amr
.
taih
.
F
ac
zzc sarvaj˜ natvam
.
]
J6J7GSαK4FK5K6; sarvaj˜ n¯atvam
.
AJ2J4VP, sarvaj˜ natva K2J3, sarvaj˜ n¯atv¯a γ1, sarvam
.
j˜ n¯atv¯a B
• labhet satyam
.
] µ; bhavet satyam
.
G, bhaven nityam
.
cett. zzJ ˚s¯ amyo ] ˚´s¯amyam
.
α2,
˚s¯ amyam
.
M, ˚sy¯ asya α3, ˚s¯amye γ1
igb and igJ transp. K6
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 119
t¯ alum¯ ule sam¯ave´sya rasan¯ am ¯ urdhvavaktrag¯ am |
tatra j¯ at¯ am
.
sudh¯ am
.
p¯ıtv¯ a ´s¯ıtk¯ aren
.
a ´sanaih
.
´sanaih
.
23
prapibet pavanam
.
yog¯ı nir¯ alambe pade ´sive |
manah
.
sam
.
yojya conmany¯ a sahajam
.
yogam ¯acaret 24
anena yog¯ı s
.
an
.
m¯as¯aj j¯ ayate hy ajar¯ amarah
.
|
cibukam
.
yojayed devi s
.
od
.
a´sasvaraman
.
d
.
ale 25
bhr¯ umadhye caks
.
us
.
¯ı nyasya jihv¯ am ¯ urdhvam
.
pras¯ arayet |
sam
.
pr¯ apya kumbhak¯ avasth¯ am id
.
¯api ˙ ngalarodhan¯ at 26
m¯ ula´saktim
.
samudbodhya bhittv¯ a s
.
at
.
saras¯ıruh¯ an |
tad
.
itsahasrasam
.
k¯ a´s¯am
.
brahm¯ an
.
d
.
odaramadhyame 27
dh¯ amni ´s¯ıt¯ amr
.
t¯ ambhodhau sam
.
nive´sya ciram
.
vaset |
yad¯ a brahmamaye dh¯ amni yog¯ı vasati l¯ılay¯ a 28
tad¯ a nirj¯ıvavad dehe bh¯ a visphurati tatpadam |
anena devi yogena dinasaptakam ¯ acaret 29
yad¯ a tad¯ a sa bhavati jar¯ amaran
.
avarjitah
.
|
m¯asam¯atraprayogena j¯ıved ¯ acandrat¯ arakam 30
yad¯ a brahmapuram
.
bhittv¯ a yog¯ı vrajati l¯ılay¯ a |
tad¯ a ´sivatvam ¯ apnoti nityadehamayam
.
´sive 31
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
z¿u ˚m¯ ule ] ˚m¯ ulam
.
GW1J3 z¿b ˚vaktra˚ ] ˚cakra˚α3γ • ˚g¯am
.
] ˚k¯ am
.
µ, ˚g¯a
α3 z¿c tatra j¯at¯am
.
sudh¯am
.
p¯ıtv¯a ] SMβ1PJ3FK5J1RB, tat tatra j¯atam
.
tu pivan A, tat
tatra j¯atam
.
bhu pivan J6J7, tatra

mr
.

t¯am
.
sudh¯am
.
p¯ıtv¯a G, tatra j¯at¯asu p¯ıtv¯a s¯ı N, tatra j¯at¯am
.
su p¯ıtv¯a s¯ıt W1, tatra y¯at¯a svudh¯am
.
p¯ıtv¯a K1, tatra y¯at¯a svadh¯a p¯ıtv¯a K3, tatra j¯atam
.
sudh¯am
.
p¯ıtv¯a K2, tatra j¯at¯am
.
´sudh¯am
.
p¯ıtv¯a K6, tatra j¯atam
.
sudh¯am
.
pitv¯a J5W2 z¿J ´s¯ıtk¯aren
.
a ]
s¯ıkt¯aren
.
a A, s¯ıtk¯aren
.
a J6J7Sα zqu pavanam
.
] µG; pam
.
camam
.
SJ2VK2PJ3FK5K6γ, pam
.
-
came α1, pam
.
casam
.
α3, ¯acarma J4 zqb pade ] pade pare G (unm.) zqc samyojya ]
sam
.
yamya K2B • conmany¯a ] conmany¯am
.
M, yo n¯any¯a α3 zqJ sahajam
.
] sim
.
hajam
.
K2,
sahasam
.
J3 zju ˚m¯as¯aj ] ˚m¯ase α3 zjc cibukam
.
] Sα2; civukam
.
AJ7α3β1K2PK5K6,
civrukam
.
J6, cubukam
.
GB, cuvukam
.
M, cib¯ ukam
.
J3, cum
.
cukam
.
F, cam
.
cukam
.
J1R, cam
.
vukam
.
J5, cum
.
bukam
.
W2 • yojayed ] ca japed α3 zjJ ˚man
.
d
.
ale ] µGSMVK2K5K6; ˚man
.
d
.
alam
.
α2α3J2J4K4PJ3Fγ z6u ˚madhye ] ˚madhya GW1 • nyasya ] nyasta G z6c
sam
.
pr¯apya ] sam
.
pr¯an
.
a˚P z6J ˚rodhan¯at ] µG; ˚rodhatah
.
Sα2βB, ˚yogatah
.
M, ˚rodhanam
.
α3, ˚rodhitah
.
γ1 z~b bhittv¯a ] em.; bhitv¯a µ, bh¯ıt
.
atv¯a K
ac
5
(unm.), n¯ıtv¯a cett. •
˚ruh¯an ] µGα2K5γ; ˚ruh¯at cett. z~c tad
.
itsahasra˚] sahasras¯ urya˚G • ˚sam
.
k¯ a´s¯ am
.
] µ-
GNVK2, ˚sam
.
k¯ a´so SW1, ˚sam
.
k¯ am
.
´s¯am
.
M, ˚sam
.
k¯ a´sam
.
α3, ˚sam
.
k¯ a´s¯a J2J4K4PFK5γ, ˚sam
.
k¯ asam
.
J3, ˚´sam
.
k¯ a´s¯ad K6 z~J ˚madhyame ] ˚madhyage µSK2, ˚madhyag¯am
.
G, ˚madhyagam
.
α3
zSu dh¯amni ] dhy¯an¯ı α3, dh¯ani K4, dh¯atri γ1, dh¯atr¯ı B zSb vaset ] µGSJ2VJ3K5B; vi´set
αJ2
vl
FK6γ1, va´set J4K2P zSc yad¯a ] brahma˚ M • brahmamaye ] brahmamayo GK2,
˚madhye yad¯a M • dh¯amni ] dh¯atri NW2, dh¯atr¯ı B zSJ yog¯ı ] yogah
.
α3 • vasati ]
µG; sarvatra α3, gacchati cett. zgu nirj¯ıvavad ] n¯ıj¯ıvavad AG, nij¯ıvaye N, nijj¯ıvaye W1 •
dehe ] J3Fγ; eham
.
A, deham
.
J6J7, deho GSα1J
vl
2
VK4PK5K6, veho α3, deha J2, eho J4K2 zgb
bh¯a vi˚] µ; bh¯a P (unm.), bh¯ava γ1, bh¯avah
.
B, bh¯ati cett. • ˚sphurati ] spurati S, spharaji J2,
smarati J4K2, spharati K4J3 zgc devi ] deva˚α3 zgJ ¯acaret ] ¯a´srayet G ¿ou
yad¯a ] tad¯a µ • tad¯a ] padam
.
G • sa bhavati ] J6J7Sα2V; sam
.
bhavati Aα3J2K4K5K6, sam¯a-
pnoti G, sam
.
bhavam
.
ti J4 ¿oc ˚m¯atra˚ ] ˚traya˚ Sα ¿iu ˚puram
.
] padam
.
G,
˚param
.
J3 ¿ib yog¯ı ] yogam
.
α3 ¿iJ nityadehamayam
.
] α2; tyaktv¯a deham imam
.
µG, nityam
.
deham imam
.
K6, nityadeham imam
.
cett.
zqu–zjb om. K4 zjub om. G zgu j¯ ayate n¯atra sam
.
´sayah
.
tad¯an¯ım
.
´savavad deho add. G
zgc–¿ob om. M ¿o om. K2PJ3Fγ
120 Pat
.
ala 3
na punah
.
pibate m¯ atuh
.
stanam
.
sam
.
s¯aracakrake |
[dehamocanam
.
k¯alava˜ncanam
.
ca]
yad¯ a tu yogino buddhis tyaktum
.
deham imam
.
bhavet 32
tad¯ a sthir¯ asano bh¯ utv¯ a m¯ ula´saktim
.
samujjval¯ am |
kot
.
is¯ uryaprat¯ık¯ a´s¯am
.
bh¯ avayec ciram ¯atmavit 33
¯ap¯ adatalaparyantam
.
prasr
.
tam
.
j¯ıvam ¯ atmanah
.
|
sam
.
hr
.
tya kramayogena m¯ ul¯ adh¯ arapadam
.
nayet 34
tatra kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı´saktim
.
sam
.
vart¯ analasam
.
nibh¯ am |
j¯ıv¯ anilam
.
cendriy¯ an
.
i grasant¯ım
.
cintayed dhiy¯ a 35
sam
.
pr¯ apya kumbhak¯ avasth¯ am
.
tad
.
idvalayabh¯ asur¯ am |
m¯ ul¯ ad unn¯ıya deve´si sv¯adhis
.
t
.
h¯ anapadam
.
nayet 36
tatrastham
.
j¯ıvam akhilam
.
grasant¯ım
.
cintayed vrat¯ı |
tad
.
itkot
.
iprat¯ık¯ a´s¯am
.
tasm¯ad unn¯ıya satvaram 37
man
.
ip¯ urapadam
.
pr¯ apya tatra p¯ urvavad ¯ acaret |
samunn¯ıya punas tasm¯ ad an¯ ahatapadam
.
nayet 38
32c–47d cit. N¯ar¯ayan
.
ad¯ıpik¯a (D) ad Ks
.
urikopanis
.
ad 12,
¯
ASS 29, pp.154–155
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
¿zu pibate ] pibati α2α3 • m¯atuh
.
] Mα3V; m¯atu cett. ¿zb stanam
.
] stanyam
.
GF,
stanau Sα • sam
.
s¯ara˚] sa c¯ara˚K6 • ˚cakrake ] Sα; ˚cakram¯a AJ7, cam
.
kram¯a J6, ˚cakra-
tah
.
G, ˚cakram¯at β1PJ3K5K6γ1, ˚s¯agare K2, ˚cam
.
kram¯at FB ¿zc yad¯a ] tad¯a µ •
tu yogino buddhis ] SJ4VPFK
pc
5
K6D; tu yogino vr
.
ddhis AJ7, tu yogino vruddhis J6, tu yogino
buddhir G, v¯a˙ nmanobuddhibhis α2, ca v¯a˙ n manovuddhis M, tu v¯a˙ nmanovuddhis α3, tu yog¯ıno
vuddhis J2K4K
ac
5
, tu yomino vuddhi K2, tu yogino buddhi J3, tu yogino J1R, tu yog¯ıno J5W2, tu
yogin me B ¿zJ tyaktum
.
] SMJ2VK4PFK5K6D; tyaktam
.
µα2α3J4K2, moktum
.
G, tyuktu
J3 • imam
.
] idam
.
α2 • bhavet ] priye µ ¿¿u sthir¯asano ] sthiraman¯a S
ac
¿¿b
m¯ ula˚ ] µGM; m¯ ul¯ac SFK5K6D, m¯ ul¯am
.
α2, m¯ ul¯a α3β1K2PJ3γ1, m¯ urch¯a B • ˚´saktim
.
]
µGW1MJ4; chaktim
.
Sα3J2VK4PJ3FK5K6γ2RD, ´sakti NK2B, chakti W2 ¿¿c kot
.
is¯ urya˚]
s¯ uryakot
.
i˚ K5D ¿¿J ciram ] chivam G • ¯atmavit ] ¯atmani SK2PJ3FK6γ, ¯atmanah
.
D
¿qb prasr
.
tam
.
] prasr
.
t¯am
.
K2, pramr
.
tam
.
P, prannutam
.
F, amr
.
tam
.
γ • ¯atmanah
.
] ¯atmani
Sα, ¯atman¯am
.
K2, ¯atmanam
.
J3 ¿qc sam
.
hr
.
tya ] sam
.
hatya AJ6J3, ham
.
satya J7, sam
.
hr
.
s
.
ya J4,
sam
.
vr
.
tya γ2, sam
.
dr
.
tya W2 • krama˚] karma˚S
ac
βγ ¿ju kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı ] kum
.
d
.
alin¯ım
.
Gα1D • ´saktim
.
] µGMD; ´saktim α2, ´saktir SJ2J4K4PJ3FK5K6γ, ´sakti α3, ´saktim
.
r V, ´saktirm
K2 ¿jb sam
.
vart¯anala˚ ] µGD; ¯avart¯anala˚ S
pc
βγ, ¯avr
.
t¯anala˚ S
ac
, ¯avart¯anila˚ α2, sava-
rtt¯anala˚M, sarvatr¯anila˚α3 • ˚nibh¯am ] ˚nibh¯a SK5B, ˚nibham
.
α3F ¿jc j¯ıv¯ anilam
.
]
Sα1β1FK5K6γ1; j¯ıv¯anityam
.
µ, j¯ıv¯ analam
.
GK2J3B, jitv¯ anilam
.
α3, j¯ıv

ani

lam
.
P, j¯ıvam
.
nijam
.
D
¿jJ grasant¯ım
.
] GSβ1FK5D; grasat¯ım
.
AJ7, grasam
.
t¯ı J6α2K2PB, sim
.
cam
.
t¯ım
.
M, grasam
.
tam
.
α3, grasam
.
te J3, grasam
.
ti K6γ1 ¿6b ˚valaya˚] ˚anala˚B, ˚jvalana˚D • ˚bh¯asur¯am
.
]
˚bh¯askar¯am
.
AJ
pc
6
J7, ˚bh¯asuram
.
α3 ¿6c m¯ ul¯ad ] µGSK5K6; m¯ ulam α, m¯ ula˚ β1, m¯ ul¯a
K2PJ3FγD • unn¯ıya deve´si ] µG; dvit¯ıyam
.
deve´si SβB, unnidrayed devi α1, utt¯ırya deve´si
α3, dvit¯ıya deve´si γ1, ˚dh¯ar¯ad yatir devi D ¿~u ˚stham
.
] sam
.
˚ µ, ˚stha˚ G, ˚sth¯am
.
α2K2, ˚sth¯a γ ¿~b grasam
.
t¯ım
.
] µSα3VPFK6; grasam
.
t

¯ı

m
.
G, grasam
.
tam
.
NM, grasam
.
t¯ı
W1J3B, grasat¯am
.
J2J4, grasat¯ım
.
K4, grasam
.
ti K2γ1 • vrat¯ı ] SW1Mβ1K2J3K6BD; ca t¯am
µ, priye G, vratam
.
NK3, vrat¯am K1, vrat¯ım
.
P, vati J1R, vrati J5W2 ¿~c prat¯ık¯a´s¯am
.
]
J6J7GK2W2BD; ˚pratik¯a´s¯am
.
AJ2K4, ˚prak¯a´sam
.
tat S, ˚prat¯ık¯ a´sam
.
αVPJ3FK5K6, ˚pratik¯a´sam
.
J4, ˚prak¯a´s¯am
.
ta J1R, ˚prak¯ a´s¯am
.
J5 (unm.) ¿~J unn¯ıya ] J6GSMD; un¯ıya A, utt¯ırya cett.
• satvaram ] tatpar¯am
.
G ¿Su pr¯apya ] pr¯an
.
a µ ¿Sb p¯ urvavad ] s¯ uryam
.
yad A,
s¯ urya yad J6J7 ¿Sc samunn¯ıya ] samutt¯ırya α2α3 • punas tasm¯ad ] padasth¯an¯ad µ
¿SJ nayet ] vrajet M
¿zc buddhis–¿¿u sthir¯asano om. γ (eye-skip to bh¯ utv¯a) 38cd om. D
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 121
tatra sthitv¯ a ks
.
an
.
am
.
devi p¯ urvavad grasat¯ım
.
smaret |
unn¯ıya ca punah
.
padme s
.
od
.
a´s¯are nive´sayet 39
tatr¯ api cintayed devi p¯ urvavad yogam¯ argavit |
tasm¯ad unn¯ıya bhr¯ umadhyam
.
n¯ıtv¯ a j¯ıvam
.
graset punah
.
40
grastaj¯ıv¯ am
.
mah¯ a´saktim
.
kot
.
is¯ uryasamaprabh¯ am |
manas¯a saha v¯ ag¯ı´s¯ı bhittv¯ a brahm¯ argalam
.
ks
.
an
.
¯at 41
par¯ amr
.
tamah¯ ambhodhau vi´sr¯amam
.
samyag ¯acaret |
tatrastham
.
paramam
.
devi ´sivam
.
paramak¯ aran
.
am 42
´sakty¯ a saha sam¯ayojya tayor aikyam
.
vibh¯ avayet |
yadi va˜ ncitum udyuktah
.
k¯ alam
.
k¯ alavibh¯ agavit 43
y¯ avad vrajati tam
.
k¯ alam
.
t¯ avat tatra sukham
.
vaset |
brahmadv¯ ar¯ argalasy¯ adho dehak¯ alaprayojanam 44
tasm¯ad ¯ urdhvapade devi na hi k¯ alaprayojanam |
yad¯ a devy ¯ atmanah
.
k¯ alam atikr¯ antam
.
prapa´syati 45
tad¯ a brahm¯ argalam
.
bhittv¯ a ´saktim
.
m¯ ulapadam
.
nayet |
41c–42d cit. N¯ar¯ayan
.
ad¯ıpik¯a (D) ad Yoga´sikhopanis
.
ad 2.3,
¯
ASS 29, p.485
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
¿gu devi ] dev¯ı J3K6γ1 ¿gb p¯ urvavad ] p¯ urva

va

∗ G, p¯ urvavar α3, p¯ urvavat Pγ1,
grasam
.
t¯ım
.
K5 • grasat¯ım
.
] SNVFK6B; dhi sat¯ım
.
A, dhasat¯ım
.
J6J7, avatim
.
G, grasat¯ı W1,
grasat¯am
.
M, ˚gasat¯am
.
α3, dhamat¯ı J2, dhamati J4, dha sat¯ı K4, grasana K2, grasam
.
t¯ı P (unm.),
rasatam
.
J3, p¯ urvavat K5, grasati γ1 ¿gc unn¯ıya ca ] µG; utt¯ırya tu α2, tan n¯adayat α3,
samunn¯aya J3, samunn¯ıya K5, an¯ahate D1, unn¯ıya tu cett. • punah
.
] tatah
.
M, nayed D1
• padme ] p¯adau α3, yog¯ı D1 ¿gJ s
.
od
.
a´s¯are ] s
.
od
.
a´sari A, s
.
od
.
a´s¯am
.
te G, tatra p¯ urva˚ D1
• nive´sayet ] niv¯a´sayet A, va∗∗ayet G, ˚vad ¯ acaret D1 qou tatr¯api cintayed devi ] tato
vi´suddh¯ad ¯an¯ıya D1 qob p¯ urvavad ] kun
.
d
.
al¯ım
.
D1 • yogam¯argavit ] yogam ¯atmavit µ,
p¯ urvavac caret D1 qoc tasm¯ad unn¯ıya ] tasm¯at bhr¯ umadhyam
.
G, tasm¯ad utt¯ırya α2, unn¯ıya
tasm¯ad D • bhr¯ umadhyam
.
] unn¯ıya G, bhr¯ umadhye J4K2K6BD qoJ n¯ıtv¯a j¯ıvam
.
graset ]
n¯ıraks
.
¯ıram
.
grasan D1, n¯ıraks
.
aram
.
graset D2 qiu grasta˚ ] µβ1K2PFK5K6W2B; grasa˚
G, grastam
.
SW1Mα3D, yas tam
.
N, yas tu J3 • ˚j¯ıv¯ am
.
] µG˚; ˚jj¯ıvam
.
V, j¯ıv¯ a J3B, ks
.
¯ıram
.
D, j¯ıvam
.
cett. • mah¯a´saktim
.
] µGJ4K2K5K6; mah¯a´saktih
.
SFγ, mahe´s¯ani α, mah¯a´sakti J2-
VK4PJ3, mah¯a´sakty¯a D qib ˚prabh¯am ] µGK5K6γ1; ˚prabham
.
Sαβ1K2PFD1, ˚prabhuh
.
J3, ˚prabh¯a BD2 qic v¯ ag¯ı´s¯ı ] α2VPK5K6; v¯ ag¯ı´si µGS
pc
MJ2J4K4, v¯ ag¯ı´se S
ac
, v¯ ag¯ı´sam
.
α3,
v¯ ag¯ı´s¯a K2J3D2, v¯ag¯ı´s¯ım
.
F, v¯ ag¯ıs¯ı γ1, v¯ age´s¯ı B, v¯ag¯ı´sy¯ a D1D
vl
2
qiJ bhittv¯a ] n¯ıtv¯a α3 qzb
vi´sr¯amam
.
] vi´sv¯ asam
.
µ, vi´sr¯antim
.
D • samyag ] ks
.
an
.
am
.
M, tatra D • ¯acaret ] k¯arayet D
qzJ ´sivam
.
] ´sive SK2J3F, ´sivai Pγ1 q¿u saha sam¯ayojya ] sahasram ¯ayojya PJ3γ, saha
may¯a yojya K5 q¿b aikyam
.
] ekam
.
K2, ek¯am
.
R q¿c yadi va˜ ncitum ] yadi mocitum µ,
yad idam
.
cim
.
tama G (unm.), yad idam
.
visam α3 • udyuktah
.
] J6J7Sαβ1PK5K6B; ayuktah
.
A, yady uktam
.
G, ucchaktah
.
K2, utsuktah
.
J3, udyaktah
.
F, udyogam
.
J1, udyoktam
.
J5W2
q¿J k¯ alam
.
] k¯ alah
.
G • ˚vibh¯aga˚ ] ˚vidh¯ana˚ M, ˚vibh¯ava˚ F qqu y¯ avad ] k¯alas D
• vrajati ] bhajati AJ7, j¯ıvata K2, yat¯ıtam
.
F, tu y¯avad D • tam
.
k¯ alam
.
] tat k¯alam
.
Gα3K2,
vrajati D qqb tatra sukham
.
] tasy¯am
.
mukham
.
N, tasy¯am
.
sukham
.
W1M, tatsam
.
mukham
.
α3
• vaset ] va´set AJ7α3K2J3F
ac
, bhavet G, va

´s

et K6 qqc ˚¯ argalasy¯adho ] µW1MK5D;
˚¯ argal
.
asy¯adhah
.
G, ˚¯ argal¯ay¯adho Sβ1PFγ, ˚¯ argalah
.
sy¯ adho N, ˚¯argalasy¯adau α3, ˚¯argal¯ac c¯ado
K2, ˚¯argal¯ay¯adhau J3, ˚¯argal¯am
.
y¯ adho K6 qqJ deha˚ ] dehe µK5, devi G • ˚k¯ ala˚ ]
˚laks
.
a˚ NMα3, ˚laks
.
ya˚ W1 qju ¯ urdhvapade ] ¯ urdhvapadam
.
αD2, ¯ urdhvam
.
padam
.
D1
• devi ] deyam
.
D, deham
.
D
vl
1
qjc yad¯a ] yadi α3 • devy ] divy˚ Gα1,

divy

˚ J4,
dev˚J3, D
vl
2
qjJ prapa´syati ] pravi´syati A, sa pa´syati M, pras¯a´syati J2K4, pra´s¯amyati J4,
pran
.
a´syati K5 q6b ´saktim
.
] µSMVFK5D; ´sakti˚ cett. • ˚padam
.
] ˚pade µM
39c–40b om. D2 qocJ om. S qoJ graset–qiu j¯ıv¯ am
.
om. γ2R q¿c–qqb om. R qjub om. γ
122 Pat
.
ala 3
´saktidehapras¯ utam
.
tu svaj¯ıvam
.
cendriyaih
.
saha 46
tattatkarman
.
i sam
.
yojya svasthadehah
.
sukham
.
vaset |
anena devi yogena va˜ ncayet k¯ alam ¯agatam 47
[dehaty¯agah
.
]
yadi m¯ anus
.
yakam
.
deham
.
tyaktum icch¯ a pravartate |
tatah
.
paramasam
.
tus
.
t
.
o brahmasth¯ anagatam
.
´sivam 48
´sakty¯ a sam
.
yojya nirbhidya vyoma brahma´sil¯am
.
vi´set |
vyomatattvam
.
mah¯ avyomni v¯ ayutattvam
.
mah¯ anile 49
tejastattvam
.
mah¯ atejasy aptattvam
.
jalaman
.
d
.
ale |
dhar¯ atattvam
.
dhar¯ abh¯ age nir¯ alambe manah
.
pade 50
vyom¯ adigun
.
atattves
.
u svendriy¯ an
.
i nive´sayet |
evam
.
s¯am
.
s¯arikam
.
tyaktv¯ a paratattv¯ avalambakah
.
51
aspr
.
s
.
t
.
ah
.
pa˜ ncabh¯ ut¯ adyair bhittv¯ a s¯ uryasya man
.
d
.
alam |
paratattvapade ´s¯ante ´sive l¯ınah
.
´siv¯ayate 52
na kalpakot
.
is¯ahasraih
.
punar ¯ avartanam
.
bhavet |
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
q6c ´sakti˚ ] ´saktim
.
AJ6W1 • ˚deha˚ ] deh¯a˚ µ, dehe W1, daha PJ3, m¯ ula F •
˚pras¯ utam
.
] SJ4VK4PJ3FK6γD; ˚tmas¯ unam
.
µ, ˚pras¯ una

m
.

G, ˚prav¯ ahas N, prasr
.
tam
.
W1,
˚prastutam
.
Mα3, ˚prasutam
.
J2, ˚prabh¯ utam
.
K2, pras¯ utas K5 • tu ]

ta

m
.
G, tam
.
M, ca
α3, vai F q6J svaj¯ıvam
.
] µGMα3D; sa j¯ıva´s SJ2J4K4PJ3FK5, tam
.
j¯ıvam
.
NK6, saj¯ıvam
.
W1B, sr
.
j¯ıva´s V, sa j¯ıve´s K2, sarj¯ava γ2, sa j¯ıva W2, suj¯ıva R • saha ] sahah
.
µJ2K4PJ3
q~u tattatkarman
.
i ] µVK2K5K6BD; tattatkarm¯an
.
i GSPJ3Fγ1, tatrokten¯api α1, tatoktim¯ u-
la˚ α3, tatatvarman
.
i J2K4, tatam
.
tur man
.
i J4 • sam
.
yojya ] m¯argen
.
a α1, ˚padam
.
nayet
α3 (unm.), sam
.
yojyam
.
J4K4PK6γ1 q~b svasthadehah
.
] GFD; svasya dehah
.
µ, svastha-
deham
.
Sβ1K2PJ3K5K6, ´saktim¯ ulam
.
N, ´saktim¯ ula˚ W1M, chaktideha˚ α3, svasam
.
deham
.
J1R,
svasadeham
.
J5W2, svadeham
.
tu B • sukham
.
vaset ] GSβ1K5K6γ; sukham
.
caret µ, padam
.
nayet α1, ˚sya pra´srutam
.
α3, mukham
.
va´set K2, sukham
.
va´set PJ3F, sukham
.
vrajet D q~c
anena devi yogena ] svaj¯ıvam
.
cem
.
driyaih
.
saha α3 q~J va˜ ncayet k¯alam ¯agatam ] vam
.
cayet
k¯ alam¯argan
.
am
.
µ, tatra k¯alasam¯agatah
.
α3 qSJ ˚sth¯ana˚ ] ˚sth¯anam
.
µα3K2FK6
• ˚gatam
.
´sivam ] param
.
´siva α3, ˚gatam
.
´sive J3F qgu nirbhidya ] GSNα3VPJ3K5K6; nir-
bhinna˚ µ, nibhidya W1, nirbhi

dy

a M, nirjidya J2K4, nir

bhidya

J4, nirbhiga K2, nirbhedya
F, n¯ıbhed¯a γ qgb vyoma ] yoga α3 • brahma˚ ] ˚vrahm¯a µJ1 • ˚´sil¯am
.
] ˚´sivam
.
α3,
˚´sil¯a K2, ˚´silam
.
γ • vi´set ] µβ1PK5K6; vaset GFγ, vrajet SαK2, va´set J3 qgc ˚tattvam
.
]
˚tatva α3γ1, ˚sattvam
.
K2 qgJ mah¯anile ] ath¯anile µ jou mah¯a˚ ] tath¯a A, yath¯a
J6 • ˚tejasy ] ˚tejo α3, ˚tejah
.
K2F, ˚tejasv γ job aptattvam
.
] GVJ3FK5; ¯aptatvam
.
µS,
am
.
bhaso α1, yasyatvam
.
α3, asyatvam
.
J2K4, apatvam
.
J4K6, jalam
.
ca K2, asatvam
.
Pγ1, atatvam
.
B joc dhar¯atattvam
.
] mah¯ıtattvam
.
α, ¯apatattvam
.
γ1, ¯apastattvam
.
B • dhar¯abh¯age ]
mah¯ıbh¯age α1, mah¯abh¯age α3 joJ nir¯alambe ] nir¯alam
.
bam
.
G • pade ] GK2B; pare
µSW1Mβ1PFK5K6γ1, param
.
Nα3J3 jiu ˚gun
.
a˚ ] ˚para˚ M jib sve˚ ] ce˚ W1α3
jic evam
.
] ya∗ G • s¯am
.
s¯arikam
.
] µJ4VJ3K5B; vam
.
s¯avadhim
.
G, sam
.
s¯arikam
.
Sα3J2K4K2-
PFK6γ1, ´sar¯ırakam
.
α2, ´sar¯ıram
.
tu M • tyaktv¯ a ] pa´sc¯at N, tyakt¯a Mα3β1K2γ2W2, tyakty¯ a
R jiJ para˚ ] par¯a µ, param
.
α3J4 • ˚valambakah
.
] ˚valam
.
pakah
.
A, ˚vilam
.
vakah
.
α3,
˚valam
.
vak¯ah
.
J2J4K4, ˚valam
.
bakam
.
γ1, ˚valam
.
banam
.
B jzu aspr
.
s
.
t
.
ah
.
] conj. Sanderson;
adr
.
s
.
t
.
ah
.
µSK2K5K6R, adr
.
s
.
t
.
am
.
GW1J2J4, adr
.
s
.
t
.
a˚NMα3K4PFγ2W2B, adr
.
s
.
t
.
¯a V, adras
.
t
.
am
.
J3 •
pa˜ nca˚ ] sarva˚ S jzc para˚ ] param
.
α3 • ˚tattva˚ ] α3J4γ; ˚tatve µMV, ˚tattvam
.
G, ˚tatvo˚ Sα2J2K4K2PFK5K6, ˚tvo J3 (unm.) • pade ] pare µG jzJ l¯ınah
.
] l¯ına
Aγ1 j¿u na kalpakot
.
is¯ahasraih
.
] kalpakot
.
is¯ahasrai´s ca G, na kot
.
ikalpas¯ahasraih
.
α j¿b
¯avartanam
.
] ¯avartino G, sam
.
vartanam
.
α, ¯agamanam
.
K6
q~cJ om. α1 q~c–qSJ om. G (see addition at 54b) j¿u sraih
.
–j¿J yadi om. J3
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 123
anugrah¯ aya lok¯ an¯ am
.
yadi deham
.
na sam
.
tyajet 53
pralay¯ ante tanum
.
tyaktv¯ a sv¯atmany ev¯ avatis
.
t
.
hate |
ity es
.
¯a khecar¯ımudr¯ a khecar¯ adhipatitvad¯ a 54
janmamr
.
tyujar¯ arogaval¯ıpalitan¯ a´sin¯ı |
[khecar¯ıstutih
.
´sivabhakti´sca]
anay¯ a sadr
.
´s¯ı vidy¯ a kva cic ch¯astr¯antare na hi 55
khecar¯ımelanam
.
devi suguhyam
.
na prak¯ a´sayet |
tasy¯a´s c¯abhy¯ asayogo ’yam
.
tava sneh¯ at prak¯ a´sitah
.
56
khecar¯ı n¯ ama y¯a devi sarvayog¯ındravandit¯ a |
nain¯ am
.
yo vetti loke ’smin sa pa´suh
.
procyate ´sive 57
nityam abhy¯ asa´s¯ılasya at
.
ato ’pi jagattrayam |
guruvaktropasam
.
labdh¯ am
.
vidy¯ am abhyasato ’pi ca 58
khecar¯ımelak¯adyes
.
u nityam
.
sam
.
saktacetasah
.
|
na sidhyati mah¯ ayogo mad¯ıy¯ ar¯ adhanam
.
vin¯ a 59
matpras¯ adavih¯ın¯ an¯ am
.
mannind¯ aparacetas¯am |
pa´s¯ un¯ am
.
p¯ a´sabaddh¯ an¯ am
.
yogah
.
kle´s¯aya j¯ ayate 60
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
jqu pralay¯ante ] pratnay¯am
.
te P, pralay¯arte γ2, pralay¯ate W2 jqb sv¯ atmany ]
¯atmany α3, sv¯ atman γ1 jqc es
.
¯a ] evam
.
Gα jqJ ˚patitvad¯a ] µ; ˚patis ta∗ G, ˚patis
tad¯a Sα1βγ, ˚patis tath¯a α3 jjb val¯ı˚ ] vali AJ6J4VJ3K6 • ˚palita˚ ] ˚darpavi˚
G j6u ˚melanam
.
] ˚melana A • devi ] dev¯ı α2VJ3K6 j6b suguhyam
.
] su-
guptam
.
µ, saguhya K2, saguhyam
.
γ • na prak¯a´sayet ] Aα1; na prak¯arayet J6J7, sam
.
prak¯a´sitam
.
G, te prak¯a´sitam
.
Sβ1PFK5K6J5W2B, tat prak¯a´sitam
.
α3, te prak¯a´sita K2, te prak¯a´sitah
.
J3, te
prak¯a´sin¯ı J1R j6c tasy¯a´s ] Gα1β1PFK5K6; tasya µ, tasy¯am
.
S, tasy¯a J3 • c¯abhy¯asa˚]
sv¯ abhy¯asa˚µ, abhy¯asa˚SJ3 • ˚yogo ’yam
.
] ˚yoge yam
.
A, ˚yoga´s ca α1, ˚yogena J4 j6J
sneh¯at prak¯a´sitah
.
] snehena k¯ırtitah
.
α1, sneh¯at prak¯a´sitam
.
J2V, pr¯ıty¯a prak¯a´sitam
.
J3, snehapra-
k¯ a´sitah
.
F j~u khecar¯ı ] madir¯a µ, khecary¯a α, khecaro γ2R • n¯ama y¯a ] na sam¯a
α, n¯ama yo J1R • devi ] µGSα1K1J2K4K2J3FK
ac
5
J1R; dev¯ı K3J4VPK
pc
5
K6J5W2B j~b
˚yog¯ındra˚] ˚yogem
.
dra˚α3γ1 • ˚vandit¯a ] ˚vam
.
dite α j~c nain¯am
.
] en¯am
.
Gα1, t¯am
.
na
α3, nayan¯am
.
γ1 (unm.) • yo ]

n

o G j~J pa´suh
.
] prabhuh
.
α1 • procyate ] pr¯apyate
N • ´sive ] ´sivo M jSu ˚´s¯ılasya ] ˚´s¯ılasy¯a G jSb at
.
ato ] ¯at
.
ato AB • ˚trayam ]
˚traye W1Mα3 jSc gurvaktropasam
.
labdh¯am
.
] µ; guru

v

aktre pi labdhasya G, gurvaktr¯ad
asam
.
labdh¯a N, gurumantre ca sam
.
labhya F, guruvaktr¯ac ca sam
.
labhya cett. jSJ vidy¯ am
abhyasato ] vidy¯am abha´sato A, vidy¯am abhyasyato GK5, vidyay¯ abhy¯asato α3 • ca ] µGα1;
v¯ a cett. jgu ˚melak¯adyes
.
u ] α2; ˚melan¯adi´s ca µ, ˚mel
.
an¯adyes
.
u G, ˚melak¯adyai´s ca Sβ,
˚melak¯ames
.
u M, ˚m¯ılak¯adyes
.
u α3, ˚melak¯adyau ´sr
.
¯ı γ1, ˚melak¯adyaih
.
´sr¯ı B jgb nityam
.
]
nitya˚ FK6 • sam
.
saktacetasah
.
] sapremavetasah
.
µ, sam
.
siktasevatah
.
J3 jgc sidhyati ]
vidyate G, sidhyam
.
ti J4γ1 • ˚yogo ] ˚yogam
.
µ, ˚yog¯ı α2α3K2J3 jgJ mad¯ıy¯ a˚] madir¯a˚
µ, mad idam
.
G, gurur¯a˚V, mah¯ıy¯ a˚R 6ou mat˚] tat˚µ • ˚pras¯ada˚] ˚pras¯adha˚α3,
˚pras¯ade PJ3 • ˚vih¯ın¯an¯am
.
] ˚vih¯ınasya G 6ob mannind¯a˚ ] tannim
.
d¯a˚ µ, sad¯a sam
.
˚
K2 • ˚paracetas¯am ] ˚paracetasah
.
G, ˚ratacetas¯am
.
S, ˚p¯aracetas¯am
.
J2J4V, ˚s¯aracetas¯am
.
K2
6oc pa´s¯ un¯am
.
p¯a´sabaddh¯an¯am
.
] pa´soh
.
p¯a´sapravam
.
dhasya µ, pa´soh
.
p¯a´savibaddhasya G
6oJ yogah
.
kle´s¯aya j¯ ayate ] yogah
.
kle´s¯aya kalpate M, yogah
.
kle´so bhij¯ayate K2, yogakle´s¯aya
j¯ ayate J3J1W2, yogah
.
kle´sopaj¯ayate F, yogah
.
ks
.
em¯aya j¯ ayate B
jqb anena devi yogena vam
.
cayet k¯alam¯argatah
.
yadi m¯anus
.
yakam
.
deham
.
tyaktum icch¯a pra-
vartate tatah
.
paramsam
.
tus
.
t
.
o brahmasth¯anagatam
.
´sivam
.
| m¯ ul¯adh¯ara trikon
.
e vr
.
s
.
an
.
agudatale
vahnim¯ay¯am
.
tab¯ıjam
.
p¯akastam
.
∗∗yuktam
.
rasanaparigatam
.
tanmayam
.
bh¯avit¯a ∗¯a | ∗∗ty¯agam
.
ka-
vitvam
.
parapuragamanam
.
n
.
am
.
sy¯ aja j¯ıved ¯aca∗m
.
dra∗t¯aram
.
maran
.
abhayaharam
.
samyag ¯ı´s¯ana
dh¯a | add. G j6cJ om. α3K2γ j6J etad yogo may¯akhy¯ atah
.
kim
.
bh¯ uya ´srotum icchasi
´sam
.
bhos sam
.
bh¯avanam
.
labhya jayec cam
.
dr¯arkat¯arakam
.
add. G (68a, 68d, 69ab), ´sive sakala-
siddhid¯a add. K4
124 Pat
.
ala 3
sarvaj˜ nena ´sivenokt¯ am
.
p¯ uj¯ am
.
sam
.
tyajya m¯ amak¯ım |
yu˜ njatah
.
satatam
.
devi yogo n¯ a´s¯aya j¯ ayate 61
bhakty¯ a sam
.
tarpayed devi sarvalokamayam
.
´sivam |
mayy ev¯asaktacittasya tus
.
yanti sarvadevat¯ ah
.
62
tan m¯ am
.
sam
.
p¯ ujya yu˜ nj¯ıta matpras¯ adena khecar¯ım |
anyath¯ a kle´sa eva sy¯an na siddhir janmakot
.
is
.
u 63
sarve sidhyanti mantr¯ a´s ca yog¯a´s ca parame´svari |
mad¯ ar¯ adhana´s¯ılasya mayy ev¯ asaktacetasah
.
64
tasm¯an m¯ am
.
p¯ ujayed devi sarvayog¯ abhivr
.
ddhaye |
khecary¯ anandito yog¯ı yogam
.
yu˜ nj¯ıta tanmayam 65
vijane janturahite sarvopadravavarjite |
sarvas¯adhanasam
.
yuktah
.
sarvacint¯ avivarjitah
.
66
mr
.
dv¯ asanam
.
sam¯asth¯ aya svagur¯ uktaprak¯ aratah
.
|
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
6iu sarvaj˜ nena ] sarvam etac G • ´sivenokt¯am
.
] J6MK2; chivenokt¯am
.
G, ´sivenokta P,
´sivenokte F, ´sivenoktam
.
cett. 6ib p¯ uj¯ am
.
] p¯ uj¯ a K3γ • m¯amak¯ım ] SαJ4K2J3FK6;
m¯adir¯ım
.
µ, m¯anavah
.
G, m¯amik¯ım
.
J2VK4, m¯amik¯am
.
PK5, m¯amik¯a γ 6ic yu˜ njatah
.
]
µα2; yajyatas G, yujyatah
.
SJ4VPJ3K
pc
5
K6, pum
.
jatah
.
M, p¯ ujitah
.
α3, pujyatah
.
J2K4, yajyate K2,
p¯ ujyatas F, yujyata K
ac
5
, p¯ ujyatah
.
γ 6iJ yogo ] yog¯ı γ 6zu bhakty¯a sam
.
tarpayed ]
GSβγ; v¯arun
.
y¯ a tarpayed µ, bhakty¯a sam
.
j¯ ayate α 6zb ˚mayam
.
´sivam ] ˚mayam
.
´sive µF,
˚maye ´sive M 6zc mayy ev¯asaktacittasya ] ekavim
.
duprad¯anena µ, ´sivadhy¯anapare pum
.
si
G, maddhy¯an¯a´saktacittasya α3 6zJ tus
.
yanti ] tr
.
ptam
.
te A, tr
.
pyam
.
te J6J7, tus
.
yam
.
te G,
sarv¯as tu˚ K5 • sarvadevat¯ah
.
] kot
.
idevat¯ah
.
µ, sarvadevat¯a NK3K2J3K6γ1, ˚s
.
yam
.
ti devat¯ah
.
K5 6¿u tan m¯am
.
] β1PJ3K5K6B; tasm¯at µGSα1K1F, s
.
an
.
m¯a˚K2, tan m¯a γ1 • yu˜ nj¯ıta ]
yum
.
j¯ıtah
.
A, yujyam
.
tam
.
G, sam
.
p¯ ujya α, pum
.
j¯ıta J2J4, yuj¯ ata J3, prauj¯ıta γ2R, prom
.
j¯ıta W2
6¿b matpras¯adena khecar¯ım ] SK1J2VPFK6; tatpras¯adapavitritah
.
µ, matpras¯adapavitritam
.
G, matpras¯adena khecar¯ı α1J4K2J3γ 6¿c kle´sa ] kle´sam W1K1, kr¯ıya˚ K2, kte´sa P •
eva sy¯an ] sam
.
y¯ ati N, ¯ay¯ati W1, sam
.
pattir M, ¯apnoti K1, pa´syam
.
ti K3, ˚te devi K2 6¿J
siddhir ] siddhi W1γ1, siddhih
.
J3 • janmakot
.
is
.
u ] janmakot
.
ibhih
.
Gα, khecar¯ıpadah
.
J3 6qb
yog¯a´s ca ] µGMα3K5; yoga´s ca Sα2β1K2PJ3FK6, yogasya γ • parame´svari ] parame´svar¯ı α3-
VK2J3K6γ1 6qc mad˚] mah˚µPγ1, sad˚K3 6qJ mayy ev¯a˚] mayaiv¯a˚AJ7, mayy
aiv¯a˚ J6, maddhy¯an¯a˚ α3 6ju tasm¯an m¯am
.
p¯ ujayed ] GM; tasm¯at p¯ ujayate γ, tasm¯at
sam
.
p¯ ujayed cett. 6jb ˚yog¯a˚ ] ˚yoga˚ α1K2J3, rog¯a J4, yog¯an B • ˚bhivr
.
ddhaye ]
µSα3β1FK5; ˚bhivr
.
cchaye G, ˚vivr
.
ddhaye α1K6, ˚sya siddhaye K2, ˚nivr
.
ddhaye P, ˚nisidhya-
ye J3, ˚nivarddhan¯ı J1R, ˚nivarddha J5 (unm.), ˚nibarddhayat W2, ˚vivarthayan B 6jc
khecary¯a˚ ] madir¯a˚ µ, khecary¯am
.
GN • yog¯ı ] om. β1, devi K2γ 6jJ yogam
.
] yogo
AJ2J4K4K2PJ3Fγ • tanmayam ] nityad¯a µ, manmayam
.
G 66b ˚varjite ] ˚varjitah
.
α3 66c ˚sam
.
yuktah
.
] ˚sam
.
pannah
.
S 6~u mr
.
dv¯asanam
.
] J2VPJ3FK5K6J5-
W2B; mr
.
dv¯anasam A, mr
.
dv¯asanam
.
J6, mr
.
dv¯asana J7J4K4, madvarn
.
am
.
ca G, siddh¯asanam
.
Sα1K2, rudr¯asanam
.
α3, sadv¯asanam
.
J1R • sam¯asth¯aya ] ¯asth¯aya A (unm.), sam¯as¯adya α1,
sam¯asth¯apya γ1
6zb gaud
.
¯ı m¯adhv¯ı ca pais
.
t
.
h¯ı ca tath¯a k¯adam
.
bar¯ı var¯ah
.
| k¯ adambar¯ı ca drumaj¯a m¯adhv¯ı madhu-
samudbhav¯a pais
.
t
.
h¯ı pis
.
t
.
asamudbh¯ ut¯a gaud
.
¯ıks
.
urasasam
.
bhav¯a | t¯as¯am ekatam¯am
.
gr
.
hya tarpayet
sarvadevat¯ah
.
asaktah
.
sumah¯ap¯ uj¯am
.
yadi kartum
.
ca s¯adhakah
.
| kury¯ ad bindvekad¯anam
.
v¯ a guru-
v¯ aky¯ avalambakah
.
add. µ (for variants see full collation or page 297 of the appendix) 6¿ub
om. K3 6qb samyakp¯ uj¯ aprayogen
.
a madir¯anam
.
dacetasah
.
| asam
.
p¯ ujya pived devi madir¯am
.
yah
.
sa p¯apabh¯ak add. µ, samyakp¯ uj¯ aprayogena madhy¯ahne mattam¯anasah
.
m¯am asam
.
p¯ ujya yogena
p¯apam
.
bhavati n¯anyath¯a add. G 6qcJ om. G 66cJ om. µG 6~b sam
.
tarpa ´sivam ¯ı´s¯anam
.
sarvadevotsavapradam
.
matpras¯adena mahat¯a sarvavij˜ n¯anav¯an bhavet asakta

s su

mah¯ap¯ uj¯ am
.
yadi ka

rtu

m
.
ca s¯adhakah
.
add. G
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 125
kury¯ ad ekaikam abhy¯ asam
.
guruv¯ aky¯ avalambakah
.
67
ayam
.
yogo may¯akhy¯ atah
.
sarvayogapras¯ adhakah
.
|
tava pr¯ıty¯ a mahe´s¯ani kim
.
bh¯ uyah
.
´srotum icchasi 68
´sr¯ıdevy uv¯ aca
´sambho sadbhaktisam
.
labhya jaya candr¯ ardha´sekhara |
tvay¯ a ´sr¯ıkhecar¯ıvidy¯ a guhy¯ a s¯adhu nir¯ upit¯ a 69
iti ´sr¯ımad¯adin¯athaprokte mah¯ak¯alayoga´s¯astre um¯amahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade
khecar¯ıvidy¯ay¯ am
.
tr
.
t¯ıyah
.
pat
.
alah
.
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
6~c ekaikam abhy¯asam
.
] ekaikay¯a devi G, vaikaikam abhy¯asam
.
α3 6~J ˚v¯ aky¯ a˚ ]
˚m¯argo˚ α3, ˚m¯arg¯a˚ K2 • ˚valambakah
.
] ˚valam
.
bakam
.
α2V 6Su ayam
.
yogo ] eta
yogam
.
A, etad yogam
.
J6J7 • ˚¯ akhy¯ atah
.
] ˚¯akhy¯ atam
.
µK2, ˚¯akhy¯ ato γ
6gu ´sambho ] ´sam
.
bhoh
.
α3, ´santo J3, ´sano K6 • sadbhakti˚ ] SK3J2VK4PJ3FK5γ; sad-
bh¯ava µW1, sakti N, yadbhakti M, sadbhaktim
.
K1K2, madbhakti J4, sa∗kti K6 6gb jaya ]
japam
.
M, jayam
.
α3γ1 • ˚candr¯ardha˚ ] cam
.
drakam
.
K1, cam
.
draka K3, ˚cam
.
dr¯arka˚ γ •
˚´sekhara ] khecar¯ı α3, ˚´sekhare J2J4K4K2W2, ˚khecarah
.
V, ˚´sekhar¯a K6, ˚´sekharam
.
γ2R
6gc ´sr¯ı˚ ] ca G 6gJ guhy¯a s¯adhu nir¯ upit¯a ] Sα1β; ˚s¯adhanam
.
guhyam ¯ıritam
.
µ, s¯aravat
guhyat¯am iy¯at G, guhy¯a s¯a ca nir¯ upit¯a α3, guhyaguhyanir¯ upit¯a J1, guhyadguhyanir¯ upit¯a J5W2,
guhy¯aguhyanir¯ upit¯a R, guhy¯ad guhy¯a nir¯ upit¯a B
6~cJ om. µ • sam
.
tarpya ´sivam ¯ı´s¯ anam
.
dev¯ım
.
dev¯am
.
´s (dev¯ı´s A, dev¯ım
.
´s J7) ca sarva´sah
.
| tat-
pras¯adena labhate samyag j˜ n¯anam akhan
.
d
.
itam
.
add. µ 6Su–6gb om. G (see addition at 56d)
6Sub om. α3 6Sbc om. µ 6SJ iti ´sr¯ımatsyem
.
drasam
.
hit¯ay¯am
.
s
.
od
.
a´sah
.
pat
.
alah
.
add. µ
126 Pat
.
ala 4
Caturthah
.
Pat
.
alah
.
atha te sam
.
pravaks
.
y¯ ami sudivy¯ any aus
.
adh¯ ani ca |
aus
.
adhena vin¯ a yog¯ı na kva cit siddhim es
.
yati 1
bhiks
.
¯ uttam¯ a˙ ngaparikalpitan¯ amadheyam
.
tatpatrapus
.
paphaladan
.
d
.
asam¯ ulac¯ urn
.
am |
takr¯ aran¯ alapayas¯ a madhu´sarkar¯ adyair
dady¯ at pr
.
thakkavalitam
.
rasaman
.
d
.
al¯ ani |
†p¯ alityah¯ anim atisattvam ud¯ arav¯ıryam
uts¯ aharogaharan
.
¯ani ca samyag eva† 2
karn
.
e var¯ aho nayane garutm¯ an
nakh¯ a´s ca dant¯ ah
.
kila vajratuly¯ ah
.
|
yuv¯ a mah¯ am¯arutas¯ amyavego
j¯ıvec ca y¯avad dharan
.
¯ındut¯ ar¯ ah
.
3
Witnesses for the fourth pat
.
ala: AJ6J7SNW1MK1K3J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5J1J5W2RB; K6 up to
2a; O (verse 4)
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
iu atha te ] µ; ath¯atah
.
cett. ib sudivy¯any ] Sα1K1J2B; sudivy¯an µJ4, sudivyauny K3, te
divy¯ any VK2K5K6, divy¯any K4 (unm.), ta divy¯any P, me divy¯any J3, devi dini F, divy¯ani γ2,
dini W2 (unm.), divy¯a R (unm.) • ca ] µαJ1R; tu cett. ic yog¯ı ] yogam
.
α3 iJ kva ] ka´s
α3, kim
.
J4 • es
.
yati ] J6Sαβ1PJ3FK5K6; irs
.
y¯ ati A, is
.
yasi J7, icchati K2, is
.
yati γ1, ¯apnuy¯at B
zu bhiks
.
¯ u˚ ] bhiks
.
n
.
a˚ µ, s¯aks
.
¯a˚ α3, bhiks
.
u˚ J2K4, miks
.
u˚ J4, bhiks
.
a˚ PR • ˚ttam¯a˙ nga˚ ]
˚tam¯am
.
ga˚A, ˚ttamam
.
ga˚α3, ˚tam
.
m¯aga˚J4, ˚ttam¯am
.
γ (unm.) • ˚dheyam
.
] Sα1γ; ˚dheya
µK5, ˚dhey¯a α3J2K4, ˚dhyey¯a J4, ˚dheya VF, ˚dhyeyam
.
K2, ˚dhyeya P, ˚madhye J3 zb tat˚]
yat˚ J3 • ˚patrapus
.
pa˚ ] ˚pus
.
paphulam
.
K2, ˚patr¯ap¯ us
.
pa˚ J3, ˚pus
.
papatra˚ B • ˚phala˚ ]
˚phalam
.
VP, ˚vasa˚ K2 • ˚dan
.
d
.
a˚ ] ˚m¯ ula˚ α3 • ˚c¯ urn
.
am ] ˚p¯ urn
.
am
.
α3 zc takr¯a˚ ]
tatkr¯a S, tikt¯a α3, takt¯a J2VB, tvakr¯a K2 • madhu˚] ghr
.
ta˚M • ˚¯ adyair ] µF; ˚¯ ajyair cett.
zJ dady¯at ] µSα1J2VPFK5; y¯ adah
.
α3, dr
.
dy¯at J4, tady¯at K4, dey¯a K2, dady¯a J3, dadyat γ2W2,
ks
.
ahma R, dadhyat B • pr
.
thak˚ ] kva cit α3 • ˚kavalitam
.
] µSNMJ2VPFK5γ; ˚vavalitam
.
W1J4K4, ˚kramagavam
.
K1, ˚kamagavam
.
K3, ˚valittvam
.
K2 (unm.), ˚vavaline J3 zc p¯alitya˚]
J6J7W1Mα3J2VK4; palitya˚ A, palita˚ SJ3, p¯alisa˚ N, p¯alita˚ J4P, pali˚ K2 (unm.), val¯ıpalita˚
F (unm.), m¯alinya˚ K5, palitam
.
γ • atisattvam ] µSαJ2J4VPJ3FK5; alisatvam K4, asattvam
K2 (unm.), atiyatitvam γ1 (unm.), ayatitvam B z] uts¯aharo˚] µα; uts¯ahase˚S, uts¯apayed J2,
utpr¯apayed J4, utth¯apayed VPJ3FK5, uch¯apayed K4, utth¯ayaed K2, utth¯aya yo J1, utth¯apa yo
J5W2, u

tth

¯aya yo R, utth¯apya yo B • ˚gaharan
.
¯ani ca ] J6; ˚gaharin
.
¯ani ca AJ7, ˚kagam¯an¯ani
ca S, ˚gagahan¯ani ca NW1K1, ˚gahananan¯ani ca M (unm.), ˚gagahan¯a

n

i K3, gahanat¯anava
J2J4VK2PK5γ, gahanat¯an¯ava K4 (unm.), gaganat¯athane J3, dahanat¯anava F • samyag eva ]
µJ2J4K4PJ3F; sarvam eva Sα, sam
.
gam eva V, samyag ev¯a K2, sam
.
myag eva K5, sabhyag eva
γ2R, sabhyage ca W2B ¿u karn
.
e ] µSα1J2VK4K2K5; karn
.
o α3J4, karn
.
au PFJ1, karn
.
ai J3,
kan
.
au J5W2, varn
.
o R, karn
.
¯a B • var¯aho ] var¯aheh
.
N, var¯ ah¯ı J2J4, var¯ahur K2, car¯aho PJ3F,
varodho B • nayane ] nadyane α3 • garutm¯an ] AJ6MK5; garucy¯an J7, gajasy¯an S, gar¯ utm¯an
α2J4V, nav¯atm¯a α3, garutm¯a K4, rugam¯an K2, garup¯an PF, gar¯ up¯an J3, garud
.
ay¯ an γ2R (unm.),
garud
.
y¯ an W2, garud
.
p¯an B ¿b nakh¯a´s ca ] akham
.
d
.
a˚ µ • dant¯ah
.
] dam
.
ta´s µ, dam
.
t¯a´s α3,
dam
.
t¯a β1PJ3γ2, det¯a W2 • kila vajratuly¯ah
.
] Sα1J2VK2FK5; ca bhavec ca vajram
.
µ, ca punar
bhaveyuh
.
α3, kila vajratulyah
.
J4K4, kila vajratuly¯a P, khila vajratuly¯a J3, kila vajratulyam
.
γ1,
kila ca na tuly¯ah
.
B ¿c yuv¯ a ] v¯ayu R • ˚s¯amya˚ ] ˚tulya˚ MK5, samyag β1PJ3Fγ •
˚vego ] J6J7SαK2K5; ˚veg¯a A, eva β1J3Fγ, ava P ¿J j¯ıvec ca ] µM; j¯ıvet tu SJ2VK4PFK5,
j¯ıvet sa N, j¯ıvem
.
du W1, j¯ıveta α3B, j¯ıvet J4 (unm.), j¯ıve tu K2J3, jave ca γ2, j¯ıve ca W2, jave

c
c

a R • y¯ avad ] p¯arvam
.
K2 • dharan
.
¯ın˚ ] µSW1Mα3; varan
.
¯ım
.
˚ N, dharan
.
¯ı˚ J2K4K2PFK5,
haran
.
¯ı˚ J4, dharasm¯ı˚ V, varan
.
¯am
.
˚ J3, dharin
.
¯a˚ γ1, varin
.
a˚ B • ˚dut¯ar¯ah
.
] µSα; ˚hut¯a´sah
.
J2K4PFK5B, ˚hut¯asah
.
J4K2, ˚hut¯am
.
´sah
.
V, ˚gat¯asah
.
J3, ˚hat¯a´sa γ2R, ˚hut¯a´sa W2
zu parikalpita ] pa end of K6: f.22 damaged
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 127
v¯ ar¯ ah¯ıkandac¯ urn
.
am
.
ghr
.
tagud
.
asahitam
.
bhaks
.
ayet pus
.
t
.
ivr
.
ddh¯ı
takre durn¯ aman¯ a´sas tv atha punar api goks
.
¯ırake kus
.
t
.
han¯ a´sah
.
|
tacc¯ urn
.
am
.
´sarkar¯ adyair madhum api ca payah
.
p¯ ayayec ca dvik¯ alam
dvau vars
.
au kr
.
s
.
n
.
ake´s¯ı hatavalipalitah
.
†kr
.
s
.
n
.
abhed¯ı ´sar¯ıre† 4
eran
.
d
.
atailasam
.
yuktam
.
guggulum
.
triphal¯ ayutam |
gandhakam
.
bhaks
.
ayet pr¯ aj˜ no jar¯ ad¯ aridryan¯ a´sanam 5
a´svagandh¯ a til¯ a m¯as
.
¯ah
.
´sarkar¯ a vi´svasarpik¯ a |
m¯asam¯atraprayogena na rogo maran
.
am
.
bhavet 6
pa˜ ncabhih
.
pa˜ ncam¯asena pr¯ apyate ’marat¯ a priye |
gandhakatriphal¯ akus
.
t
.
ham
.
madhuratrayamelitam 7
bhaks
.
ayet pr¯ atar utth¯ aya s
.
an
.
m¯as¯ad valip¯ alih¯ a |
4 cit. “Khecar¯ıvidy¯a” (O) f.8v
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
qu v¯ ar¯ah¯ı˚ ] c¯ar¯ah¯ı˚ α2 • ˚kanda˚ ] ˚skanda˚ K1, ˚skada˚ K3 • ˚ghr
.
ta˚ ] ˚´saghr
.
ta˚ J2-
K4 (unm.), ˚´sam
.
ghr
.
ta˚ J4 (unm.) • bhaks
.
ayet ] bhaks
.
ayed α3 • ˚vr
.
ddh¯ı ] SN; ˚vr
.
dhyau µ,
˚vr
.
ddhis Mβ1O, ˚vr
.
ddhi W1, ˚vr
.
dhy¯a K5 qb takre durn¯ama˚ ] µ; tarkrair durn¯ama˚ SN,
takrair dun¯ama˚W1, taktem
.
d¯ un¯ama˚M , tarkre durn¯ama˚J2J4V, takrem
.
durn¯ama˚K4, takrair
ndurn¯ama˚K5, takre durm¯ama˚O • ˚n¯a´sas tv atha ] µSα2K5O; n¯a´sas tatha M, n¯asas ty atha
J2VK4, na samaya J4 • kus
.
t
.
ha˚] SMK
pc
5
; kus
.
t
.
a˚µα2J2J4K4K
ac
5
O, kr
.
s
.
t
.
a˚V qc tacc¯ urn
.
am
.
]
µSα1VK5; tacc¯ urn
.
a J2, tac¯ um
.
rn
.
am
.
J4, tadvarn
.
a K2, tadvarn
.
am
.
K4PJ3F, tadvanmadhu´s¯arkar¯a-
dugdhavarn
.
am
.
γ (unm.), tad vars¯am
.
O • ˚´sarka˚] ˚sam
.
ka˚K2 • ˚r¯ adyair ] ˚r¯ajyair S
pc
W
ac
1
-
MJ3 • madhum api ca payah
.
p¯ayayec ] µ; madhuyutam api yah
.
sevate S, madhur api ca yah
.
sevayet N (unm.), madhur api ca yat sevayet W1 (unm.), madhur api ca payah
.
sevate M, madhur
api ca p¯ı

y

ate J2 (unm.), madhur api ca puna p¯ıyate J4, madhur api vayaja satte V (unm.),
madhur api ca payate K4, madhura pivet ayominah
.
K2 (unm.), madhur api vayayate P (unm.),
madhura pivite J3 (unm.), madhur api pibate F (unm.), madhur api vasate K5 (unm.), madhur
ap¯ı pivete γ2R (unm.), madhur ap¯ı pibase W2 (unm.), madhur ap¯ı pivaset B (unm.), mudhuram
api payah
.
p¯ıyate O • ca dvik¯alam ] µ; sarvak¯ala γ1, sarvak¯alam
.
cett. qJ dvau ] dvi˚
Fγ, va˚ O • vars
.
au ] vars
.
o µK4, kars
.
au Sα2, ˚rs
.
¯abhyo O • ˚ke´s¯ı ] ˚ke´so SMO, ˚ke´s¯a γ
• hata˚ ] vali˚ µ, duta N,

d

bhuta W1 • ˚vali˚ ] ˚pali˚ µ, ˚val¯ıta˚ J4 (unm.), ˚vahali˚ V
(unm.), ˚vala˚K2, ˚val¯ı˚K
ac
5
W2B • ˚palitah
.
] α1K5O; ˚taharo µ, ˚patitah
.
S, ˚pal¯ıt¯a J2J4K4,
˚palit¯a VK2J3, ˚mal¯ıt¯a hata vali malit¯a P (unm.), ˚palitam
.
F, ˚palita γ • †kr
.
s
.
n
.
a˚† ] vars
.

µ, k¯ar´sya˚ Sα2,

ks
.
am
.

˚ J4 (unm.), ks
.
as
.
n
.
a˚ K4, kr
.
s
.
t
.
a˚ K2 • †´sar¯ıre† ] µMJ3K5O; ˚´sar¯ıram
.
cett. ju ˚tailasam
.
yuktam
.
] ˚phalatailena µ jb guggulum
.
] FB; triphal¯a µ, guggulam
.
cett. • ˚triphal¯ayutam ] guggulena ca µ jc pr¯aj˜ no ] pr¯aj˜ ne VK5 jJ jar¯a˚ ] val¯ı˚ M,
m¯ase J1 • ˚d¯aridrya˚ ] Sα2FK5B; ˚d¯aridra˚ AJ7J2VK4K2J3W2, ˚d¯arid
.
ya˚ J6, ˚palita˚ M,
˚daridra˚J4, ˚d¯aridr¯a˚P, nadaja˚J1R (unm.), da J5 (unm.) • ˚n¯a´sanam ] ˚r¯amara J1R, om.
J5 6u ˚gandh¯a ] ˚gam
.
dha α2, ˚gam
.
dh¯as M • ˚til¯a˚ ] ˚tila˚ α2α3 (unm.) • ˚m¯as
.
¯ah
.
]
µSM; ˚m¯as
.
a˚α2α3γ, ˚m¯as
.
¯a˚β 6b ˚vi´svasarpik¯a ] S; ˚vi´svasarpis
.
¯ah
.
µ, ˚svasarpidhy¯anam
.
α3
(unm.), ˚ki´svasarpis
.
¯a K4, ˚vi´svasarpis
.
¯a cett. 6c m¯asa˚ ] s
.
an
.
m¯asa˚ α3 (unm.) • ˚m¯atra˚ ]
˚traya˚MVJ3 6J na rogo maran
.
am
.
bhavet ] naro maravaram
.
labhet µ, narah
.
paramapadam
.
labhet α3 (unm.) ~b pr¯apyate ] µα3; pr¯apnoti cett. • ’marat¯a ] µ; param¯am
.
SNMJ4VK4K5,
paramam
.
W1F, marat¯am
.
α3, param¯a J2K2Pγ, parama J3 ~c gandhaka˚ ] Vγ; gam
.
dhakam
.
cett. • ˚kus
.
t
.
ham
.
] J6SMFW2; ˚krus
.
t
.
am
.
A, ˚kus
.
t
.
am
.
J7α2K1β1K2Pγ2RB, ˚kus
.
t
.
ha K3, ˚yus
.
t
.
am
.
J3, ˚kus
.
t
.
a K5 ~J madhuratraya˚ ] madhu´sraya˚γ (unm.) Sb valip¯alih¯a ] µα1J2K4K
pc
5
-
; valit¯adih¯a S, valip¯alit¯ad α3, valip¯alitah¯a J4 (unm.), valit¯apah¯ı V, valipallih¯a K2, valitpalith¯a
P, valipalitih¯a J3 (unm.), valipalitah¯a FW2 (unm.), val¯ıp¯alih¯a K
ac
5
(unm.), valipaliham
.
tad¯a γ2
(unm.), validam
.
tad¯a R, palit¯apaham
.
B
qub om. K2PJ3Fγ qu pus
.
t
.
ivr
.
ddhis–jJ om. α3 6c hastin¯a saha yudhyate | triphal¯a pus
.
karo
vr¯ ahm¯ı nih
.
s¯akotilalam
.
san¯ı punarnav¯a vr
.
ddhat¯ar¯a †na yayuh
.
† snehami´srit¯a | s
.
an
.
m¯as¯ah¯arayogena
add. µ 6J–~u om. J4 ~J ghr
.
tamadhu´sarkar¯a add. W
mg
1
128 Pat
.
ala 4
p¯ aradam
.
gandhakam
.
devi t¯ alakam
.
ca manah
.
´sil¯am 8
kunas
.
t
.
ik¯ ayas
.
t
.
irajo rudr¯ akhyam
.
mun
.
d
.
ik¯ arajah
.
|
trimadhuplutam ¯ asv¯adya vatsar¯ at khecaro bhavet 9
bhr
.
˙ ngam
.
sam¯ ulam
.
pari´sos
.
ya c¯ urn
.
am
.
kr
.
s
.
n
.
¯am
.
s til¯ am
.
´s c¯amalakam
.
tadardham |
madhutrayaih
.
sv¯adya sadaiva vars
.
¯an
na vy¯ adhayo n¯ api jar¯ a na mr
.
tyuh
.
10
nirgun
.
d
.
¯ıpatram ekaikam
.
trik¯ alam
.
paribhaks
.
ayet |
dv¯ ada´s¯abde bhaved devi jar¯ amaran
.
avarjitah
.
11
nirgun
.
d
.
yamalamun
.
d
.
¯ın¯ am
.
samam
.
sam
.
s¯adhayed rajah
.
|
´sarkar¯ aghr
.
tamadhvaktam
.
vatsar¯ad valip¯ alih¯ a 12
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
SJ t¯alakam
.
] t¯arakam
.
AN • ˚´sil¯am ] Sα2K1γ; ˚´sil¯a AJ6MK3β1K2PFK5, ˚´sil¯ah
.
J7J3 gu
kunas
.
t
.
ik¯ a˚ ] β1K2PF; kupas
.
t
.
ik¯ a A, kuyas
.
t
.
ik¯ a J6J7, kus
.
t
.
ham
.
ca n¯a˚ S, kuvam
.
gan¯a˚ α2 (unm.),
kuvam
.
gana˚M, kanis
.
t
.
ik¯ a α3, kanis
.
t
.
¯ık¯ a J3, kus
.
t
.
ik¯ a˚K5 (unm.), jav¯as¯a ca γ • yas
.
t
.
irajo ] J6J7β1-
PFK5; yas
.
t
.
irajau A, ˚d
.
ik¯ayas
.
t
.
i˚S, ˚t
.
ik¯ ayas
.
t
.
i˚α2, ˚mat
.
ik¯ayas
.
ti˚M (unm.), yas
.
t
.
irayo K1, yas
.
ti-
rayo K3, nas
.
t
.
arujo K2, nas
.
tirajo J3, jes
.
t
.
irajo γ1, jyes
.
t
.
irajo B gb rudr¯akhyam
.
] β1PJ3K5γ;
rudr¯aks
.
am
.
µF, ˚rajoru˚ Sα1, madr¯aks
.
am
.
m K1, mad
.
¯aks
.
am
.
K3, rudr¯akhy¯ a K2 • mun
.
d
.
ik¯ a˚ ]
µJ2VK4PFK
pc
5
J1B; ˚dr¯aks
.
amum
.
˚S, ˚dr¯aks
.
amum
.
˚α2, ˚dr¯aks
.
amu˚M, maduk¯a˚α3, mud
.
ik¯ a˚
J4J5W2R, mum
.
d
.
ak¯a˚ K2, mudrik¯a˚ J3, mum
.
d
.
¯ık¯ a˚ K
ac
5
• ˚rajah
.
] µ; ˚d
.
ik¯ a Sα2, ¯ad
.
ik¯ a M
(unm.), ˚raj¯ah
.
α3, rasah
.
J2VK4K2FK
pc
5
γ, rasa J4K
ac
5
, ratah
.
P, sarah
.
J3 gc trimadhu˚ ]
µα3; madhura˚ S, madhur¯a˚ α1, trimadhur¯a˚ β1K2PJ3K5γ1 (unm.), trimadhy¯a F, trimadhv¯a
B • ˚plutam ] ˚trayam S • ¯asv¯adya ] µ; ¯as¯adya cett. gJ vatsar¯at ] ASαJ2J4VPFK5;
vatsar¯a J6J7J3, vasar¯a K4, vatsar¯ad K2, vadvat γ2R (unm.), vaddhat W2 (unm.), ba

ddh

avat
B • khecaro ] µK3; sabalo SNVK4FW2, prabalo W1, savalo MJ2PK5γ2R, eva caro K1 (unm.),
savaloka J4 (unm.), vatsal¯ı K2, vatsalo J3, sabal¯ı B iou bhr
.
˙ ngam
.
sam¯ ulam
.
] mr
.
gam
.
sam¯ ulam
.
γ2R, mr
.
gasam
.
m¯ ulam
.
W2, mr
.
gasya m¯ ulam
.
B • pari´sos
.
ya ] paripes
.
ya SW1M , paripes
.
t
.
ya N,
pari´sodhya K1, ´sos
.
yam
.
K5 (unm.) • c¯ urn
.
am
.
] J6J7SNMα3J4K2J3F; c¯ urn
.
a AW1, ks
.
ipt¯a J2, vam
.
-
´saivac¯ urn
.
am
.
V (unm.), ca ´saivac¯ urn
.
am
.
K4 (unm.), ca ´sailac¯ urn
.
am
.
PK5 (unm.), ´sailam
.
γ iob
kr
.
s
.
n
.
¯am
.
s ] Sα2; kr
.
s
.
n
.
¯as µMPJ3F, kr
.
s
.
n
.
am
.
α3, c¯ urn
.
am
.
s J2, ks
.
iptv¯a J4, kr
.
s
.
n
.
¯a VK2K5, ks
.
apl¯as
.
n
.
¯as
K4 (unm.), kr
.
s
.
n
.
¯ati γ (unm.) • til¯am
.
´s ] em.; til¯a µVK4, til¯an Sα2, MK2F, tilam
.
α3, til¯am
.
J2J4-
PJ3K5, ´sil¯ajita γ2RB (unm.), ti∗´sil¯ajita W2 (unm.) • c¯amalakam
.
] hy¯amalakam
.
µ, ¯amalakam
.
Sα2, v¯ amalakam
.
γ1 • tadardham
.
] tadardhe A, tadardha NJ2J3R, dadhi ca α3, tadartham
.
B
ioc madhu˚ ] madhura˚ β1K2Pγ (unm.) • ˚trayaih
.
] J6Sαβ; ˚traye A, ˚trayai J7, ˚traya˚
γ • sv¯ adya ] Sαβ1K2PJ3F; kh¯ada˚ µ, kh¯adya K5γ1, kh¯adyam
.
B • sadaiva vars
.
¯an ] ˚ti yas
trivars
.
am
.
µ, narottam¯a α3 ioJ na vy¯ adhayo n¯api ] nivy¯adhoparog¯a na K1, nivy¯ adhoyarog¯a na
K3 iiu nirgum
.
d
.
¯ı˚] nirgum
.
t
.
h¯a˚α3 • ekaikam
.
] µW1α3; ekam
.
tu SMVK2PJ3K5γ, ekam
.
yas
N, ekam
.
J2J4K4F (unm.) iib paribhaks
.
ayet ] paribh¯avayet µ iic ˚¯ abde ] ˚¯a´s¯ad µ, ˚¯abd¯ad
α3, ˚¯abdena J2J4 (unm.) izu nirgun
.
d
.
y˚ ] µSα2; nigum
.
d
.
y˚ M, nirgum
.
t
.
hy˚ K1, nigud
.
y˚ K3,
nirgum
.
d
.
˚ βB, nigum
.
d
.
˚ J1, nigud
.
˚ J5W2 • ˚amala˚ ] α2; ˚anala˚ µ, ˚¯amala˚ SMK4, ˚¯anala˚
α3, ˚¯ımala˚ J2VK2PJ3FK5, ˚¯ım¯ ula˚ J4J1, ˚im¯ ula˚ J5W2, ˚¯ım¯ ulam
.
B • ˚mun
.
d
.
¯ın¯am
.
] J2J4-
K4K2J3FJ1; ˚mud
.
¯an¯a A, ˚mum
.
d
.
¯an¯am
.
J6J7, ˚k¯ımum
.
d
.
¯ı SW1, ˚mum
.
d
.
¯ı N (unm.), ˚mum
.
d
.
¯an¯am
.
M, ˚nirmum
.
d
.
¯ı α3, ˚mum
.
t
.
h¯an¯am
.
V, ˚mud
.
¯ın¯am
.
P, ˚tum
.
d
.
¯an¯am
.
K5, ˚mud
.
in¯am
.
J5W2, ˚mud
.
in¯a B
izb samam
.
] s¯amyam
.
µα3, sam¯a K2W2B, sam¯am
.
γ2 • rajah
.
] µα; rasam
.
SJ2, rasah
.
J4VK2-
PJ3K5γ, rasa K4 izc ˚madhvaktam
.
] µ; ˚madhvekam
.
SJ2J4K4J3, ˚madhyeka N, ˚madhveka
W1, ˚madhyekam
.
MVK2PK5γ, ˚madhvarkam
.
α3, ˚madhvaikam
.
F izJ valip¯alih¯a ] µSα1β1P;
palit¯apaha K1, palit¯apaham
.
K3, valipallitah¯a K2 (unm.), valipal¯ıtah¯a J3γ1 (unm.), val¯ıpalitah¯a
F (unm.), valip¯al¯ıh¯a K5 (unm.), valitapalitah¯a B (unm.)
iiJ kum¯ar¯ıpatram ekaikam
.
trik¯alam
.
paribhaks
.
ayet dv¯ada´s¯abd¯a bhaved devi jar¯amaran
.
avarji-
tah
.
add. µ iz om. R
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a 129
m¯as
.
akam
.
gandhakam
.
svarn
.
am
.
t¯ alakam
.
rudralocanam |
madhutrayayutam
.
vars
.
¯ad ajar¯ amaran
.
apradam 13
rasam
.
´s¯almaliniry¯ asam
.
gandhakam
.
madhuratrayaih
.
|
bhaks
.
ayet pr¯ atar utth¯ aya s
.
an
.
m¯as¯ad ajar¯ amarah
.
14
iti ´sr¯ımad¯adin¯athaprokte mah¯ak¯alayoga´s¯astre um¯amahe´svarasam
.
v¯ ade
khecar¯ıvidy¯ ay¯am
.
caturthah
.
pat
.
alah
.
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1; α3
=K1K3
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
i¿u m¯as
.
akam
.
] S; m¯as
.
¯any a˚ A, m¯as
.
¯anna˚ J6J7, s
.
an
.
m¯as
.
am
.
N, s
.
an
.
m¯as
.
a W1, s
.
an
.
m¯asam
.
MJ4,
s
.
an
.
m¯asa α3, n
.
m¯as
.
asam
.
J
ac
2
, m¯asam
.
d J
pc
2
(unm.), m¯as
.
amud V, m¯as¯amad K2, m¯as
.
amad PJ3-
FK5, m¯as
.
¯ad γ (unm.) • gandhakam
.
] ˚mudgakam
.
AJ7, muhakam
.
J6 • svarn
.
am
.
] svarn
.
e J6V
i¿b t¯alakam
.
] t¯arakam
.
N, tilakam
.
α3 • rudra˚ ] bhadra˚ AJ7 i¿c madhu˚ ] madhura˚
α3K2γ (unm.) • vars
.
¯ad ] vars
.
¯aj µ, c¯ urn
.
a α3, vars
.
¯ady N i¿J ajar¯amaran
.
apradam ] jar¯amara-
phalapradam
.
µ, ajar¯ amaran
.
aprad¯a J6, ajar¯amarapadapradam
.
α3 (unm.), ajar¯amaran
.
am
.
padam
.
γ1 iqu rasam
.
] rasa˚ MK3J2J4K4K2P • ˚niry¯asam
.
] niry¯asa˚ α3, niry¯atam
.
K2J3 iqb
˚trayaih
.
] µα3; ˚trayam
.
cett.
i¿b madhutrayayutam
.
vars
.
¯ad ajar¯amaran
.
aprad¯a up¯amr
.
dgam
.
dhakam
.
svarn
.
am
.
t¯alakam
.
bhadra-
locanam
.
add. J6J7 iqb ¯ajyam
.
gud
.
o m¯aks
.
ikam
.
ca vij˜ neyam
.
madhuratrayam
.
add. γ
The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a: An Annotated Translation
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :++
Chapter I
:. Now (atha),
:¬:
o goddess, I shall teach the magical science (vidy¯ am)
:¬+
called Khecar¯ı
(khecarisam
.
j ˜ nit ¯ am)
:¬¡
by means of which, when it is understood,
:¬s
one becomes ageless
and undying in this world.
:. Seeing this universe, my dear, stricken by death, disease and decrepitude, one
should steel one’s resolve and take refuge in Khecar¯ı.
+a–¡b. To him should one pay homage and turn to as guru with [one’s] whole
heart (sarvabh¯ avena),
:¬o
o goddess, who on the earth knows Khecar¯ı, the destroyer of
decrepitude, death and disease, in letter and spirit (granthata´s c¯ arthatah
.
)
:¬¬
and practice
(tadabhy¯ asaprayogatah
.
).
:•
:¬:
BKhP f. :v
6−8
: atha—atha kad¯ a cid ¯ adin ¯ athah
.
priy¯ avinodena lokopak ¯ ar¯ aya sarvatam
.
tr¯ an
.
i sam ¯ amn ¯ aya
pa´sc¯ ad devy¯ a tes
.
¯ am
.
jar¯ amaran
.
an ¯ a´sena yogena sthirataratatvaj ˜ n ¯ anam
.
katham
.
sy¯ ad iti pr
.
s
.
t
.
as t ¯ am
.
praty¯ aha
athety¯ adi “ ‘Now’ (atha) means: now, once, when Adin¯ atha had gathered together all the tantras for
the amusement of his beloved and the good of the world, the goddess asked ‘How does there arise the
very permanent knowledge of reality by means of the yoga of those [tantras] which destroys old age and
death?’ He replied ‘Now. . . ’ ”
:¬+
Originally, at all the occurrences of the word vidy¯ a in the text it would have meant “mantra” and that
is how I translate it everywhere except in this verse and at +.ssc and +.o,a, where it can be taken to mean
“magical science” and refer to the name of the text. On the reasons for these different meanings of vidy¯ a,
see page :s of the introduction.
:¬¡
khecara˚, as the stem form of the adjective, is the more correct form and is attested by µMK: (cf. N T
¬.+: khecar¯ akhy¯ am
.
tu mudr¯ am); khecari˚, however, preserves some of the ambiguity over whether the word
is being used as an adjective or a substantive. In tantric
´
Saivism Khecar¯ı is a specific type of etheric
Yogin¯ı (e.g. JRY ¡.:.o¡¡ f.+:r, ¡.:.oïs f.++r; KJN ,.:, :c.:c; KM T pat
.
alas :¡–:o (where Khecar¯ıs are
distinguished from Yogin¯ıs—pat
.
ala :o describes the circle of thirty-two Khecar¯ıs in detail); see also page
+¬ of the introduction and Haxxioii :,,ï:¬: n.+,), and a mudr¯ a or mantra (vidy¯ a) is named after the
deity or deities with which it is associated. Thus the khecar¯ımudr¯ a (written as a compound) of tantric
´
Saivism can be both “the mudr¯ a of Khecar¯ı/ the Khecar¯ıs” (understood as a tatpurus
.
a compound) and
“the moving in the ether mudr¯ a” (as a karmadh¯ araya). In the texts of hat
.
hayoga there are very few traces
of the tantric Yogin¯ı cult (Khecar¯ı is mentioned as an etheric being at SSP +.:+ and o.:::), khecar¯ı has
an adjectival rather than substantive force and khecar¯ı mudr¯ a (written as two words—see e.g. H P ¡.¡+)
has only the latter meaning. Thus Ball¯ ala (f. :r
2−3
) understands khecar¯ımudr¯ a to be so called because it
causes the tongue to move in the hollow above the uvula: khe vaks
.
yam ¯ an
.
alaks
.
an
.
ar¯ ajadam
.
tordhvamam
.
d
.
ale
jihv ¯ am
.
c¯ arayat¯ıti. The tantric and hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ as are discussed in detail on pages +¬ to ¡¡ of
the introduction.
:¬s
I have adopted the reading yay¯ a vij ˜ n ¯ atay¯ a ca sy¯ al of β: for two reasons: firstly, it is similar to µ’s
corrupt yay¯ a vij ˜ n ¯ ayate bhy¯ as¯ at ; secondly, it is more sophisticated and more semantically apposite than the
formulaic ˚m ¯ atren
.
a constructions found in the rest of αβγ.
:¬o
Ball¯ ala (f. ¡r
2
) explains sarvabh¯ avena with k ¯ ayena v ¯ ac¯ a manas¯ a svasamarpan
.
ena v ¯ a, “with body, word,
mind, or by offering oneself ”.
:¬¬
On this expression cf. KhV :.,a, M VUT :,.s¡d, KM T o.+¡c, :c.ïïd, :s.:,¬d, Br
.
hatsam
.
hit ¯ a :.:+ab.
:•
Ball¯ ala analyses the compound tadabhy¯ asaprayogatah
.
as a dvandva and explains it thus (f. +v
7
):

pra

-
yogas tu mam
.
travidy¯ ay¯ ah
.
| evam
.
ca jihvordhvakramamam
.
trapura´scaran
.
ayor nity¯ abhy¯ as¯ ad ity arthah
.
| “The
‘use’ (prayoga) is of the mantra. Thus [the compound] means ‘from regular practice of raising the tongue
and reciting the mantra’ ”. The different layers of the text (see pages :¡ to :ï of the introduction) use
:+¡ Cuairii :
¡cd. The mantra of Khecar¯ı is hard to obtain and so is its practice.
sab. The practice (abhy¯ asah
.
)
:¬,
and melaka
:ïc
are not perfected at the same time.
scd. [The yogin] intent on just the practice might not attain melaka in this life
(iha).
oab. Through [carrying out] the practice, o goddess, he obtains [melaka] sometime
vidy¯ a and abhy¯ asa in different ways. Vidy¯ a as both “mantra” and “magical science” has been mentioned
in footnote :¬+. Abhy¯ asa, which first occurs here, referred to the practice of repeating the mantra in the
earliest layer of the text, but in later layers means the practice of drinking amr
.
ta by lengthening the tongue
and inserting it above the palate. Ball¯ ala takes it to have the latter meaning throughout his commentary.
I have tried to translate abhy¯ asa so that it can be interpreted either way. The two interpretations have
resulted in confusion in the text, and corruption in its transmission. Thus, the translation of :.s–¬ is
somewhat forced and I can only make sense of :.¡:c–¡+b by taking abhy¯ asa to refer to the tongue practice
alone.
:¬,
Ball¯ ala (f. ¡v
1
) divides abhy¯ asa into two types, internal ( ¯ antara) and external (b¯ ahya). He further
divides the internal practice into two: entry into the aperture above the palate (tatprave´sa cf. :.:c:b) and
melaka (see the next footnote). The external practice is the lengthening of the tongue described at :.¡+–s:.
:ïc
All the witnesses except S have melanam
.
here. At the other occurrences of melaka/melana (:.sd, oc,
¬c, ïa, ,b, ::c, :ob, ¡:a; +.soa, s,a) there is more complex disagreement between the witnesses over which
form is used. In some witnesses the two do seem to be differentiated. This is particularly so in J:PFCγ
at :.s–¬, but this appears to be simply an attempt to make sense of a corrupt transmission in which two
almost identical half-verses (scd and ocd) are found. In M aSam
.
:¬.:–+: melana means “meeting [with
Khecar¯ıs]” (see below) while at the one occurrence of melaka (:¬.+:d) it is an adjective describing the guru
who can effect melana. However, at M aSam
.
:¬.s:, :ï.: and :ï.:¡ melaka is used as a substantive. Ball¯ ala
(f. ¡v
5
) says that melana and melaka are synonyms: melanam
.
melakam
.
v ¯ a pary¯ ayah
.
. To avoid confusion,
I have decided to use only melaka, the form preferred in the texts of tantric
´
Saivism from which the term
originates. Only U is similarly partisan, sticking to melana. (At +.soa I have adopted khecar¯ımelana
which is attested by all the witnesses.)
M elaka in tantric
´
Saiva texts implies yogin¯ımelaka, “a meeting with Yogin¯ıs”, in which the s¯ adhaka
causes a circle (cakra) of Yogin¯ıs to surround him and grant him siddhi s. This reward of tantric s¯ adhana
is often mentioned in the texts and exegesis of the bhairav ¯ agama, e.g. M VUT :,.::; JRY ¡.:.+sc (f.:,v),
+o¬ (f.:,v), s,+ (f.+cr), o¡¬ (f.+:v) etc.; T
¯
A :ï:+¬:–+ï¡; KM T :¡.:. Cf. Hevajratantra I.ï. KJN pat
.
ala ï
(particularly vv. +:–¡s) describes yogin¯ımelaka and its rewards in detail. Cf. SYM pat
.
ala ï which describes
a meeting in the cremation-ground with various terrifying Yogin¯ıs but does not use the word melaka. The
mel¯ apasiddha, “the master of effecting melaka”, is described in Mahe´svar¯ ananda’s Parimala commentary
on +ïab of the M ah¯ arthama˜ njar¯ı (see also Siinuix :,oï::++–:+s). V ¯ atulan ¯ athas¯ utravr
.
tti s gives an esoteric
interpretation of siddhayogin¯ımel¯ apa as the union of the perceiver (gr¯ ahaka) and the perceived (gr¯ ahya).
M elaka is never explicitly stated to be a meeting with yogin¯ı s in the KhV, but +.soa suggests this by
mentioning khecar¯ımelana. All the occurrences of melaka are found in the earliest layer of the text (in the
context of the vidy¯ a) and later tradition does not understand it as referring to a meeting with yogin¯ı s. Ball¯ ala
says that melana is a type of internal physical practice (f. ¡v
1
), and defines it as the conjunction of the tip
of the tongue and amr
.
ta, i.e. the drinking of amr
.
ta (f. ¡v
4−5
): jihv ¯ agrasy¯ adhomukhacandrasravadamr
.
tasya
ca sam
.
yogas tatp¯ an ¯ artho melanam
.
.
I have taken melaka to be the result of the practice (abhy¯ asa) and have translated accordingly. This
interpretation, which I have found necessary in order to make sense of the corrupt transmission (see
footnote :•), may be forced: see M aSam
.
:¬.¡+ where even the s¯ adhaka who does not practise (anabhy¯ as¯ı)
is said to gain everything as a result of melana. (The M aSam
.
passage is almost certainly derived from the
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a; it may thus be the composer’s own attempt to resolve the difficulties found in the KhV.)
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :+s
in a subsequent life (janmajanm ¯ antare kva cit).
ocd. M elaka, however, is not achieved even after one hundred lives [without
carrying out the practice].
:ï:
¬. Carrying out the practice, which has been obtained by means of the correct
emotional attiude (sadbh¯ avas¯ adhitam), after many lives the yogin attains melaka, o
goddess, sometime in a later life.
ï. Now when, o supreme goddess, the desirous [yogin] attains melaka, then he
attains the siddhi
:ï:
which is described in the textual tradition.
,. When [the yogin] attains melaka, both in letter and spirit (granthata´s c¯ arthata´s),
then, freed from the terror of transmigration, he becomes
´
Siva.
:c. Without [this] text, even gurus cannot understand [the mantra of Khecar¯ı].
So, my dear, this very, very precious text must be obtained.
::. As long as one does not have this text one shall wander about the earth. When
it is obtained, o goddess, then siddhi is in [one’s] hand.
::ab. Without [this] text there is no siddhi even for one who wanders about the
three worlds.
::c–:+b. So [the yogin], o goddess, should always worship
´
Siva, recognising [him]
as the giver of melaka, the giver of the text, and the bestower of its practice.
:+c–:¡b. I have taught many tantras, o goddess, [but], o you who are worshipped
by the gods, in them the Khecar¯ı siddhi, which destroys death, is not taught.
:ï:
Only µU T have oc–¬b. Sαβγ (excluding Mα+J+J: which omit ocd) repeat scd at ocd and omit ¬ab.
The readings found in µ, which suggest melana with snakes, may preserve the original reading in some
way but are obscure to me. Because it is the only reading of which I can make sense, I have have had to
adopt that of U , although it is likely to be the result of redaction by the compiler of the upanis
.
ad.
It may be that originally there was one verse rather than two at o–¬. The common practice of scribes
of tantric manuscripts writing a variant line immediately after that which has been adopted could be
responsible for the obscurity and similarity of verses o and ¬. I am grateful to Dr. Dominic Goodall for
making this suggestion.
:ï:
The meaning of siddhi falls somewhere between “magical power”, “perfection”, “accomplishment”
and “success”.
:+o Cuairii :
:¡c–:ob. M ah¯ ak ¯ ala
:ï+
and Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a
:ï¡
and
´
S¯ abara
:ïs
and Vi´suddhe´svara
:ïo
and J¯ ala´samvara:
:ï¬
in these excellent tantras
:ïï
the practice of [Khecar¯ı] is proclaimed.
:ï+
“Mah¯ ak¯ ala” could mean the M ah¯ ak ¯ alasam
.
hit ¯ a attributed to
¯
Adin¯ atha. In pat
.
ala o of its K¯ ama-
kal¯ akhan
.
d
.
a the khecar¯ısiddhividh¯ anam is given. By means of a magical gut
.
ik ¯ a, yantras, mantras and
propitiation of deities, the yogin attains khecar¯ısiddhi. However, it is very likely that the M KS postdates
the KhV (see page :s of the introduction). The Jayadrathay¯ amala lists a M ah¯ ak ¯ al¯ısam
.
hit ¯ a associated with
the Vis
.
n
.
uy¯ amala and a M ah¯ ak ¯ alyupasam
.
hit ¯ a associated with the Yogin¯ıj ¯ ala´sambara at ff.:ïcr and :¬or
respectively (Dyczxowsxi :,ïï:::ï and :::). The M ah¯ asiddhas¯ aratantra lists a M ah¯ ak ¯ alatantra among
those of the northern Rathakr¯ ant ¯ a (Avaiox :,:¡:lxvi). Wuiri (:,,o:¡¬: n.¬+) mentions a M ah¯ ak ¯ ala-
tantrar¯ aja in the Kanjur, a manuscript of which from the NAK has been microfilmed by the NGMPP
(reel E-:+sï/ ¬). Ju¯ a (:,¬::,) describes in brief a Buddhist M ah¯ ak ¯ alatantra as found in a manuscript from
the K¯ a´s¯ıpras¯ ad J¯ ayasav¯ al
´
Sodh Sam
.
sth¯ an.
:ï¡
Vivekam ¯ artan
.
d
.
a is the original name of the text now more commonly known as the Goraks
.
a´sataka
or Goraks
.
asam
.
hit ¯ a, a treatise on hat
.
hayoga attributed to Goraks
.
an¯ atha. Several editions of the work exist,
the best being that of Nowotny (:,¬o), in which khecar¯ımudr¯ a is described at o¡–o, and :+ï–:s:. This
mention of a known work provides us with a terminus a quo for the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. See page : and footnote
o in the introduction for further details.
:ïs
Here Sα: βγ have ´s¯ ambhavam, A has ´s¯ abharam, JoJ¬ have ´s¯ am
.
varam and α+ has ´sobhanam. Apart from
a mention in the Jayadrathay¯ amala (f.:¬,v—Dyczxowsxi :,ïï:::s) of a
´
S¯ ambaramatatantra associated
with the Brahmay¯ amala, I have found no mention of tantras by these names and have made the conjecture
that ´s¯ abaram is the original reading. The
´
S¯ abaratantra (or
´
S¯ abaratantras; see Gouoiiaax and Guira
:,ï:: ::c–:::) is associated with the N¯ atha order (Dyczxowsxi :,ïï::ï and n.:¡¡). The colophon of a
manuscript entitled Divya´s¯ abaratantra (No. ï+ss in the Asiatic Society of Bengal Library) reads iti ´sr¯ıdivya-
´s¯ abare goraks
.
asiddhiharan
.
e datt ¯ atreyasiddhisop¯ ane n ¯ ama ek ¯ ada´sapat
.
alah
.
(Guaiori and Bioixai :,ï,:ï¡–
ïs) while MS No. :cs¡: in the same library, entitled
´
S¯ abaratantra, ascribes the text to Gorakhan¯ atha
(ibid. +oc). A
´
S¯ abaratantra is quoted extensively in the M ah¯ ak ¯ alasam
.
hit ¯ a and in the Goraks
.
asiddh¯ anta-
sam
.
graha (pp.:¡–:s). KJN ,.o and H P :.s include
´
Sabara in lists of siddhas.
:ïo
The N ity¯ as
.
od
.
a´sik ¯ arn
.
ava, the root text of the cult of Tripurasundar¯ı which was known (as the V ¯ ama-
ke´svar¯ımata) to the thirteenth century Kashmiri commentator Jayaratha, mentions a tantra called Vi´su-
ddhe´svara (:.::b). Avaiox, citing the M ah¯ asiddhas¯ aratantra includes a Vi´suddhe´svaratantra among the o¡
tantras of the Vis
.
n
.
ukr¯ ant ¯ a in the east and the o¡ of the A´svakr¯ ant ¯ a in the south (:,:¡:lxv–lxvi). Kavii¯ ai
(:,¬::s,¬) mentions six relatively late East Indian texts which quote from a Vi´suddhe´svaratantra: Kr
.
s
.
n
.
¯ a-
nanda’s Tantras¯ ara (:sïcci), the Pura´scary¯ arn
.
ava, the M antramah¯ arn
.
ava, the T ¯ ar¯ abhaktisudh¯ arn
.
ava, the
T ¯ ar¯ arahasyavr
.
tti and the
¯
Agamatattvavil¯ asa of Raghun¯ atha V¯ ag¯ı´sa (:oï¬ci). The T ¯ ar¯ abhaktisudh¯ arn
.
ava
consists mainly of quotations, including many from the M ah¯ ak ¯ alasam
.
hit ¯ a. The Vi´suddhe´svara is quoted
in two places (pp. ::¬ and :¡ï). The Bombay University Library Catalogue of Manuscripts (s.v. M ah¯ a-
k ¯ alayoga´s¯ astra) says that the KhV is also quoted in the T ¯ ar¯ abhaktisudh¯ arn
.
ava but I have been unable to
locate any such quotation (confusion between the M ah¯ ak ¯ alasam
.
hit ¯ a and M ah¯ ak ¯ alayoga´s¯ astra is probably
responsible for this incorrect attribution).
:ï¬
Like the Vi´suddhe´svara, the J¯ ala´sam
.
vara is mentioned in the N ity¯ as
.
od
.
a´sik ¯ arn
.
ava (:.:¡). A tantra
called J¯ alasam
.
vara is mentioned in a list of tantras given at Kularatnoddyota :.:+ (Chandra Sham Shere
c.+¡ï f. :r
3
). JRY f.:¬oa lists the twelve tantras and twenty Upasam
.
hit ¯ as of the Yogin¯ıj ¯ ala´sambara root
tantra. The same work mentions
´
Sambar¯ a in a list of Mata tantras at f.:ïsr (Dyczxowsxi :,ïï::::).
SYM :,.:oc mentions a Savaratantra. The M ah¯ asiddhas¯ aratantra includes a Samvaratantra among the
o¡ tantras of the Rathakr¯ ant ¯ a, the northern region of the subcontinent (Avaiox :,:¡:lxvi). KJN ::.¡
mentions sambara as the name of a Kaula school.
:ïï
Ball¯ ala (f. ov
1
) lists more works in which khecar¯ısiddhi is described: the sixty-four Tantras, Laks
.
m¯ı-
dhara’s commentary on the Saundaryalahar¯ı and “the
´
Sivasamhit ¯ a etc.” (´sivasam
.
hit ¯ adau).
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :+¬
M elaka and the other [results obtained] by means of Khecar¯ı [are proclaimed in these
tantras] sometimes clearly, sometimes unclearly.
:ocd. In this divine best of tantras melaka and the other [results] are proclaimed.
:¬. Out of fondness for you I have taught here everything that there is to be
known (j ˜ neyam) in the Khecar¯ı doctrine (khecar¯ımate)
:ï,
that might be hard to know
(durj ˜ neyam).
:ï. Therefore [the yogin] should procure this amazing text told by me; it has not
been made public and is to be kept secret, o great goddess.
:,a–:cb. He alone is a guru who speaks the nectar of the teaching born from the
lotus of my mouth; moreover, he who knows its implicit (arthatah
.
) meaning is said to
be the best [guru]. There is no guru better than him.
:ccd. After obtaining this secret text one should not proclaim it to others.
:,c
::ab. After due consideration, it is to be taught to those who live on this path.
::c–::b. He who makes this supreme text public to all and sundry (yatra tatra)
will be quickly eaten by yogin¯ı s, o goddess, at the order of
´
Siva.
:,:
::cd. One should not untie (nodgranthayet) its knot (granthim),
:,:
o goddess,
without [performing] a kaulika libation.
:,+
:+. [After it has been] worshipped, placed upon an auspicious cloth and well-
scented with divine incense (divyadh ¯ upasudh ¯ upitam),
:,¡
one should recite it, in a place
:ï,
A text called Khecar¯ımata is mentioned at T
¯
A :,.:osb (and Tantr¯ alokaviveka ad loc.) and in a list
of sixteen M atas in the M anth¯ anabhairavatantra (NAK s-¡o+c, f.:c,r) v.:ïd. It seems unlikely however
that a specific text is being referred to in this verse of the KhV. An inventory of religious teachings in
the Kularatnoddyota (Bodleian Library Chandra Shum Shere Collection c.+¡ï f. :r
1−2
) also mentions
khecar¯ımata. (I am grateful to Professor Sanderson for providing me with the above references.) A
Khecaratantra is mentioned at SYM :,.:ob.
:,c
See SSP o.,,–::¬ for a similar passage on keeping a text safe.
:,:
cf. JRY :.:c.scd–s:b (NAK s–¡osc f. :¬r
1
): nedam
.
g¯ ud
.
ham
.
prak ¯ a´sayet sc prak ¯ a´sayanti ye moh¯ ad
yoginyo bhaks
.
ayanti t ¯ an (t ¯ an ] conj. Saxoiisox; te codd.) | “[The yogin] should not make this secret public.
Yogin¯ı s eat those who through ignorance make [it] public.” Another passage describing yogin¯ı s eating
negligent s¯ adhakas can be found in the Buddhist Cakrasam
.
varatantra (+ï.:–s: Baroda Oriental Institute
Acc. No. :+:,c, f.:¬v). I am grateful to Professor Sanderson for pointing out these parallel passages.
:,:
The granthi is the knot in the string that holds together the leaves of the book (grantha).
:,+
i.e. a libation pertaining to Kaula tantric practice. KJN ::.:c says that alcohol should be used for
devat ¯ atarpana: devat ¯ atarpan
.
¯ arth¯ aya sur¯ a dey¯ a yathocit ¯ a. KAT o.:o–+s describes kaulikatarpan
.
a in detail.
Cf. M aSam
.
:¬.:oc–:,b. On this verse, Ball¯ ala writes (f. ïv
7
) kaulikatarpan
.
am
.
n ¯ ama v ¯ amam ¯ arg¯ acaran
.
am
.
,
“the kaulika libation is a practice of the left[-hand] path”. He goes on to say (f. ïv
9
–f. ,r
5
) that because the
practices of the left-hand path conflict with Vedic practice (v ¯ amasya vedaviruddhatvena), kaulikatarpan
.
am
must have a different meaning. He quotes from
´
SS ¡.+: p¯ıtv ¯ a kul¯ amr
.
tam
.
divyam
.
punar eva vi´set kulam
and equates kul¯ amr
.
tam with the amr
.
ta drunk by means of khecar¯ımudr¯ a and kulam with the n ¯ aga n ¯ ad
.
¯ı.
Thus he explains the external tantric practice of kaulikatarpan
.
am as an internal hat
.
hayogic technique of
sprinkling the n ¯ aga n ¯ ad
.
¯ı with amr
.
ta. The variant readings in GTK:Ks are less subtle attempts at getting
around the problem.
:,¡
Ball¯ ala (f. ,r
9
–f. ,v
1
) lists the following as suitable fragrances: candana (sandal), tam ¯ ala (laurel),
mustaka (Cyperus rotunda Linn.—Dasu and Kasuyai :,ïc::s), ku ˙ nkuma (saffron), kus
.
t
.
haka (Sassurea
:+ï Cuairii :
free of people, to a yogin skilled in yoga.
:¡. Distress [arising] from fire, illness, malign astrological influence and enemies
undoubtedly arises in a house where this text is found unworshipped.
:,s
:s. The family deities (kuladevat ¯ ah
.
) that bestow all wealth are present in the house
where this book is worshipped, o P¯ arvati.
:oab. Therefore the wise man should protect [this book] with every effort.
:oc–:¬b. The yogin who wants these siddhi s described by me should guard this
book with all [his] being.
:,o
:¬cd. I myself am the guru of him in whose possession the book is found, o
goddess.
:ïabc. The advantages and disadvantages [resulting] from the protection of [this]
book have been clearly described by me, o great goddess.
:ïd. Now hear [the mantra and practice of ] Khecar¯ı.
:,a–+cb. And one should go, o goddess, to where there is a guru who has perfected
the divine yoga and, after receiving the vidy¯ a called Khecar¯ı spoken by him, one should
begin by scrupulously and tirelessly carrying out the practice described by him.
[The Khecar¯ı mantra]
+cc–+:b. [Now] I shall proclaim the Khecar¯ı mantra (vidy¯ a) that grants success in yoga,
o goddess. Without it a yogin cannot enjoy Khecar¯ı siddhi.
+:c–+:b. Practising the yoga of Khecar¯ı (khecar¯ım
.
yu ˜ njan) by means of the Khecar¯ı
mantra (khecary¯ a) preceded by the Khecar¯ı seed syllable (khecar¯ıb¯ıjap¯ urvay¯ a), [the
yogin] becomes lord of the aerial beings (khecar¯ adhipatih
.
) and dwells amongst them
(khecares
.
u) forever.
:,¬
lappa C.B.Clarke—Dasuand Kasuyai :,ïc:o:), rocan ¯ a (? probably gorocan ¯ a, a bright yellow orpiment—
Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs :,ïï:s.v.), nakha (Unguis odoratus—ibid.:s.v.), t ¯ amb ¯ ula (betel) and yaks
.
akardama,
which consists of karp¯ ura (camphor), aguru (aloe), kast ¯ ur¯ı (musk) and ka˙ nkola (cubeb).
:,s
cf. Yonitantra o.+: etat tantram mah¯ adevi yasya gehe vir¯ ajate | n ¯ agnicaurabhayam
.
tasya ante ca moks
.
abh¯ ag
bhavet “He who has this tantra in his house is in no danger of fire or theft and in the end he becomes
liberated”.
:,o
In :od I have adopted the reading found only in W: (and with corruptions in N). The witnesses
that usually preserve the oldest readings, µ and G (as well as α), have the verb sam¯ıhate rather than the
sam
.
vadet of Sβγ and I have thus adopted sam¯ıhate. As the object of the verb, µ and G have sam
.
siddh¯ıni
and sam
.
siddh¯ ani respectively; sam
.
siddh¯ıni is corrupt while sam
.
siddh¯ ani is semantically inappropriate—we
want a word meaning “siddhi s” here. Perhaps the original reading was that of µ and sam
.
siddh¯ıni was an
ai´sa form meaning siddh¯ıh
.
but I have decided to adopt the more grammatically correct reading of W: .
:,¬
Ball¯ ala (f. ::v
9−10
) understands khecar¯ım
.
yu ˜ njan to mean “practising khecar¯ımudr¯ a”, i.e. inserting
the tongue into the cavity above the soft palate and looking between the eyebrows: khecar¯ım
.
yum
.
jann iti
| atra khecar¯ı´sabdena (˚´sabdena ] conj. Isaacsox and Goooaii; ˚´sabde S) tam
.
tren
.
a kap¯ al¯ am
.
tarjihv ¯ aprave´so
bhr ¯ umadhyadr
.
s
.
t
.
i´s ca nirdi´syate yum
.
janpadasv ¯ arasy¯ at He glosses khecary¯ a with jihvay¯ a, “by means of the
tongue” (f. ::v
8
), and khecara (in khecar¯ adhipatih
.
) with graha, “planet”, and deva, “deity” (f. ::r
6
). He then
(f. ::r
7
–f. ::v
3
) cites Yogas¯ utra +.sc and Vy¯ asa’s commentary thereon in which it is said that upon reaching
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :+,
+:c–++b. The abode of the ethereal beings (khecar¯ avasatham=ha)
:,ï
[and] fire
(vahnim=ra),
:,,
adorned with the mother (amb¯ a=¯ı)
:cc
and the circle (man
.
d
.
ala =m
.
),
:c:
is called the Khecar¯ı seed-syllable (hr¯ım
.
).
:c:
By means of it yoga is successful.
++c–+¡b.
:c+
The great Can
.
d
.
¯ a (mah¯ acan
.
d
.
¯ a), known as the peak (mastak ¯ akhy¯ a), bear-
ing the flaming, fiery thunderbolt (´sikhivahnikavajrabhr
.
t), joined with the previously
described seed-syllable, is called the Vidy¯ a [and] is extremely hard to obtain.
:c¡
+¡c–+sb. [Now] I shall teach the six-limbed mantra (s
.
ad
.
a˙ ngavidy¯ am).
:cs
[The
yogin] should correctly (yath¯ any¯ ayam)
:co
perform [the mantra-repetition] with it in-
the second stage (madhumat¯ı bh ¯ umi) of yoga the gods will invite the yogin to their heavenly paradise.
The conscientious yogin should decline this invitation to indulge in sensual pleasures and concentrate on
sam ¯ adhi.
:,ï
The abode of the ethereal beings is the ether. The visualisation of the Lord of Ether at :.s¬ describes
a great circle containing the syllable ham
.
.
:,,
At :.s:–s: the Lord of Fire is said to contain the syllable ram
.
.
:cc
In the Varn
.
an ¯ amapat
.
ala of the Jayadrathay¯ amala (f. :,,r
3
–f. :c:r
5
), at verse o, ¯ı is called Mah¯ am¯ ay¯ a
(i.e. Amb¯ a). I have adopted the reading amb¯ a˚ rather than ahn¯ı˚ or ambho˚, the readings of µ and G, in
order to force the mantroddh¯ ara to produce the seed-syllable hr¯ım
.
which is attested by various witnesses
(see footnote :c¬). I have found no instances of ¯ı being called ahn¯ı or ambho so have adopted amb¯ a
because of the (albeit uncertain) identification in the JRY.
:c:
I am assuming man
.
d
.
ala to be referring to the dot representing anusv ¯ ara.
:c:
:.+:c–+¬d teaches three different types of Khecar¯ı mantra: +:c–++b teaches the b¯ıja, ++c–+¡b teaches
the vidy¯ a, and +¡c–+¬d teaches the k ¯ ut
.
a.
In witness Ks (f. :v
6
) a later hand has interpreted the elements of the khecar¯ıb¯ıja: above khecar¯ a-
vasatham
.
is written kha, above vahnim an unclear aks
.
ara which is probably ra, above am
.
v ¯ a is au, and
above man
.
d
.
ala, candrabindu. These combine to make the seed-syllable khraum
.
(their combination is not
given in the manuscript). In the appendix of M KSK (p.:+¡) the khecar¯ıb¯ıja is also said to be khraum
.
. Just
as in the case of hr¯ım
.
, the extraction of khraum
.
from this mantroddh¯ ara hinges on the identification of
amb¯ a/ahn¯ı/ambhas. If au were anywhere clearly said to have one of these names then the balance would
swing in favour of khraum
.
as the khecar¯ıb¯ıja: khecar¯ avasatha could just as well stand for kha as ha.
:c+
++c–+sb are found after s+d in all the witnesses. µ has the passage twice, with variants, both after
s+d (µ
b
) and here (µ
a
). Its occurrence after s+d does not fit the context (the lengthening of the tongue)
although attempts have been made to adapt it. Hence for mastak ¯ akhy¯ a mah¯ acan
.
d
.
¯ a ´sikhivahnikavajrabhr
.
t
several witnesses have ´sanaih
.
´sanaih
.
mastak ¯ ac ca mah¯ avajrakap¯ at
.
abhit, “[the tongue] gradually breaks the
great diamond doorway out of the skull”. It seems that the passage was originally where it is first found
in µ, was then mistakenly transposed to its position after s+d, and, through conflation of sources, appears
in both places in µ. Thus none of the manuscripts entitled Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a contains a description of the
khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
:c¡
None of the witnesses of µ gives an interpretation of this mantroddh¯ ara and I am unable to suggest
one myself.
:cs
All the witnesses except µ
a
have tasy¯ ah
.
s
.
ad
.
a˙ ngam
.
kurv¯ıta at +¡c. Ball¯ ala (f. ::v
4−6
) glosses s
.
ad
.
a˙ ngam
.
with s
.
ad
.
a˙ ngany¯ asam
.
which he explains at f. ::v
9−10
thus: sa ca ny¯ asah
.
am
.
gus
.
t
.
h¯ adis
.
u hr
.
d¯ adis
.
u ca s
.
ad
.
am
.
ges
.
u
kartavyah
.
yath¯ a | om
.
hr¯ am
.
gsnmphl¯ am
.
am
.
gus
.
t
.
h¯ abhy¯ am
.
namah
.
o om
.
hrom
.
gsnmphl¯ a

m
.

hr
.
day¯ aya
nama ity¯ adi 6. A marginal addition in a later hand cites the tantric maxim that the yogin who does not
carry out ny¯ asa will be struck dumb (f.::v
mg
): ny¯ asah¯ıno bhaven m ¯ uka iti tam
.
trokteh
.
.
:co
Ball¯ ala (f. ::r
1
) understands yath¯ any¯ ayam to mean that the yogin should perform the mantra-
repetition in exactly the way that he has heard it from his guru: ny¯ ayo ’tra guruvaktr¯ at tadgrahan
.
am
.
| tad
:¡c Cuairii :
terspersed with the six [long] vowels (s
.
at
.
svarabhinnay¯ a), o goddess, in order to obtain
complete success.
+scd. One should take the ninth letter back from Some´sa.
+oab. The thirtieth letter from there, which is in the shape of the moon, is declared
[to be next].
+ocd. From there [one should take] then the eighth syllable back, my dear.
+¬a. Then [there is] the fifth [syllable] from there, o goddess.
+¬b. Then the first syllable after that is the fifth [syllable of the mantra].
+¬cd. Then [there is] Indra joined with an anusv ¯ ara. This [mantra] is called
K¯ ut
.
a.
:c¬
anatikramya yath¯ any¯ ayam
.
|
:c¬
Seven witnesses give interpretations of this mantroddh¯ ara (for details see the description of sources):
U bham
.
sam
.
mam
.
pam
.
sam
.
ks
.
am
.
U
vl
bham
.
sam
.
sam
.
t
.
ham
.
sam
.
ks
.
am
.
U
vl
ham
.
sam
.
mam
.
yam
.
sam
.
ks
.
am
.
U
vl
bham
.
sam
.
s
.
am
.
pham
.
sam
.
ks
.
am
.
U
vl
bham
.
sam
.
mam
.
vam
.
sam
.
ks
.
am
.
S gam
.
sam
.
nam
.
mam
.
pham
.
lam
.
W: ga ma na sa pha lam
.
W
vl
:
ga sa na sa pha lam
.
W
vl
:
ga sa na ma pha lam
.
W
vl
:
om
.
sa kha phrom
.
W
vl
:
am
.
sa kha phrom
.
K: ga ma na sa pha lam
.
J¡ ham
.
sam
.
s
.
am
.
pham
.
ram
.
im
.
— hsphr¯ım
.
[sic]
J
vl
¡
ham
.
sam
.
kham
.
pham
.
ram
.
¯ım
.
— hskhphr¯ım
.
V gam
.
sam
.
nam
.
mam
.
pham
.
lam
.
V
vl
am
.
sam
.
kham
.
phrem
.
O

hs

phrem
.
(USW: K: V add that hr¯ım
.
is the khecar¯ıb¯ıja.)
Upanis
.
adbrahmayogin’s interpretation of the mantroddh¯ ara is straightforward: Some´sa is sa; nine back
from there (inclusively) is bha; +oab describes sa; eight back from there is ma; five back from there is pa;
the b¯ıja of indu is sa; k ¯ ut
.
a is ks
.
a.
The variations on gamanasaphalam
.
seem to be attempts to give meaning to the mantra: gamana[m],
“going [into the ether]” is saphalam, “successful”. Ball¯ ala (f. :+v
4
–f. :+(:)v
2
) tries to extract ga sa na ma
pha la from the mantroddh¯ ara (presumably because ga ma na sa pha la would have required an impossible
amount of verbal contortionism). He starts well: as many sources attest, Some´sa is a name for t
.
a. Nine
syllables back from t
.
a is ga. Thirty forward from ga is sa. He is then in trouble, however, and the
remainder of his interpretation is forced.
The interpretations found in J¡ and O, and as alternatives in W: and V, are more redolent of tantric
´
Saiva
mantras than the others, and appear to be variants of the pin
.
d
.
an ¯ atha/m ¯ atr
.
sadbh¯ ava mantra (on which
see Paooux :,,ca:¡::–¡:o). Jayaratha, commenting on T
¯
A :o.:oc says that khecar¯ıhr
.
daya is another
name for the pin
.
d
.
an ¯ atha. In the T
¯
A the pin
.
d
.
an ¯ atha is given as khphrem
.
at ¡.:ï,–:,:, s.¬s–ïs, +c.¡s–¡o
and as hshrphrem
.
at +c.¡¬–¡,. S
.
at
.
s¯ ahasrasam
.
hit ¯ a :.: gives it as hskhphrem
.
(cf. J
vl
¡
’s hskhphr¯ım
.
). Despite
finding several identifications of Some´sa, Candra and Indra in the JRY, M VUT , KM T , M KS and various
mantrako´sas, I have been unable to edit the text in such a way that I can extract a variant of the pin
.
d
.
an ¯ atha
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¡:
+ïab. It is to be obtained from the teaching of a guru and bestows fame in all
worlds.
+ïc–+,b. Illusion, born of the body, with many forms (vir ¯ up¯ a) [and] residing in
the faculties (karan
.
¯ a´sray¯ a),
:cï
does not arise even in sleep for the controlled [yogin], as
a result of the continuous twelve-fold repetition [of this mantra].
+,c–¡cb. The glorious Khecar¯ı siddhi arises automatically for him who, totally
self-controlled, recites this [mantra] five hundred thousand times.
:c,
¡cc–¡:b. All obstacles are destroyed, the gods are pleased and, without doubt,
wrinkles and grey hair will disappear.
¡:c–¡:b. After thus obtaining the great mantra (mah¯ avidy¯ am) [the yogin] should
then carry out the practice; otherwise, o goddess, he suffers and [there is for him] no
siddhi in the sphere of Khecar¯ı (khecar¯ıpade).
¡:c–¡+b. If [the yogin] does not obtain [this] nectarean (sudh¯ amay¯ım) mantra
(vidy¯ am) during the observance of the practice, then he should recite [it] having ob-
tained it at the beginning of melaka.
::c
¡+cd. Without this [mantra], o goddess, [the yogin] can never enjoy success.
¡¡ab. When this text is obtained then [the yogin] should resort to the mantra
(vidy¯ a).
¡¡cd. Then, my dear, he quickly obtains the siddhi described therein.
(or indeed any recognised mantra) from the mantroddh¯ ara.
:cï
Ball¯ ala, together with all of the other witnesses except µU Tα+C, has here the compound vir ¯ upa-
karan
.
¯ a´sray¯ a which he interprets as meaning the process of ageing: s¯ a yoginah
.
p¯ urvar ¯ up¯ at t ¯ arun
.
y¯ ad viru-
ddham
.
r ¯ upam
.
vir ¯ upam
.
vr
.
ddhatvam
.
tasya karan
.
am
.
kr
.
tis tad¯ a´sray¯ a jarety arthah
.
(f. :¡r
1−2
).
:c,
Here Ball¯ ala quotes the following passage concerning the japa of the khecar¯ımantra which he ascribes
to the Kapilatantra and other texts (kapilatantr¯ adau). This passage is also found at the end of N (see the
description of sources, p.o¡).
japavidhi´s coktah
.
kapilatam
.
tr¯ adau yath¯ a | ¯ acamya de´sak ¯ alau sam
.
k¯ırtya | asya ´sr¯ıkhecar¯ımam
.
trasya | kapila
r
.
s
.
ih
.
khecar¯ı devat ¯ a | gasanamaphalaghat
.
¯ aks
.
aram
.
b¯ıjam
.
| hr¯ım
.
´saktih
.
si(f.14v)ddhir an ¯ ay¯ asena khecar¯ımu-
dr¯ apras¯ adasidhyarthe jape viniyogah
.
| atha ny¯ asah
.
| gam
.
hr
.
day¯ aya namah
.
| sam
.
´sirase sv ¯ ah¯ a | nam
.
´sikh¯ ayai
vas
.
at
.
| mam
.
kavac¯ aya hum
.
| pham
.
netratray¯ aya vaus
.
at
.
| lam
.
astr¯ aya phat
.
| hr¯ am
.
hr¯ım
.
hr ¯ um
.
hraim
.
hraum
.
hrah
.
atha dhy¯ anam ¯ adh¯ arapadmavana khecarir¯ ajaham
.
sam am
.
tar mah¯ agaganav ¯ asavibh¯ apralekham
.

¯ anam
.
dab¯ıjakam anam
.
garipoh
.
puram
.
dhr¯ım ¯ abrahmalokajanan¯ım abhiv ¯ adaye tv ¯ am iti anyac ca | m ¯ ul¯ ala-
v ¯ alakuhar¯ ad udit ¯ a bhav ¯ an¯ıty ¯ abhidya s
.
at
.
sarasij ¯ ani ´sirodal¯ am
.
te bh ¯ uyo pi tatra vasas¯ıva sumam
.
d
.
alem
.
dunis
.
-
pam
.
datah
.
paramam amr
.
tapus
.
t
.
ir ¯ up¯ a m ¯ anasopac¯ arair lam
.
ham
.
yam
.
ram
.
vam
.
sam
.
b¯ıjap¯ urvair gam
.
dh¯ adibhih
.
sam
.
p¯ ujya mam
.
tram
.
japed iti (f. :¡r
10
–f. :¡v
4
).
::c
As noted in footnote :¬ï I can only make sense of this verse by taking abhy¯ asa to refer to the tongue
practice. If the vidy¯ a has not been obtained then abhy¯ asa cannot mean mantra-repetition. I have been
unable to conjecture how the verse might have originally read from the many variants in the witnesses.
µ’s yadi has been adopted over the reading yath¯ a of most of the other witnesses because yath¯ a is unlikely
to be paired with the correlative tatah
.
found in the second line. The relative clause found in all the
witnesses except those of α has been eliminated by adopting Ks’s na labheta in ¡:d and, in ¡+a, the
form sam
.
melak ¯ adau found in µGU T rather than the reading sa melak ¯ adau found in most of the other
witnesses. A similar form is found at :.:sd: devaih
.
sam
.
melanam
.
bhavet.
:¡: Cuairii :
[The physical practice]
¡s. In the manner described by his guru, [every day] for seven days the knower of
¯ atman should rub the base of the palate and clean away all the impurity.
:::
¡o. He should take a very sharp, well-oiled and clean blade resembling a leaf of
the Snuh¯ı plant and then cut away a hair’s breadth [of the frenum linguae] with it.
:::
:::
Ball¯ ala (f. :ïr
7−9
) recommends using the tip of the right thumb (daks
.
in
.
ahast ¯ am
.
gus
.
t
.
h¯ agren
.
a). He
explains this practice as a necessary part of mala´sodhana, “the cleansing of impurity”, and as useful in
loosening the palate (f. :ïv
1−2
): jihv ¯ al¯ aghavasya chedanas¯ adhyatvam iva samudghars
.
an
.
ap¯ urvakamala´so-
dhanasya bilal¯ aghavak ¯ arakatv ¯ at. Witnesses AJ¬T have samutkr
.
s
.
ya for samudghr
.
s
.
ya. While this may simply
be a mistake, it could also refer to a practice not taught in the text but described to me by several of
my informants and by Biixaio (:,ï::o¬). In this practice the soft palate is loosened by being drawn
forwards and upwards (hence samutkr
.
s
.
ya), so as to facilitate the entry of the tongue into the cavity above.
My informants said that the yogin should bend the thumb of the right hand and hook it behind the
palate. Biixaio was taught to use a bent teaspoon. Cf. KhV :.¬ïc–¬,b, :.ïc.
:::
Euphorbia nerifolia Linn. (Dasu and Kasuyai :,ïc::¬). Ball¯ ala (f. :ïv
5
) explains snuh¯ı with snuh¯ı
ks
.
¯ırikam
.
t
.
akivr
.
ks
.
ah
.
yasya kham
.
d
.
am
.
d¯ aks
.
in
.
¯ aty¯ ah
.
s
.
as
.
t
.
h¯ıp¯ ujanadine dv ¯ ari sth¯ apayam
.
ti | de´s¯ıy¯ a´s ca th ¯ uhara iti
vadam
.
ti “Snuh¯ı is the Milkthorn tree, part of which southerners place on their doors on the day of worship
of the goddess S
.
as
.
t
.
h¯ı. Locally it is called th ¯ uhara”. Nowadays most yogins recommend a razor blade. W:
lists sixteen types of blade that can be used (see page o¡). One of my informants said that a blade was
not essential because by pulling the tongue forward and then moving it from side to side one can slowly
scrape away the frenum with the lower teeth. The frenum linguae is the tendon that binds the tongue to
the floor of the mouth. See also :.::: and footnote ::s.
The practice of cutting the frenum can be dangerous and the majority of my informants said that it
is unnecessary, including those who had done it themselves. Woooioiii (:,,:::c,) says that cutting is
unnecessary, and results in “a physical injury which interferes with the (sic) putting out and withdrawing
the tongue without manual help.” Of the several texts that describe the hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a only the
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, the M ah¯ ak ¯ alasam
.
hit ¯ a, the Hat
.
haprad¯ıpik ¯ a, the Hat
.
haratn ¯ aval¯ı and the Gheran
.
d
.
asam
.
hit ¯ a
deem it necessary that the tongue be cut (see also KhV :.::: where the frenum is called the bandhamr
.
tyu,
“the fetter of death”, and must be cut for freedom from death). I have met two people (Dr. Thakur of
Bombay and Mark Kidd of Cirencester) and heard of two others (Dr. Thakur’s son and Mrs. J.Benson
of Oxford) who are able to insert their tongues into the cavity above the palate without any preliminary
physical exercise. Of course, to lengthen the tongue so much that externally it can reach the top of the head
as described at :.ssd will require cutting. I have not met any yogins who have caused themselves serious
problems through cutting the frenum, but two of my informants did have very pronounced lisps and I
heard first-hand accounts of two yogins, an ascetic of the Caitanya Samprad¯ aya called Sv¯ am¯ı R¯ am¯ anand
(d. :,,:) who lived at Kaivalya Dh¯ am in Lon¯ aval¯ a, Mah¯ aras
.
t
.
ra, and a R¯ am¯ anand¯ı Ty¯ ag¯ı from Jaipur, who
both had difficulty in eating and talking.
Ball¯ ala (f. :ïv
9
–f. :,r
1
) relates what gurus teach about the cutting process: daks
.
in
.
ahastasy¯ am
.
gul¯ am
.
gu-
lany¯ unasam
.
yuktap¯ urvap¯ urvasthitatarjan¯ımadhyam ¯ an ¯ amik ¯ abhir upary am
.
gus
.
t
.
hena ca sruvavat dhr
.
tv ¯ a tatah
.
ek ¯ am
.
te dattakap¯ at
.
ah
.
s¯ avadh¯ anah
.
ek ¯ ak¯ı dhr
.
t ¯ adhobh¯ ajanah
.
tena daks
.
in
.
ahastasthita´sastrasya madhyena sam
.
-
mukham
.
p¯ ar´sven
.
a tiryak v ¯ a romam ¯ atram
.
ke´sapram ¯ an
.
am
.
samu (f.:,r)chidet pratisomav ¯ asaram iti guravah
.
|
tasmin chinne raktam adhah
.
patati tat p¯ urv ¯ adhodhr
.
tabh¯ ajane sam
.
gr
.
hya tyajet | pr
.
thivy¯ am
.
raktapatanani-
s
.
edh¯ at “Gurus say: [the yogin] should hold [the blade] like a sacrificial ladle with the thumb of the right
hand above the index, middle and ring fingers, which should be joined together, each one below the next.
Then in a solitary place, behind a locked door (dattakap¯ at
.
ah
.
?), carefully, alone, holding a vessel below
[his face], with the middle of the blade held in the right hand, from the front, or the side, or obliquely,
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¡+
¡¬. After cutting, he should rub [the cut] with a powder of rock-salt and pathy¯ a.
::+
After seven days he should again cut away a hair’s breadth.
::¡
¡ïab. [The yogin], constantly applying himself, should thus practise gradually for
six months.
¡ïcd. After six months the binding tendon at the base of the tongue (rasan ¯ am ¯ ula-
´sir¯ abandhah
.
)
::s
is destroyed.
¡,. Then, knowing the rules of time and limit (k ¯ alavel¯ avidh¯ anavit),
::o
the yogin
should gradually pull upwards the tip of the tongue (v ¯ ag¯ı´svar¯ıdh¯ ama´sirah
.
)
::¬
having
wrapped it in cloth.
::ï
he should cut a hair’s breadth every Monday. On cutting it blood flows. [The yogin] should gather it in
a vessel held in front and below [the mouth] and get rid of it. Because of the prohibition against letting
blood fall on the ground.” Giivis (:,¬c::c:–:) gives a first-hand account of a guru cutting his disciple’s
frenum.
::+
The cut is rubbed with this powder to prevent it from healing: chinnabh¯ agayor asam
.
yog¯ artham
.
(BKhP
f. :,r
2
). About saindhava, Ball¯ ala (f. :,r
2−3
) writes saim
.
dhavam
.
lavan
.
am asiddham
.
tac c¯ am
.
tah
.
raktava-
rn
.
am
.
pam
.
j ¯ abade´sodbhavam
.
gr¯ ahyam
.
: “Saindhava is unrefined salt. [The yogin] should use that found in
the Punjab, which has a red colour inside.” Ball¯ ala (f. :,r
3
) glosses pathy¯ a with laghuhar¯ıtak¯ı (Terminalia
chebula Retz. (Miuiixniio :,¬¡:o:c), an ingredient in triphal¯ a: see footnote ¡s+ in pat
.
ala ¡) and adds
(ibid.) that the pathy¯ a and saindhava are to be used in equal amounts: samo bh¯ ago ’tra vivaks
.
itah
.
. To rub
the powder into the cut, the yogin should use the tips of his index finger and thumb or just the tip of his
index finger: tarjanyam
.
gus
.
t
.
h¯ agr¯ abhy¯ am
.
tarjanyagren
.
a v ¯ a (f. :,r
3−4
).
::¡
Those of my informants who did cut the frenum told me that it was to be done daily. Biixaio
(:,ï::o¬) cut his each morning. If it were cut just once a week it would be very difficult to prevent the
cut from healing. See also :.s¡cd and footnote ::s.
::s
Ball¯ ala (f. :,r
8−9
): rasan ¯ am ¯ ula´sir¯ abandhah
.
| rasan ¯ a jihv ¯ a tasy¯ a m ¯ ule yah
.
´sir¯ ar ¯ upo n ¯ ad
.
¯ılaks
.
an
.
o bam
.
dhah
.
| bam
.
dhanam
.
bam
.
dhah
.
jar¯ amr
.
tyusam
.
s¯ arar ¯ upah
.
sa pran
.
a´syati | asya chedane punar api jananam
.
punar api
maran
.
am ity¯ adi na´syati | “The binding tendon at the base of the tongue: the bond at the base of the
tongue which has the form of a tendon, which is like a vein, is bondage; that bond, which consists of the
cycle of birth and death, is destroyed. When it is cut rebirth and redeath etc. are no more”.
::o
Ball¯ ala (f. :cr
9−10
) analyses k ¯ alavel¯ avidh¯ ana˚ as a dvandvasam ¯ asa. An addition in the margin at the
top of f.:cv analyses it as a tatpurus
.
a, as I have done. Ball¯ ala interprets k ¯ ala as pr¯ atah
.
k ¯ alah
.
bhojan ¯ at
p¯ urvah
.
, “in the morning, before eating” and glosses vel¯ a with mary¯ ad¯ a, saying that the tongue should not
be extended more than half a finger’s breadth (’rdh¯ am
.
gulam eva).
::¬
V¯ ag¯ı´svar¯ı, “the goddess of speech”, is Sarasvat¯ı; her “abode” (dh¯ aman) is the tongue (BKhP f. :,v
2
).
::ï
None of my informants mentioned the use of a cloth but Biixaio (:,ï::o¬) writes “I started by
‘milking’ the tongue. This was accomplished by washing it and then catching hold of it with a linen
towel. Any sort of cloth can be used, but I found this to be the most convenient. When the tongue has
become sufficiently dry, it can be handled with the bare hands; but the slightest bit of saliva makes it
impossible to handle it without the aid of a piece of cloth”. Ball¯ ala (f. :,v
3−9
) quotes Yogab¯ıja ,:–,ï for
a description of the cloth (on which see footnote +¡¬).
Ball¯ ala then describes three techniques to be used on the tongue: c¯ alana, “moving”, dohana, “milking”,
and t ¯ ad
.
ana, “striking”. He says at f. :cr
6
that although they are not mentioned in the KhV they need to be
understood because they are a part of utkars
.
an
.
a, “drawing out [of the tongue]”, (utkars
.
an
.
¯ am
.
gatv ¯ at). C¯ alana
and dohana are mentioned at H P +.+: which he quotes at f. :cr
7−8
; cf. SSP o.ï¡. About c¯ alana, in which
the yogin pulls his tongue from side to side and round in circles with his fingers in order to lengthen it,
Ball¯ ala writes (f. :,v
10
–f. :cr
2
): tatra c¯ alanam
.
n ¯ ama jihv ¯ adhobh¯ age kam
.
t
.
h¯ abhimukhadaks
.
ahast ¯ am
.
gus
.
t
.
ham
.
:¡¡ Cuairii :
sca–s:b. Then, in six months, after regular drawing out (nityasam
.
kars
.
an
.
¯ at)
::,
[of
the tongue], my dear, it reaches [upwards] between the eyebrows, obliquely to the ears,
and downwards it is gradually made to reach the base of the chin.
::c
s:c–s:c. Then, only after three years, upwards it easily reaches the hairline (ke´sa˚),
sideways the temples (´sa˙ nkha˚), my dear, [and] downwards the adam’s apple (kan
.
t
.
ha-
k ¯ upa˚).
:::
tath¯ a tadupari tarjan¯ım
.
dhr
.
tv ¯ a ras¯ am
.

d

r
.
d
.
ham
.
dhr
.
tv ¯ a kramen
.
a ´sanair v ¯ aram
.
v ¯ aram
.
sr
.
kvin
.
¯ıdvayam
.
pary¯ a-
yen
.
a p¯ıd
.
ayet | evam
.
muh ¯ urtadvayaparyam
.
tam
.
pratyaham
.
k ¯ aryam
.
| evam eva jihv ¯ am
.
dhr
.
tv ¯ a bhraman
.
am
api mam
.
d
.
al¯ ak ¯ aram
.
k ¯ a

r

yam
.
t

e

na sarvatah
.
sam ¯ a vivardhate iti | Cf. H PJ +.++: c¯ alanam
.
hastayor
a˙ ngus
.
t
.
hatarjan¯ıbhy¯ am
.
rasan ¯ am
.
gr
.
h¯ıtv ¯ a savy¯ apasavyatah
.
parivartanam | On dohana, another technique for
lengthening the tongue in which the yogin rubs his tongue with saindhava and pathy¯ a and milks it like
a cow’s teat, he quotes an author called Mohanad¯ asa (f. :cr
2−3
): jihv ¯ am
.
bahih
.
´svavan nis
.
k ¯ a´sya tasy¯ am
.
saim
.
dhavapathy¯ ac¯ urn
.
am
.
saim
.
dhavamaricac¯ urn
.
am
.
v ¯ a ks
.
iptv ¯ a dohayet gostanavat | tatprak ¯ ara´s ca p¯ urvavat
tarjanyam
.
gus
.
t
.
h¯ abhy¯ am
.
tad ¯ urdhv ¯ adhah
.
sth¯ apit ¯ abhy¯ am
.
kar¯ abhy¯ am
.
pary¯ ayen
.
a dohanam iti. Ball¯ ala adds that
this is to be done svastikasiddhordhv¯ıkr
.
taj ¯ anv ¯ asan ¯ adau sthitv ¯ a, “sitting in postures such as svastik ¯ asana,
siddh¯ asana, or one in which the knees are held up”, and mentions that the practitioner will dribble a lot
(bahul¯ al¯ ap¯ atah
.
sy¯ at). He then describes the third process, t ¯ ad
.
ana, which he explains thus (f. :cr
4−6
): tato
gham
.
t
.
ik ¯ am
.
t ¯ ad
.
ayet | gham
.
t
.
¯ a´sabdas tanmadhyalolakaparah
.
gham
.
t
.
¯ alolaka iva jihv ¯ a gham
.
t
.
ik ¯ a iv ¯ arthe kan |
gham
.
t
.
¯ alolako yathobhayato lagnah
.
san ´sabdam
.
karoty evam
.
balenordhv ¯ adho dam
.
tapam
.
ktau lagn ¯ a jihv ¯ a ity
etat t ¯ ad
.
anam | The tongue is said to be like the clapper (lolaka) of a bell and vice versa (cf. Cuaxniis
:,ï+:::+, :+:, :+oc). It should be struck forcefully against the upper and lower rows of teeth. In :,,o, at
the Yoga Centre of Benares Hindu University, I met Dr. K.M.Tripathi who demonstrated a technique in
which the tip of the tongue is pressed against the front teeth and held there while the mouth is repeatedly
opened wide and closed again. It is to be done at least a thousand times a day, he said, and the technique
tugs on the merudan
.
d
.
a causing Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı to rise. Cf. GBS ::, and ::c, in which a single channel is said
to join the tongue and the penis, and V ¯ atulan ¯ athas¯ utravr
.
tti p.s where the penis and tongue are described
as being the two places in the body where the element water manifests itself (because of their having a
predominance of rasa): aptattvasya ca rasapradh¯ anatayopastharasan ¯ ar ¯ upen
.
a. (Dr. Tripathi told me that he
had to give up this technique when he got married: householder practices that pull on the lower end of
the merudan
.
d
.
a are incompatible with the yogin’s practice of tugging at the top.) This is the only practice
that I have come across in my fieldwork or other sources that resembles t ¯ ad
.
ana in any way. On the
connection between the tongue and Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı, see also footnote +¡¬.
::,
˚sam
.
kars
.
an
.
¯ at seems the correct reading here, since it picks up the utkars
.
ayed of the previous line.
µGUTSKo have variants on sam
.
ghars
.
an ¯ at, “rubbing”, (S, at f. :cv
3
, has sam
.
kars
.
an
.
¯ at as an alternative
reading). This is explained by Ball¯ ala as tadadhah
.
´sir¯ abh¯ agasy¯ adhastanadam
.
tapam
.
ktau sam
.
mardanam
.
,
“rubbing part of the tendon below [the tongue] on the lower row of teeth”. This method of wearing
away the linguae frenum was described to me by one of my informants (see footnote :::) but its inclusion
here in the text seems forced: we have already heard how to cut the frenum; now we want to hear how to
lengthen the tongue.
::c
M etri causa, the edition here has cibukam
.
m ¯ ulam
.
rather than the semantically preferable but un-
metrical cibikam ¯ ulam
.
found in S and M.
:::
Ball¯ ala (f. ::r
3
) glosses kan
.
t
.
hak ¯ upa with urasa ¯ urdhvabh¯ ag¯ıyo ’vat
.
ah
.
, “the cavity at the upper part of
the chest”. However, I have translated kan
.
t
.
hak ¯ upa˚ as “the adam’s apple” because it must be somewhere
between the cibukam
.
m ¯ ulam of :.s:a and the kan
.
t
.
habila of :.s+d. VS +.¬cc–¬:b locates the kan
.
t
.
hak ¯ upa six
finger-breadths up from the heart and four below the root of the tongue. At :.s+d all the witnesses except
µUF state that after six years the tongue reaches the karn
.
abila. This is clearly corrupt, for two reasons:
firstly, we have already heard at :.scd that after only six months it reaches the karn
.
abila; secondly, :.s+c
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¡s
s:d-s+d. After three years more it covers the end of the sus
.
umn ¯ a (brahmarandhr¯ a-
ntam),
:::
o goddess; obliquely it reaches the region above the nape of the neck
(c¯ ulitalam)
::+
[and] downwards the hollow [at the base] of the throat.
::¡
s¡ab. The practice must only be carried out gradually, not all at once (yugapan na
hi).
::s
s¡c–ssb. The body of him who tries to do it all at once (yugapat) is destroyed; for
this reason the practice is to be carried out very gradually, o beautiful lady.
ssc-sod. When the tongue reaches the aperture of Brahm¯ a (brahmabilam)
::o
by
the external path, then [the yogin], o goddess, should rub with the tip of his finger the
bolt [of the doorway] of Brahm¯ a (brahm ¯ argalam),
::¬
[which is] hard for even the gods
states that obliquely the tongue reaches the c¯ ulitala so now we need a location below the mouth, not to
the side. Thus at :.s+d I have adopted the reading adhah
.
kan
.
t
.
habil¯ avadhi of µUF.
:::
brahmarandhra, “opening of Brahm¯ a”, usually refers to either the region at the top of the sus
.
umn ¯ a
n ¯ ad
.
¯ı (G
´
SN :o, H P ¡.:o, AT U s, VS +.+,,
´
S¯ aktavij ˜ n ¯ ana :o, SSP :.o¬, :.:s, :.:o, o.ï:,
´
SS s.:c+, KAT s.:c¬,
AM ¬:.:; see also Siinuix :,ïï:+c–++) or the n ¯ ad
.
¯ı itself (H P +.¡, VU s.+c, VS :.:¬, :.:o,
´
SS :.:¬, M aSam
.
:¬.:+). I have translated it in the latter sense here and understand brahmarandhr¯ anta to mean the region
on the top of the skull corresponding to the da´samadv ¯ ara, “tenth door”, mentioned in footnote ::o. SSP
:.ï, in a list of nine cakras, locates the nirv ¯ an
.
acakra at the brahmarandhra, above the t ¯ alu˚ and bhr ¯ u˚ cakras
(I have emended the edition’s bh ¯ u to bhr ¯ u) and below the ¯ ak ¯ a´sacakra. Rai (:,ï:::,¡) says that according
to the Layayogasam
.
hit ¯ a the brahmarandhra is at the root of the palate (cf.
´
SS s.:::–::¡ where it is said to
be the opening of the sus
.
umn ¯ a and is identified with the sahasr¯ ar¯ acakra).
´
SS ¡.:¡ and s.:+c (quoted by
Ball¯ ala at f. :¡v
5
) locate it at the lower end of the sus
.
umn ¯ a. Thus it seems that often brahmarandhra does
not refer to a specific place but simply describes somewhere from which the yogin can reach Brahm¯ a.
The stem form brahma found here and in many other compounds in the KhV is ambiguous: it can
denote the deity Brahm¯ a or the ultimate reality brahman. In tantric texts and early works of hat
.
hayoga
it usually refers to the deity (as in the system of the three granthi s, brahma˚, vis
.
n
.
u˚ and rudra˚, at e.g. H P
¡.¬c–¬o; cf. KhV +.+b where dh¯ ama sv ¯ ayam
.
bhuvam
.
is used as a synonym of brahmadh¯ ama). The inherent
ambiguity allows later authors to interpret such compounds in a Vedantic light: e.g. H PJ +.:co where
brahmasth¯ anam is glossed by Brahm¯ ananda with brahm ¯ avirbh¯ avajanakam sth¯ anam, “the place that reveals
brahman”. I have chosen to translate brahma˚ as Brahm¯ a.
::+
As far as I am aware, c¯ ulitala occurs only in the KhV and derivative texts. From the evidence of
:.¡,–s, it appears to mean the region above the nape of the neck, on the same level as the forehead
and temples. This meaning fits well with the context here. Ball¯ ala (f. ::r
6−7
) agrees, taking c¯ uli as a
variant form of c¯ ud
.
¯ a, “the crown of the head”, and tala as meaning “the area below”: tiryak c¯ ulitalam
.
´sikh¯ adhobh¯ agam
.
y¯ ati c¯ ulih
.
´sikh¯ a | ´sikh¯ a c¯ ud
.
¯ a ity amarah
.
| d
.
alayor abhedah
.
. See also :.:ï and footnote :os.
::¡
See footnote :::.
::s
Ball¯ ala (f. ::r
3
) glosses yugapat with ekasamay¯ avachedena, “cutting [the frenum] all at once”. One of
my informants, Gop¯ al D¯ as J¯ı Mah¯ aty¯ ag¯ı, did cut his frenum all at once. He told me that the cut bled a
great deal but that otherwise he had no problems. See also :.¡o–¡ï and the footnotes thereon. Ball¯ ala
adds (f. ::r
2−3
): yady api abhy¯ asak ¯ ale kad¯ a cid asv ¯ asthyam
.
tad¯ a taddine heyo ’bhy¯ aso ’nyadine susthat ¯ ay¯ am
.
kartavyo na jhat
.
iti, “if ill health ever arises during the practice then it should be abandoned for that day
and taken up on another day when good health has returned, not straight away”.
::o
brahmabila is synonymous with brahmarandhra in its first sense (see footnote :::).
::¬
Ball¯ ala (f. ::r
9
) equates the brahm ¯ argala with the brahmadv ¯ ara: brahm ¯ argalam
.
brahmam ¯ argapra-
tibam
.
dhakam
.
r¯ ajadam
.
tordhvadv ¯ aram
.
, “the brahm ¯ argala is the door above the uvula (on r¯ ajadanta see
footnote :¡c) which blocks the pathway of Brahm¯ a”. In the text, however, the two seem to be distin-
:¡o Cuairii :
to pierce,
::ï
[and] insert [his] tongue there.
s¬ab. Practising thus for three years the tongue enters the door of Brahm¯ a (brahma-
dv ¯ aram).
::,
[Churning]
s¬cd. When the door of Brahm¯ a is entered [the yogin] should duly begin churning
(mathana).
:+c
sï. Some wise [yogins] achieve siddhi without churning. For [the yogin] who has
perfected the Khecar¯ı mantra success is achieved without churning.
guished. The brahm ¯ argala, “the bolt”, is to be rubbed away for three years, after which time the tongue
enters the brahmadv ¯ ara, “the door”. :.:a and +.¡¡ mention the brahm ¯ argaladv ¯ ara, “the bolted door of
Brahm¯ a”. In descriptions of the goddess Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı, she is often said to be asleep blocking the brahmadv ¯ ara
at the base of the sus
.
umn ¯ a and this is its usual location (H P +.s, G
´
SN ¡¬, YCU +¬, S
.
CN + and sc). In the
KhV the brahmadv ¯ ara is at the other end of the sus
.
umn ¯ a, at the opening at the base of the palate.
:.ssc–s¬b is puzzling. After a total of seven years the yogin is instructed to start rubbing at the brahm ¯ a-
rgala so that after a further three years the tongue might enter the brahmadv ¯ ara. This is the first time in
the section on the physical practice that the yogin is told to try to turn his tongue back. As I have noted
at :.¡oa it is possible to insert the tongue into the cavity above the soft palate without any preparation.
So what is the internal destination for a tongue that externally can reach the crown of the head? The
cavity above the soft palate is surrounded by bone so it would seem that however much rubbing the
yogin may do there is nowhere else for the tongue to go. And why should the yogin wait so long before
turning back his tongue? Are the verses that describe the extreme extension of the tongue so much
arthav ¯ ada, designed to put off prospective khecar¯ısiddhas? Or did some yogins actually lengthen their
tongues this much in displays of ascetic self-mortification? None of my informants had particularly long
tongues yet most claimed that they had perfected the practice. I have heard of one yogin, Sampat N¯ ath
of Ajmer, Rajasthan, whose tongue could reach his bhr ¯ umadhya (personal communication from Robin
Brown, :,,o). No other text (except the M KS whose description derives from that of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a)
claims that such extreme lengthening of the tongue is necessary to practise khecar¯ımudr¯ a. H P +.+: states
chedanac¯ alanadohaih
.
kal¯ am
.
kramen
.
a vardhayet t ¯ avat | s¯ a y¯ avad bhr ¯ umadhyam
.
spr
.
´sati tad¯ a khecar¯ısiddhih
.

“By means of cutting, manipulation and milking, [the yogin] should gradually lengthen the tongue until
it touches the centre of the eyebrows. Then [there is] khecar¯ısiddhi.” Cf. KhV :.¬+ab, where the siddhi s
brought about by means of the practice are said to arise between the eyebrows. The two other texts that
deem the cutting of the frenum necessary for the perfection of khecar¯ımudr¯ a (see H R f.::v and GhS +.:o)
also state that the tongue need only be lengthened enough for it to reach the region between the eyebrows.
There is one ancillary benefit of lengthening the tongue: it can be used to control which nostril the yogin
is breathing through, thus eliminating the need to use the hands during pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama. This was reported
to me by several of the yogins I met during my fieldwork and is described by Biixaio (:,ï::oï).
::ï
“Because of their being intent on pleasure” (bhog¯ asaktatv ¯ at): Ball¯ ala f. ::r
9
.
::,
In the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, brahmarandhra, brahmabila and brahmadv ¯ ara seem to be synonymous (see
fotnotes ::: and ::o). Kavii¯ ai (:,oo:s:) reports that in the Vair¯ at
.
apur¯ an
.
a the brahmadv ¯ aracakra is above
the forehead but below the brahmarandhra in the cranium.
:+c
Where the word mathana occurs in the text (:.s¬–o+, :.:c:–:c¡), witnesses µSM occasionally, but
not consistently, read mam
.
thana. This reflects the two forms that the root can take:

math and

manth
(Wuirxiy :,ïï:::¬).
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¡¬
s,ab. By doing both mantra-recitation and churning [however, the yogin] quickly
obtains the result.
s,c–ocb. By means of a strong and smooth thread,
:+:
[the yogin] should insert a
small probe (´sal¯ akik ¯ am) of either gold, silver or iron into the nasal cavity.
occ–o:b. Fixing the breath in the heart [and] sitting in a steady pose, he should
gently perform churning,
:+:
with his eyes focussed between his eyebrows.
o:cd. By doing just this much the state of churning arises after six months.
o:. For the yogin who has completely restrained his j¯ıva
:++
[and] who has become
identical with the object of contemplation (tanmay¯ atmanah
.
), the state [of churning]
arises as [easily as does] the deep sleep of children.
o+ab. Churning is not meant [to be done] constantly;
:+¡
[the yogin] should practise
it every month.
:+:
Ball¯ ala (f. :+r
3−4
) explains that the thread is passed through a small hole in the probe, like that in a
needle: tena s¯ ucy¯ am iva ´sal¯ ak ¯ anuchidre protenety arthah
.
|
:+:
It is not clear to me how this practice is to be carried out. Ball¯ ala adds little to what is found in the
text, thereby indicating that he too is unfamiliar with the practice. (In his commentary on :.:c: (f. sïr
4
)
he explains the purpose of practising mathana with the expression sarvamala´sodhan ¯ artham, “to cleanse
away all the impurity”. This is clearly not the main aim of the practice since :.o¡ says that mathana
brings about sam
.
siddhi and identification of body and self with the universe.) It appears that after the
probe is inserted into the nasal cavity it is to be moved about by the tongue, which has entered the cavity
via the palate. The word mathana can mean either the rubbing of wood to produce fire, particularly
in a sacrificial context, or the churning of milk to produce butter. It is used in this second sense in
the archaic (see Goxoa :,os:o:) myth of the churning of the ocean of milk by the devas and asuras
(M Bh :.:¬–:,; cf. SYM ::.¬ and ::.+o). Both senses of the word seem applicable here. Firstly, at KhV
:.¬:–¬s the yogin is instructed to churn the circle of fire (mathitv ¯ a man
.
d
.
alam
.
vahneh
.
) at the base of the
tongue (jihv ¯ am ¯ ule) and thereby melt the orb of the moon into amr
.
ta (cf. H P +.¡ï). Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs
[:,ïï:s.v.] reports that ´sal¯ ak ¯ a can mean “a match or thin piece of wood (used for ignition by friction)”.
Secondly, when the ocean of milk was churned, amr
.
ta was among the fourteen items that were produced.
No yogin that I have met practises mathana as described here but Dr. T
.
h¯ akur of Mumbai did describe
how during his practice of pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama and khecar¯ımudr¯ a his tongue would involuntarily start to “bang
away like a drill going into a hole”. The Amaraugha´s¯ asana, describing practices akin to the hat
.
hayogic
khecar¯ımudr¯ a, mentions kal¯ apamathana, “tongue churning”, (p.: l.:c, l.:+). It says that the practice brings
about n ¯ ad
.
¯ımukhojjr
.
mbhan
.
am, “opening of the mouth of the [´sa˙ nkhin¯ı] n ¯ ad
.
¯ı ”, but does not go into detail.
M aSam
.
:¬.¬ describes massaging the body with a preparation which has among its ingredients amr
.
ta that
is mathanaja, “produced by churning”, and brahmarandhravinirgata, “issued forth from the aperture of
Brahm¯ a” (see footnote +cï). Abhinavagupta (T
¯
A s.::–:¡) describes an internal mathana in which ap¯ ana
and pr¯ an
.
a are churned to force the breath upwards into the sus
.
umn ¯ a and ignite ud¯ ana.
:++
In the texts of hat
.
hayoga, the j¯ıva is the vital principle, entering the foetus at the moment of conception
(SSP :.¬c), and leaving with the body’s final exhalation (YCU ,c). It moves about the body, propelled
by the breath (G
´
SN +ï–+,), unless restrained by means of pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama (G
´
SN ¡c–¡:). Ball¯ ala (f. :+r
10
)
glosses j¯ıva with pr¯ an
.
a which seems to be an oversimplification: G
´
SN +¬ describes the ten v ¯ ayu s as flowing
through the n ¯ ad
.
¯ı s while “having the form of the j¯ıva” (j¯ıvar ¯ upinah
.
). Cf.
´
SP ¡+:¬. See also KhV +.+¡-¡o,
VS s.¡–¬,
´
SS :.+¬–s¡,
´
SP ¡sc+–¡sc¡, T SBM oc-o:b and KJN o.:–:¡ for descriptions of the workings of
the j¯ıva.
:+¡
“Because it is difficult”, kat
.
hinataratv ¯ at (Ball¯ ala f. :+v
8
).
:¡ï Cuairii :
o+cd. But [the yogin] should always move his tongue around the pathway (m ¯ argam),
o goddess.
:+s
o¡ab. [By practising] in this way complete success (sam
.
siddhih
.
) [arises] at the end
of twelve years,
:+o
o great goddess.
o¡cd. In [his] body he sees the entire universe as not different from himself ( ¯ atm ¯ a-
vibhedatah
.
).
:+¬
[The drinking of amr
.
t a and its rewards]
osa–oob. [The yogin] should know the great pathway (mah¯ am ¯ argam)
:+ï
in the skull
(brahm ¯ an
.
d
.
e)
:+,
in the region above the uvula (r¯ ajadantordhvaman
.
d
.
ale)
:¡c
between the
eyebrows [to be] the three-peaked mountain (trik ¯ ut
.
am),
:¡:
[which is] honoured by the
:+s
Biixaio (:,ï::oï) reports that he kept his tongue in the cavity above the soft palate at all times,
removing it only “to speak, eat, or engage in some other activity that made its position inconvenient”.
Cf. KJN o.:sc–:od, GhS +.,.
´
Sr¯ı B¯ alyog¯ı L¯ al J¯ı Bh¯ a¯ı told me that khecar¯ımudr¯ a should be practised for
two to three hours a day.
The “pathway” is the pathway mentioned at :.osa.
:+o
Ball¯ ala (f. :¡r
3−8
) understands this to mean twelve years from the time of first cutting the frenum,
thus equalling the time needed to achieve siddhi mentioned at :.¬c. He reckons the various stages of the
practice up to the perfection of mathana to total eight and a half years (in my edition they total ten and
a half years), thus leaving three and a half to wait for sam
.
siddhi.
:+¬
cf. AY :.,sab: brahm ¯ an
.
d
.
am
.
sakalam
.
pa´syet karastham iva mauktikam, “he sees the entire universe
like a pearl in [his] hand”; see also KJN :¡.o:–os.
:+ï
mah¯ am ¯ arga refers to the top of the sus
.
umn ¯ a (cf. H P +.¡ where mah¯ apatha is given as a synonym of
sus
.
umn ¯ a).
:+,
In the KhV brahm ¯ an
.
d
.
a means “skull” rather than the more usual “macrocosm”; see :.+o, :.¡:, :.o¬c–
oïb, +.:o–:¬d; cf. S
.
CN s+d; AM ï.:, p.:c,;
´
SS :.o, :.+s, +., (where the physical body is called brahm ¯ an
.
d
.
a);
GBS ::¬; Suia and Tioyii (:ï¡+::+:) “the seventh region is that of the head, which is called by the Hindus
brahm ¯ an
.
d
.
a”. Ball¯ ala (f. :¡r
9
), however, takes it to mean “macrocosm”. Later Sanskrit and hat
.
hayogic
works have a system of :: brahm ¯ an
.
d
.
as in (and above?) the head. See GBP :,.c and the Vair¯ at
.
apur¯ an
.
a
(Kavii¯ ai :,ï¬:s:). At T
¯
A ¡.:++cd brahm ¯ an
.
d
.
a (understood to mean the universe by Jayaratha ad loc.) is
said to arise from the sahasr¯ ara cakra at the top of the head.
:¡c
The Royal Tooth (r¯ ajadanta) is the uvula. SSP :.o locates it at the t ¯ alucakra, equating it with the
ghan
.
t
.
ik ¯ ali ˙ nga, the m ¯ ularandhra and the “tenth door” (da´samadv ¯ ara), which is the opening of the ´sa˙ nkhin¯ı
n ¯ ad
.
¯ı (on which see footnote ::o). Ball¯ ala interprets r¯ ajadanta in two ways: firstly (f. :¡v
1−3
), it is the
microcosmic equivalent of the macrocosmic Pray¯ agar¯ aja; he thus seems to be putting it in the same place
as trik ¯ ut
.
a (see footnote :¡:) when the text clearly states that it is below trik ¯ ut
.
a. Perhaps trik ¯ ut
.
a can be
thought of as a peak above the confluence. Secondly, “some say” (ke cit), in the body the r¯ ajadanta is
the uvula (f. :¡v
11
–f. :sr
1
): he describes it as a hanging piece of flesh (m ¯ am
.
salolakah
.
) in the area above
the root of the tongue (jihv ¯ am ¯ ulordhvabh¯ age) like the clapper of a bell (gham
.
t
.
¯ alolakavat)—cf. footnote
::ï. See also :.:,cd, +.:oc–:¬b and A
´
S pp.:c–::, G
´
SN :¡¬, H P :.¡o, +.::,
´
SS +.¬+, KJN o.:+, KM T ,.ï:,
:+.:o¬. Taittir¯ıya Upanis
.
ad :.o.: calls the uvula indrayoni, “the source of Indra”.
:¡:
This passage and +.:o–:¬ locate trik ¯ ut
.
a between the eyebrows; SSP :., and :.:s locate it higher, at the
¯ ak ¯ a´sacakra which is situated at the brahmarandhra; see also KhV :.ï:c, YV :c (BVU ¬+), AM ïs.:, GBP
::.:. M Bh Sabhaparvan :.+,.::cd implies that trik ¯ ut
.
a is in the forehead: lal¯ at
.
asth¯ am
.
trik ¯ ut
.
asth¯ am
.
ga˙ ng¯ am
.
tripathag¯ am iva; M Bh Bh¯ıs
.
maparvan supplement o.+.ïï locates it at the base of the palate: t ¯ alum ¯ ule
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¡,
perfected ones (siddhasevitam) [and] resembles a chickpea sprout. He should fix his
mind there.
ooc–o¬b. Licking with his tongue the supreme amr
.
ta flowing there [and progress-
ing] gradually on the path of the practice, [the yogin] should drink [amr
.
ta] for four
years, my dear.
o¬c–oïb. Grey hair and wrinkles are destroyed, supreme success (param ¯ a siddhih
.
)
arises and, as the knower of the meaning of all scriptures, [the yogin] lives for a thousand
years.
oïc–o,b. Success in sciences such as finding buried treasure (khany¯ a), entering
subterranean realms (bila),
:¡:
controlling the Earth (mah¯ıv ¯ ada),
:¡+
and alchemy (rasa-
ca lamp¯ ay¯ am
.
trik ¯ ut
.
am
.
tripath¯ antaram. Ball¯ ala (f. :¡v
1−4
) continues the theme of micro/ macrocosmic
equivalence and takes mah¯ am ¯ arga to mean the rivers Ga˙ ng¯ a, Yamun¯ a and Sarasvat¯ı. Thus trik ¯ ut
.
a, where
the id
.
¯ a, pi ˙ ngal¯ a and sarasvat¯ı n ¯ ad
.
¯ı s meet, is the bodily equivalent of the confluence of the three rivers,
the triven
.
¯ısa˙ ngam, located at Pray¯ agar¯ aja (the modern-day Allahabad). He explains trik ¯ ut
.
a as meaning
tray¯ an
.
¯ am
.
m ¯ arg¯ an
.
¯ am
.
k ¯ ut
.
am
.
, “the peak of the three ways”, (f. :sr
5−7
). At f. :sr
3−4
he cites
´
SS s.:cc, where
the conjunction of the three n ¯ ad
.
¯ı s is equated with the confluence in V¯ ar¯ an
.
as¯ı of the Ga˙ ng¯ a with the
Varan
.
a and Asi rivers.
At f. :sr
7−8
he cites a passage which he ascribes to the Kapilag¯ıt ¯ a of the P¯ admapur¯ an
.
a which gives a list
of esoteric centres: trik ¯ ut
.
am
.
´sr¯ıhat
.
hasth¯ anam
.
golh¯ at
.
am
.
aut
.
ap¯ıt
.
hakam
.
p¯ urn
.
¯ adri (corrected in margin from
pun
.
y¯ adri ) bhr¯ amar¯ıgum
.
ph¯ a brahmarandhram anukram ¯ ad iti. In the margin of f.:sr is a quote attributed
to Goraks
.
a in which trik ¯ ut
.
a is located at the mouth: asy¯ artho goraks
.
en
.
a dar´sito yath¯ a mukham
.
trik ¯ ut
.
am
¯ akhy¯ atam
.
pr
.
thv¯ıtatvam ¯ ac¯ aralim
.
gam
.
r
.
gveda[h
.
] brahmadaivatam ¯ı´svaram
.
p¯ıtavarn
.
am
.
j ¯ agrad (em. Isaacsox
and Goooaii; j ¯ agr
.
d S)avasth¯ a sth ¯ uladeha[m
.
] iti | ´sr¯ıhat
.
hasth¯ anam
.
rasan ¯ a’pastatvam
.
gurulim
.
gam
.
yajurvedah
.
svapn ¯ avasth¯ a vis
.
n
.
ur deva[h
.
] ´svetavarn
.
am
.
tatvam iti | golh¯ at
.
am
.
tu nayanasth¯ anam
.
tejastatvam
.
´sivalim
.
gam
.
s¯ a-
mavedam
.
sus
.
upt ¯ avasth¯ a rudradevam
.
raktavarn
.
am
.
trim ¯ atr¯ adehasam
.
bhavam iti | p¯ urn
.
ap¯ıt
.
ham
.
ca n ¯ asikaut
.
ha-
p¯ıt
.
hasam
.
j ˜ nakam
.
| p¯ adatatvam
.
r
.
s
.
ir v ¯ ayur jam
.
gamalim
.
gam
.
(em. Isaacsox and Goooaii; jam
.
gamam
.
lim
.
ga˚
S) daivatam
.
| atharvavedam
.
(em.; atharvedam
.
S) tur¯ıy¯ a ca om
.
k ¯ aram
.
n¯ılavarn
.
akam iti | pun
.
y¯ adrir (em.;
pun
.
y¯ adir S) merur ity arthah
.
| bhr¯ amar¯ıgum
.
ph¯ a ´srotrasth¯ anam
.
¯ ak ¯ a´sa r
.
s
.
ih
.
pr¯ as¯ adalim
.
gam
.
s¯ uks
.
mavedakam
.
unman¯ı ´sivalim
.
gam
.
kr
.
s
.
n
.
avarn
.
am iti | brahmaram
.
dhre sahasr¯ are da´samadv ¯ are sarvatatvam
.
tanm ¯ atr¯ a´sabda-
spar´s¯ adipam
.
cakam
.
caitanyam
.
s¯ uks
.
madeham
.
ca parabrahm ¯ atmakam
.
mahad iti | I have been unable to
find this passage in any other text. It is the most detailed description of these esoteric centres and their
locations that I have come across. This system is usually found only in texts from the Mar¯ at
.
h¯ı-speaking
region: a similar, but less detailed, passage is found at AM ¡:; see also AM ss.:, o+.:; SSP :.:¬, o.ï:–ï:;
YV :c–::; VD :c. Some lists of ´s¯ aktap¯ıt
.
has in Siicai (:,,ï:s.v.) include Trik¯ ut
.
a,
´
Sr¯ıhat
.
ha and P¯ urn
.
agiri,
while the goddess Bhr¯ amar¯ı is associated with a p¯ıt
.
ha called Janasth¯ ana whose microcosmic location is the
chin. (As Professor Sanderson has suggested to me, Janasth¯ ana may well be wrongly written for J¯ alasth¯ ana
(=J¯ alandhara).) The brahmarandhra’s macrocosmic location is Hi ˙ ng L¯ aj in Baluchistan. Of the bodily
centres listed in the BKhP ’s citations quoted above, only golh¯ at
.
a and aut
.
ap¯ıt
.
ha are not listed by Sircar
as geographical locations. Professor Sanderson has suggested that they are variant spellings of koll¯ at
.
a
(=Kolh¯ apur ?) and aud
.
ap¯ıt
.
ha (=Od
.
d
.
iy¯ ana). A bodily centre called koll¯ at
.
aman
.
d
.
apa is mentioned at SSP
:.:¬ with a variant reading gollal¯ at
.
a (sic) reported in the footnotes. The tentative identification of Koll¯ at
.
a
with Kolh¯ apur is supported by a description of female Maharashtrian entertainers called Kolh¯ at
.
an¯ıs by
Soxruiixii (:,ï,::+o).
:¡:
See Kath¯ asarits¯ agara +¡.o,–¬+ and so.::: for descriptions of khany¯ av ¯ ad¯ı and bilav ¯ ad¯ı P¯ a´supata ascetics.
:¡+
Professor Sanderson suggested the emendation mah¯ıv ¯ ada. M ah¯ıv ¯ ada is not found in lists of magical
sciences, but a synonym ks
.
etrav ¯ ada (whose meaning is never explicitly stated) is mentioned in
´
Saiva
:sc Cuairii :
v ¯ ada), arise for the yogin after five years, o P¯ arvat¯ı.
o,c–¬cb Duly drinking the flowing amr
.
ta liquid with [his] tongue, the resolute
(svasthah
.
) yogin should curb his diet for twelve years, [living] as an ascetic (vrata-
sthah
.
).
:¡¡
¬cc–¬:b. By this application of the practice, the great yogin, free of grey hair and
wrinkles [and] with a body as incorruptible as diamond (vajrak ¯ ayah
.
), lives for one
hundred thousand years.
¬:c–¬:d. With the strength of ten thousand elephants, my dear, he has long-
distance sight and hearing. Capable of punishing and rewarding [people], he becomes
powerful with respect to everything.
¬+ab. These siddhi s, o goddess, only arise between the eyebrows.
:¡s
¬+c–¬¡b. Placing the tongue in the ether ( ¯ ak ¯ a´se),
:¡o
[the yogin] should clench [his]
sources among the mantrav ¯ adas (see e.g.
´
Sivadharmottara, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine,
London, South Asian MS Collection, No. :o, f. +r
7
–f. +v
3
, and JRY :.¡s.:sc–:s:a (NAK s-¡osc, f. :o:v
3
)).
Most of the witnesses of Sαβγ have ˚mah¯ av ¯ ade (interpreted as a vocative by Ball¯ ala at f. :or
1
) which
seems corrupt. Ras¯ arn
.
ava :.¡¡ gives a hierarchy of siddhi s: khanya˚, (a variant found in witness M; the
edition has khaga˚) bila˚, mantra˚ and rasa˚. The emendation of mah¯ıv ¯ ada to mantrav ¯ ada would, however,
be unmetrical. K:’s svarn
.
¯ adidh¯ atuv ¯ ad¯ ani, “the sciences of metals such as gold etc.”, for the whole p¯ ada is
noteworthy but most probably a scribal emendation.
:¡¡
Many of my informants told me that the practice of khecar¯ımudr¯ a enables the yogin to go without
food and water, a skill necessary for extended periods of yog¯ abhy¯ asa; this is also stated at G
´
SN os (=H P
+.+ï), A
´
S p.: l.+, GhS +.:ï,
´
SS +.ï:, s.¡+ and by Biixaio (:,ï::oï). An addition in the margin of S (f.::r)
quotes Yogas¯ utra +.:,, which suggests early origins for this idea: kan
.
t
.
hak ¯ upe ks
.
utpip¯ as¯ anivr
.
ttih
.
“[sam
.
yama]
upon the hollow of the throat [brings about] the suppression of hunger and thirst”. Cf. the passage from
the Suttanip¯ ata on page :o of the introduction and footnote ¡c¡ on extended sam ¯ adhi.
Ball¯ ala understands vratasthah
.
to mean “living as a brahmac¯ arin”, i.e. practising celibacy: guptem
.
-
driyasyopasthasam
.
yamah
.
(f. :¬r
2
).
:¡s
This odd-sounding assertion probably means that the siddhi s only arise as a result of the mental
and physical practices which are focussed on the region between the eyebrows (cf. :.oob). This emphasis
on the importance of the region between the eyebrows contradicts :.sca–ssd, where the tongue is to be
lengthened until externally it reaches the top of the skull (see footnote ::¬). This suggests that the two
passages were not composed together.
At :.::cd the somaman
.
d
.
ala is said to be between the eyebrows; this verse may be referring to that place.
:¡o
Here ¯ ak ¯ a´sa means the cavity above the soft palate. See page ¡+ of the introduction. Cf. JRY ¡.:.:s¬a,
M VUT ::.:, T
¯
A +.:+¬–:¡c, AM o¬.:, GBS :+; see also Wuiri :,,o::¡c–:¡:. The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s subtle
physiology does not include a system of bodily voids such as those found in some texts of tantric
´
Saivism
and hat
.
hayoga (on which see Vasuoiva :,,,::c:–:c¡).
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :s:
teeth;
:¡¬
making the mouth [like] the hollow of a crow’s beak (k ¯ akaca˜ ncuput
.
am),
:¡ï
he
should drink the amr
.
ta therein.
¬¡c–¬sb. By drinking [the amr
.
ta] he truly becomes free of old age and death after
a year; he becomes an Ethereal Being (khecaratvam av ¯ apnoti)
:¡,
and lives as long as the
moon and the stars.
¬sc–¬¬b. The best adept quickly attains absolutely all the magical powers (siddhi -
†samayam†)
:sc
that are found in the three worlds, such as those of magical sandals
:¡¬
There is disagreement both between the witnesses of the KhV and between other hat
.
hayogic texts
over whether or not the teeth should be clenched during the practice. Witnesses A and K+, and T SBM
,: and :¡o say that they should not; all the other witnesses, M ahopanis
.
ad s.¬s and
´
SS +.¬o say that
they should. Clenching the teeth is the preference of the more ascetic tradition—it is mentioned in
the passages from the Pali canon cited in the introduction (pp.:+–:o) and is consistent with the ideas
of effort and force implicit in the name hat
.
hayoga. Not clenching the teeth is favoured by the tantric
tradition: cf. KM T :+.:o:c (see page +¡ of the introduction). In instructions for physical postures to be
adopted during s¯ adhana (but not specifically connected with khecar¯ımudr¯ a) M r
.
gendratantra yogap¯ ada :,c,
Sarvaj ˜ n ¯ anottaratantra yogap¯ ada ::a (see Vasuoiva :,,,:+co n.oï) and JRY ¡.:.oï+c instruct the s¯ adhaka
not to touch his teeth with his teeth.
:¡ï
During the practice fluid gathers in the mouth. By pushing out the lips into the shape of a bird’s
beak there is more room for fluid to collect. In the hat
.
hayogic practice of j ¯ alandharabandha (described
at G
´
SN o:–o+; H P +.¬c–¬: etc.) the throat is constricted by letting the head hang forward. The fluid
dripping from the moon is thus diverted into the mouth and prevented from falling into the solar region
at the stomach (hence the suitability of the name of the practice, j ¯ alandhara,which can be interpreted as a
vr
.
ddhi derivative from jalam
.
dhara, “holding water”). Vivekadarpan
.
:c mentions the k ¯ ak¯ımukh¯ı attitude
in connection with this technique. Instructions to make the mouth like a bird’s beak when practising
khecar¯ımudr¯ a are also found at JRY ¡.:.:s¬, KhV +.:s, G
´
SN :+,,
´
SS +.¬c–¬s, GhS +.ïo.
:¡,
Ball¯ ala (f. :¬r
10
) glosses khecaratvam with devatvam: he does not equate khecaratva with the ability
to fly. See footnote :cï in the introduction.
:sc
The meaning of samayam here is not clear. It is tempting to conjecturally emend ˚samayam to
˚sant ¯ anam (cf. KhV :.¬ca). However, Ball¯ ala (f. :ïv
7
) reads siddhasamayam
.
(he glosses it with jhot
.
im
.
g¯ adi-
v¯ır¯ adibh ¯ utapret ¯ adi and understands the verse to mean that the s¯ adhakottama can quickly get control over
all these beings), and I have found three instances of the compound siddhisamaya in Buddhist tantras—
Guhyasam ¯ ajatantra, prose section after :¬.:s: k ¯ ayasiddhisamayavajram (I am grateful to Harunaga Isaacson
for providing me with this reference); Samvarodayatantra :ï.+c: siddhisamayasam
.
varah
.
; Kr
.
s
.
n
.
ayam ¯ aritantra
p.:cc: tath¯ agatasiddhisamayah
.
.
A marginal note in S (f.:¬v) adds that all these siddhi s are described in the Datt ¯ atreyatantra and other
texts (datt ¯ atreyatam
.
tr¯ adau).
:s: Cuairii :
(p¯ aduk ¯ a˚),
:s:
the magical sword (˚khad
.
ga˚),
:s:
power over zombies (˚vet ¯ ala˚),
:s+
magical
elixirs (˚siddhidravya˚), realgar,
:s¡
invisibility (a˜ njanam),
:ss
access to the treasures of the
subterranean realms (vivaram),
:so
and power over male (cet
.
akam) and female (yaks
.
in
.
¯ı)
genies.
:s¬
:s:
p¯ aduk ¯ asiddhi gives the yogin sandals that enable him to go wherever he wishes. Ball¯ ala (f. :¬v
1−2
)
says that this siddhi is explained in the N ¯ ag¯ arjunatantra and the Tantrar¯ aja, and that the sandals can be
used to cross water and travel long distances. M aSam
.
pat
.
ala +c (f. ¬cv
6
–f. ¬:r
8
) describes p¯ aduk ¯ asiddhi :
the s¯ adhaka is to make sandals out of various precious metals, go to a cremation-ground, drink alcohol
and repeat a saptak ¯ ut
.
amantra one lakh times. The sandals will thus be empowered by the yogin¯ı s of the
cremation-ground. Cf. Kulac¯ ud
.
¯ aman
.
itantra o.:sc–:ob, Ronixsox :,¬,::sï. Tantrar¯ ajatantra pat
.
ala :¬
describes the mantras and effects of sixteen siddhi s, including p¯ aduk ¯ a, khad
.
ga, vet ¯ ala, a˜ njana, cet
.
aka and
yaks
.
in
.
¯ı.
:s:
M KSK pat
.
ala o (pp.s:–s¡) describes khad
.
gasiddhi : by means of mantras, an offering of his own
blood, and, if possible, a human sacrifice (narabali), the s¯ adhaka empowers a sword to guarantee him
victory in any battle. Cf. Kulac¯ ud
.
¯ aman
.
itantra o.:oc–++d.
:s+
Ball¯ ala (f. :¬v
3
) explains this siddhi as pi´s¯ acava´sitvam, “control over ghouls”. M aSam
.
pat
.
ala +:
(f. ¬¡v
8
–f. ¬sr
11
) describes vet ¯ alasiddhi : the s¯ adhaka should drink alcohol, repeat a saptak ¯ ut
.
amantra one
lakh times, and make a tarpan
.
a offering of goat’s blood. If performed correctly, a vet ¯ ala appears and
becomes his lifelong servant. Cf. Kulac¯ ud
.
¯ aman
.
itantra o.:,a–:sb.
:s¡
Realgar (manah
.
´sil¯ a) is red arsenic, an ingredient in elixirs: see e.g. KhV ¡.,. Picumata ¡o.s¬ (NAK
MS No. +-+¬c, f.::¡v) includes manah
.
´sil¯ a in a list of siddhi s, and a Buddhist Kriy¯ atantra, the Amogha-
p¯ a´sakalpar¯ aja, describes how manah
.
´sil¯ a, when applied to the eyes, can make the wearer invisible and able
to move in the ether: manah
.
´sil¯ a a˜ njanam
.
v ¯ a parijapya aks
.
in
.
y a˜ njayitv ¯ a tato ’ntarhito bhavati. ¯ ak ¯ a´sena
parikramati (pp.:–+). Cf. K¯ amas¯ utra ¬.:.¡o, in which it is said that if one coats one’s hand with the faeces
of a peacock that has eaten harit ¯ ala and/ or manah
.
´sil¯ a and touches something, it becomes invisible. I am
grateful to Professor Sanderson for providing me with these references.
:ss
M aSam
.
pat
.
ala +s (f. •r
11
–f. ï:r
9
) gives instructions for a˜ njanasiddhi : after a mantra-repetition and
visualisation, various recipes are given for the preparation of the ointment (a˜ njana) whose ingredients
include herbs, honey and, in one concoction, mercury. By applying this ointment to the eyes, the s¯ adhaka
“sees everything” (sarvam
.
pa´syati). Cf. M KSK pat
.
ala o (p.ss), Kulac¯ ud
.
¯ aman
.
itantra o.+¡–+,. Ball¯ ala
(f. :¬v
4
) says that this siddhi has been described in the N ¯ ag¯ arjuna and Datt ¯ atreya Tantras.
:so
vivarasiddhi is similar to the bilasiddhi mentioned at :.oïc. Ball¯ ala (f. :¬v
4−6
) glosses it with bhuvas
tats¯ adhanam
.
and explains it as the ability to enter ponds, wells, tanks, caves and ditches, and retrieve
treasure therefrom.
:s¬
cet
.
akas and yaks
.
in
.
¯ı s are genie-like male and female servants respectively. Ball¯ ala (f. :¬v
8
) describes
cet
.
akasiddhi as parapres
.
yak ¯ aritvam, “the power to enslave others”. He says that the best slave is the gan
.
e´sa-
cet
.
aka and gives his mantra. (µ’s reading for cet
.
akam, khet
.
akam, “shield”, may be original.) Yaks
.
in
.
¯ı s are
usually associated with Kubera and able to bestow wealth and sexual favours (see e.g. KSS +¬.o¡–ï+, BKhP
f. :ïv
1
–f. :ïv
5
). M aSam
.
pat
.
ala +¡ (f. ¬or
1
–f. ¬ïr
10
) describes yaks
.
in
.
¯ısiddhi : by means of a trik ¯ ut
.
a and
other mantras, and a visualisation of the goddess, the s¯ adhaka gets yaks
.
in
.
¯ımelaka. Ball¯ ala (f. :¬v
10
–f. :¬r
1
)
gives a yaks
.
in
.
¯ısiddhimantra and says that according to the N ¯ ag¯ arjuna and Datt ¯ atreya Tantras there are
thirty-two yaks
.
in
.
¯ı s.
The syntax of this list of siddhi s is odd. :.¬scd is a plural dvandva compound while :.¬oab lists its
siddhi s one by one. G omits :.¬scd, suggesting that the line may be a later addition to the text. Some of
the witnesses seem to have attempted to split :.¬scd into separate elements, but it is metrically impossible
to alter ˚khadgavet ¯ ala˚ to khadgo vet ¯ alah
.
.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :s+
Chapter II
[The kal ¯ as at the gateway of Brahm¯ a]
:. O great goddess, at the barely perceptible bolted gate of Brahm¯ a there is a great tetrad
of kal¯ as (kal¯ acatus
.
kam),
:sï
consisting of the four aims of man (caturvarg¯ atmakam).
:s,
:. On the eastern side is [the kal¯ a] called Kr
.
t ¯ a, in the south Gupt ¯ a, on the western
side
´
Siv¯ a, [and] in the north Par¯ apara´siv¯ a.
:oc
+ When the yogin pierces that gateway with the tip of his tongue and drinks the
amr
.
ta from the eastern kal¯ a, he becomes a master of dharma (dharm ¯ adhipah
.
) after a
month.
¡. When the yogin licks with his tongue the amr
.
ta at [the kal¯ a called] Gupt ¯ a in
the south, there is no doubt that after just one month he becomes the lord of wealth
(arthe´svarah
.
) in bodily form.
s. When he drinks with [his] tongue the amr
.
ta created in the western kal¯ a of [the
tetrad], then, after a month, the great yogin becomes the lord of desire (k ¯ ame´svarah
.
).
o. When he drinks the amr
.
ta created in the northern kal¯ a, then he obtains
dominion over the highest gods.
:o:
¬. When the lord amongst yogins drinks the great amr
.
ta which is lying in the region
above [the four kal¯ as] (tad ¯ urdhvaman
.
d
.
ale), at the opening of Brahm¯ a, he becomes
´
Siva,
liberated while living (j¯ıvanmuktah
.
).
ïa–,b. When he practises every month for twelve years (dv ¯ ada´s¯ abdam),
:o:
the
yogin, free from all disease, omniscient, and worshipped by sages, becomes like
´
Siva,
ageless and undying in this world.
:sï
The basic meaning of kal¯ a is “a part”, especially “a sixteenth part of the moon” (e.g. Br
.
had¯ aran
.
yaka
Upanis
.
ad :.s.:¡; see Goxoa :,os:::s–:+c). The moon waxes and wanes in periods of fifteen days; each
day it gains or loses one kal¯ a. The sixteenth kal¯ a is the amr
.
takal¯ a (SSP :.o¡; cf. S
.
CN ¡o) which never
dies, even at the dark of the moon. (Some tantric texts add a seventeenth kal¯ a; see e.g. T
¯
A +.:+¬, Jayaratha
ad T
¯
A s.o+–o¡, Par¯ atr¯ı´sik ¯ avivaran
.
a +s.) Many texts also describe the kal¯ as of the sun and of fire (e.g. KAT
o.+¬–¡c, SSP :.o¡–oo, GBS ï,). The moon’s association with soma and amr
.
ta has led to all of its kal¯ as
being thought of as containing amr
.
ta, and it is in the sense of a store of amr
.
ta that the word kal¯ a is
used in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. Kal¯ a can also mean “tongue” (e.g. H P +.++), and, in tantric descriptions of
the phonematic emanation of reality, “vowel” (T
¯
A s.o+–o¡; Paooux :,,c:ï,–,:). See also footnote :,:;
Wuiri :,,o:+o–¡¡.
:s,
The caturvarga is the four aims of man: k ¯ ama, artha, dharma and moks
.
a. See :.+–o. Cf. KJN s.+:,
ï.¡:
:oc
I have been unable to find parallels of this list of kal¯ as in other texts.
:o:
Thus moks
.
a (see :.:) is equated with parames
.
t
.
h¯ın ¯ am ¯ adhipatyam, “dominion over the highest gods”
and subordinated to the end described in the next verse: becoming
´
Siva, liberated while living.
:o:
The witnesses here are unanimous in reading dv ¯ ada´s¯ abdam (or corruptions thereof ). One would,
however, expect a word meaning “for twelve months” rather than “for twelve years” because of the passage
at :.:c–:¬, in which are listed the rewards obtained each month from drinking the par¯ amr
.
ta in the
brahmarandhra over a period of a year, culminating in the attainment of
´
Sivahood.
:s¡ Cuairii :
,c–:cd. After the yogin has repeatedly drunk the amr
.
ta from the four kal¯ as, o
great goddess, then he should insert [his] tongue into the place of Brahm¯ a and drink
the amr
.
ta [which is] very sweet, cool, pleasant, milk-coloured and free of foam.
::ab. After just one month’s practice, [the yogin] himself becomes like a god.
::cd. In two months he knows completely the meaning of all sacred texts, o P¯ arvat¯ı.
::ab. After three months, o goddess, he truly becomes free [and] like
´
Siva.
::cd. After four months, great goddess, omniscience arises.
:+ab. In five months, as a great adept (mah¯ asiddhah
.
), he is able to see the three
worlds.
:+c–:¡b. In six months, filled with the goodness of the quality of ultimate bliss,
[the yogin] becomes liberated while living; in this there is no doubt, o Par¯ apar¯ a.
:¡c–:sb. In the seventh month, with happy mind, he constantly associates
:o+
at
will with great ghouls, ghosts, snakes and demons.
:scd. In the course of the eighth month communion with the gods (devaih
.
sam
.
-
melanam) arises.
:o¡
:oab. In the ninth month, the powers of becoming invisible and infinitesimal arise.
:ocd. In the tenth [month], the ability to assume any form at will (k ¯ amar ¯ upatvam),
[which is] manifest to all the worlds, [arises].
:¬. In the eleventh [month], o goddess, the yogin becomes lord of the universe,
knowing the past, present and future, a master, like
´
Siva. This that I have spoken is
the truth.
[The kal ¯ as at Ked¯ ara]
:ï. It is taught (pr¯ ahuh
.
) that Ked¯ ara is where the c¯ ulitala has been declared to be, o
goddess.
:os
Eight kal¯ as of Soma are described there, o you who are worshipped by the
extreme adepts (v¯ıravandite).
:oo
:o+
For saha sam
.
vartate G has sad¯ a sam
.
ves
.
t
.
ito: rather than merely associating with the beings listed, the
yogin is forever surrounded by them.
:o¡
cf. GBS :+ï: parcay jog¯ı unman khel¯ a ahanisi im
.
chy¯ a karai devat ¯ a syum
.
mel¯ a, “the yogin in the paricaya
state plays in unman¯ı day and night, and meets with deities at will”.
:os
Ked¯ ara is located between the eyebrows in H P +.:+ and Dar´sanopanis
.
ad ¡.¡ï, but KhV :.¡,–so
clearly indicates that the c¯ ulitala is at the back of the head, above the nape of the neck (see also footnote
::+). The description at :.:: of a further set of kal¯ as at the somaman
.
d
.
ala between the eyebrows confirms
that the KhV ’s Ked¯ ara is not located there. Wuiri (:,,o::¡s–:¡o) describes parallels between the site of
the Himalayan shrine of Ked¯ arn¯ ath and the subtle body of hat
.
hayogic physiology.
:oo
On the connection between amr
.
ta and Soma, see footnote :sï, Dascuira :,¬o::sc–: and Goxoa
:,os:ch.:.
Here Sβγ have the ai´sa sandhi form ’maravandite, “o you who are worshipped by the gods”. This is
the only instance I have found in which an ai´sa form in the KhV manuscripts is found in a correct form
in µ. I suspect that this is because of an attempt to get rid of v¯ıra˚, a word that has strong connotations
of left-hand tantrism. Cf. :.::cd, where almost all the witnesses read sam
.
sthit ¯ a v¯ıravandite; only G has
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :ss
:,a–:cb. The first is Amr
.
t ¯ a,
:o¬
o goddess, the second is called M¯ anad¯ a; [then there
are] P¯ us
.
¯ a and Tus
.
t
.
i and Pus
.
t
.
i and Rati and Dhr
.
ti, and the eighth is
´
Sa´sin¯ı; all are oceans
of the great amr
.
ta.
:cc–::b. And when the yogin points [his] tongue towards that place then an
eightfold stream of icy liquid flows there.
::cd. Through contact with the flow of that [liquid], diseases of the body are
destroyed.
::ab. After eight months [of this practice] the yogin becomes an Ethereal Being
(khecaratvam praj ¯ ayate).
:oï
[The kal ¯ as at the Orb of Soma]
::c–:+b. Verily, the place between the eyebrows is called the Orb of Soma (soma-
man
.
d
.
alam).
:o,
A group of four kal¯ as is taught [to be] there, a seat of the great amr
.
ta.
:+cd. [They are], by name, [the kal¯ a] called Candrik¯ a, and K¯ anti and Jyotsn¯ a and
´
Sr¯ı.
:¡ab. [The yogin] should insert his tongue there and drink [the amr
.
ta] over and
over again (p¯ıtv ¯ a p¯ıtv ¯ a sam ¯ apibet).
:¬c
:¡c–:sb. In four months the yogin becomes free from danger;
:¬:
truly his body
sam
.
sthit ¯ amaravandite (in which the sandhi is correct).
:o¬
The names of the next sixteen kal¯ as that are listed (eight at Ked¯ ara, four at the somaman
.
d
.
ala, three
at the khecaraman
.
d
.
ala and the first of the two at the r¯ ajadanta) match exactly the sixteen saumyakal¯ as
listed at Kul¯ arn
.
avatantra o.+¬–+ï and the lunar kal¯ as listed in a quotation from the M erutantra in the
third tara˙ nga of the Pura´scary¯ arn
.
ava (p.::s; in this list Pus
.
t
.
i and Tus
.
t
.
i are transposed). In Amr
.
t ¯ ananda-
n¯ atha’s D¯ıpik ¯ a on Yogin¯ıhr
.
daya p¯ uj ¯ asam
.
keta :c¡–:cs he lists sixteen saumyakal¯ as: amr
.
t ¯ a, m ¯ anad¯ a, p¯ us
.
¯ a,
pus
.
t
.
ih
.
, pr¯ıtih
.
, revat¯ı, hr¯ımat¯ı, ´sr¯ıh
.
, k ¯ antih
.
, sudh¯ a, jyotsn ¯ a, haimavat¯ı, ch¯ ay¯ a, samp¯ urit ¯ a, r¯ am ¯ a and ´sy¯ am ¯ a.
Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs (:,ïï:s.vv.), at the entries for each of the names of the eight kal¯ as here located at the
khecaraman
.
d
.
ala, says that they are (in the same order) the names of the kal¯ as of the moon as described in
the Brahmapur¯ an
.
a, but I have been unable to locate any such passage in that work.
:oï
In this and subsequent descriptions of groups of kal¯ as, it seems that the yogin should spend a month
tasting the amr
.
ta at each kal¯ a because the rewards to be gained are obtained after the same number of
months as kal¯ as at that particular kal¯ asth¯ ana.
:o,
somaman
.
d
.
ala probably means the moon: the names of the kal¯ as here have particularly lunar conno-
tations; furthermore, in the Kaivalyadh¯ am edition of the G
´
SN the moon is called somaman
.
d
.
ala in verse so
(Kaivaiyaou¯ ax :,,::+:¡). M KSG ::.,,¬ mentions a mah¯ acakra called Soma above the forehead. M VUT
:o.:+ and VS ¡.¡: locate the somaman
.
d
.
ala at the heart.
:¬c
The reading sam ¯ avi´set found in almost all the witnesses seems odd, particularly after sam ¯ ave´sya earlier
in the line. I have thus adopted Professor Sanderson’s conjectural emendation sam ¯ apibet. One could
understand sam ¯ avi´set to mean “the yogin should enter [sam ¯ adhi ]” but there are no similar constructions
elsewhere in the text. Ball¯ ala (f. +:v
9
) understands sam ¯ avi´set to mean that the yogin should remain with
his tongue in place: pravi´syaiva sthito bhavet.
:¬:
I have conjectured yog¯ı for the first word of :¡c where G and the KhV manuscripts have devi. Nowhere
else in the text does a vocative start a half-verse. The µ manuscripts have devabh¯ asacatus
.
kon
.
a (˚ken
.
a Jo),
“a square of divine appearance”, for :¡c which does not fit the context and is probably a corruption of
:so Cuairii :
becomes as hard as diamond from drinking the flow of [amr
.
ta].
[The kal ¯ as at the D iamond Bulb]
:sc–:od. Above that is a rock (´sil¯ a), the Orb of the Ethereal Beings (khecaraman
.
d
.
alam),
:¬:
known as the Diamond Bulb (vajrakand¯ akhyam).
:¬+
[The yogin] should recognise [it
to be] at the top of the forehead (lal¯ at
.
¯ ante); there, o goddess, is a triad of kal¯ as: Pr¯ıti,
A˙ ngad¯ a and P¯ urn
.
¯ a. He should insert his tongue there.
:¬ab. He should drink with his tongue the cool flowing amr
.
ta of that milky stream.
:¬c–:ïd. In three months, o goddess, [the yogin] becomes free from all disease,
impervious to attack by all cutting weapons, unyielding to all methods [of hostile
magic] (sarvas¯ adhanaih
.
),
:¬¡
[and] inconceivable by means of all the mundane sciences
(sarvavij ˜ n ¯ anaih
.
) with their ugly objects.
:,ab. By the power of the Diamond Bulb he truly becomes like Bhairava.
[The kal ¯ as at the Royal Tooth]
:,cd. Below the nostrils and above the lips (n ¯ asik ¯ adho ’dharos
.
t
.
hordhvam)
:¬s
is the great
place [called] the Royal Tooth (r¯ ajadantam).
:¬o
+cab. [There is], o goddess, a pair of kal¯ as there, P¯ urn
.
¯ amr
.
t ¯ a and
´
S¯ıtal¯ a.
+ccd. Holding the breath, [the yogin] should touch [them] with the tip of [his]
tongue.
+:ab. A sweet, cool fluid is produced there, o goddess.
the reading found in the other witnesses.
:¬:
Witnesses µG, which often preserve original readings, have khecaramadhyagam, “in the middle of
Khecara” for khecaraman
.
d
.
alam. However, I have been unable to locate any other references to a place
called Khecara in the subtle body so have adopted the reading of the KhV manuscripts. Khecaraman
.
d
.
ala
perhaps refers to the sun, in contrast to the lunar somaman
.
d
.
ala that has just been described.
:¬+
I have found no references to a vajrakanda in the body in other works on yoga. RAK :so mentions a
plant called vajrakanda in a description of a mercurial preparation. Several works describe an egg-shaped
kanda or kandayoni at the navel as the source of the ¬:,ccc n ¯ ad
.
¯ı s, e.g. G
´
SN :s (=YCU :¡c–:sb), VS
:.::–:: (=T SBM sï–s,),
´
SP ¡+c¬. On the analogy of this kanda, the vajrakanda may be a point of
intersection or origin of n ¯ ad
.
¯ı s. See also :.¡,c–scb, :.ïo and footnote ¡:¬.
:¬¡
The reading found in various forms in the manuscripts of Sβγ, alaks
.
yah
.
sarvalekhakaih
.
, is interpreted
by Ball¯ ala (f. ++r
10
) to mean “imperceptible by the gods”, i.e. “invisible” (adar´san¯ıyah
.
).
:¬s
This is an emendation of the reading found in G and, in a corrupt form, in µ. The witnesses of Sαβ
have n ¯ asik ¯ adhottaro˚ or corrupt versions of it (γ has the nonsensical n ¯ asik ¯ adyotaros
.
t
.
¯ adhah
.
). This form is
the result of a double sandhi (“¯ ars
.
a” sandhi according to Ball¯ ala at f. ++v
1
) of n ¯ asik ¯ adhah
.
+uttaro˚. I have
taken adharos
.
t
.
ha to mean both the upper and lower lips (cf. Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs :,ïï::,).
:¬o
As we have seen in footnote :¡c the r¯ ajadanta is the uvula, so its description as “below the nostrils
and above the lips” is surprising and suggests that it means somewhere in the region of the front teeth.
Presumably the description means that the r¯ ajadanta is on the same horizontal plane as the space below
the nostrils and above the lips.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :s¬
+:cd. Focussing his mind there, the ascetic (vrat¯ı) should drink [the fluid] for three
months.
+:ab. He becomes ageless and undying, free from all disease.
[The kal ¯ as at the Base and Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı]
+:c–++b. The place between the anus and the testicles is called the Base ( ¯ adh¯ aram).
:¬¬
Five kal¯ as are spoken of there, from which drips the supreme amr
.
ta.
++c–+¡b. Sudh¯ a, Sudh¯ amay¯ı, Praj ˜ n¯ a, K¯ alaghn¯ı, J˜ n¯ anad¯ ayin¯ı;
:•
[these] five kal¯ as
are praised as streams of nectar, bestowing all siddhi s.
+¡cd. The supreme feminine divinity (param ¯ a ´saktih
.
) is situated there, o goddess,
the primordial ( ¯ ady¯ a) Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı.
+s. By contracting that region (tatr¯ aku ˜ ncanayogena)
:¬,
[and] holding the breath,
o you who are worshipped by the gods (sur¯ arcite), [the yogin] should unite the cool
amr
.
ta situated there with the goddess of the Base (m ¯ ula´sakty¯ a).
+o. Leading [them] by way of the central channel [up] from the Sv¯ adhis
.
t
.
h¯ ana and
other lotuses, he should think of [himself ] as being sprinkled by the rain of that nectar
up to his skull (brahm ¯ an
.
d
.
ak ¯ avadhi).
:ïc
+¬a–+ïb. Taking the amr
.
ta situated there, the great goddess
´
Sr¯ıkun
.
d
.
al¯ı goes by
way of the central channel to the top of the abode of Brahm¯ a, bathed in a surfeit of
the nectar produced from the five kal¯ as of the Base.
+ïcd. [The yogin] should imagine [her] pervading [his] body from his feet to his
head.
+,. In five months of using [this technique], absorption into the five elements
arises;
:ï:
through practising [it] in the morning, in the evening and at midnight (trik ¯ al¯ a-
:¬¬
This is the ¯ adh¯ ara or m ¯ ul¯ adh¯ ara cakra of tantric and yogic physiology. See e.g. KJN :¡.:s–:¡b, KM T
:+.+¬–s:, S
.
CN ¡, G
´
SN :ï, Y
´
SU :.:oï.
:•
I have found no parallels for this or any of the subsequent lists of kal¯ as.
:¬,
i.e. by means of the hat
.
hayogic m ¯ ulabandha. Ball¯ ala (f. +¡v
1−2
) explains it to be the forcing of breath
into the head by sitting in padm ¯ asana or siddh¯ asana, contracting the Base and repeating hum
.
hum
.
: ¯ akum
.
ca-
nam
.
tu padmasiddh¯ asanasthatve sati hum
.
h

u

m
.
k ¯ aren
.
¯ adh¯ arakamalam
.
sam
.
kocya tatrasthav ¯ ayoh
.
pr
.
s
.
t
.
havam
.
´se
nayan ¯ am
.
bhojavr
.
ttau tu n ¯ abhim ¯ ul¯ at preritasya v ¯ ayoh
.
´sirasy abhihananam | Cf. G
´
SN sï–s,, YKU :.o¡,
H P +.oc–oï etc. In his commentary on N T ¬.+c Ks
.
emar¯ aja describes a forerunner of this practice in
which the contraction and expansion of the anus (mattagandhasth¯ ana) causes Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı to point upwards:
cittapr¯ an
.
aik ¯ agryen
.
a kandabh ¯ umim avas
.
t
.
abhya tanm ¯ ulam iti mattagandhasth¯ anam
.
´sanair iti sam
.
kocavik ¯ as¯ a-
bhy¯ asena ´saktyunmes
.
am upalaks
.
ya p¯ıd
.
ayet yath¯ a ´saktir ¯ urdhvamukhaiva bhavati (see also N T U pp.:s¬–:sï).
This repeated contraction and expansion is a feature of the Gheran
.
d
.
asam
.
hit ¯ a’s a´svin¯ımudr¯ a which is also
said to awaken kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı (GhS +.ï+).
:ïc
In the KhV brahm ¯ an
.
d
.
a means skull. See footnote :+,.
:ï:
Ball¯ ala (f. +sv
7−8
) explains pa˜ ncabh ¯ utalaya as absorption into the subtle elements: yady api sth ¯ ul¯ an ¯ am
.
bh ¯ ut ¯ an ¯ am
.
layo ’sam
.
bhavas tath¯ api tanm ¯ atr¯ an
.
¯ am
.
lavarayah¯ an ¯ am
.
b¯ıjabh ¯ ut ¯ an ¯ am
.
tatra tatra japenes
.
t
.
adevat ¯ a-
dhy¯ anena ca laye tallayasy¯ arthasiddhatv ¯ at. In hat
.
hayogic texts, laya is both an aim of yoga (see KhV +.¡ï–s:;
AY :.::–,ï, A
´
S p.s ll.:o–:c, H P ¡.+, ¡.:,–+¡ etc.) and a type of yoga itself (e.g. DY
´
S :,–+c and +¬–s:, H P
:sï Cuairii :
bhy¯ asayogatah
.
)
:ï:
he truly becomes equal to
´
Siva .
[The kal ¯ as at the Sv¯ adhis
.
t
.
h¯ ana]
¡c. That which is the place of the penis (li ˙ ngasth¯ anam),
:ï+
o goddess, is called the
Sv¯ adhis
.
t
.
h¯ ana; there is said [to be] a triad of kal¯ as there, replete with the divine amr
.
ta.
¡:ab. They are called Sus¯ uks
.
m¯ a, Param¯ ahl¯ ad¯ a and Vidy¯ a.
¡:c–¡:b. Holding his breath and awakening the goddess as before, he should lead
[her up] as far as [his] skull and inundate his body [with amr
.
ta].
¡:cd. In the course of three months the yogin attains the reward that has already
been described.
:ï¡
[The kal ¯ as at the Bamboo Staff ]
¡+. That which is between the anus and the penis is called the bamboo staff (ven
.
u-
dan
.
d
.
am).
:ïs
A tetrad of kal¯ as is taught [to be] there, consisting of the essence of the
great amr
.
ta.
¡¡ab. [They are] Su´s¯ıt ¯ a, Mah¯ atr
.
pti, Palitaghn¯ı and Valiks
.
ay¯ a.
¡¡c–¡sb. [The yogin] should awaken the goddess there and inundate [his] body
[with amr
.
ta] as before; after four months of [this] practice he shall obtain the reward
described earlier.
¡.:c+, YB :¡+,
´
SP ¡+sc–¡+o+, VU s.:c). µ’s reading, pa˜ ncabh ¯ utajayam
.
labhet, preserves an older idea of
mastery over the elements found in the Yogas¯ utra (+.¡+) and many tantric works (see Vasuoiva :,,,::¡c–
:sc). At f. ,¬r
6−8
(in his commentary on +.os), Ball¯ ala quotes a passage on bh ¯ utajaya which he attributes
to the M ah¯ abh¯ arata: bh¯ arate paus
.
kare saptada´s¯ adhy¯ aye n¯ılakam
.
t
.
h∗kramen
.
a p¯ ad¯ adi j ¯ anuparyam
.
tam
.
|
j ¯ anv ¯ adi p¯ ayvam
.
tam
.
| p¯ ayv ¯ adi hr
.
day¯ am
.
tam
.
| tato bhr ¯ umadhy¯ am
.
tam
.
| tato m ¯ urdh¯ am
.
tam
.
| cakrapam
.
cakam
.
(pam
.
cakam
.
] em.; pam
.
ca S) pam
.
caghat
.
ik ¯ aparyam
.
tam
.
mano dh¯ arayato b¯ıj ¯ ani japata uktadev ¯ an dhy¯ ayata´s ca
tattadbh ¯ utajayo ’va´syam
.
bhavati | See also footnote :,o.
:ï:
This is the conventional meaning of trik ¯ ala and it is understood thus by Ball¯ ala (f. +or
1−2
).
:ï+
The Sv¯ adhis
.
t
.
h¯ ana lotus is located in the region of the penis in G
´
SN ::,
´
SS s.¬s, S
.
CN :¡ etc. Likewise
Ball¯ ala puts it li ˙ ngam ¯ ule, “at the root of the penis” at f. +or
7
. I have thus adopted G’s reading over µ’s
incorrect n ¯ abhisth¯ anam and the vague n ¯ abhisth¯ an ¯ ad adhah
.
of the other witnesses.
:ï¡
As Ball¯ ala notes (f. +¬v
8−10
), this and the reward mentioned at :.¡sb are presumably the reward
described at :.+,.
:ïs
I have not come across references to the ven
.
udan
.
d
.
a in any other texts. Ball¯ ala (f. +¬r
1
) says that it
is the lower part of the spine (pr
.
s
.
t
.
havam
.
´s¯ akhyasya m ¯ ulam
.
) and equates it with the vajradan
.
d
.
a described
in YB :+:. G’s reading of v¯ın
.
¯ a may be original: Tantrar¯ ajatantra :¬.+s says that the v¯ın
.
¯ adan
.
d
.
a is the
spine—sus
.
umn ¯ a pr
.
s
.
t
.
havam
.
´s¯ akhyav¯ın
.
¯ adan
.
d
.
asya madhyag¯ a; Y
´
SU o.ï describes the v¯ın
.
¯ adan
.
d
.
a as being in
the region behind the anus and supporting the body (dehabhr
.
t).
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :s,
[The Id
.
¯ a and Pi ˜ ngal¯ a Channels]
:ïo
¡sc–¡ob. Pi ˙ ngal¯ a is the channel of the sun; Id
.
¯ a is the channel of the moon.
:ï¬
The sun is
called the bearer of poison (vis
.
av ¯ ahah
.
), the moon is the bearer of nectar (sudh¯ av ¯ ahah
.
)
:ïï
¡oc–¡¬b. Practice is enjoined in that which is called the channel of the sun and in
the channel of the moon; and concentration (dh¯ aran
.
¯ a) [is enjoined] in the channel of
the moon.
:ï,
The yogin should practise breath-retention.
¡¬c–¡ïb. He should fill his body with air by way of the channel of the moon;
expulsion [of air] by way of the channel of the sun is enjoined for improvement of the
body (dehavr
.
ddhaye).
:,c
¡ïcd. I have taught you this four-fold place of kal¯ as, o goddess.
:,:
[The place of the ultimate amr
.
t a]
¡,ab. Now I shall teach the great place of the ultimate amr
.
ta.
:,:
:ïo
¡sc–¡ïb appear to be a later addition to the text: ¡ïc follows on directly from ¡sb.
:ï¬
Cf. G
´
SN +:, VS :.:¬–:ï etc.
:ïï
The edition’s reading, ravih
.
proktah
.
, is attested only by B and is possibly a scribal emendation. It is
tempting to adopt µ’s raver b¯ ahuh
.
, taking it to mean “a ray of the sun” but I have found no parallels for
this usage of b¯ ahu. The reading raver v ¯ ahah
.
found in a variety of forms in the other witnesses results in
the unwanted repetition of v ¯ ahah
.
.
:ï,
¡¬a is puzzling and I suspect that the text is corrupt. I have found no parallel passages in other
hat
.
hayogic texts. As Ball¯ ala notes (f. +,r
10
), dh¯ aran
.
¯ a can mean both fixing of the mind on a single object
and fixing of the breath. (The two are linked: Vy¯ asa in his commentary to YS :.s: states that mental
dh¯ aran
.
¯ a is brought about through breath-control; cf. H P ¡.:+.) Here I have interpreted the p¯ ada with
the former sense of dh¯ aran
.
¯ a. It could also be interpreted with the latter sense, giving the meaning that
the yogin is to inhale through the lunar channel but this would be somewhat redundant since the same
is said in the next half-verse.
:,c
This lunar pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama with its emphasis on inhalation through the id
.
¯ a n ¯ ad
.
¯ı has no parallel in the
manuals of hat
.
hayoga, in which the yogin is usually instructed to use alternate nostrils for inhalation
(e.g. H P :.¬–:c,
´
SS +.:+–:¡, GhS s.+,–s+). There is one technique in which the yogin is to use only one
nostril for inhalation: s¯ uryabhedana (H P :.¡ï–sc, GhS s.sï–s,); however it is the pi ˙ ngal¯ a n ¯ ad
.
¯ı which is
to be used for inhalation and the id
.
¯ a for exhalation.
:,:
The kal¯ as situated in the lower part of the body total twelve (five at the ¯ adh¯ ara, three at the sv ¯ adhis
.
t
.
h¯ ana
and four at the ven
.
udan
.
d
.
a). This figure tallies with the descriptions of twelve kal¯ as of the sun (which is
situated in the lower part of the body in yogic physiology: see e.g. H P +.¬o–ï:) found in SSP :.os and
KAT o.+,. This may be coincidence: here the kal¯ as are not said to have any connection with the sun
while in the SSP and KAT passages the names of the kal¯ as are explicitly solar. Moreover, no such neat
correspondence can be made for the twenty-two kal¯ as situated in the head. Indeed it is striking that the
kal¯ as in the head do not total sixteen or seventeen (see footnote :sï). (Ball¯ ala (f. +ïr
7
) omits the four kal¯ as
at the somaman
.
d
.
ala and the single kal¯ a above the brahm ¯ argaladv ¯ ara to arrive at the scripturally prescribed
total of seventeen candrakal¯ as.)
:,:
I usually translate sudh¯ a as “nectar”, amr
.
ta as “amr
.
ta”, par¯ amr
.
ta as “great amr
.
ta”, and param ¯ amr
.
ta
as “supreme amr
.
ta”. I have chosen to translate par¯ amr
.
ta here as “ultimate amr
.
ta” because
´
Siva is now
teaching the location of the highest store of amr
.
ta in the head.
:oc Cuairii :
¡,c–scb. The Diamond Bulb (vajrakandam)
:,+
in the forehead sparkles like the
shining moon; in its centre is the syllable lam
.
and it is square. The deity there is the
great
´
Siva (parah
.
´sivah
.
).
sccd. Gods [and] yogins worship [him] together with his consort.
:,¡
s:–s:. At the c¯ ulitala,
:,s
o great goddess, is a triangular man
.
d
.
ala, as bright as one
hundred thousand suns; in the middle [the yogin] should visualise (bh¯ avayet) the great
(param) god
´
Siva, consisting of a li ˙ nga, o goddess, with the syllable ram
.
at the centre,
embraced by his consort [and] surrounded by a troop of deities, o supreme goddess.
s+a–s¡b. In the right temple, o most fortunate goddess (mah¯ abh¯ age), is that which
is encircled by six dots, containing the syllable yam
.
and smoke-coloured; there [the
yogin] should visualise (smaret), o goddess, the god Mahe´svara in the form of a li ˙ nga
together with [his] consort and surrounded by his troop of attendants.
s¡c–sob. In the left temple, o goddess, is a [semi-]circle, looking like a half–moon,
together with a lotus. It contains the syllable vam
.
, and in the middle there is a solid
li ˙ nga full of nectar (sudh¯ amayam), as white as cow’s milk, [and] with the radiance of
the autumn moon. It is together with its consort and is served by the entire host of
gods and goddesses.
socd. Thus have I described stations in the four directions, o goddess.
s¬. In the middle of them is a great circle (mah¯ avr
.
ttam) which contains the syllable
ham
.
. There, o P¯ arvat¯ı, is situated the Supreme Lord (parame´sah
.
), great
´
Sambhu (parah
.
´sambhuh
.
), together with his consort.
sïab. He is in the form of a li ˙ nga, together with [his] host, and is as bright as ten
million suns.
sïc–s,c. At the forehead is the Lord of Earth, at the back of the head is the Lord of
Fire, in the right temple is the Lord of Air, in the left is the Lord of Water, o goddess,
[and] in the middle is the Lord of Ether.
s,d. I have described the five stations of
´
Sambhu.
:,o
:,+
The diamond bulb (vajrakanda) has been described at :.:sc-:,b. See footnote :¬+.
:,¡
For yoginah
.
, “yogins”, µ has yoginyah
.
, “yogin¯ıs”. This may indicate a difference in doctrine between
µ and the other witnesses, but could also be because of a scribal error.
:,s
On the c¯ ulitala see footnote ::+.
:,o
This description of five places in the head corresponds to descriptions of the qualities of the five
elements to be meditated upon in the hat
.
hayogic dh¯ aran
.
¯ a (e.g. G
´
SN :ss–:s,, VS ¡.:–:s, DY
´
S ::c–:¡:,
´
SS
+.o+–o¡, GhS +.¬c–ïc,
´
Sivasvarodaya :c,–::+; cf. M VUT :+.::c–:+.s+d, M r
.
gendratantra Yogap¯ ada +,–¡¡;
Ball¯ ala (f.¡:(:)v) quotes similar passages from the Kulaprak ¯ a´satantra (see Kavii¯ ai :,¬:::¡+), the
´
S¯ ara-
d¯ atilaka and the M ah¯ akapilapa˜ ncar¯ atra (see ibid.:¡ï¡)). These elemental qualities (appearance, colour,
shape, b¯ıja etc.) have been imposed (with some differences) upon different sets of five physical locations
in different schemata of esoteric physiology. Thus they appear in the S
.
CN ’s description of the lower five
cakras at the perineum, the genital region, the navel, the heart and the throat (cf.
´
SS +.o¡); in the G
´
SN
they are found at the heart, the throat, the palate, between the eyebrows and at the brahmarandhra; in the
DY
´
S they are in the regions between the anus and navel, at the navel, above the navel, between the navel
and the eyebrows and above the eyebrows; here in the KhV the first four are at the cardinal directions in
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :o:
oca–o:d. Above the head of the god [who is] the lord of ether is a vessel (bh¯ an
.
d
.
am)
:,¬
full of the divine amr
.
ta, four fingers broad, with a door closing it at its base (m ¯ ulabandha-
kap¯ at
.
akam), a great rock (mah¯ a´sailam) with the moon above it ( ¯ urdhvacandram)
:,ï
in
the middle of an orb of light, as bright as ten million moons, impenetrable, the seat of
amr
.
ta.
o:a–o+b. Immersed in the cool amr
.
ta is a li ˙ nga, o goddess, like a speck of dust,
as bright as ten million moons, perfect (heyop¯ adeyarahitam),
:,,
[and] destroying the
darkness of ignorance.
o+c–o¡d. Going beyond the five [amr
.
ta-]stations, in order to obtain the ultimate
substance (paratattvopalabdhaye),
+cc
[the yogin], holding the breath, should extend
the Goddess of Speech (v ¯ ag¯ı´s¯ am),
+c:
with her mouth upwards ( ¯ urdhvavaktr¯ am),
+c:
together with [his] attention, to the doorway at the base of the pot of the ultimate
amr
.
ta (par¯ amr
.
taghat
.
¯ adh¯ arakap¯ at
.
akam).
+c+
the head with the fifth above, in the centre. The order in which the elements are listed here is different
from that found elsewhere. In the text from ¡,c to sïb and in its summary at sïc–s,d the order is earth
(pr
.
thiv¯ı), fire (s¯ urya), air (anila), water (jala) and ether ( ¯ ak ¯ a´sa), in contrast with the usual order of earth,
water, fire, air, ether. They are, however, positioned in their usual order as one circumambulates the head
(albeit anticlockwise): starting at the forehead with earth, there is water at the left temple, fire at the back
of the head, air at the right temple and ether on top.
:,¬
At f. ¡cv
10
Ball¯ ala likens the four li ˙ ngas, with the fifth in the middle, and a store of cooling amr
.
ta
above, to the four columns of a temple, with the li ˙ nga in the middle, and a galantik ¯ a or kala´sa dripping
water onto the li ˙ nga from above: caturdiks
.
u galam
.
tik ¯ astambh¯ as tadupari pragalajjalakala´sah
.
.
:,ï
The readings of µ and G ( ¯ urdhver ¯ urdhva˚ and ¯ urdhvaram
.
dhra˚ respectively), although corrupt,
suggest that ¯ urdhvacandram may not be the original reading. The Vair¯ at
.
apur¯ an
.
a locates a cakra called
both ¯ urdhvarandhra and t ¯ alucakra above the sahasr¯ aracakra (Kavii¯ ai :,ï¬:s:).
:,,
Literally, “free of those things which are to be rejected (heya) or cultivated (up¯ adeya)”, i.e. free
of any hierarchised duality. Ball¯ ala (f. ¡+r
10
) glosses heya with sam
.
s¯ ara and up¯ adeya with moks
.
a. The
M ¯ alin¯ıvijayottaratantra starts with a statement of what is up¯ adeya and what is heya (:.:¡c–:¬b): “
´
Siva,
´
Sakti, Sovereigns of Mantra-regents, Mantras, Mantra-regents and individual souls” are to be cultivated;
“impurity, karma, M¯ ay¯ a, the entire universe deriving from M¯ ay¯ a” are to be rejected (Vasuoiva’s translation
(:,,,::::)).
+cc
Here paratattva can be understood both physically and metaphysically: it is amr
.
ta, the ultimate
substance, beyond the five elements already mentioned, and it is the ultimate reality, the goal of many
tantric and hat
.
hayogic practices (see e.g. KT s,.+o, H P ¡.+¬ and KhV :.:ccc). That this practice is not
entirely physical is indicated by phrases such as manas¯ a saha at o¡c and osd, and unmany¯ a tatra sam
.
yogam
at o¬c. Most of the first adhy¯ aya of the Amanaskayoga (vv. ::–,ï) is devoted to describing laya, by means
of which the paratattva is obtained. (This first adhy¯ aya is called layayoga when quoted from by later
commentators; the second, which describes amanaskayoga, is called r¯ ajayoga (Bouy :,,¡:::, o,, ¬ï)).
+c:
On V¯ ag¯ı´s¯ a, see :.::ccd.
+c:
i.e. with the tip of the tongue pointing upwards in order to lick at the amr
.
ta. G’s reading, ¯ urdhva-
vaktre, suggests the “upper mouth” which is at the opening of the ´sa˙ nkhin¯ı n ¯ ad
.
¯ı, from which amr
.
ta flows
(cf. A
´
S p.:c).
+c+
The pot of amr
.
ta is a recurrent theme in Indian mythology. When the ocean of milk was churned
by the gods and demons Dhanvantri appeared carrying a white pot (kaman
.
d
.
alu) of amr
.
ta (M ah¯ abh¯ arata
:.:ï). Four drops of amr
.
ta fell from this pot at the sites of the triennial Kumbha (“Pot”) Mel¯ a. At SYM
:o: Cuairii :
os. Having reached [there] together with [his] mind, truly the yogin, restraining
the flow of his breath, should playfully open the bolt with [his] tongue.
oo. There the yogin should drink the drink of yoga (yogap¯ anam), [which is] hard
for even the gods to obtain: the icy, milky amr
.
ta, sweet [like] cool sugar-cane juice.
o¬a–oïb. Satiated by a surfeit of that nectar and having entered the supreme state,
the yogin should obtain there in the skull union with the supramental state (unmany¯ a
sam
.
yogam),
+c¡
and eat, by means of yoga, the meat that consists of n ¯ ada and bindu
(n ¯ adabindumayam).
+cs
oïc–o,d. This rare secret has been proclaimed, o goddess. Truly, after six months
[the yogin] obtains the reward which the omniscient
´
Siva has taught in the scriptural
transmission; in this there is no doubt.
¬c. He who desires [Khecar¯ı] siddhi must not say anything to anyone who, [al-
though] he has attained all [other] siddhi s, does not know this yoga, o goddess.
+co
::.¬ Bhairava is to be visualised in the middle of the Um¯ amahe´svaracakra churning a pot (kala´sa) full of
amr
.
ta; at SYM ::.+o in a description of the fearsome Yogin¯ıcakra, at the hub of the wheel the Yogin¯ıs
churn and drink from a white pot (kala´sa) full of amr
.
ta. The inner shrine of the N¯ atha monastery at
Caughera in Nepal contains a pot of amr
.
ta (amr
.
tap¯ atra) which is said to be the svar ¯ up of Gorakhn¯ ath
(Bouiiiiii :,,¬:+:–+:).
+c¡
Unman¯ı, “the transmental state”, is a common goal of tantric and hat
.
hayogic practices. At H P ¡.+–¡
it is included in a list of synonyms of sam ¯ adhi. It is also frequently mentioned by Hind¯ı poets of the
nirgun
.
a tradition (Caiiiwaiir and oi Biicx :,,::o:o).
+cs
In tantric works, n ¯ ada and bindu (often combined with kal¯ a—see footnote :sï) have several different
meanings. In particular, they refer to places in the subtle body (e.g. N T ¬.:,, KT sï.so, Vij ˜ n ¯ anabhairava
+o–+¬) and describe corresponding stages in the manifestation of the phonetic universe (e.g.
´
S¯ arad¯ atilaka-
tantra :.¬–ï, T
¯
A ¡.:¬s; see Paooux :,,c:ïo–:::). They are also listed in some texts among the six laks
.
yas,
“the six manifestations of
´
Siva as the ‘goals’, or ‘targets’, of yogic practice” (Vasuoiva :,,,::,c). In the
texts of hat
.
hayoga, n ¯ ada is usually the internal, “unstruck” (an ¯ ahata) sound heard during yoga practice (see
e.g. H P ¡.oo–:co, N ¯ adabind ¯ upanis
.
ad +:–s:). Meanwhile, bindu is understood to be the amr
.
ta secreted in
the head, which the yogin must prevent from falling and being discharged as semen (H P :.¬ï, +.¡:, SSP
:.:+, GhS +.¡¬; but see
´
SS s.::c where n ¯ ada and bindu, together with ´sakti, are p¯ıt
.
has in the lotus of the
forehead; see also BKhP f. :ccv
3
: p¯ıt
.
hatrayam
.
bh¯ ale bim
.
dun ¯ ada´saktir ¯ upam
.
| tatphalam
.
janm ¯ am
.
tarasmr
.
tih
.
| vipar¯ıtajihvay¯ a n ¯ adadhy¯ anam
.
p¯ apan ¯ a´sanam
.
| ´saktau v ¯ asan ¯ aks
.
ayah
.
, and M aSam
.
:¬.:¡–:o, in which the
vi´suddhacakra and an unnamed cakra somewhere above vi´suddha are said to be n ¯ adar ¯ upaka and bindu-
r ¯ upaka respectively). It is with the usual hat
.
hayogic meanings that Ball¯ ala (f. ¡¡v
3−4
) understands n ¯ ada
and bindu (cf. H PJ ad ¡.:). As such, the compound n ¯ adabindu joins two unconnected concepts and
his interpretation seems forced. I suspect that in hat
.
hayogic works the compound is used more as a
catchphrase, harking back to its use in tantric texts and thereby adding esoteric gravitas (see e.g. H P ¡.:,
GBS :o+, :ï:, :ï¡ etc., Y
´
SU o.¬c, GhS o.:: and the N ¯ adabind ¯ upanis
.
ad, which, despite its title, concerns
only the “unstruck” n ¯ ada and mentions bindu just once, at verse sc). On n ¯ ada, bindu and kal¯ a see also
Kiiuxii :,,¬::¡:.
At H P +.¡o in the description of khecar¯ımudr¯ a the yogin is said to eat beef and drink wine (see page ¡+
of the introduction). The jog¯ı is said to drink v ¯ arun
.
¯ı at GBS :+¬. Cf. Ras¯ arn
.
ava :.:o, Rasendrac¯ ud
.
¯ aman
.
i
:.¬–:c. See also Ros¸u :,,¬:¡:+.
+co
Ball¯ ala (f. ¡sv
4−7
) takes this verse to be describing those entitled to teach and learn Khecar¯ı yoga: the
text is to be spoken by [a yogin] who has no desire for siddhi (na kim
.
cit siddhim icchat ¯ a—he interprets
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :o+
¬:. One should not cause this text to be given to those who delight in deceit
and dishonesty, who do not recognise the guru as a god, and who do not know the
observances (samay¯ an) taught in scripture.
+c¬
[Massaging the body with amr
.
t a]
+cï
¬:ab. At the root of the tongue is situated, o goddess, the all-glorious (sarvatejomayah
.
)
fire.
siddhi here as ´sis
.
y¯ ad dravyasev ¯ adipr¯ apti,“obtaining goods, service etc. from the pupil”!) to one who has
attained the means of siddhi (siddhisop¯ anam) but does not know this yoga.
+c¬
The ai´sa anacolouthon found in this verse has been emended by G, or one of its antecedents.
+cï
Practices involving massaging the body with various physical secretions are alluded to fleetingly in
many hat
.
hayogic texts (see the references in the footnotes to :.¬sa–¬¬b). Pat
.
ala :¬ of the M atsyendra-
sam
.
hit ¯ a (which is reproduced in the appendices) describes several such techniques in detail, summarising
them as “the ritual bath which is better than [bathing] at all the sacred bathing places” (sarvat¯ırth¯ a-
dhikam
.
sn ¯ anam :¬.:cd). (At M aSam
.
:¬.: faeces, urine, menstrual blood, phlegm (? recaka) and semen
(? s¯ araka) are said to be the gods Loke´sa, Ke´sava, Rudra,
¯
I´sa and Sade´svara.) These practices corporealise
the techniques of rasa´s¯ astra, alchemy (on corporealisation see page ¡:). The words used to describe the
massaging of the body, lepana and mardana, are also used to describe sam
.
sk ¯ aras in the process of fixing
mercury (see e.g. RAK ïc, ,:, :sc etc. on lepana and s¡, ï,, ,ï etc. on mardana). As with the substances
to be rubbed into mercury in the alchemical sam
.
sk ¯ aras, in M aSam
.
pat
.
ala :¬ minerals and herbs are added
to the fluids to be massaged into the body. M aSam
.
:¬.: calls the knowledge of these practices ks
.
etraj ˜ n ¯ ana;
at Ras¯ arn
.
ava :ï.::, :ï.:s and :ï.:, the preparation of the human body for alchemical practice by the
consumption of herbal preparations is called ks
.
etr¯ıkaran
.
a (see also Wuiri :,,o::os–:¬+).
In verses ,s and :ï:c–:ï:b of the RAK it is said that the urine and faeces of a man who eats certain herbal
preparations (which do not include mercury) can transmute copper into gold (cf.
´
SS +.s¡ and DY
´
S :,¬
quoted in footnote +:o). At :¡o it is said that by eating a preparation of calcined mercury, a man becomes
spar´savedh¯ı and his sweat can fix mercury.
The physical practices are attacked at SSP o.,c:
´sam
.
khaks
.
¯ alanam antaram
.
rasanay¯ a t ¯ alvos
.
t
.
han ¯ as¯ arasam
v ¯ anter ucchadanam kav ¯ at
.
am amar¯ıp¯ anam
.
tath¯ a kharpar¯ım |
v¯ıryam
.
dr¯ avitam ¯ atmajam
.
punar aho gr¯ asam
.
pralepam
.
ca v ¯ a
ye kurvam
.
ti jad
.
¯ as tu te na hi phalam
.
tes
.
¯ am
.
tu siddh¯ antajam
gob ucchadanam
.
] em.; ullat
.
anam
.
Ed, uchut
.
hanam
.
Ed
vl
• kharpar¯ım ] em.; kharpar¯ı
Ed goc v¯ıryam
.
] em.; v¯ırya Ed • gr¯ asam
.
pralepam
.
ca v¯ a ] gr¯ asapradam
.
pa˜ ncadh¯ a
Ed
vl
“Those who practise emesis and enema [and] use the fluids from the palate, lips and nose with the
tongue, who massage themselves with vomit, who practise kav ¯ at
.
a (?), drink their own urine, use Kharpar¯ı
(coryllium?), who use their semen having caused it to flow, and eat or massage [themselves with these
fluids], are stupid and do not get the reward that is produced by the correct doctrine.” (Several verses
towards the end of SSP pat
.
ala o appear to be later additions to the text since they contradict other verses
in the text: see e.g. o.:+ where the avadh ¯ uta who drinks his own urine is praised). Cf. AY :.++ (=AP
ï): ke cin m ¯ utram
.
pibanti svamalam. . . , “some drink urine, their own filth. . . ”, and Ras¯ arn
.
ava :.::c–::b:
´sukram ¯ utrapur¯ıs
.
¯ an
.
¯ am
.
yadi muktir nis
.
evan ¯ at | kim
.
na mukt ¯ a mah¯ adevi ´sv ¯ ana´s¯ ukaraj ¯ atayah
.
“If liberation
[comes] from using semen, urine and faeces, then why are dogs and pigs not liberated, o great goddess”.
:o¡ Cuairii :
¬:c–¬+b. At its tip is the sun; the moon is situated in the middle of the forehead
(bh¯ alamadhye). Siddhi arises for him who really (tattvena) knows thus.
+c,
¬+c–¬¡d. Having churned (mathitv ¯ a)
+:c
and zealously awakened
+::
the orb of fire,
[the yogin] should turn [his] tongue, on the tip of which is situated the sun, to the orb
of the moon at the forehead, which has liquefied due to the heat of that [fire]
+::
.
¬s–¬o. [The yogin] should gather in a vessel (p¯ atren
.
a)
+:+
that cool supreme amr
.
ta
[when it has] dripped from the moon and emerged from the nostrils (n ¯ asik ¯ arandhra-
niry¯ atam),
+:¡
o goddess.
¬oab. By rubbing the body with that [amr
.
ta], truly the channels of the body
become purified (n ¯ ad
.
¯ı´suddhih
.
praj ¯ ayate).
+:s
+c,
Here
´
Siva teaches the physical locations of fire, the sun and the moon. As in the locations of the
five elemental deities discussed in footnote :,o, the system described here is different from that found in
other tantric and hat
.
hayogic texts. In the texts of hat
.
hayoga, the sun and fire are combined and said to
dwell in the navel region, consuming the amr
.
ta that drips from the moon which is situated at the palate
(see e.g. G
´
SN :++, H P +.•, GhS +.+:).
In this verse, only µ has bh¯ alamadhye, “in the middle of the forehead”, (cf. bh¯ alajam at ¬¡b), which
is almost certainly original in the light of both :.¬s, where the amr
.
ta that has dripped from the moon
emerges from the nostrils, and :.::, where the somaman
.
dala, i.e. the moon, is located between the
eyebrows. Similarly, at SSP :.:: the yogin is told to visualise a candraman
.
dala at the bhr ¯ umadhy¯ adh¯ ara
while
´
SS s.:¡¬–ï locates the moon at the sahasr¯ ara lotus at the top of the skull. The readings of the rest
of the witnesses, which locate the moon at the palate, have probably originated through confusion with
other texts, rather than through deliberate alteration.
+:c
On mathana, “churning”, see :.s¬c–o¡d.
+::
Ball¯ ala (f. ¡ov
1−3
) describes how the orb of fire is to be awakened: daks
.
ahastasya madhyam ¯ am
.
gu-
s
.
t
.
h¯ abhy¯ am
.
d
.
amaruvan n ¯ asik ¯ aput
.
e p¯ urayan recayam
.
´s (em.; p¯ uraya∗ecayam
.
´s S) ca v ¯ adayitv ¯ a pa´sc¯ ad g¯ ad
.
ham
.
p¯ urayed recayed ity es
.
¯ atra bhastr¯ a (em.; bhasr¯ a S) tay¯ a sus
.
umn ¯ avahane sati

t

adadhis
.
t
.
hitavahner udbodha-
nam
.
bhavat¯ıti. This is a variation of the bhastr¯ a/ bhastrik ¯ a pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama described at YB :cï–:::, H P :.s,–o¬
and GhS s.¬s–¬¬ (in the almost identical YB and H P passages the practice is said to be kun
.
d
.
al¯ıbodhakam
and bring about ´sar¯ır¯ agnivivardhanam, i.e. it awakens Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı and increases bodily fire).
+::
H P +.¡ï describes how amr
.
ta flows from the moon after it has been liquefied by the heat produced
when the tongue enters the opening above the palate: jihv ¯ aprave´sasambh ¯ utavahninotp¯ aditah
.
khalu | candr¯ at
sravati yah
.
s¯ arah
.
s¯ a sy¯ ad amarav ¯ arun
.
¯ı Cf. T
¯
A ¡.:+:cd, :+¡ab.
+:+
M aSam
.
¡c.ï (A f. ,cv
2
) says that the vessel used to hold the yogin’s urine (amar¯ı) should be made
of gold or silver, or, if they are unavailable, copper or brass (k ¯ am
.
sya). KJN ::.::-:o describes the different
materials that can be used to make the p¯ atra that holds the c¯ aruka (the kaula pa˜ nc¯ amr
.
ta libation: faeces,
urine, semen, blood and marrow—KJN ::.::; cf. T
¯
A :: (:,) p.:+c, ll.s–ï where the five jewels are said to
be urine, semen, menstrual blood, faeces and phlegm (Saxoiisox :,,s:ï:)).
+:¡
Cf. M aSam
.
:¬.,. A corrupt passage at H P +.,+–,¡ describes the amarol¯ı technique: amar¯ım
.
yah
.
piben nityam
.
nasyam
.
kurvan (nasyam
.
kurvan ] tasya kury¯ ad Ed
vl
) dine dine | vajrol¯ım abhyaset samyag
amarol¯ıti kathyate abhy¯ as¯ an nih
.
sr
.
t ¯ am
.
c¯ andr¯ım
.
vibh ¯ uty¯ a saha mi´srayet | dh¯ arayed uttam ¯ a˙ nges
.
u divyadr
.
s
.
t
.
ih
.
praj ¯ ayate “He who always drinks urine, [also] using it as a nasally administered substance, every day
[and who] correctly performs vajrol¯ı, [his practice] is called amaroli. He should mix with ash the lunar
[fluid] that has emerged after practice and put it on his head; he gets divine sight.” (As translated by
Dr. Dominic Goodall and Dr. Harunaga Isaacson.) Brahm¯ ananda (H PJ ad loc.) attributes this practice
to K¯ ap¯ alikas.
+:s
In hat
.
hayogic texts, n ¯ ad
.
¯ı´suddhi is usually said to arise by means of pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama. See e.g. G
´
SN ,s, H P
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :os
¬oc–¬¬b. [The yogin] should stir up the essence of immortality (amar¯ırasam)
which is produced at the anus and penis
+:o
and has emerged into a vessel, with the
amr
.
ta from the armpits (kaks
.
¯ amr
.
tam),
+:¬
embellished with fluid from the lower lip
:.:,, GhS s.:, s.+ï, SSP o.¬,.
+:o
Cf. M aSam
.
:¬.o. M aSam
.
pat
.
ala ¡c describes amar¯ısn ¯ ana in detail and calls the process kul¯ ac¯ ara
(¡c.:). Ball¯ ala (f. ¡¬r
6−7
) quotes a passage in this context which he attributes to “traditional teaching”:
m ¯ utrapur¯ıs
.
ayor alpatvam
.
ca | yallep¯ al lohasya svarn
.
at ¯ a goraks
.
asyeva tad¯ a vajroly¯ a s¯ adhitalim
.
gan ¯ alo m ¯ utra-
sy¯ agrimadh¯ ar¯ am
.
vis
.
ar ¯ up¯ am
.
tath¯ am
.
tim ¯ am
.
h¯ınagun
.
¯ am
.
sam
.
tyajya madhyam ¯ am
.
balaprad¯ am
.
gr
.
h¯ıtvaivam eva
madhyamam alpam
.
malam
.
gr
.
h¯ıtv ¯ am
.
gam
.
mardayed iti | param
.
paropade´s¯ at | For modern accounts of urine
massage see Saiasvar¯ı :,,: (especially pp. ¬¡–¬o) and Aixsrioxc :,,¡. At f. ¡¬v
2−4
Ball¯ ala describes the
amar¯ı and ajar¯ı kriy¯ as in which the yogin is to consume faeces and urine respectively: ke cit tu gudodgatam
.
kaks
.
¯ amr
.
tena sam
.
lod
.
ya ∗dhar¯ arasaih
.
sam
.
skr
.
tya yad bhaks
.
an
.
am
.
s¯ amar¯ı kriy¯ a | tatphalam
.
nir¯ amayatvam
.
bala-
vattvam
.
ceti | lim
.
godgatam
.
kaks
.
¯ amr
.
tena sam
.
lod
.
y¯ adhar¯ arasaih
.
sam
.
skr
.
tya yat p¯ anam
.
s¯ ajar¯ı kriy¯ a tatphalam
.
val¯ıty¯ ag¯ ad¯ı (˚ty¯ ag¯ ad¯ı˚ ] em.; ˚ty¯ ad¯ı˚ S)ty ¯ ahuh
.
| amar¯ı hy amarak ¯ arin
.
¯ı | ajar¯ı ajar¯ ak ¯ arin
.
¯ı |. In contrast,
Paiiy (:,,¡::,c) reports that present-day Aghor¯ı ascetics call urine amar¯ı and faeces bajar¯ı. GBS :¡: says
that he who practises bajar¯ı and amar¯ı is Gorakhn¯ ath’s gurubh¯ a¯ı. The KhV ’s description of amar¯ırasa
from the guda and li ˙ nga and Ball¯ ala’s amar¯ı and ajar¯ı kriy¯ as suggest that the Aghori’s coprophagy is more
than just a combination of opposites in which “pollution becomes indistinguishable from purity” (Paiiy
:,,¡::o¡).
´
SS +.s¡ teaches how through perfection of pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama, the yogin’s urine and faeces can turn [matter] into
gold or make it invisible: vi ˙ nm ¯ utralepane svarn
.
am adr
.
´syakaran
.
am
.
tath¯ a. Cf. DY
´
S :,¬: malam ¯ utrapralepena
loh¯ ad¯ın ¯ am
.
suvarn
.
at ¯ a | See also Ras¯ arn
.
ava :ï.:ï–:,b.
H P +.,c describes the sahajoli variant of vajrolimudr¯ a: sahajoli´s c¯ amarolir vajroly¯ a eva bhedatah
.
|
jale subhasma niks
.
ipya dagdhagomayasambhavam vajrol¯ımaithun ¯ ad ¯ urdhvam
.
str¯ıpum
.
soh
.
sv ¯ a˙ ngalepanam
| ¯ as¯ınayoh
.
sukhenaiva muktavy¯ ap¯ arayoh
.
ks
.
an
.
¯ at “Sahajoli and amaroli are types of vajroli. [The yogin]
should mix good ash made from burnt cow-dung in water. Straight after intercourse using vajroli, it
should be rubbed on the bodies of the man and woman, [when they are] sitting happily, free of activity”.
It seems likely that this passage has been redacted to conceal a practice in which the combined sexual
fluids of the yogin and his consort are smeared on the body. M aSam
.
¡c.¡ï describes a similar technique
to be practised after intercourse although here it is only semen (mixed with gold, camphor, saffron and
such like) that is to be smeared on the body: tad v¯ıryam
.
svarn
.
akarp¯ uraku ˙ nkum ¯ adivilod
.
itam | svadeham
.
mardayet k ¯ anti´s candravat sam
.
praj ¯ ayate.
The siddha Karn
.
aripa added his “own water” to a potion and it became “as the essence of the alchemists”
(Ronixsox :,¬,:ïï–,); Caparipa gave a child magical powers: “From his penis came the power to
transform things into gold. From his anus came the elixir of immortality” (ibid.::co–¬).
+:¬
The reading kal¯ amr
.
tam found in µ may be original.
´
Siva has described amr
.
takal¯ as at the anus and
penis (:.+: and :.¡c) but not at the armpits and M aSam
.
pat
.
ala :¬ does not mention a˙ ngamardana with
sweat. However many hat
.
hayogic texts do teach that the sweat produced through yogic exertion should
be rubbed into the body (e.g. G
´
SN s+,
´
SS +.¡c, H P :.:+, Dhy¯ anabind ¯ upanis
.
ad ¬c–¬:, DY
´
S :¡ï) and it
may be because of this idea that the reading kaks
.
¯ amr
.
tam supplanted kal¯ amr
.
tam.
´
SS +.¡c adds the reason
for the practice: anyath¯ a vigrahe dh¯ atur nas
.
t
.
o bhavati yoginah
.
, “otherwise the basic constituents in the
body of the yogin are destroyed”. Cf. Ball¯ ala (f. ,sr
8
): evam
.
saniyamapr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ame j ¯ ayam ¯ anasya dehe svedasya
mardanam
.
hast ¯ abhy¯ am
.
k ¯ aryam
.
na tu vastren
.
¯ apal¯ apah
.
| l¯ aghavabalan ¯ a´san ¯ at | “The sweat produced when
pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama is practised in this way, [i.e.] according to the rules, should be rubbed into the body with
the hands, not wiped away with a cloth. Otherwise suppleness and strength are lost.” Like lepana and
mardana, svedana is an alchemical sam
.
sk ¯ ara (see Ras¯ arn
.
avakalpa ,ï, +oï–+o, etc.).
:oo Cuairii :
(c¯ adhar¯ arasaih
.
).
+:ï
¬¬c–¬ïb. Rubbing the body with that, the yogin truly becomes free from disease
in this life, mighty [and] free of wrinkles and grey hair.
¬ïc–¬,d. Rubbing (samudghr
.
s
.
ya) the root of the tongue, [the yogin] should mas-
sage his body with the great fluid that is produced there; within half a year the tongue
becomes four finger-breadths longer; in this there is no doubt.
+:,
[Khecar¯ımudr¯ a]
ïc. Pushing the tongue upwards with the fingers of the right hand, o goddess, [the
yogin] should push aside (sphot
.
ayet)
+:c
the uvula (ghan
.
t
.
ik ¯ am)
+::
with the fingers of the
left hand.
+::
ï:. Churning (mathitv ¯ a) the place of fire, [the yogin] should gently turn the
tongue above the uvula ( ¯ urdhvavaktram)
+:+
to the place of
´
Siva (´sivasth¯ anam) at the
+:ï
The feminine form adhar¯ a for adhara is probably metri causa. Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs (:,ïï::,) does
report that adhar¯ a can mean “Pudendum Muliebre” but such a meaning is unlikely here. Ball¯ ala (f. ¡¬r
10
)
takes the plural ˚rasaih
.
to indicate that fluid from the lips, tongue and nostrils should be used.
AY :.++ castigates those who rub saliva into their bodies: . . . atha tanau ke cid ujjhanti l¯ al¯ am. . . nai-
tes
.
¯ am
.
dehasiddhir vigatanijamanor¯ ajayog¯ ad r
.
te sy¯ at Cf. SSP o.,c (quoted in footnote +cï). See Wuiri
:,,o:+::-: for legends describing the initiatory and magical powers of yogins’ saliva.
+:,
I have found no description of this practice in any other text. Ball¯ ala (f. ¡¬v
8−10
) identifies it as a
supplementary practice to that described in :.¡sa but he seems mistaken: at :.¡sa it is the t ¯ alum ¯ ula which
is to be rubbed and then all the impurity (mala) is to be cleansed. Here a potent “great fluid” (mah¯ adrava;
but n.b. µ’s reading madadrava, “intoxicating fluid”) is produced at the jihv ¯ am ¯ ula.
+:c
Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs (:,ïï:::¬c) gives “to push aside (a bolt)” as one of the meanings of the causative
of

sphut
.
. Ball¯ ala (f. ¡ïr
3−7
) takes this verse to refer to the practice of t ¯ ad
.
ana (see footnote ::ï).
+::
The Vair¯ at
.
apur¯ an
.
a locates an amr
.
tacakra in the upper part of the forehead from which “nectar is
constantly flowing. This place is described as the abode of the G¯ ayatr¯ı named K¯ amadhenu (lit. ‘wish-giving
cow’) figured like a milch-cow with four teats, viz. Ambik ¯ a, Lambik ¯ a, Ghan
.
t
.
ik ¯ a and T ¯ alik ¯ a” (Kavii¯ ai
:,ï¬:sc).
+::
I have taken verses ïc and ï: to be summarising the practice of khecar¯ımudr¯ a (unlike Ball¯ ala who
takes them with ¬ïa–¬,d at f. ¡ïr
1−9
). Verse ïc describes the process of inserting the tongue into the
region above the palate. The tongue is to be pushed upwards (from its underside) while the uvula is to
be brought forward thus making it easier for the tip of the tongue to reach the opening behind it (see
footnote :::). The root

kr
.
s
.
normally has a sense of “pull” or “draw” but if one were to pull the tongue
upwards with the fingers of the right hand, the uvula would be inaccessible to the fingers of the left hand.
I have thus taken utkr
.
s
.
ya rasan ¯ am ¯ urdhvam to mean that the tongue is to be pushed upwards (as was
demonstrated to me by several of my informants).
+:+
I am here following Ball¯ ala’s interpretation of ¯ urdhvavaktram as meaning lam
.
bikordhvakramam,
“going above the uvula” (f. ¡ïr
8
). Alternatively it could mean “the upper mouth”: see +.:+b and footnote
+,,.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :o¬
kal¯ as (candr¯ am
.
´se)
+:¡
above the three-peaked mountain (trik ¯ ut
.
ordhve).
+:s
ï:ab. This khecar¯ımudr¯ a that I have taught you destroys death.
[The problems of bhat
.
a and nat
.
a]
+:o
ï:c–ï+b. Four types of bhat
.
a and likewise [four] types of nat
.
a
+:¬
arise to obstruct the
practice of him who practises thus.
ï+c–ï¡b. Drying up of the body (a˙ nga´sos
.
ah
.
),
+:ï
sloth induced by hunger (ks
.
udh¯ a-
lasyam),
+:,
itchiness and pallor: these are the signs of bhat
.
a. Hear their remedy.
+:¡
A part of the moon (candr¯ am
.
´sa) is a kal¯ a (see footnote :sï). The kal¯ as referred to here are the three
at the Diamond Bulb (vajrakanda—see :.:sc–:,b and footnote :¬+) which is said to be the place of
´
Siva
at :.¡,c–scb (cf. H P :.¡ï). For candr¯ am
.
´se, µ has vajr¯ am
.
tyo and G vajr¯ am
.
te. G’s vajr¯ am
.
te may be the
original reading, referring to the top of the vajrakanda.
+:s
In the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, trik ¯ ut
.
a is located between the eyebrows. See footnote :¡:.
+:o
For similar accounts of curing physical afflictions by means of hat
.
hayogic practices, see H P upade´sa
s, YB :c:–::: and DU o.:s-+cb; cf. M KSG ::.,ïs.
´
SP ¡scï–¡s:+ describes dos
.
opasargacikits¯ a by means
of visualisation.
+:¬
I have found no parallels for this usage of bhat
.
a and nat
.
a. The usual meaning of bhat
.
a is “mercenary”
or “warrior” and that of nat
.
a is “actor” or “dancer” (Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs :,ïï:s.vv.). The terms may thus
refer to the different types of s¯ adhaka that are afflicted by the problems listed. In Hind¯ı, bhat
.
can
mean “misfortune, curse” (McGiicoi :,,+:¬s¬) while the Sanskrit root

nat
.
can mean “to hurt or
injure” (Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs :,ïï:s:s). A Buddhist vih¯ ara was established near Mathura by two brothers
called Nat
.
a and Bhat
.
a (Pam
.
´suprad¯ an ¯ avad¯ ana, Divy¯ avad¯ ana No.:o, p.+¡,; see also ibid. pp.+so and +ïs,
Eociirox s.v. nat
.
abhat
.
ik ¯ a, B¨ ouriixcx and Roru s.v. nat
.
a. I am grateful to Peter Wyzlic for supplying
me with these references.) G, S and most of α and β have hat
.
a or hat
.
ha for bhat
.
a. I have adopted
bhat
.
a over hat
.
a/hat
.
ha for three reasons: firstly, bhat
.
a is found in both µ and γ; secondly, the use of the
word hat
.
ha to describe a system of practices was only just beginning at the time of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s
composition and is not attested elsewhere in the text; and, thirdly, the pairing of hat
.
ha with nat
.
a seems
unlikely. Witness Ks lends weight to the idea that hat
.
ha is a later emendation: at ï¡a and ,,c it has bhat
.
a,
corrected to hat
.
a in the margin. (Perhaps the first description of a systematised hat
.
hayoga named as such
is to be found in the Datt ¯ atreyayoga´s¯ astra (:¬–:, and s¬–o:) in which the term refers specifically to the
practice of ten mudr¯ as. The DY
´
S is quoted extensively in the
´
S¯ ar ˙ ngadharapaddhati (:s ´slokas between
´
SP
¡+¬o and ¡¡oc) and was thus composed before :+o+ci.)
In his commentary on nat
.
a, Ball¯ ala devotes five folios (f. ¡ïv
8
–f. s+r
7
) to quotations from various texts
about n ¯ at
.
ak ¯ adinibaddharas¯ adi, “the dramatic sentiments etc. involved in the various types of drama”.
The Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s nat
.
abhedas are physical manifestations of these sentiments. When they arise, actors
are unfit for acting: tes
.
u j ¯ ates
.
u nartanayogy¯ a nat
.
¯ a na bhavam
.
ti (f. s+r
8
). This is relevant to yogic practice
because the sense organs are like the nat
.
as: vastutas tu svasvavy¯ ap¯ are nartana´s¯ıl¯ an ¯ am
.
nat
.
¯ an ¯ am ivem
.
dri-
y¯ an
.
¯ am
.
netr¯ ad¯ın ¯ am
.
bhed¯ a bhedak ¯ a nat
.
abhed¯ a ity ucyam
.
te (f. s+r
7
). Concerning hat
.
ha (S’s reading for
bhat
.
a), Ball¯ ala (f. s+r
9
–f. s+v
1
) writes that the four manifestations of hat
.
ha given in ï+cd are proof of
success in hat
.
hayoga (!): ete hat
.
hasya yogasya pratyay¯ ah
.
hat
.
hah
.
siddha iti prat¯ıtim
.
janayam
.
ti.
+:ï
At Kubjik ¯ amatatantra :+.:oc a practice similar to the hat
.
hayogic khecar¯ımudr¯ a is said to get rid of
´sos
.
a, d¯ aha (cf. KhV :.ïïd) and vaivarn
.
a (cf. KhV :.ï¬cd).
+:,
In order for the varieties of bhat
.
a to total four, ks
.
udh¯ alasya must be taken as a single entity. I have
chosen to translate it as a tatpurus
.
a sam ¯ asa; Ball¯ ala (f. s+r
9−10
and f. s+v
8−9
) takes it to be a dvandva
meaning “hunger and sloth”.
:oï Cuairii :
ï¡c–ïsd. Having made the mind empty [the yogin] should rub [his] body with
the essence of immortality (amar¯ırasam)
++c
for three months; by means of this this the
body is nourished.
++:
He should rub [the body] three times in the day and three times
at night.
++:
ïo. By pointing the tongue upwards towards the place of the Diamond Bulb
(vajrakanda˚),
+++
and licking the nectar [produced] there, sloth induced by hunger truly
disappears.
ï¬. By taking the nectar [produced] there [and] the amr
.
ta [from the anus and
penis] (amar¯ım)
++¡
and rubbing the body [with them] both pallor and itching truly
disappear.
ïïab. The four varieties of nat
.
a have many manifestations, my dear.
ïïc–ï,b. Eye-disease, trembling of the body (a˙ ngavepah
.
),
++s
fever and dizziness
(bhr¯ antih
.
):
++o
[thus] have I told [you] one type [of nat
.
a].
ï,cd. Now hear the second: tooth disease, lack of strength, and loss of suppleness
of the body.
,ca–,cc. Now hear the third type [of nat
.
a], o goddess: high fever (mah¯ ajvarah
.
),
++¬
headache and imbalance of the phlegmatic humour.
,cd–,:c. [Now] may the fourth [type of nat
.
a] be determined: vomiting, breathing
trouble, blindness
++ï
and sleep that cannot be overcome.
,:d. Listen to the cure of those [four types of nat
.
a].
,:. [The yogin] should lead Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı from the Base into the Sus
.
umn¯ a.
++,
Making
the tongue motionless and pointing it upward, he should hold his breath.
,+. From the disturbance of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı (´saktiks
.
obh¯ at), o great goddess, a great
sound (mah¯ an ¯ adah
.
)
+¡c
arises. When [the yogin] hears that sound then he is said to be
++c
See :.¬ocd.
++:
i.e. a˙ nga´sos
.
a, “dryness of the body”, (:.ï+c) is cured.
++:
i.e. it should be done every four hours: da´samada´samaghat
.
ik ¯ ay¯ am (Ball¯ ala f. s+v
6
). A ghat
.
ik ¯ a corre-
sponds to :¡ minutes.
+++
See :.:sc–:,b, :.¡,c–scb and footnote :¬+ for descriptions of the vajrakanda.
++¡
See :.¬ocd.
++s
I have adopted G’s a˙ ngavepah
.
to avoid repetition of a˙ nga´sos
.
ah
.
from :.ï+c.
++o
bhr¯ anti usually means ignorance (see e.g. KJN s.:). In the context here, however, it must refer to a
more mundane physical affliction. Ball¯ ala (f. s¡v
2
) glosses it with m ¯ anas¯ı vipar¯ıtadh¯ıh
.
, “mental perversity”.
++¬
Ball¯ ala says (f. s¡v
7
) that mah¯ ajvara cannot be cured by doctors (bhis
.
agbhir acikitsyah
.
) and adds
that doctors’ medicines are no use in curing any of the problems of hat
.
ha and nat
.
a: hat
.
hanat
.
abhedes
.
u
bhis
.
agaus
.
adham
.
na calati.
++ï
Ball¯ ala (f. s¡v
9
) takes the tathaiva ca that follows netr¯ andhatvam, “blindness”, to imply b¯ adhiryam,
“deafness”.
++,
This is the practice described at :.+:c–+,d. Only G has m ¯ ul¯ adh¯ ar¯ at sus
.
umn ¯ ay¯ am
.
at :.,:a; the other
witnesses have variants of svam ¯ ul¯ at ´sv ¯ asasam
.
bhinn ¯ am, “from her base, together with the breath”.
+¡c
This technique involving internal sounds is similar to the hat
.
hayogic n ¯ ad¯ anusandh¯ ana (see e.g. SSP
o.,:, H P ¡.oo–:co, N BU +:–s:, VS +.+,–¡c, GhS s.¬,–ïc), by means of which sam ¯ adhi is realised
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :o,
liberated [from the problems of nat
.
a].
,¡. He should visualise his body as sprinkled with amr
.
ta, o supreme goddess.
By this [practice], o goddess, he becomes freed from the first problems [of nat
.
a] in a
month.
,s. When he practises with this method for two months, then he hears in his ears
(karn
.
¯ abhy¯ am)
+¡:
the sound of the roar of a great elephant (mah¯ agajaravadhvanim).
+¡:
,oab. He should visualise [his] body as before; he is freed from the second [type
of ] problems [of nat
.
a].
,oc–,¬b. After three months, having heard the sound of Brahm¯ a (brahma-
n ¯ adam),
+¡+
he should visualise [his body sprinkled with amr
.
ta] as before; he is freed
from the faults of the third category. In this there is no doubt.
,¬c–,ïb. In the fourth month, hearing the sound of thunder called Aghora,
+¡¡
and practising as before, [the yogin] is freed from the problems of dizziness.
,ïc–,,b. Thus with firm mind [the yogin] should carry out the meditation and
practice three times daily; truly, after three years he becomes ageless and undying.
,,c–:ccb. I have told [you] the remedy for the four faults of bhat
.
a and for the
problem[s] of nat
.
a. [Now] hear more, o queen of the gods (sur¯ adhipe).
:ccc–:c:b. I bow at the feet of that yogin who, knowing all the categories of reality
(H P ¡.ï:). Here, µ reads jalan ¯ ada for mah¯ an ¯ ada. µ’s reading may be original: in a passage which is
found at both H P ¡.ï+–ï, and N BU +:–+ï it is said that in the beginning of the practice one of the
sounds that arises is that of jaladhi, “the ocean” (H P ¡.ïsa). On the other hand, H P ¡.ï¡ab reads ´sr ¯ uyate
pratham ¯ abhy¯ ase n ¯ ado n ¯ an ¯ avidho mah¯ an, “in the first [stage of the] practice a great sound of many kinds
is heard”. Both H R f. :+v
1−2
and GhS ¬., connect khecar¯ımudr¯ a and the internal n ¯ ada. For a survey of
descriptions of the technique of n ¯ ada and lists of the internal sounds found in tantric works see Vasuoiva
(:,,,::cs–:::).
+¡:
- ¯ abhy¯ am is quite often used for the locative and genitive (-ayoh
.
) in
´
Saiva tantric works. See
e.g. Svacchandatantra :.:+: and Ks
.
emar¯ aja ad loc., JRY +.+ï.:sïc and JRY + Yogin¯ısam
.
caraprakaran
.
a
:.o+ab, :.o¡. I am grateful to Professor Sanderson for providing me with these references.
+¡:
In the lists of the various sounds heard during n ¯ ad¯ anusandh¯ ana given in hat
.
hayogic texts (see footnote
+¡c for references), no animal sounds are mentioned.
+¡+
Ball¯ ala (f. sor
1−2
) offers two explanations of brahman ¯ ada: firstly he takes brahma˚ to mean br
.
hat and
thus brahman ¯ ada is the same as the mah¯ an ¯ ada of ,+b; secondly brahman ¯ ada is the an ¯ ahata,“unstruck”,
n ¯ ada that is the focus of n ¯ ad¯ anusandh¯ ana (see footnote +¡c). µ has sim
.
han ¯ adam, “the sound of a lion”,
which may be original. The small whistle worn on a thread around the neck by Gorakhn¯ ath¯ı Yog¯ıs is
called sim
.
han ¯ ada (See SSP s.:sa). (Biiccs (:,ï,:::), however, reports that the Yog¯ıs understand it to be
called thus because ideally the whistle is made of s¯ım
.
g, “(deer-)horn”.)
+¡¡
The sound of thunder, meghan ¯ ada, is given as one of the an ¯ ahata sounds at GhS s.ïc and VS +.¡c.
Aghora, “not terrific”, is a name of
´
Siva and of one of his most important mantras (see e.g. P¯ a´supata-
s¯ utra +.::–:o, KM T pat
.
ala , and the Sist
.
[sic] Pur¯ an
.
(Bao
.
aruv¯ ai :,,¡::+o–:+¬), a work ascribed to
Gorakhn¯ ath, in which Aghor is said to be the best mantra).
:¬c Cuairii :
(sarvatattvaj ˜ nah
.
),
+¡s
has entered into this peaceful supreme reality (´s¯ ante pare tattve),
+¡o
the blissful yoga (yoge sukh¯ atmake), o goddess.
+¡s
Ball¯ ala (f. s¬v
2−8
) mentions four systems of tattvas: that described in the N ¯ ar¯ ayan
.
ayogas¯ utravr
.
tti in
which there are two types of tattva, jad
.
a and ajad
.
a, corresponding to the prakr
.
ti and purus
.
a of S¯ am
.
khya;
a ´s¯ akta system of twenty-five tattvas; a system said to be found in the
´
Saiv ¯ agamas comprising fifty tattvas,
including the twenty-five just mentioned; and the (presumably twenty-five) tattvas described by Kapila
in the Bh¯ agavata[pur¯ an
.
a]. Ball¯ ala adds that the system of fifty tattvas found in the
´
Saiv ¯ agamas has been
described by him in the Yogaratn ¯ akaragrantha. Guaiori and Bioixai (:,ï,::cï) list two manuscripts
of works entitled Yogaratn ¯ akara but they are ascribed to Vi´sve´svar¯ ananda and R¯ am¯ anandayogin.
+¡o
cf. :.o+d. Ball¯ ala (f. s¬r
10
–f. s¬v
1
) says that this param
.
tattvam is the state reached by means of the
four mah¯ av ¯ akyas of the Upanis
.
ads.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¬:
[The stages of the practice]
:c:c–:c:b. The first [stage] is loosening (c¯ alanam),
+¡¬
o goddess; the second is piercing
(bhedanam); churning (mathanam) is said to be the third; the fourth is insertion (prave-
´sanam).
+¡ï
+¡¬
As Ball¯ ala notes at f. sïr
8−10
, it is surprising to find c¯ alana named as one of the four stages when in
the first pat
.
ala’s description of the practice c¯ alana is only mentioned in passing (:.¡,) and not by name.
The cutting of the frenum, however, is discussed in some detail (:.¡o–¡ï) and one might expect chedana
to be the first stage. In other texts where the practice is taught (e.g. GhS :.:s–+:, +.:s–:o), c¯ alana is given
much more emphasis than it is in the first pat
.
ala of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a. In the Siddhasiddh¯ antapaddhati
(:.:,, o.ï¡) the tongue is to be lengthened by means of c¯ alana; chedana is not mentioned. This suggests
that KhV :.¡¡c–¬¬b and :.:c:c–:csd were not composed together.
It may be that c¯ alana here does not refer simply to the stretching of the tongue. Commenting on :.¡,,
Ball¯ ala (f. :,v
3−9
) quotes YB ,:–,ï for a description of the cloth used to take hold of the tongue when
practising c¯ alana. He notes that the passage comes in the description of a mudr¯ a for arousing Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı,
the ´saktic¯ alanamudr¯ a. Nowhere in this passage is it explicitly stated where the cloth is to be applied. The
Hindi translation of the text supplies n ¯ abhi, “the navel” as the location. Similarly, in the description of
´saktic¯ alana found in the Gheran
.
d
.
asam
.
hit ¯ a, a much later text, the cloth is to be wrapped around the n ¯ abhi
(+.s:). It is hard to imagine how such a practice could be performed. It is probably because Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı is
located in the lower part of the body that the practice is thought to be carried out there too. (Another
description of ´saktic¯ alana at
´
SS ¡.s+–s¬ says that it is to be done by means of the ap¯ anav ¯ ayu ; see also
´
SS
s.s and YB ::¡a; Saty¯ ananda Saiasvar¯ı (:,,+:+ïs–o) says that nauli, churning of the stomach, should be
used.) The description of the cloth at YB ,:–,: is found in the H P ’s description of ´saktic¯ alana at +.:c,
without any instructions as to what to do with it. Brahm¯ ananda (H PJ ad loc.) takes the description to be
of the internal kanda above which Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı sleeps. Perhaps the earliest reference (pre-:¡scci; see Bouy
:,,¡:¡c) to the hat
.
hayogic ´saktic¯ alana is found in a text called the Goraks
.
a´sataka which is an unedited
work, found in only four manuscripts, different from the more popular text of the same name (which is
available in several editions; on the different Goraks
.
a´satakas see footnote o in the introduction). Bouy
(loc. cit.) has noted that the first eighty verses of the first chapter of the Yogakun
.
d
.
alyupanis
.
ad (whose
second chapter is taken from the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a’s first pat
.
ala) are taken from this unedited Goraks
.
asam
.
hit ¯ a.
YKU :.¬–ï states that there are two methods of ´saktic¯ alana: a technique called sarasvat¯ıc¯ alana, and
pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama (cf. H R f. ::r
10−11
). :.,–:ï describe sarasvat¯ıc¯ alana. Again the place where the cloth is to be
applied is never explicitly stated. The wise yogin is to wrap it around tann ¯ ad
.
¯ım (:.::). The sarasvat¯ı n ¯ ad
.
¯ı
ends at the tip of the tongue (VS :.+¬, DU ¡.::,
´
SP ¡+::) and, as we have seen (KhV :.¡,), v ¯ ag¯ı´svar¯ı, “the
goddess of speech”, i.e. Sarasvat¯ı, has her abode at the tongue. This leads me to believe that ´saktic¯ alana is
performed by wrapping a cloth around the tongue, not the stomach. Contradicting this location of the
practice is the list of diseases cured by sarasvat¯ıc¯ alana given at YKU :.:ï: gulmam
.
jalodarapl¯ıho ye c¯ anye
tundamadhyag¯ ah
.
, “splenitis, dropsy, splenomegaly and other [diseases] in the stomach”; it is possible that
this verse is a later interpolation but I have not had access to the Goraks
.
asam
.
hit ¯ a manuscripts to check if it
is present there. Ball¯ ala connects the pulling of the tongue with awakening Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı in his commentary
to :.¡c–¡: (f. +ov
4−5
): vastraves
.
t
.
itajihv ¯ ac¯ alanena ca ´saktim
.
prabodhya. . . , “awakening [Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı-]´sakti
by moving the tongue wrapped in a cloth. . . ” and also at f. +¬v
3−4
where he says that Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı is to
be awakened ¯ asanakum
.
bhakarasan ¯ ac¯ alanamudr¯ adin ¯ a, “by ¯ asana, breath-retention, moving the tongue,
mudr¯ a etc.”. Touching the palate with the tongue is said to bring about immediate upward movement of
the breath (which is the yogic forerunner of the awakening of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı) at Kiran
.
atantra s,.+s (see page
:ï). Cf. the practice shown to me by Dr. Tripat
.
h¯ı described in footnote ::ï.
+¡ï
The witnesses here appear to be corrupt. They all have c¯ alana as the first stage, mathana second,
p¯ ana third and prave´sana/prave´saka fourth (except G, which has pramelanam fourth). This presents two
:¬: Cuairii :
:c:c–:c+a. After rubbing the base of the palate, [the yogin] should draw out
(utkars
.
ayet) the tongue; he should know that as loosening (c¯ alanam).
+¡,
:c+bc. The cleaving asunder of the bolt of Brahm¯ a is called piercing (bhedanam).
+sc
:c+d–:c¡d. When [the yogin] practises churning by means of a thread and churning
by inserting an iron pin he should understand that to be churning (mathanam),
+s:
which
brings progress in yoga, my dear.
:cs. Having opened the gateway, [the yogin] should extend his tongue upwards
into the ether ( ¯ ak ¯ a´se);
+s:
[this] is called insertion (prave´sam), o goddess; it brings about
success in yoga.
:co. By breaking the bolt of Brahm¯ a (brahm ¯ argalaprabhedena)
+s+
and inserting
the tongue (jihv ¯ asam
.
kraman
.
ena), truly evidence of success arises instantly, o supreme
goddess.
:c¬. At first [there arise] a condition of bliss ( ¯ anandabh¯ avatvam)
+s¡
and a decrease
in sleep (nidr¯ ah¯ anih
.
);
+ss
social intercourse (sam
.
gamam)
+so
and food-consumption (bho-
janam)
+s¬
diminish.
problems. Firstly, prave´sana/prave´saka needs to precede p¯ ana—the tongue must be inserted into the cavity
above the palate before amr
.
ta can be drunk. (Ball¯ ala notes this at two places (f. sïr
4−7
and f. sïv
1−2
) and
gives two conflicting explanations. At first he says that after mathana the upper kal¯ as start to produce
amr
.
ta and thus there is an intermediate p¯ ana before that which follows prave´sana. At the second instance
he employs the M¯ım¯ am
.
sakas’ maxim that the order of words is sometimes subordinate to the order of
their meaning: ´sabdakram ¯ ad arthakramasya kva cid balavattv ¯ at.) Secondly, in :c:c–:csd these stages are
elaborated. No mention is made of p¯ ana but a stage called bhedana is described between c¯ alana and
mathana. I have thus conjecturally emended :c:d–:c:a from dvit¯ıyam
.
mathanam
.
bhavet tr
.
t¯ıyam
.
p¯ anam
uddis
.
t
.
am to dvit¯ıyam
.
bhedanam
.
bhavet tr
.
t¯ıyam
.
mathanam
.
´sastam.
+¡,
Cf. :.¡s.
+sc
See :.so. Cf. M KSG ::.,¬: and ,ïs. N T ¬.:, locates the fourth of six cakras at the palate and calls
it bhedana.
+s:
See :.s¬c–o¡d. This passage (:c+c–:c¡d) is corrupt. G omits :c¡cd while µ omits bhedanam and
mathanam in :c+cd and has tam
.
vadam
.
ti sma tam
.
tun ¯ a priye at :c¡ab. I have been unable to
conjecture a suitable emendation but the meaning of the passage is clear.
+s:
On this use of ¯ ak ¯ a´sa to mean the hollow above the palate see footnote :¡o
+s+
All the witnesses except µ read ˚prave´sena here (N has prave´se t ¯ alum ¯ ulena). The idea of insertion is
also present in jihv ¯ asam
.
kraman
.
ena so ˚prave´sena is redundant. I have thus adopted µ’s ˚prabhedena and
take the two p¯ adas to be referring to bhedana and prave´sana respectively.
+s¡
Ball¯ ala (f. s,r
4
) quotes (without attribution) the following to explain ¯ ananda: yath¯ a ratau yath¯ a ca
mis
.
t
.
abhojane yath¯ a sus
.
uptau iti , “like [the feeling experienced] in love-making, eating sweets and deep
sleep”.
+ss
Khecar¯ımudr¯ a is said to remove the need for sleep at H P +.+ï. In the Hat
.
haratn ¯ aval¯ı (f. sv
5
) the adept
is described as tyaktanidrah
.
, “not sleeping”.
+so
Cf. Yogas¯ utra :.¡c: ´sauc¯ at sv ¯ a˙ ngajugups¯ a parair asam
.
sargah
.
, “from purification [arises] disgust for
one’s own body [and] not mixing with others”. Forsaking company (janasa˙ ngavivarjana) is said to lead
to perfection of yoga at H R f. or
7−8
. Both µ and G read sam
.
gamam here while most of the other
witnesses have sam
.
game. Ball¯ ala (f. s,r
8
) understands sam
.
game to mean amr
.
tasth¯ anajihv ¯ agrasam
.
yoge, “on
the conjunction of the tip of the tongue and the place of amr
.
ta”.
+s¬
In the texts of hat
.
hayoga and amongst today’s hat
.
hayogins there are two different attitudes towards
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¬+
:cïa–:c,b. Well-being arises and the lustre [of the body] increases, my dear; [there
is] no ageing and no death and no diseases and no grey hair. With his seed turned
upwards ( ¯ urdhvaret ¯ ah
.
),
+sï
o great goddess, [the yogin] is endowed with the [eight]
powers whose first is minuteness (an
.
im ¯ adigun
.
¯ anvitah
.
).
+s,
:c,c–::cb. If, with fixed mind (ni´scalabh¯ avena), [the yogin] masters yoga thus,
then, o P¯ arvat¯ı, he duly obtains these rewards that have been described.
::cc–:::b. On the tip of the tongue are situated
´
Sr¯ı
+oc
and V¯ ag¯ı´s¯ a,
+o:
o you who
are honoured by the heroic adepts (v¯ıravandite); in the area at the base of the root of
the tongue is situated the fetter of death (bandhamr
.
tyuh
.
).
+o:
:::cd. Completely eradicate the place of the fetter of death, o mistress of the host
(gan
.
¯ ambike)!
:::ab. With the tip of the tongue [the yogin] should enter the place of Soma called
Blessed
´
Sambhu.
+o+
:::c–::+b. By this yoga, o goddess, and with a controlled mind, the yogin enters
the transmental state [and] achieves absorption in it (tallayam).
+o¡
::+cd. Assuredly, evidence of absorption arises immediately.
::¡ab. Applying his mind to the tip of the tongue, he should focus on that place
with [inner] vision (dr
.
´s¯ a).
+os
food consumption. As a result of success in yoga, the yogin either eats very little (e.g. H P ¡.¬s) or he can
eat as little or as much as he likes without any effect (e.g. DY
´
S :s¬). (Before attaining siddhi, however,
the aspirant must curb his appetite (e.g. H P :.:s,
´
SS +.:ï, GhS s.:o) but he should not fast (e.g. GhS s.+:,
´
SS +.++). Cf. Bhagavadg¯ıt ¯ a o.:o–:¬.)
+sï
This is the only mention of semen-retention in the text. Other hat
.
hayogic texts put much more em-
phasis on khecar¯ımudr¯ a’s usefulness in preventing the loss of semen (see e.g. G
´
SN o,, which is reproduced
at H P +.¡:, and page ¡o of the introduction).
+s,
The locus classicus for these eight siddhi s is Vy¯ asa ad Yogas¯ utra +.¡¡: an
.
im ¯ a, “minuteness”, laghim ¯ a,
“weightlessness”, mahim ¯ a, “hugeness”, pr¯ apti, “the ability to reach anywhere at will”, pr¯ ak ¯ amya, “the ability
to do what one wants”, va´sitva, “control over elements and animals”, ¯ı´sitva, “sovereignty” and k ¯ am ¯ ava-
s¯ ayitva, “effecting one’s desires”. Ball¯ ala (f. s,v
3−4
) gives a list which has garim ¯ a, “heaviness”, in place of
Vy¯ asa’s k ¯ am ¯ avas¯ ayitva. M aSam
.
:ï.+oc–+¬b substitutes garim ¯ a for Vy¯ asa’s mahim ¯ a. Vasuoiva (:,,,::ïc)
translates Ks
.
emar¯ aja’s interpretation of the eight siddhi s (or gun
.
as) as given in his Svacchandatantroddyota
ad :c.:c¬+ and adduces parallels from other tantric
´
Saiva works.
+oc
“Splendour”—a name of Laks
.
m¯ı, the consort of Vis
.
n
.
u. Ball¯ ala calls her Yog¯ı´s¯ a (f. ocr
3
).
+o:
“The Queen of Speech”—a name of Sarasvat¯ı, the consort of Brahm¯ a. See :.¡, and footnote +¡¬.
+o:
This is the linguae frenum, the binding tendon at the root of the tongue. It is called bandhamr
.
tyu,
“the fetter of death” because it ties down the tongue, preventing it from reaching amr
.
ta, “non-death”.
See :.¡o and footnote :::. One would expect this compound to be mr
.
tyubandhah
.
. Ball¯ ala makes no
comment on the odd order of its elements.
+o+
This is the area in the middle of the skull described at :.s¬.
+o¡
Ball¯ ala (f. o:r
1
) understands tallayam to mean either tatra sth¯ ane layam, “absorption at the place of
´
Sambhu”, or tasya manaso layam, “absorption of the mind”. I have taken tat to refer to unman¯ı.
+os
It is of course impossible to look at the tip of the tongue when it is in the cavity above the palate so we
must assume some sort of internal “sight”. Ball¯ ala (f. o:r
4
) glosses dr
.
´s¯ a with am
.
tardr
.
s
.
t
.
y¯ a. After a passage
on laya at H P ¡.:+–+¡, we hear of the ´s¯ ambhav¯ımudr¯ a (which brings about the same result as khecar¯ı-
:¬¡ Cuairii :
::¡c–::sd. The yogin should lead [his] breath upwards from the Base by way of
the Sus
.
umn¯ a; having reached the abode of Brahm¯ a he should place [his] mind in the
void. He should meditate thus on the perfect (heyop¯ adeyavarjitam)
+oo
highest reality
(param
.
tattvam).
+o¬
::oab. The very cool Ethereal Ga˙ ng¯ a ( ¯ ak ¯ a´saga˙ ng¯ a)
+oï
flows from the place of
Brahm¯ a.
::oc–::¬b. Drinking [the Ethereal Ga˙ ng¯ a], [the yogin] assuredly becomes one
whose body is as hard as diamond in just one month; truly, he becomes of divine body,
divine speech [and] divine sight.
::¬cd. He gets divine intellect, o goddess, and, indeed, divine hearing.
::ï. On the tip of the tongue [the yogin] should visualise the Queen of Speech
(v ¯ ag¯ı´s¯ am) shining like ten million moons [and] satiated by the kal¯ as of the great amr
.
ta;
he instantly becomes a master poet (kavitvam
.
labhate).
+o,
::,. Meditating on Laks
.
m¯ı as situated at the tip of the tongue [and] delighted by
the great amr
.
ta, the yogin, o great goddess, becomes a king of yoga.
+¬c
mudr¯ a—H P ¡.+¬—and is called khecar¯ımudr¯ a in one manuscript of the H P and in a quotation of the
passage in the BKhP at f. ¬:r
2
) in which the yogin is to dissolve his mind and breath in the internal laks
.
ya:
antarlaks
.
yavil¯ınacittapavanah
.
(¡.+¬a). SSP :.:o–:¬ describes four antarlaks
.
yas: Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı (not named as
such), a spark (sphuratk ¯ ara) above the forehead in the koll¯ at
.
aman
.
d
.
apa, a red bee in the bhramaraguh¯ a and,
between the eyes, a blue light in the shape of a man. In the H P and SSP, however, there is no mention
of “sight”, as such; only forms from

laks
.
are used. Cf.
´
SS s.::; M aSam
.
:ï.:, mentions a laks
.
a at the
forehead. It may be that G’s tad¯ a is the original reading. The reading ras¯ an found in γ is perhaps inspired
by the idea that the tongue tastes different flavours during the practice, an idea found in many other texts
that describe the practice (see page ++ of the introduction), but not in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
+oo
On this adjective see footnote :,,.
+o¬
In contrast with the rest of the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a, :.:c¬–::s fits the first of the two yogic paradigms
described at
´
SP ¡+osa–¡+¬:b in which the yogin is to raise his mind and breath by way of the central
channel and cause bindu to enter the void. Among other rewards, he becomes ¯ urdhvaret ¯ ah
.
: his seed turns
upwards. Amr
.
ta, Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı and cakras are not mentioned. On the two paradigms and their attempted
synthesis in hat
.
hayogic works, see pages ¡¡ to ¡ï of the introduction.
+oï
The homologue of the Ga˙ ng¯ a in hat
.
hayogic physiology is the id
.
¯ a n ¯ ad
.
¯ı (see KhV +.:c). However,
id
.
¯ a only goes as far as the left nostril (T SBM ¬c, VS :.+,) and is never said to reach the cranial vault
(¯ ak ¯ a´sa—see footnote :¡o). It is thus unlikely to be the referent of ¯ ak ¯ a´saga˙ ng¯ a. On the macrocosmic
level there is an ideal homologue of this ¯ ak ¯ a´saga˙ ng¯ a in the high Him¯ alaya: an
¯
Ak¯ a´sa Ga˙ ng¯ a flows from
Tapovan, above Gaumukh, the glacial source of the Ga˙ ng¯ a.
+o,
Sarasvat¯ı (see footnote ::¬) bestows kavitva. At G
´
SN :¡¬ (
´
SS +.¬+) the yogin is said to become
a kavi by pressing the tongue against the r¯ ajadanta, drinking [amr
.
ta], and meditating on the goddess
that consists of amr
.
ta (amr
.
tamay¯ım
.
dev¯ım). Cf. SYM pat
.
ala :: in which the s¯ adhaka attains kavitva by
visualising the goddess Par¯ a (who is associated with Sarasvat¯ı: Saxoiisox :,,c:¡+-s:) as pouring nectar
into his mouth.
+¬c
Meditation on Laks
.
m¯ı bestows kingship. Cf. M aSam
.
+¡.sï where the the r¯ ajyalaks
.
m¯ı mantra is said
to make the Kaula pactitioner a king.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¬s
[The five innate constituents]
::cab. There are said to be five innate constituents (sahaj ¯ ah
.
)
+¬:
in this body †which
embodies the supreme (param ¯ atmake)†.
+¬:
::cc–:::b. When the body [of the fetus] is produced in the body of the mother
through the loss of the father (pitr
.
ks
.
ay¯ at),
+¬+
all [the sahaj ¯ as] arise there by the time the
body [of the fetus] has reached maturity.
+¬¡
:::c–:::d. The first innate constituent is the primordial goddess Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı, the
second is the Sus
.
umn
.
¯ a and the third is the tongue. The fourth is the place of the palate,
the fifth is the place of Brahm¯ a.
::+. [The yogin] should raise the first innate constituent and place it in the second
innate constituent. [Then] he should insert (vi´set)
+¬s
the third innate constituent
upwards into the fourth innate constituent.
::¡ab. After piercing the fourth innate constituent, [the third innate constituent]
should enter the fifth innate constituent.
+¬o
::¡cd. This is the secret piercing (bhedam) taught by me, o Lady of the Kula
(kule´svari).
+¬¬
+¬:
I have not come across any parallels of this usage of sahaj ¯ a nor a similar set of innate physical
constituents in any other text.
+¬:
This description of the body is odd. It is tempting to take param ¯ atmake as a vocative addressed to
the goddess (wrongly written for param ¯ atmike) but such a usage is not attested elsewhere.
+¬+
Witnesses µand G have pitr
.
ks
.
an
.
¯ at and pariks
.
aye respectively here, neither of which seems better than
pitr
.
ks
.
ay¯ at which is found in Sαβ. This unusual compound is glossed by Ball¯ ala (f. o:r
7
) with pitr
.
´sar¯ır¯ at
which has then been altered in the margin by a later hand to pitr
.
v¯ıry¯ at. Pitr
.
ks
.
ay¯ at has a disparaging
sense to it and Professor Sanderson has suggested that it may be some sort of yogic slang, implying a
condemnation of householders who do not retain their seed. In
¯
Ayurvedic works, ks
.
aya refers to the
decline of a bodily element (dh¯ atu): see Miuiixniio :,¬¡:¡sï–,.
+¬¡
In the ninth month according to Ball¯ ala (f. o:r
8
).
+¬s
vi´set is being used here with a causative sense; in ::¡b it may be taken as indicative or causative.
+¬o
In ::+a–::¡b, the gender of sahaj ¯ a/sahaja is somewhat confused throughout the witnesses. In :::c–
:::d it takes the gender of its referent and I have kept these genders in ::+a–::¡b. No other witness does
the same but it is the only way I can see of being consistent.
+¬¬
Ball¯ ala (f. o+r
1
) understands kule´svari to mean the “Mistress of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı”: kul¯ a kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı tasy¯ a ¯ı´svari
niyam
.
tre. In Kaula tantric works, Kule´svar¯ı is the highest goddess, the consort of Kule´svara. See also
footnote +.
:¬o Cuairii +
Chapter III
[Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı and the flooding of the body with amr
.
t a]
:a–:a. When she has reached the path of the Sus
.
umn
.
¯ a from the Base, the yogin
should insert (pravi´sya)
+•
into the uvular passage the goddess Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı,
+¬,
who has
the appearance of a single thread of a spider’s web [and] the splendour of ten million
suns.
:b-+b. Having broken the bolt of
´
Siva’s door (´sivadv ¯ ar¯ argalam)
+ïc
with the tongue,
o great goddess, he should, by holding the breath (kumbhakena),
+ï:
insert (pravi´set)
+ï:
[Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı] into the abode of Brahm¯ a (dh¯ ama sv ¯ ayambhuvam) which has the splendour
of ten million suns, my dear.
+c–¡d. There, in the great ocean of amr
.
ta, abounding in cool waves, [the yogin]
should drink the flow of nectar and rest, with his mind full of ultimate bliss; he should
visualise his body as satiated by the nectar of that [ocean].
sa–ob. By means of this divine yoga divine sight arises; truly he becomes an ethereal
being (khecaratvam
.
praj ¯ ayate),
+ï+
and there arise the destruction of all sickness [and] the
[powers of ] cheating Death (va˜ ncanam
.
k ¯ alamr
.
tyoh
.
)
+ï¡
and of wandering throughout
+•
For similar instances of

vi´s having an indicative form and causative sense see :.::+d and +.+a. Ball¯ ala
(f. o+r
10
) also understands it thus, glossing pravi´sya with prave´sayitv ¯ a and pravi´set (+.+a) with prave´sayet
(f. o+v
1
). In this passage (+.:–¡) the subjects of the verbs are not clear. This is indicated by the confusion
among the witnesses over whether Kun
.
dalin¯ı is the object or subject in verse :. I have chosen to adopt
the readings of µ and G in which she is the object of pravi´sya (the use of pravi´sya with a causative sense
adds to the subject/ object confusion). I thus take yog¯ı to be the subject of all the verbs in this passage. It
is tempting to take Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı as the subject of p¯ıtv ¯ a and vi´sr¯ amya in ¡a (cf. S
.
CN s+a where Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı
drinks the amr
.
ta herself; at KhV +.¡:c the tongue (v ¯ ag¯ı´s¯ı) rests in the amr
.
ta) but the yogin is clearly the
subject of vibh¯ avayet and even in ai´sa Sanskrit absolutives and main verbs usually share a subject.
+¬,
Ball¯ ala understands +.:–+: to be an expansion of the description of the five sahaj ¯ as given at :.::c–::¡.
Thus Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı is described at verse :, Sus
.
umn
.
¯ a at ï, the tongue at :o, the palate at :+ and the brahma-
sth¯ ana at :ï. This somewhat forced schema may be due to the corrupt reading pam
.
camam found at +.:¡a
in all the witnesses except µ and G (which have the correct pavanam). At f. ¬:r
3
he takes pam
.
camam to
refer indirectly to the fifth sahaj ¯ a, glossing it with bindum
.
sth¯ anagalitam.
+ïc
The ´sivadv ¯ ar¯ argala is the brahm ¯ argala. See :.::a and :.::a where brahmadh¯ ama and ´sivadh¯ ama are
identified with one another, and footnote ::¬.
+ï:
Ball¯ ala (f. o+r
11
) takes kumbhakena with bhittv ¯ a. This seems unlikely since kumbhaka is not men-
tioned as necessary for piercing the brahm ¯ argala in pat
.
alas : and : while breath-retention is often invoked
as the means of forcing Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı upwards (see e.g. :.+s, :.¡:cd).
+ï:
On the causative meaning of pravi´set see footnote +¬ï. I understand its object to be Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı. It
could perhaps be the tongue but I have decided against understanding it thus for two reasons: firstly, there
is no need to use kumbhaka to insert the tongue into the passage above the palate; secondly, if Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı
were not meant here, there would have been little point in mentioning her in verse :. Ball¯ ala (f. o+v
1−2
)
also takes Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı as the object, explaining that she is to be cooled down after being heated up in the
course of her awakening: p¯ urvam
.
y¯ a v ¯ ayvagnin ¯ a tapt ¯ a s¯ amr
.
tena ´s¯ıt ¯ a bhavat¯ıti t ¯ atparyam
.
.
+ï+
As at :.¬s, Ball¯ ala (f. o+v
5
) glosses khecaratvam with devatvam.
+ï¡
See +.¡+–¡¬ for a description of k ¯ alava˜ ncana by means of this technique. I have emended µ’s k ¯ ala-
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¬¬
the three worlds (trailokyabhraman
.
am).
+ïs
oc–¬b. Endowed with the [eight] powers whose first is minuteness (an
.
im ¯ adi-
gun
.
opetah
.
)
+ïo
[the yogin] assuredly becomes completely perfected (sam
.
siddhah
.
); he
becomes a ruler of yogins [and his] movement is unimpeded.
¬c–ïb. With the strength of nine thousand elephants [the yogin] himself becomes
like
´
Siva, o goddess. I have indeed taught the truth.
ïcd. Between Id
.
¯ a and Pi ˙ ngal¯ a is the luminous (jyotir ¯ upin
.
¯ı)
+ï¬
Sus
.
umn
.
¯ a.
,ab. There is an undecaying light there, free of the qualities of colour and shape
(varn
.
ar ¯ upagun
.
ais tyaktam).
+ïï
,cd. She who has the form of a sleeping serpent is the great Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı.
:cab. Ga˙ ng¯ a and Yamun¯ a are called Id
.
¯ a and Pi ˙ ngal¯ a.
+ï,
:cc–::b. [The yogin] should insert that goddess, who has the form of the supreme
amr
.
ta, between Ga˙ ng¯ a and Yamun¯ a, as far as the abode of Brahm¯ a, o goddess.
::cd. Truly he becomes identical with Brahm¯ a (tanmayah
.
); he himself has an
immortal body forever (sad¯ amr
.
tatanuh
.
).
+,c
::a–:¡b. The goddess, having reached the abode of
´
Siva, the place beyond the
Supreme Lord (parame´s¯ at param
.
padam),
+,:
satiated by the pleasure of enjoying that
place and filled with supreme bliss, sprinkling the body of the yogin from the soles of
his feet to his head with the dewy, unctuous, cool nectar, o supreme goddess, proceeds
again by the same path to her own home, o goddess.
+,:
mr
.
tyu´s ca to k ¯ alamr
.
tyo´s ca to avoid adopting the unlikely plural k ¯ alamr
.
ty¯ un ¯ am found in the other witnesses.
Ball¯ ala (f. o+v
9
) explains the plural as referring to the omens of death that he is about to describe (on
which see footnote ¡c,): bahuvacanam
.
tu vaks
.
yam ¯ an
.
¯ aris
.
t
.
animittam.
+ïs
Ball¯ ala (f. o+v
9−10
) explains trailokyabhraman
.
am with am
.
tariks
.
am ¯ argen
.
a gut
.
ik ¯ avat “by way of the
atmosphere like [when] a pill (gut
.
ik ¯ a) [is consumed]”. Amarginal note describes the pill: s¯ a ca siddhap¯ ara-
d¯ ader vihit ¯ a “it is made from fixed mercury etc.”. Cf. khecar¯ısiddhi by means of, among other techniques,
a gut
.
ik ¯ a described in M KSK pat
.
ala o.
+ïo
On these eight powers see footnote +s,.
+ï¬
This is an ai´sa sandhi form, avoiding the correct jyot¯ır ¯ upin
.
¯ı which would be unmetrical. Ball¯ ala
(f. osr
8
) identifies the Sus
.
umn
.
¯ a with the Sarasvat¯ı n ¯ ad
.
¯ı : sus
.
umn ¯ akhy¯ a sarasvat¯ıti. This is very unusual—
they are normally differentiated: see e.g. DU ¡.¬ where Sarasvat¯ı is said to be at the side of Sus
.
umn
.
¯ a.
+ïï
Ball¯ ala (f. osr
9
) understands varn
.
a, r ¯ upa and gun
.
a to refer to consonants, colours and the three gun
.
as:
varn
.
¯ ah
.
kak ¯ ar¯ adayah
.
r ¯ upam
.
´sukl¯ adi | gun
.
¯ ah
.
satv ¯ adayah
.
. Surprisingly, for tyaktam, µhas s¯ akam and G has
yuktam, which both mean “with”.
+ï,
Cf. H P +.:co,
´
SS s.:++. Dascuira (:,¬o:,¬) quotes a passage from D
.
omb¯ıp¯ ada (song No. :¡) in
which “the boat is steered through the middle of the Ganges and the Jumna”. See footnote :¡:.
+,c
The original reading here may well have been that of G and M, par¯ amr
.
tatanuh
.
, altered in most of
the KhV witnesses to suggest the idea of liberation in an eternal body. Cf. +.+:d.
+,:
i.e. having reached the li ˙ nga in the vessel of amr
.
ta described at :.oca–o+b (which is above Parame´sa,
the Supreme Lord, whose location is taught at :.s¬).
+,:
Only µ reads sudhay¯ a ´si´sirasnigdha´s¯ıtay¯ a; all the other witnesses have variants on atha s¯ a ´sa´sira´smisth¯ a
´s¯ıtal¯ a “then, she, cool, sitting on a moonbeam”. I might have adopted the picturesque latter reading were
it not for si ˜ ncant¯ı at :+a which requires a main verb before the sentence can be ended by a conjunction
:• Cuairii +
:¡cd. This is the secret yoga taught [by me], o you who are honoured by the master
yogins.
[Victory over D eath]
:s. Casting off all sacred texts and [ritual] action such as mantra-repetition and fire-
oblation, [and] freed from the notions of right and wrong, the yogin should practise
yoga.
:oab. Turning the tongue upwards, he should insert it into the three-peaked
mountain (trik ¯ ut
.
e).
+,+
:oc–:¬d. He should know that three-peaked mountain to be in the skull, below
the forehead and in the region above the uvula; there is a blazing li ˙ nga there, free from
the process of time (k ¯ alakramavinirmuktam)
+,¡
[and] hard for even the immortals to
perceive.
:ï. Night is said to be in Id
.
¯ a, day in Pi ˙ ngal¯ a; the moon and the sun, o goddess, are
forever established as night and day.
:,. [The yogin] should not worship the li ˙ nga by day nor by night, o goddess; he
should worship the li ˙ nga constantly at the place where day and night are suppressed
(div ¯ ar¯ atrinirodhatah
.
).
+,s
:c. This [existence] (idam)
+,o
consists of day and night, the process of time is its
true nature; by the suppression of the process of time, Death is defeated (k ¯ alamr
.
tyujayo
bhavet).
+,¬
such as atha (the obvious emendation si ˜ ncati is unmetrical).
Ball¯ ala (f. osv
8
) interprets si ˜ ncant¯ı with dvisaptatisahasran ¯ ad
.
¯ıgan
.
am amr
.
ten ¯ ahl¯ adayati, “she refreshes the
¬:,ccc n ¯ ad
.
¯ı s with amr
.
ta”. Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı’s return to the m ¯ ul¯ adh¯ ara is described at S
.
CN s+.
+,+
On trik ¯ ut
.
a see footnote :¡:.
+,¡
Professor Sanderson made the emendation k ¯ alakrama˚ which I have adopted here. I have adopted
the same form at +.:cb and :cc where only J¡ has˚krama˚ and have emended +.::a likewise. It is time that
is under discussion here, not action, so ˚krama˚ is better than ˚karma˚. Ball¯ ala (f. o¬r
3
) takes k ¯ alakarma to
mean time and action, glossing karma with kriy¯ a calan ¯ adi.
+,s
i.e. the yogin should hold his breath to stop it flowing in Id
.
¯ a and Pi ˙ ngal¯ a. He thereby forces it into
Sus
.
umn
.
¯ a (“the place where day and night are suppressed”). Cf. M aSam
.
¡¡.:+cd n ¯ ad
.
¯ıdvayam
.
div ¯ ar¯ atrih
.
sus
.
umn ¯ a k ¯ alavarjit ¯ a, “the two channels are day and night; Sus
.
umn
.
¯ a is timeless”. See also D¯ adu s¯ akh¯ı
:o.:: (Caiiiwaiir and oi Biicx :,,:::¬¡). KhV +.:, is found at H P ¡.¡:. Brahm¯ ananda, in his Jyotsn ¯ a
commentary on the verse, understands li ˙ nga to mean ¯ atman. The next verse (H P ¡.¡+) equates khecar¯ı-
mudr¯ a with the flow of the breath in the central channel: savyadaks
.
in
.
an ¯ ad
.
istho madhye carati m ¯ arutah
.
|
tis
.
t
.
hate khecar¯ı mudr¯ a tasmin sth¯ ane na sam
.
´sayah
.

+,o
This is one of the few instances where I have adopted a reading of βγ (cedam) over that of µα
(devam/li ˙ ngam; Jo has vedam
.
while G’s (ahor¯ atram avi)cchedam is probably a scribal emendation). S does
the same—devam/li ˙ ngam makes no sense in the light of verse :¬—and glosses idam with pratyaks
.
am
.
vi´svam
.
deham
.
v ¯ a, “the perceptible universe or the body” (f. ¬cv
2
).
+,¬
Ball¯ ala (f. ¬cv
7−8
) gives two possible ways of analysing the compound k ¯ alamr
.
tyujayah
.
: k ¯ alasya mr
.
tyo´s
ca jayah
.
k ¯ al¯ adh¯ıno mr
.
tyur iti v ¯ a | tasya jayah
.
, “defeat of time and death or defeat of that death which is
dependent on time”. I have understood it in the latter way: k ¯ alamr
.
tyu is “death by time” and I have
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :¬,
::. [The yogin] should imagine his body as free from the process of time; he should
worship [it] with the flower of thought (bh¯ avapus
.
pena)
+,ï
[and] he should offer it a
libation of the amr
.
tas from the lotuses.
::. By applying himself thus for six months he assuredly becomes ageless and
undying. Truly, he becomes all-knowing, equal to
´
Siva [and] free of disease.
:+a–:¡a. Inserting the tongue into the base of the palate, with it pointing towards
the upper mouth ( ¯ urdhvavaktrag¯ am),
+,,
the yogin should drink the nectar produced
there and gently suck in air with a whistling sound (´s¯ıtk ¯ aren
.
a),
¡cc
o goddess.
:¡bcd. Uniting the mind with the transmental state (unmany¯ a), in the supportless
space (nir¯ alambe pade),
¡c:
o goddess, he should practise natural (sahajam)
¡c:
yoga.
:sab. [Practising] in this way the yogin becomes ageless and undying after six
personified it as “Death”.
+,ï
KJN +.:¡–:¬ lists eight pus
.
pas with which the internal li ˙ nga is to be worshipped. The bh¯ avapus
.
pa
is the fourth. The Br
.
hatk ¯ alottara (NAK :-ï,/ NGMPP B :¡/ s,) contains an as
.
t
.
apus
.
pik ¯ apat
.
ala (f. :+ov
1

f. :+¬v
2
) which describes four varieties of this internal and abbreviated
´
Saiva worship. Only the first
includes the bh¯ avapus
.
pa which is last in the list of eight “flowers”. See also Hars
.
acarita p.+s ll.s–ï and
p.:¬s. (I am grateful to Professor Sanderson for providing me with references from these last two sources.)
See also KT s,.:ï–+:.
+,,
It may be that µ’s ¯ urdhvavaktrak ¯ am was the original reading, with the sense of “having the mouth
pointing upwards” where “mouth” refers to the tip of the tongue, with which amr
.
ta is tasted. The reading
¯ urdhvavaktrag¯ am suggests a plan of the subtle body found in many hat
.
hayogic texts (but not in the KhV )
in which the amr
.
ta tasted by the tongue flows through the ´sa˙ nkhin¯ı n ¯ ad
.
¯ı and emerges at the da´samadv ¯ ara
which is situated at the r¯ ajadanta (the uvula). See e.g. A
´
S p.:: l.:, where the aperture is called both
mukharandhra and ´sa˙ nkhin¯ımukha, and SSP :.o. Cf. KhV :.ï:.
¡cc
With the tongue in the aperture above the palate it is impossible to breathe through the mouth.
KJN o.:¬–:ï and
´
SS +.o,–¬o also describe practices in which amr
.
ta is drunk and air is drawn in through
the mouth—
´
SS +.¬:a reads sarasam
.
yah
.
pibed v ¯ ayum. There are three possible ways of resolving this
apparent contradiction. The first possibility is that the tongue is to be removed from the cavity above
the palate before air is inhaled. Secondly, it may be that the tongue is to be turned back with its tip
touching the uvula without entering the cavity above the palate. In this position a ´s¯ıtk ¯ ara may be made.
However the absolutive sam ¯ ave´sya (with its sense of “insertion”) makes this interpretation unlikely. (This
could, however, be the answer to the KJN and
´
SS passages in which the tongue is “placed” at the root of
palate—+.o,ab: rasan ¯ am
.
t ¯ alum ¯ ule yah
.
sth¯ apayitv ¯ a vicaks
.
an
.
ah
.
; cf. G
´
SN :+,: k ¯ akaca˜ ncuvad ¯ asyena ´s¯ıtalam
.
salilam
.
pibet.) Thirdly, it may be that the yogin is to make a whistling sound as he inhales through the
nose. This, however, seems unlikely—it is much easier to make a rasping noise as the air moves over the
back of the palate (as is done in the ujjay¯ı pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama described at H P :.s:–s+ and GhS s.o,–¬:). In the
s¯ıtk ¯ ar¯ı pr¯ an
.
¯ ay¯ ama described at H P :.s¡–so a whistling sound is made as the yogin inhales through his
mouth.
¡c:
i.e. practising dhy¯ ana without an object. At H P ¡.¡ nir¯ alambam is mentioned in a list of synonyms
of sam ¯ adhi.
¡c:
Like nir¯ alamba and unman¯ı (on which, see footnote +c¡) sahaja is given as a synonym of sam ¯ adhi
at H P ¡.¡. In tantric texts sahaja yoga is a state that arises naturally, without being forced (personal
communication from Professor Sanderson). Dixocx, analysing the Cary¯ ap¯ adas of the Vais
.
n
.
ava Sahaj¯ıyas,
writes “The state of sahaja is one of utter harmony, in which there is no motion, no passion, and no
differentiation” (:,,::¡: n.+). Ball¯ ala (f. ¬:r
4
) understands sahajam
.
yogam to mean yoga using the five
sahaj ¯ as described at :.::c–::¡.
:ïc Cuairii +
months .
:sc–:ob. Placing [his] chin on the circle of sixteen vowels (s
.
od
.
a´sasvaraman
.
d
.
ale)
¡c+
and fixing [his] eyes between [his] eyebrows, o goddess, [the yogin] should extend [his]
tongue upwards.
:oc–:¬b. Holding his breath by stopping the Id
.
¯ a and Pi ˙ ngal¯ a, [the yogin] should
awaken Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı and pierce the six lotuses.
:¬c–:ïb. Inserting [Kun
.
dalin¯ı], who has the appearance of a thousand lightning-
bolts, into the very middle of the skull in the place that is an ocean of cool amr
.
ta, he
should remain there for a long time.
¡c¡
¡c+
This is the vi´suddhacakra at the throat. See e.g. KM T ::.¡¡a–,,b, S
.
CN :ï,
´
SS s.,c. Ball¯ ala
(f. :ccr
5−6
) writes: atha kam
.
t
.
he vi´ses
.
en
.
a ´suddhir yebhyas te vi´suddhayo ’k ¯ ar¯ adivisarg¯ am
.
t ¯ ah
.
s
.
od
.
a-
´s¯ ar¯ a(s
.
od
.
a´s¯ ar¯ a˚ ] em.; s
.
od
.
a´s¯ a∗a˚ S)bhidh¯ ah
.
svar¯ ah
.
cam
.
drakal¯ as tes
.
¯ am
.
tatra sthit ¯ akhy¯ a yata iti tad¯ akhyam
.
|
Placing the chin on the throat is part of the j ¯ alandharabandha technique described in footnote :¡ï.
¡c¡
During my fieldwork many people told me that khecar¯ımudr¯ a was used by hat
.
hayogins to enable
them to stay in a state of extended sam ¯ adhi. Ball¯ ala, commenting on this verse, writes (f. ¬:v
7
): es
.
a
cirak ¯ alasam ¯ adhyup¯ ayah
.
, “this is the means to long-term sam ¯ adhi ”. He goes on to say that it should be
done in a mountain cave, in the ground or in a mat
.
ha of certain specifications. There should be a
´sis
.
yasam
.
raks
.
an
.
agr¯ amakam, “a group of pupils to protect him” (or perhaps “a small village [nearby] to look
after a pupil”), yato dehasam
.
raks
.
an
.
am ¯ ava´syakam, “because the body [of the yogin] must be looked after
[by one of his pupils]” (f. ¬:v
8
).
Writing in :+¡:ci, Ibn Batt ¯ uta reported of the jok¯ı s (yog¯ıs):“These people work wonders. For instance
one of them remains for months without food and drink; many of them dig a pit under the earth which
is closed over them leaving therein no opening except one through which the air might enter. There
one remains for months and I have heard that some jogis hold out in this manner for a year” (Husaix
:,s+::o¡). Hoxicniicii (:ïs::::¬–:+:) recounts the celebrated story of the “faqueer” Haridas who in
:ï+¬ was buried for forty days in a locked chest in a garden in Lahore. He was exhumed in front of “a
great number of the authorities of [Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s] durbar, with General Ventura, and several
Englishmen from the vicinity” and revived. Describing those who practise this technique, Hoxicniicii
continues (ibid.:::,): “those who do succeed must undergo a long and continual practice of preparatory
measures. I was informed that such people have their fraenulum linguae cut and entirely loosened, and that
they get their tongue prominent, drawing and lengthening it by means of rubbing it with butter mixed
with some pellitory of Spain, in order that they may be able to lay back the tongue at the time they are
about to stop respiration, so as to cover the orifice of the hinder part of the fosses nasales, and thus. . . keep
the air shut up in the body and head”. Sir Claude Wade witnessed the revival and reported that Haridas’
servant “after great exertion opened his mouth by inserting the point of a knife between his teeth, and,
while holding his jaws open with his left hand, drew the tongue forward with his right,—in the course of
which the tongue flew back several times to its curved position upwards, in which it had originally been,
so as to close the gullet” (Biaio :ïsc::+). Boiiiau (:ï+¬:¡:–¡¡) describes a similar incident that took
place at Jaisalmer adding that “the individual. . . is, moreover said to have acquired the power of shutting
his mouth, and at the same time stopping the interior opening of the nostrils with his tongue” (ibid.:¡+).
Cf. the seventeenth century account given by Taviixiii (:,:s::so). Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs (:ï¬ï:sc–s+)
reports two such attempts at “Sam¯ adh”, both duplicitous. In the first, the practitioner’s “friends were
detected by the villagers in pouring milk down a hollow bamboo which had been arranged to supply the
buried man with air and food. The bamboo was removed, and the interred man was found dead when
his friends opened the grave shortly afterwards” (ibid.:sc). Biuxrox (:,,s::::–::c) describes in detail a
meeting with an Egyptian fak¯ır who used the khecar¯ımudr¯ a technique to enter a state of catalepsy. The
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :ï:
:ïc–:,b. When the yogin resides comfortably at the abode of Brahm¯ a then [with
him] at that place (tatpadam)
¡cs
the body appears lifeless (nirj¯ıvavat).
¡co
:,c–+cd. If he should practise this yoga for a week, o goddess, then he becomes
ageless and undying. With just one month’s practice, he lives as long as the moon and
the stars.
¡c¬
+:. When the yogin easily breaks and enters the city of Brahm¯ a, then he attains the
state of
´
Siva, which consists of an eternal body (nityadehamayam),
¡cï
o goddess.
+:ab. Never again does he drink at a mother’s breast on the wheel of rebirth.
[Leaving the Body and Cheating D eath.]
+:c–++d. When the yogin decides to leave this body [temporarily],
¡c,
then, sitting up
straight [and] knowing the self, he should visualise for a long time the goddess of the
technique, says the fak¯ır, was originally developed by Indian yogins. At the :,,: Ujjain Sim
.
hasth Kumbh
Mel¯ a, the :,,s Allahabad Ardh Kumbh Mel¯ a, the :,,ï Hardwar Kumbh Mel¯ a and the :cc: Allahabad
Mah¯ akumbh Mel¯ a, a yogin called Pilot B¯ ab¯ a, together with a Japanese disciple, remained in an open pit
for periods of up to a week, emerging with much ceremony in front of large crowds. See also Siicii
:,,:::oï–:¬c.
¡cs
Ball¯ ala f. ¬:r
1−2
understands tat to be referring to brahman: om
.
tat sad iti trividho brahmanirde´sah
.
.
¡co
cf. AY :.+,, KJN :¡.ï:–ïs, M VUT :¬.::c–:+b, Sv ¯ ayam
.
bhuvas¯ utrasam
.
graha :c.++–+s (as edited by
Vasuoiva, :,,,:++,–+¡c). Ball¯ ala (f. ¬:v
10
) notes the objection that if the body seems lifeless then surely
a bad smell and other signs of putrefaction (daurgandhy¯ adi) that are found in a corpse will arise. But this
is not the case, he says: it is contraindicated by the use of bh¯ ati (his reading for bh¯ a vi˚).
¡c¬
Ball¯ ala (f. ¬:v
6−9
) describes the yogin’s state here as sam ¯ adhi and mentions in passing some bizarre
techniques for both reaching and returning from sam ¯ adhi practised by other schools: anye bahvabhy¯ asena
j ˜ n ¯ at ¯ abhyam
.
taran ¯ ad
.
¯ıvi´ses
.
amardanen ¯ api tam
.
kurvam
.
ti k ¯ arayam
.
ti ca | eke tu ´sav ¯ asanasthit

¯ ah
.
sv

obhaya-
p¯ ad¯ am
.
gus
.
t
.
h¯ agr¯ am
.
tarmanasaik ¯ agrat ¯ ay¯ am
.
ca tam
.
kurvam
.
ti | . . . tatra sam ¯ adhyavat ¯ arop¯ ayah
.
b¯ ahyav ¯ ayu-
spar´sah
.
´sirasi navan¯ıtaghr
.
t ¯ adimardanam
.
| tadavat ¯ aravel¯ ay¯ am
.
devam ¯ urtty¯ adi tannetr¯ agre dh¯ arayen na ´sis
.
y¯ adis
tis
.
t
.
hed. . . | “Others, after lots of practice, use a special massage of an internal channel that they have
discovered to enter [sam ¯ adhi] (and cause others to enter it). Some enter it in the corpse pose, once they
have focussed their minds on both their big toes. . . The touch of fresh air [or] massaging the head with
butter, ghee etc. are the means of bringing [the yogin] round from sam ¯ adhi. When bringing him round
one should hold an image of a deity or such like in front of his eyes. Pupils etc. should not stand [in front
of him].” At the :,,ï Hardwar Kumbh Mela, Raghuvar D¯ as J¯ı Yog¯ır¯ aj tried to induce sam ¯ adhi in me by
squeezing the sides of my neck. I backed away as I started to feel faint. The corpse pose practice is taught
at DY
´
S ¡o–¡ï.
¡cï
Sαβγ have nitya˚ here where µ and G have tyaktv ¯ a. This indicates a doctrinal difference between
the earlier and later recensions of the text. In µ and G ´sivatvam happens after death; the later tradition
wants ´sivatvam in an eternal body. The original idea behind +:ab was of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı breaking out of the
top of the skull (resulting in physical death for the yogin) rather than just entering the abode of Brahm¯ a
(as has already been described at :ïcd). The use of vrajati (in contrast to vasati at :ïd) confirms that this
was the meaning intended in µ and G.
The readings for +:d found in the later tradition are slightly awkward. That of α:, nityadehamayam, is
better than the nityadeham imam of the other witnesses and I have thus adopted it.
¡c,
Cf. DY
´
S :s:–:sï (=YT U :c¬-:::), which describes how the yogin can leave and return to his body
at will.
:ï: Cuairii +
Base shining like ten million suns.
+¡. Contracting his j¯ıva, that has spread as far as the soles of his feet, he should
gradually lead [it] to the place of the Base support (m ¯ ul¯ adh¯ arapadam).
+s. There he should imagine the goddess Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı like the world-destroying fire
devouring the j¯ıva, the breath,
¡:c
and the sense-organs.
+o. Holding his breath,
¡::
o goddess, the yogin should raise [Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı who is]
radiant like a ball of lightning up from the Base and lead her to the place of Sv¯ adhi-
s
.
t
.
h¯ ana.
¡::
Ball¯ ala here embarks on a long excursus about aris
.
t
.
¯ ani, ways of forecasting impending death, including,
among several others, palmistry, pulse-reading, dream analysis and shadow-inspection (f. ¬+r
1
–f. ¬sv
4
).
(Aris
.
t
.
aj ˜ n ¯ ana (or k ¯ alaj ˜ n ¯ ana) is also taught at M VUT :o.¡ï–s:, D¯ıks
.
ottara samud¯ ayaprakaran
.
a s, (Vasuoiva
:,,,::¬¬), M ata˙ ngap¯ arame´svara yogap¯ ada ¡.,ïcd–:ccab, T
¯
A ¡.::¬–:¡¡, KM T :+.:–ïc, M ¯ arkan
.
d
.
eya-
pur¯ an
.
a adhy¯ aya ¡+ (of which vv. +–:o are cited at
´
SP ¡so¡–¡s,c) and VS adhy¯ ayas ¬ and ï. On aris
.
t
.
a in
medical literature see Miuiixniio :,¬¡:¡¡:.) Then, at f. ¬sv
4−7
, Ball¯ ala gives three ways (corresponding
to the techniques described in KhV +.+:c–¡+b, ¡+c–¡¬d and ¡ïa–ssb) in which the yogin might deal with
impending death: ittham
.
k ¯ alamr
.
tyum upasthitam
.
vij ˜ n ¯ aya yad¯ a yogino buddhir imam
.
deham
.
tyaktum
.
bhavet
s¯ a ca trividh¯ a | sam ¯ adh¯ av aikyabh¯ avin¯ı k ¯ alavam
.
can¯ı atyam
.
tamoks
.
ag¯ amin¯ı ca | tatr¯ api pratham ¯ a dvidh¯ a |
svadehe j¯ıve´saikyabh¯ avin¯ı | paradehe sv ¯ atmabh¯ avin¯ı | aichik ¯ a parak ¯ ayaprave´sar ¯ up¯ a ceti dvit¯ıy¯ api dvidh¯ a |
kevalasam ¯ adhy¯ a k ¯ al¯ atikram ¯ am
.
t ¯ a | sarvadh¯ aran
.
ay¯ a tadam
.
t ¯ a ceti | tr
.
t¯ıy¯ a tu svechotkr¯ am
.
ty¯ a brahmaikyasam
.
-
p¯ adin

¯ı

| “Having thus realised that Death is at hand is ‘when the resolve of the yogin is to abandon
this body’. And it [i.e. the resolve] is of three kinds: bringing about unity in sam ¯ adhi, cheating Death,
and going to final liberation. Of these, the first can take two forms: bringing about in one’s body the
union of the vital principle with the Lord, and manifesting oneself in the body of another (this takes the
form of willful entry into another’s body). The second can also take two forms: by means of the highest
sam ¯ adhi until the time [of Death] has passed, and by introspection of all [objects] until that [time] has
passed. The third brings about union with Brahm¯ a by means of voluntary yogic suicide.”
¡:c
I have taken j¯ıv ¯ anilam as a dvandva; Ball¯ ala (f. ¬ov
3
) takes it as a karmadh¯ araya (see also footnote
:++).
¡::
Ball¯ ala (f. ¬ov
4−7
) adds that the yogin is to inhale with the right nostril: pim
.
gal¯ am ¯ argen
.
a p¯ uraka-
p¯ urvakam
.
kumbhakam
.
sam
.
pr¯ apya.
¡::
The Sv¯ adhis
.
t
.
h¯ ana centre is in the region of the genitals—see e.g. G
´
SN ::. Here
´
Siva is describing
Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı’s ascent through the six centres that are the basis of a system of subtle physiology found in
some hat
.
hayogic texts (e.g. G
´
SN :s–:o,
´
SS s.so–::,—a seventh centre, the sahasr¯ ara, is added in these
texts) and which has become today the most widely accepted model of the subtle body. In the texts
of hat
.
hayoga there are many different systems of cakras (see e.g. SSP :.:–, which lists nine cakras and
Kavii¯ ai :,ï¬, who describes a list of :o cakras given in a manuscript of the Vair¯ at
.
apur¯ an
.
a) and this reflects
the even greater variety of such systems found in earlier tantric works. The first systematic description of
the six cakras can be found in pat
.
alas ::–:+ of the Kubjik ¯ amatatantra. (An earlier, but vague, reference
can be found at M ¯ alat¯ım ¯ adhava s.:). Wuiri (:,,o::+¡) suggests that the earliest systematic description
of the six cakras is found at KJN :¬.:b–¡a. :¬.:c–¡b reads: g¯ ud
.
ham
.
guhyam
.
san ¯ abhi ˜ n ca hr
.
di padmam
adhomukham 2 sam¯ırastobhakam
.
cakram
.
ghan
.
t
.
ik ¯ agranthi´s¯ıtalam | n ¯ as¯ agram
.
dv ¯ ada´s¯ antam
.
ca bhruvor
madhye vyavasthitam 3 lal¯ at
.
am
.
brahmarandhram
.
ca ´sikharastham
.
sutejasam | The text is obscure and
possibly corrupt but there are clearly at least eight cakras listed and probably as many as eleven. :¬.¡cd
implies that they number eleven: ek ¯ ada´savidham
.
proktam
.
vij ˜ n ¯ anam
.
dehamadhyatah
.
. As Wuiri also notes
(ibid.:¡:+ n.ïo), at KJN s.:s–:ï there is another of the text’s many lists of centres in the subtle body,
which, although again rather obscure, does describe seven centres, of which five have locations similar to
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :ï+
+¬ab. The ascetic (vrat¯ı) should imagine the goddess devouring the entire j¯ıva
situated there.
+¬c–+ïb. [The yogin] should quickly raise [the goddess] who resembles ten million
lightning bolts from there, [and] having reached the place of Man
.
ip ¯ ura
¡:+
practise there
as before.
+ïc–+,b. Then, raising [her] up from there, he should lead [her] to the place of
An¯ ahata.
¡:¡
Staying there for a moment, o goddess, he should visualise her devouring
[the j¯ıva] as before.
+,c–¡cb. Raising [her] again he should insert [her] into the sixteen-spoked lotus.
¡:s
There too he who knows the path of yoga should visualise [the devouring Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı]
as before, o goddess.
¡cc–¡:b. Raising from there the great goddess who has devoured the j¯ıva [and
who] has a radiance equal to that of ten million suns and leading [her] to between the
eyebrows
¡:o
[the yogin] should [by means of Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı] again consume the j¯ıva.
¡:c–¡:b. The tongue (v ¯ ag¯ı´s¯ı), together with the mind, should break the bolt of
Brahm¯ a and duly come to rest (vi´sr¯ amam)
¡:¬
straight away in the great ocean of the
supreme amr
.
ta.
¡:c–¡+b. Joining
´
Siva, [who is] situated there [and who is both] the supreme
(paramam) [and] the supreme cause (paramak ¯ aran
.
am), with the goddess, [the yogin]
should visualise their union.
¡:ï
¡+c–¡¡b. If [the yogin] is keen to deceive Death (k ¯ alam),
¡:,
[then], knowing the
those of the cakras in the KhV and other hat
.
hayogic texts. At KJN :c.o–ï there is a list of eight cakras
of which six correspond to those described here in the Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
¡:+
The Man
.
ip ¯ ura cakra is at the navel. See e.g. G
´
SN :+. (But cf. G
´
SN :s where the kanda, which in
verse :+ is situated at the n ¯ abhiman
.
d
.
ala and is the site of the man
.
ip¯ urakacakra, is said to be below the
navel. This discrepancy (or, perhaps, textual corruption) is noted by Ball¯ ala at f. ,,v
7
.)
¡:¡
The An¯ ahata centre is located at the heart. See e.g.
´
SS s.ï+.
¡:s
i.e. the Vi´suddhi/ Vi´suddha cakra at the throat. See e.g. KM T ::.¡¡a–,,b, S
.
CN :ï–:,. The mixing
of metaphors in the description of this “lotus” as “sixteen-spoked” is curious. As a lotus, this centre is
usually said to have sixteen petals (G
´
SN :sc–:ob); one would expect it to be called a wheel (cakra) when
described as sixteen-spoked. The emendation of padme to cakre is tempting but nowhere else in the KhV
is cakra used in this sense.
¡:o
The
¯
Aj ˜ n¯ a centre is located between the eyebrows. See e.g.
´
SS s.,o.
¡:¬
See JRY ¡.:.:s, and N T ¬.:+ for similar descriptions of relaxation in the ocean of amr
.
ta.
¡:ï
Here Ball¯ ala has an excursus on parak ¯ ayaprave´sa, “entering another’s body” (f. ¬¬v
8
–f. ¬,r
7
). Professor
Sanderson has provided me with the following references to
´
Saiva passages on this topic: N i´sv ¯ asam ¯ ula
(NAK :-:¬¬/ NGMPP A ¡:/ :¡) ¬.:c; Svacchandatantra ¬.+:ïc–+:,b; Picumata (NAK +-+¬c) +.::ï–:+:b,
s, ,o.:,–+s; M VUT ::.,–:,; T
¯
A :ï.:,¡–+cc; JRY f.:,sv (vv. :,¬c–:c¡b), +.s.+:–+:b, ¡.:.+,¬c–¡ccb;
Li ˙ ngapur¯ an
.
a :.:¡.::ï–:+c; V ¯ ayupur¯ an
.
a :.:+.:c,–:::. Raxa (:,¬ï:¡+¬–¡o+) tells of witnessing yogins
abandoning their bodies and entering those of others.
¡:,
K¯ alava˜ ncana, “deceiving Death”, is a common motif of tantric and hat
.
hayogic texts. Indeed, mastery
over Death is the sine qua non of the perfected hat
.
hayogin: yoga is said to be k ¯ alasya va˜ ncanam at G
´
SN s–o;
the mah¯ asiddhas listed at H P :.s–, are said to have broken the rod of death (khan
.
d
.
ayitv ¯ a k ¯ aladan
.
dam);
:ï¡ Cuairii +
apportionment of [the locations of ] death (k ¯ alavibh¯ agavit),
¡:c
while Death (k ¯ alam)
¡::
is approaching him he should happily remain there.
¡::
¡¡c–¡sb. Below the bolt of the gateway of Brahm¯ a is the cause of bodily death; in
the region above there, o goddess, there is no opportunity for death.
¡sc–¡ob. When [the yogin] sees that [the time of ] his death has passed, o goddess,
then he should break the bolt [of the gateway] of Brahm¯ a and lead the goddess [back]
to the Base centre.
¡oc–¡¬b. [Re-]placing his j¯ıva, which has been [re-]produced from the body of
the goddess [Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı], together with the senses, in their respective [places of ] action,
he should live happily and healthy.
¡¬cd. By this yoga, o goddess, [the yogin] can cheat an imminent death.
[Abandoning the body]
¡ïa–¡,b. If he desires to abandon [his] mortal body then the supremely content
(paramasam
.
tus
.
t
.
ah
.
)
¡:+
[yogin] should unite
´
Siva, who is in the place of Brahm¯ a, with
the goddess, pierce the void, and enter the rock of Brahm¯ a (brahma´sil¯ am).
¡:¡
¡,c–s:b. He should place the ether element in the great ether, the air element in
the great wind, the fire element in the great fire, the water element in the great ocean,
the earth element in the Earth, the mind in the supportless space [and] his sense-organs
in the elements from ether to prakr
.
ti.
¡:s
vernacular tales of Yama’s rough treatment at the hands of the N¯ aths are common (see Eiiaoi :,¬c:+:+–
+:¬). Techniques of k ¯ alava˜ ncana similar to that of the KhV but using visualisations of amr
.
ta alone and not
involving the tongue can be found at SYM pat
.
ala ::, M VUT :o.s+–s¡, Svacchandatantra ¬.::¬d–::ob,
N T ¬.+¬–s+ and VS ¡.¡:–¡o, o.+:–¡:. The methods taught at KJN o.:o–:ï and
´
SP ¡s,ï–¡o:: do employ
the tongue. At GBS ::,ab the tongue is associated with k ¯ alava˜ ncana: jibhy¯ a indr¯ı ekai n ¯ al jo r¯ akhai so
bam
.
cai k ¯ al, “the tongue and the penis [are joined by] one channel; who knows this deceives Death”. On
the corporealisation of subtle tantric practices see page ¡: of the introduction.
¡:c
i.e. knowing the division described at +.¡¡c–¡sb. Alternatively, the compound could be understood
to mean “knowing the apportionment of the time of death”, i.e. having aris
.
t
.
aj ˜ n ¯ ana—see footnote ¡c,.
As Ball¯ ala says at f. ¬,v
1
, k ¯ ala can of course mean both time and death: k ¯ alo dvividhah
.
yamo ’t¯ıt ¯ adivyava-
h¯ arahetu´s ca |
¡::
I am taking k ¯ alam to be an ai´sa neuter and the subject of vrajati.
¡::
i.e. with Kun
.
d
.
alin¯ı in union with
´
Siva in the ocean of amr
.
ta above the gateway of Brahm¯ a.
¡:+
Ball¯ ala (f. ï:r
8
) glosses paramasam
.
tus
.
t
.
ah
.
with na tu kim
.
cidicchay¯ asam
.
tus
.
t
.
ah
.
| punarjanmaprasam
.
g¯ at |
“not unsatisfied because of the slightest desire, because it would [then] undesirably follow that he would
be reborn”.
¡:¡
This rock (´sil¯ a) is perhaps the same as that at the top of the forehead described at :.:s. Ball¯ ala
(f. ï:r
10−11
) says that it is like a rock blocking the way to brahman: brahmanirodhak ¯ am (em.; brahman
.
o
rodhek ¯ am S
pc
, brahman
.
ah
.
rodhak ¯ am
.
S
ac
) ´sil¯ am iva, and locates it at the crown of the head where the
fontanelle is found in infants and where [dead] renouncers’ skulls are to be smashed with a conch shell:
yatra b¯ ala´sirasi mr
.
dulam
.
tatraiva ca sam
.
ny¯ asin ¯ am
.
´sam
.
khena m ¯ urdh¯ a bhettavyo ’m
.
tar¯ ala iti.
¡:s
i.e. the yogin is to return the microcosmic elements, mind and sense-organs of his body to their
macrocosmic origins. Cf.
´
SP ¡s+:–¡s¡:.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :ïs
s:c–s:d. Thus abandoning transmigratory [existence and] dependent only on the
ultimate reality, untouched (aspr
.
s
.
t
.
ah
.
)
¡:o
by the five elements, the mind and the sense-
organs (pa˜ ncabh ¯ ut ¯ adyaih
.
), [the yogin] breaks the orb of the sun (s¯ uryasya man
.
d
.
alam)
¡:¬
and, absorbed in
´
Siva (´sive l¯ınah
.
),
¡:ï
[who is] the serene abode of the ultimate reality,
he becomes like
´
Siva.
¡:,
s+ab. Not in ten billion aeons will he return again.
s+c–s¡b. If, for the good of the universe, he does not abandon [his] body, then,
abandoning it in the end, when the world is dissolved, he abides only in his own self.
¡+c
s¡c–ssb. This is Khecar¯ımudr¯ a, which bestows dominion over the ethereal beings
[and] destroys birth, death, old age, sickness, wrinkles and grey hair.
¡:o
The conjectural emendation suggested by Professor Sanderson of adr
.
s
.
t
.
ah
.
and its variants to aspr
.
s
.
t
.
ah
.
is found in the BKhP as a marginal addition by a later hand (f. ï:r
2
).
¡:¬
This is the only mention of the s¯ uryaman
.
d
.
ala in the text. M an
.
d
.
alabr¯ ahman
.
opanis
.
ad :.:.s describes
how the agni˚, s¯ urya˚, sudh¯ acandra˚ and akhan
.
d
.
abrahmatejo˚ man
.
d
.
alas are seen in the process of ´s¯ ambhav¯ı
mudr¯ a but these are unlikely to refer to places in the subtle body. Ball¯ ala (f. ï:r
3
) associates the s¯ urya-
man
.
d
.
ala with the pi ˙ ngal¯ a n ¯ ad
.
¯ı : s¯ uryaman
.
d
.
alam
.
pi ˙ ngal¯ a s¯ uryan ¯ ad
.
¯ı tanm ¯ argen
.
a tanman
.
d
.
alam
.
p¯ uraka-
p¯ urvakakum
.
bhakena bhitv ¯ a. His interpretation seems forced: s¯ uryasya man
.
dalam almost certainly refers
to a region at the top of the head.
´
SP ¡s,:–¡o:: describes both videhamukti and k ¯ alava˜ ncan ¯ a. To deceive
Death the yogin seals all ten apertures of the body (¡oc:) and floods it with amr
.
ta. To abandon the
body he seals only nine doors (¡s,¡) and then, using his breath and his mind, he fires the arrow of his
soul by way of the tenth door towards the supreme target (¡s,s–o). This tenth door is in the region of
the top of the head (see footnote :::). Cf. Bhagavadg¯ıt ¯ a ï.::–:+; VS +.s¡–so. Descriptions of methods
of “yogic suicide” (utkr¯ anti) are found in several tantric
´
Saiva works. See the testimonia to M VUT
:¬.:s–+¡ in Vasuoiva :,,, and the editor’s analysis on pp.+¡:–+¡ï; in the KM T , the yogin is instructed
to perform utkr¯ anti when the place of the uvula dries up (´sus
.
yate ghan
.
t
.
ik ¯ asth¯ anam–:+.,,a). Professor
Sanderson has provided me with the following further references to
´
Saiva passages on utkr¯ anti : Skanda-
pur¯ an
.
a, ed. Bhat
.
t
.
ar¯ a¯ı (Kathmandu :,ïï), :ï:.,¬+–,¬¬; N i´sv ¯ asak ¯ arik ¯ a (NAK :-:¬¬/ NGMPP A ¡:/ :¡
f.::¡v ff.) pat
.
ala ++; S¯ ardhatri´satik ¯ alottara (NAK s-¡o+:/ NGMPP B ::ï/ ¬) ::.:+–:,b and R¯ amakan
.
t
.
ha ad
loc.; Br
.
hatk ¯ alottara Utkr¯ antyantyes
.
t
.
ipat
.
ala vv.:–¬ (NAK :-ï,/ NGMPP B :s/ ¡, f. :ï¬v
3
ff.); M ata˙ ngap¯ ara-
me´svar¯ agama Cary¯ ap¯ ada ,; Picumata (NAK +-+¬c) pat
.
alas s and :cc; T
¯
A :ï.:,:–+c:; J˜ n ¯ anasiddh¯ anta
(Old-Javanese, ed. and tr. Haryati Soebadio, The Hague, :,¬:). Yogay¯ aj ˜ navalkya adhy¯ aya :c teaches how
to abandon the body by means of sam ¯ adhi.
¡:ï
In the description of utkr¯ anti at Sv ¯ ayam
.
bhuvas¯ utrasam
.
graha ::.:d (Vasuoiva :,,,:+¡¡-s n.:c:) the
yogin is said to be ´sival¯ınaman ¯ ah
.
: his mind is absorbed in
´
Siva. At
´
SP ¡s,o he becomes absorbed in
param ¯ atman.
¡:,
Ball¯ ala (f. ï:r
6
–f. ï:v
11
) here describes two types of liberation: gradual (kramamukti) and subitist
(kevalamukti), citing “Y¯ aj ˜ navalkya”, the Tantrar¯ aja, the Bh¯ agavatapur¯ an
.
a, and the Yogas¯ utra with Vy¯ asa’s
Bh¯ as
.
ya.
¡+c
Cf. the description of khecar¯ımudr¯ a in the Hat
.
haratn ¯ aval¯ı where it is said that the yogin abandons his
body and enters the place of Brahm¯ a at the end of the kalpa: k ¯ ayam
.
tyaktv ¯ a tu kalp¯ ante brahmasth¯ anam
.
vrajaty asau (f. :+v
1
).
:ïo Cuairii +
[Praise of Khecar¯ı and devotion to
´
Siva]
¡+:
sscd. There is no vidy¯ a
¡+:
like this anywhere in [any] other text.
so. [The yogin] should not make public the very secret Khecar¯ımelana,
¡++
o
goddess, and, out of affection for you, I have proclaimed this method of the practice
(abhy¯ asayogah
.
) of [the vidy¯ a].
s¬. O goddess, he who does not know Khecar¯ı, who is worshipped by all great
yogins, is called a bound soul (pa´suh
.
) in this world, o goddess.
sï–s,. The great yoga cannot be perfected without my worship, even by [the
yogin] who, while wandering through the three worlds, is constantly devoted to the
practice and who practises the vidy¯ a obtained from the mouth of [his] guru, with his
mind always focussed on Khecar¯ımelaka and such like.
oc. For those bound souls caught in bondage [who] do not have my grace [and]
who are intent on scorning me, yoga is a source [only] of suffering.
o:. For him who abandons my worship, which [I], the all-knowing
´
Siva, have
taught, [even if ] he constantly practises yoga, yoga leads to destruction.
o:ab. [The yogin] should worship the universal (sarvalokamayam)
´
Siva with de-
votion (bhakty¯ a).
¡+¡
o:cd. All the gods and goddesses are pleased by him whose mind is focussed on
me alone.
o+. Therefore [the yogin] should worship me and practise the yoga of Khecar¯ı with
my grace. Otherwise there will be only trouble and no siddhi [even] in ten million
births.
o¡. For him who is keen on worshipping me [and] whose mind is intent on me
alone all mantras and yogas are successful, o supreme goddess.
¡+:
From here to the end of pat
.
ala three, witnesses µ and G vary considerably from each other and from
the text as I have presented it. Analysis of their variant readings indicates that µ preserves the earliest
version of the passage and that G represents an intermediate stage between µ and the other witnesses.
µ’s passage is in praise of madir¯ a, “alcohol”, and this explicit Kaula ideology has been expunged from the
other witnesses who have turned the passage into a eulogy of Khecar¯ı and ´sivabhakti. See pp. ::–:+ of the
introduction for a detailed comparison of the different versions.
¡+:
We return here to the oldest layer of the text (see pp. :¡–:ï of the introduction). Thus in this verse
vidy¯ a would originally have meant the mantra of Khecar¯ı but can now be interpreted as meaning the
teachings of the whole text.
¡++
On melana/melaka see footnote :ïc.
¡+¡
Here Ball¯ ala has an excursus on the various methods of ´saiva worship (f.ïsv–f.ïo(+)v).
Among more orthodox practices he includes at f. ïo(:)r
2−3
a ten-fold physical worship from
the Rudrahr
.
daya: kam
.
t
.
havik ¯ aragadgad¯ aks
.
arajihv ¯ aspam
.
daus
.
t
.
hasphuran
.
a´sar¯ırakam
.
panarom ¯ am
.
casved¯ a-
valam
.
ban ¯ anirgamarodanap¯ arava´syat ¯ ah
.
. At f. ïo(:)r
10
–f. ïo(:)v
1
he gives a six-fold mantrany¯ asa from the
´
Siv ¯ ar¯ adhanad¯ıpik ¯ a to be performed when bathing in ashes: om ¯ı´s¯ an ¯ aya namah
.
´sirasi om
.
tatpurus
.
¯ aya
namah
.
mukhe om
.
aghor¯ aya namah
.
hr
.
daye om
.
v ¯ amadev ¯ aya namah
.
n ¯ abhau om
.
sadyoj ¯ at ¯ aya namah
.
p¯ adayoh
.
om
.
namah
.
sarv ¯ am
.
ge evam uddh ¯ ulayed evam
.
sn ¯ anaprakramah
.
. At f. ïo(:)v
5
he mentions a p¯ a´supatavrata
from the Atharva´sira[upanis
.
ad].
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :ï¬
os. Therefore, to advance in all types of yoga (sarvayog¯ abhivr
.
ddhaye),
¡+s
the yogin
should worship me, o goddess, [and], delighting in Khecar¯ı, he should practise her
(tanmayam) yoga.
oo–o¬. In [a place] free of people, animals and all disturbance,
¡+o
[the yogin],
endowed with all that is necessary for the practice (sarvas¯ adhanasam
.
yuktah
.
)
¡+¬
[and]
free of all anxiety, should, in the manner described by his guru, sit on a comfortable
seat and do each practice one by one (ekaikam abhy¯ asam), relying on the teachings of
his guru.
oï. I have taught this yoga, the best of all yogas, out of fondness for you, o great
goddess. What more do you wish to hear?
The goddess said:
¡+ï
o,. O
´
Sambhu, whose diadem is the crescent moon (candr¯ ardha´sekhara)
¡+,
[and]
who can be attained [only] by true devotion (sadbhaktisam
.
labhya),
¡¡c
may you be
victorious. You have described well the secret [and] glorious Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a.
¡+s
The next nineteen folios of Ball¯ ala’s commentary (f.ï¬v–f.:cov) are devoted to a description of
sarvayoga, all the various methods of yoga.
¡+o
For descriptions of suitable places for the hat
.
hayogin to carry out his practice see e.g. DY
´
S :c¬–::¡,
H P :.::–:+. Vasuoiva (:,,,::ï¡–:ï¬) surveys similar descriptions in
´
Saiva tantric works.
¡+¬
Ball¯ ala (f. :cïr
3
) understands sarvas¯ adhana to refer to food and herbs: sv ¯ ah¯ aras¯ adhan ¯ ani tam
.
d
.
ula-
dugdh¯ ad¯ıni aus
.
adh¯ ani ´sum
.
t
.
hy¯ ad¯ıni ca, “the requisites for his food [such as] rice and milk etc. and herbs
[such as] dried ginger etc.”. At f. :cïr
9−10
he says how the yogin is to obtain them: dhan ¯ ad
.
hyar¯ aj ¯ a-
´srayen
.
a. . . sv¯ıyadravyen
.
a v ¯ a, “by recourse to a rich king. . . or by means of his own wealth”.
¡+ï
Ball¯ ala (f. :c,r
11
) expands uv ¯ aca with evam
.
karun
.
¯ ardrakat
.
¯ aks
.
en
.
a t ¯ arakopades
.
t
.
r¯ a ´sivena proll¯ asit ¯ a laks
.
ya-
bhinn ¯ a p¯ arvat¯ı tam
.
pratyuv ¯ aca, “thus gladdened by
´
Siva, the teacher of salvation, whose sideways glance
was wet with [tears of ] compassion, P¯ arvat¯ı, whose purpose had been fulfilled, replied to him”.
¡+,
´
Sambhu’s altruism is proven: when he holds the moon that consists of amr
.
ta at his heart, there is the
destruction of [his] poison and fever, but he holds it at his diadem to appease the three-fold afflictions of
others. amr
.
t ¯ atmana´s candrasya svahr
.
daye dh¯ aran
.
en ¯ api vis
.
ad¯ ahopa´s¯ am
.
tisam
.
bhave sati ´sikhare dh¯ aran
.
am
.
tu
pares
.
¯ am
.
trividhat ¯ apa´s¯ am
.
taye eveti lokopak ¯ arah
.
siddhah
.
(BKhP f. :c,v
6−7
).
¡¡c
The reading sadbh¯ ava˚, “true essence”, found in µW: and G (after +.sod) may be original: see KJN
::.:c where, after giving an exposition of the different Kaula schools, Bhairava declares “kathitam
.
kaulasad-
bh¯ avam”; cf. ibid. :¡.,+–,¡ where amr
.
ta is located in the khecar¯ıcakra and identified with kaulasadbh¯ ava.
:ïï Cuairii ¡
Chapter IV
¡¡:
:. And now I shall teach you some very sacred drugs. Without drugs a yogin can never
attain siddhi.
:.
¡¡:
[Having prepared] a powder of the leaves, flowers, fruits and stem, together
with the root, of the plant whose name consists of the highest limb of the mendicant
(bhiks
.
¯ uttam ¯ a˙ ngaparikalpitan ¯ amadheyam)
¡¡+
with buttermilk and water (takr¯ a˚),
¡¡¡
fer-
mented rice gruel (˚¯ aran ¯ ala˚) and milk, together with honey (madhu˚), sugar (˚´sarkar¯ a˚)
¡¡s
and the like, one should give (dady¯ at)
¡¡o
[to the yogin] in separate mouthfuls (pr
.
thak-
kavalitam) round essential pills (rasaman
.
d
.
al¯ ani) [of the mixture]. †[The yogin attains]†
¡¡¬
all together (samyag eva) the loss of grey hair, great well-being, great vigour (ud¯ ara-
v¯ıryam)
¡¡ï
and the removal of debilitating diseases.
¡¡:
This chapter is a later edition to the text. See page :o for details.
¡¡:
Four verses in this pat
.
ala are not in anus
.
t
.
ubh metre: verse : is in vasantatilak ¯ a, + and :c are in upaj ¯ ati,
and ¡ is in sragdhar¯ a. These different metres have in places confused scribes and account for some of the
variants and omissions in the witnesses.
¡¡+
As explained by Ball¯ ala (f. ::cr
9−11
), this compound is a riddle standing for the mun
.
d
.
¯ı plant (which
is mentioned by name in verses , and ::). The mendicant (bhiks
.
u) is the sam
.
ny¯ as¯ı whose highest limb
(uttam ¯ a˙ nga), his head, is shaven (mun
.
d
.
a). He is thus mun
.
d
.
¯ı. M un
.
d
.
¯ı is Sphaerantus indicus Linn. (Dasu
and Kasuyai :,ïc:s¡). (When reporting the botanical name of a plant mentioned in this chapter I give
only that primarily identified with the Sanskrit term; for alternatives the relevant reference in Miuiixniio
:,¬¡ or Dasu and Kasuyai :,ïc must be consulted.)
Ball¯ ala (f. ::cr
9
) introduces his commentary on this verse with atha mum
.
d
.
¯ıkalpam ¯ aha, indicating that
he regards this practice as a form of k ¯ ayakalpa, a technique of physical rejuvenation still practised by
hat
.
hayogins in which the yogin stays in darkness in a cave or specially built room for long periods (usually
a month), restricting his diet to a single herbal preparation. Similarly, his commentary on verse ¡ begins
atha v ¯ ar¯ ah¯ıkalpam ¯ aha (f. :::r
1
). Tonics to be consumed in k ¯ ayakalpa are described in MS O (see Sources,
p.¬s). The K¯ akacan
.
d
.
¯ı´svarakalpatantra describes k ¯ ayakalpa with different herbal preparations, including
several with ingredients similar to those described here. For a modern account of the technique, see
Axaxrua Muiruy :,ïo.
¡¡¡
Ball¯ ala (f. ::cv
1−2
) says that takra here is three parts buttermilk to one part water and cites the Amara-
ko´sa for definitions of the different varieties of takra: takram
.
hy uda´svin mathitam
.
p¯ ad¯ am
.
bv ardh¯ am
.
bu
nirjalam ity amarah
.
|
¡¡s
On the use of takra, ¯ aran ¯ ala, madhu and ´sarkar¯ a in
¯
Ayurveda see Miuiixniio :,¬¡:¡os–¬, ¡¡s,
¡ïo–¬ and sc¬–ï respectively.
¡¡o
Verses : and ¡ are written as instructions for a physician attending to the yogin—in this verse the
verb is dady¯ at, “he should give”, while in verse ¡ there is the causative p¯ ayayet, “he should cause to
drink”. Axaxrua Muiruy (:,ïo:s¬–o:, :+s) explains the necessity of an attendant physician to oversee
the k ¯ ayakalpa process.
According to Ball¯ ala (f. ::cv
4−5
), the yogin should be fed the pills for either ¡, or, (“some say”—ke
cit ), ¡c days, in the morning and evening.
¡¡¬
It seems likely that a half-line is missing at the end of this verse, in which the yogin would have been
said to obtain the various benefits listed in :ef.
¡¡ï
“Vigour” (v¯ırya) may refer to semen: M aSam
.
¡c.sc describes a herbal ras¯ ayana useful for semen-
retention.
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :ï,
+. [His] ears [become like those of ] a boar,
¡¡,
[his] eyes [become like those of ] a
bird of prey, and [his] nails [and] teeth [become] like diamonds; [he becomes] young,
as fast as the wind, and lives as long as the earth, the moon and the stars.
¡. [If the yogin] should eat powdered bulb of v ¯ ar¯ ah¯ı,
¡sc
with ghee and unrefined
cane-sugar, [there arise] health and growth; [if he should eat that powder] in buttermilk
and water (takre), piles are destroyed; [if he should eat it] in cow’s milk, leprosy is
destroyed; one should have [the yogin] drink that powder with sugar and the like
(´sarkar¯ adyaih
.
) and sweet water twice a day for two years; [the yogin will become]
black-haired, without grey hair or wrinkles, †[and] he gets rid of blackness on the body
(kr
.
s
.
n
.
abhed¯ı ´sar¯ıre)†.
¡s:
s. To get rid of old age and debility, the wise [yogin] should eat guggulu
¡s:
with
castor-oil and sulphur with triphal¯ a.
¡s+
¡¡,
Ball¯ ala (f. ::cv
8−9
) adds: var¯ ahah
.
s¯ ukarah
.
sa ca viprakr
.
s
.
t
.
am
.
s¯ uks
.
mam api ´sabdam avadh¯ arayati, “var¯ aha
means a boar, and it can make out distant and subtle sounds”.
¡sc
V ¯ ar¯ ah¯ı is Tacca aspera Roxb. (Miuiixniio :,¬¡:s,,–occ). According to Ball¯ ala (f. :::r
1
), v ¯ ar¯ ah¯ı is
known as vil¯ a¯ı in the vernacular (bh¯ as
.
¯ ay¯ am). Under bil¯ a¯ı-kam
.
d, McGiicoi (:,,s:¬+s) writes “cat’s root:
a large climbing perennial, Ipomoea digitata, having tuberous roots which are eaten and used medicinally”.
¡s:
This epithet is odd. Most of the KhV manuscripts read kr
.
s
.
n
.
abhed¯ı ´sar¯ıram.
´
Sar¯ıram is clearly
corrupt—none of the adjectives agree with it, nor can it be taken with a verb. The reading that I have
adopted, ´sar¯ıre, is not much better. The only way I can see to translate it is “on the body” which is quite
redundant in the context. The three preceding adjectives must be referring to the yogin (µ’s valipalitaharo
for hatavalipalitah
.
could perhaps be referring to the therapy but this is very unlikely in the light of kr
.
s
.
n
.
ake´s¯ı
which must refer to the yogin). For kr
.
s
.
n
.
abhed¯ı, S and α: read k ¯ ar´syabhed¯ı, “destroying thinness”, which
is probably a scribal emendation of kr
.
s
.
n
.
abhed¯ı. The reading vars
.
abhed¯ı found in µ is perhaps due to a
scribal error in which a copyist inadvertently looked back to ˚vars
.
au kr
.
s
.
n
.
a˚ earlier in the line, although
vars
.
a˚ could perhaps be understood in its meaning of “seminal effusion” (Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs :,ïï:,:o). I
have taken kr
.
s
.
n
.
abhed¯ı to refer to the therapy’s property of combatting kus
.
t
.
ha, which, as Ball¯ ala notes at
f. :::r
3
, can manifest itself in blackness: kus
.
t
.
ham
.
´svetam
.
kr
.
s
.
n
.
am
.
cety anekavidham
.
|
¡s:
Guggulu is bdellium, the gum of the Commiphora tree (Commiphora mukul Engl.—Miuiixniio
:,¬¡:s¬c).
¡s+
Ball¯ ala (f. :::r
9−11
) describes the preparation of triphal¯ a in detail: laghveram
.
d
.
aphal¯ any ¯ an¯ıyes
.
at sam
.
-
bharjya kut
.
t
.
ayitv ¯ a tatra vipulam
.
jalam
.
niks
.
ipya p¯ acayitv ¯ a vastr¯ am
.
taritam
.
kr
.
tv ¯ a tata uparitanam
.
tailam
.
sam
.
gr
.
hn
.
¯ıy¯ at tac chuddham
.
tailam
.
tena sam
.
yuktam
.
guggulum
.
m ¯ ahis
.
¯ akhyam
.
tath¯ anyam
.
triphal¯ ayutam
.
gam
.
dhakam
.
ca triphal¯ a tu
ek ¯ a har¯ıtak¯ı yojy¯ a dvau yojyau ca vibh¯ıtakau |
catv ¯ ary ¯ amalak ¯ ani syus triphalais
.
¯ a prak¯ırtit ¯ a
“Get some young castor fruits, parch them a little, grind them, add a large amount of water, cook
them, put them in a cloth and take the oil from the top. That is pure oil. The wise [yogin], who knows
the qualities [of herbs], should eat the guggulu which is called M¯ ahis
.
a and the other [guggulu ], mixed
with that oil and triphal¯ a, and sulphur. Triphal¯ a: one har¯ıtak¯ı (Terminalia chebula Retz.—Miuiixniio
:,¬¡:o:c) should be used, two vibh¯ıtaka (Terminalia bellerica Roxb.—ibid. :,¬¡:oc:) and four ¯ amalaka
(Phyllanthus emblica Linn.—ibid. :,¬¡:s:¬). This is called triphal¯ a.”
Ball¯ ala (f. :::r
11
) takes jar¯ ad¯ aridrya˚ as a karmadh¯ araya: “the debility that is old age”.
:,c Cuairii ¡
o. By just one month’s use of a´svagandh¯ a,
¡s¡
sesame seeds, mung beans, sugar and
vi´svasarpik ¯ a,
¡ss
there is no disease or death.
¬ab. With [these] five, immortality is obtained in five months, my dear.
¬c–ïb. [The yogin], after he has risen at dawn, should eat sulphur, triphal¯ a and
kus
.
t
.
ha,
¡so
mixed with the three sweeteners;
¡s¬
after six months he is rid of wrinkles and
grey hair.
ïc–,d. O goddess, taking mercury, sulphur, orpiment, realgar, that which is called
Rudra, namely the stem and pollen of kunas
.
t
.
i,
¡sï
and the pollen of mun
.
d
.
ik ¯ a
¡s,
soaked
in the three sweeteners, [the yogin] becomes strong after a year.
:c. By regularly eating powdered, dried bhr
.
˙ nga
¡oc
with its root, black sesame seeds
and an ¯ amalaka fruit in half measure, with the three sweeteners, in one year neither
diseases nor old age nor death [arise].
::. [The yogin] should eat one nirgun
.
d
.
¯ı
¡o:
leaf three times a day; in twelve years,
o goddess, he becomes free of old age and death.
::. [The yogin] should use equal amounts of the pollen of nirgun
.
d
.
¯ı, amala
¡o:
and
mun
.
d
.
¯ı, anointed with sugar, ghee and honey; after a year he destroys grey hair and
wrinkles.
:+. In six months, sulphur, gold, orpiment, and rudr¯ aks
.
a
¡o+
seeds mixed with the
three sweeteners bestow freedom from old age and death.
¡s¡
W inathia somnifera Dunal. (Dasu and Kasuyai :,ïc:¡o).
¡ss
S is the only witness to read vi´svasarpik ¯ a here but since I can make no sense of the other variants
and Ball¯ ala (f. :::r
12
) confidently asserts that vi´svasarpik ¯ a is a synonym of Hind¯ı moth¯ a I have adopted
his reading. (Hind¯ı moth¯ a is “a kind of grass, Cyperus rotundus, and its tuberous root”—McGiicoi
:,,s:ï+o; Dasu and Kasuyai (:,ïc::s) give musta as the Sanskrit name for Cyperus Rotundus Linn.)
The M aSam
.
manuscripts insert the following corrupt passage between oc and od: hastin ¯ a saha yu-
dhyate triphal¯ a pus
.
karo vr¯ ahm¯ı (vr¯ ahm¯ıh
.
Jo) †nih
.
s¯ akotilalam
.
san¯ı† | punarnav ¯ a vr
.
ddhat ¯ ar¯ a †na yayuh
.

snehami´srit ¯ a s
.
an
.
m ¯ as¯ ah¯ arayogena. Thus the result of eating the preparation is the ability to fight with
elephants, while to be free of disease and death the yogin must eat for six months a mixture of triphal¯ a,
pus
.
kara (Iris germanica Linn.—Miuiixniio :,¬¡:s¬c), br¯ ahm¯ı (Bacopa monnieri Pennell—Dasu and
Kasuyai :,ïc:s+), †nih
.
s¯ akotilalam
.
san¯ı†, punarnav ¯ a (“hog-weed,” Boerhavia repens Linn.—Miuiixniio
:,¬¡:s¬s) and vr
.
ddhat ¯ ar¯ a (probably vr
.
ddhad¯ araka, Gmelina asiatica Linn. or Rourea santaloides Wight
et Arn.—ibid.:occ) mixed with oil. The phrase na yayuh
.
is likely to be a corruption of the name of an
ingredient of the medicine.
¡so
Sassurea lappa C.B.Clarke (Dasu and Kasuyai :,ïc:o:).
¡s¬
Amarginal note in W: (ghr
.
tamadhu´sarkar¯ a) and two p¯ adas added after :¡b in γ ( ¯ ajyam
.
gud
.
o m ¯ aks
.
ikam
.
ca vij ˜ neyam
.
madhuratrayam) say that madhuratraya is ghee, honey and sugar, as does Ball¯ ala at f. ::cv
3
,
where he adds that they should be in equal proportions.
¡sï
The identity of kunas
.
t
.
i is uncertain. It is perhaps kun ¯ a´saka (Alhagi maurorum—Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs
:ï,,::ïo).
¡s,
M un
.
d
.
ik ¯ a is presumably a synonym of mun
.
d
.
¯ı (see footnote ¡¡+).
¡oc
Eclipta prostrata (Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs :ï,,:¬os).
¡o:
Vitex negundo (Moxiii-Wiiiiaxs :ï,,:ss¡).
¡o:
Amala is a synonym of ¯ amalaka: see footnote ¡s+.
¡o+
Eleocarpus ganitrus Roxb. (Miuiixniio :,¬¡:s,o).
Tui Kuicai¯ıvioy¯ a :,:
:¡. Rising at dawn, [the yogin] should eat mercury,
¡o¡
the sap of the silk-cotton
tree (´s¯ almali˚),
¡os
sulphur and the three sweeteners; after six months he becomes free
of old age and death.
¡o¡
As Wuiri (:,,o::¬c) remarks in the context of this verse, Biixiii reported in the seventeenth century
that “certain Fakires. . . can prepare mercury in so admirable a manner that a grain or two swallowed every
morning must restore a diseased body to vigorous health, and so strengthen the stomach that it may feed
with avidity, and digest with ease” (:ï,::+::).
¡os
Bombax ceiba Linn. (Miuiixniio :,¬¡:oc:).
Appendices
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a Full Collation 195
Pat
.
alah
.
1
1.Opening remarks:
i´svara uv¯ aca A,
¯ı´svara uv¯ aca J
6
J
7
,
khecar¯ıvidy¯ a UT,
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
om
.
namah
.
´siv¯aya namah
.
sarasvatyai S,
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
´sr¯ıgurubhyo namah
.
N,
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
´sr¯ısarasvatyai namah
.
´sr¯ıgurubhyo namah
.
W
1
,
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
¯ı´svara uv¯ aca M,
om
.
namah
.
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
om
.
namah
.
´siv¯aya K
1
,
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
om
.
namah
.
´siv¯aya K
3
,
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
J
2
K
4
PC,
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
atha khecar¯ı pat
.
ala likhyate J
4
,
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
´sr¯ıgurubhyo namah
.
V,
´sr¯ımatam
.
r¯ am¯anuj¯ aya namah
.
om
.
K
2
,
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
atha khecar¯ı pat
.
alikhyate ´sr¯ı ´siva uv¯ aca J
3
,
´sr¯ım¯atre namah
.
´sr¯ı saccid¯anandasadguruparabrahmane namah
.
´sr¯ı mah¯ agan
.
¯adhipataye na-
mah
.
´sukl¯ ambaradharam
.
vis
.
n
.
um
.
´sa´sivarn
.
am
.
caturbhujam
.
prasannavadanam
.
dhy¯ ayet sarva-
vighnopa´s¯antaye F,
´sr¯ıkr
.
s
.
n
.
¯aya namah
.
K
5
,
´sr¯ın¯ ath¯ aya namah
.
J
1
,
´sr¯ıyoge´svar¯ aya namah
.
J
5
,
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
W
2
,
om
.
´sr¯ıgan
.
e´s¯aya namah
.
R,
´sr¯ımam
.
galam¯ urtaye namah
.
´sr¯ımadavadh¯ utadigam
.
var¯ aya namah
.
B.
1.1a atha devi pravaks
.
y¯ ami
atha devi ] µTSα
1
β
1
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
γ; ath¯ aha sam
.
˚ U, atha dev¯ım
.
α
3
, atha dev¯ı C • pra-
vaks
.
y¯ ami ] µUTSαβ
1
J
3
FK
5
CJ
1
W
2
RB; pravaks
.
¯ami K
2
J
5
, pravaks
.
y¯ ami P
1.1b vidy¯ am
.
khecarisam
.
j˜ nit¯ am
vidy¯ am
.
] µUTSαβ; vidy¯ a γ • khecari ] UTSα
2
α
3
J
2
J
4
K
4
PJ
3
K
5
Cγ; khecara µMK
2
, khecar¯ı
VF (unm.) • sam
.
j˜ nit¯ am ] TSα
1
K
3
β
1
PFK
5
CJ
1
; sam
.
hit¯ am
.
µ, sam
.
j˜ nik¯ am U, sam
.
j˜ nit¯ am
.
m
K
1
, sam
.
j˜ nat¯ am
.
K
2
R, sam
.
j˜ nakam
.
J
3
, saj˜ nit¯ am
.
J
5
, sam
.
j˜ nit¯ a W
2
B
1.1c yay¯ a vij˜ n¯ atay¯ a ca sy¯ al
yay¯ a ] µα
3
β
1
; yath¯ a UTPJ
3
C, yasy¯a Sα
1
FK
5
γ
1
, yasya K
2
, yasy¯ah
.
B • vij˜ n¯ atay¯ a ca sy¯al ]
J
4
VK
5
; vij˜ n¯ ayate bhy¯ as¯at µ, vij˜ n¯ anam¯ atren
.
a Sα
1
K
1
K
2
J
3
F, vij˜ n¯ atam¯atren
.
a K
3
,vij˜ n¯ atay¯ a ca
sy¯at J
2
K
4
, vij˜ n¯ atay¯ a ca sy¯a C, vij˜ n¯ atav¯ an asyaUT, vij˜ n¯ atay¯ am
.
sy¯a P, sam
.
j˜ n¯ anam¯ atren
.
a γ
1.1d loke ’sminn ajar¯ amarah
.
loke ] µUTSα
1
βγ; trailokye α
3
(unm.) • sminn ] AJ
6
UTSα
1
K
1
J
2
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
Cγ; smin
J
7
K
3
J
4
• ajar¯ amarah
.
] µUTα
1
K
1

1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
J
1
RB; jar¯ amarah
.
K
3
, ajjar¯ amarah
.
PC, ajar¯ a-
mara J
5
W
2
1.2a mr
.
tyuvy¯ adhijar¯ agrastam
.
mr
.
tyuvy¯ adhi ] codd. • jar¯ a ] µUTSαβ
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
γ;

j

ar¯ a P, jjar¯ a C • grastam
.
] µSαβγ;
grasto U, grast¯a T
1.2b dr
.
s
.
t
.
v¯ a vi´svam idam
.
priye
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v¯ a ] µUTSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
Cγ; dr
.
t
.
v¯ a K
2
• vi´svam ] µSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
Cγ; vidy¯ am
.
U, vivam T,
vi´svam K
2
• idam
.
] µSα
1
βγ; im¯am
.
U, ama T, imam
.
α
3
• priye ] µTSαβγ; mune U
1.2c buddhim
.
dr
.
d
.
hatar¯ am
.
kr
.
tv¯ a
buddhim
.
] UTSα
2
J
4
FB; vuddhi AP, vuddhim
.
J
6
J
7

3
J
2
K
4
K
2
K
5
C, buddhi VJ
3
, buddhir
J
1
W
2
, vuddhir J
5
R • dr
.
d
.
hatar¯ am
.
] µUTSαJ
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
J
3
K
5
CB; dr
.
t
.
hatar¯ am
.
V, dr
.

d
.
h

atar¯ a
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
195
196 Appendix A
P, dhr
.
d
.
hatar¯ am
.
F, dr
.
d
.
hatar¯ a γ
1
• kr
.
tv¯ a ] µUTSαβ
1
K
2
FK
5
CJ
1
W
2
RB; kr
.
tva P, ktatv¯ a J
3
,

kr
.

vtv¯ a J
5
1.2d khecar¯ım
.
tu sam¯ a´srayet
khecar¯ım
.
] µUTSαJ
4
VK
4
K
2
J
3
FK
5

2
; khecam
.
r¯ı J
2
, svecar¯ım
.
P, khecar¯ı W
2
RB • tu ] µU-
TNMα
3
; ca SW
1
β
1
PJ
3
FK
5

2
, sa K
2
, ca W
2
R, ˚va˚B • sam¯a´srayet ] µSαJ
3
; samabhyaset
UTS, sam¯acaret β
1
PFK
5
CJ
1
R, cam¯acaret K
2
, ram¯acaret J
5
W
2
, ˚ram ¯apnuy¯ at B
1.3a jar¯ amr
.
tyugadaghn¯ım
.
yah
.
jar¯ a ] codd. • mr
.
tyu ] µUTSMα
3
J
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
Cγ; mr
.
ty¯ u α
2
, mr
.

ty¯ u

V • gada ] µ-
USα
1
J
4
VK
4
J
3
K
5
B; hati T, mara K
1
, ga K
3
(unm.), gadam
.
J
2
K
2
P, gra∗ F, gada C, gad¯ a
γ
1
• ghn¯ım
.
] α
1
K
1
β
1
K
5
CB; ghn¯ı µK
3
K
2
PJ
3
γ
1
, ghno UT, gghn¯ım
.
S, ghn¯ am
.
F • yah
.
]
UTSα
1
K
5
; y¯ a µK
3
, y¯ am
.
K
1
, yo β
1
K
2
PJ
3
FCγ
1.3b khecar¯ım
.
vetti bh¯ utale
khecar¯ım
.
] µUTSα
1
J
4
VK
4
K
2
FK
5
CB; khecar¯ı α
3
J
3
γ
1
, khecam
.
r¯ı J
2
P • vetti ] µUTSα
2
α
3
J
2
-
VK
4
PJ
3
FK
5

2
; tu sam˚ M, veti J
4
K
2
W
2
RB • bh¯ utale ] µUTSα
2
α
3
βγ; ˚¯ a´srayet M
1.3c granthata´s c¯ arthata´s caiva
granthata´s ] µUTα
3
; gram
.
th¯ ad ¯ a˚ Sα
1
β
1
K
2
PJ
3
K
5
CJ
1
RB, grandh¯ ad ¯ a˚ F, grath¯ ad ¯ a˚ J
5
W
2
• c¯arthata´s ] µUTα
3
; ˚c¯aryata´s Sα
1
β
1
PJ
3
FK
5
Cγ, ˚c¯aryyata´s K
2
• caiva ] UTSαβγ; c¯api
µ
1.3d tadabhy¯ asaprayogatah
.
tadabhy¯ asa ] J
6
J
7
USα
1
K
1
β
1
K
2
PJ
3
K
5
Cγ; taks
.
ay¯ asa A, tad¯ abhy¯ asa TK
3
, tadabhy¯ asah
.
F •
prayogatah
.
] µUTSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
Cγ; prak¯ırtitah
.
J
3
1.4a tam
.
devi sarvabh¯ avena
tam
.
] µUTSα
1
β
1
PC; t¯ am
.
α
3
K
2
J
3
Fγ, tan K
5
• devi ] µTSα
1
J
2
J
4
K
4
J
1
W
2
RB; mune U,
sarva˚ α
3
, dev¯ı VPJ
3
FC, dev¯ım
.
K
2
, devam
.
K
5
, deci J
5
• sarvabh¯ avena ] µUTSα
1
βγ,
˚bh¯ avena gurum
.
α
3
1.4b gurum
.
natv¯ a sam¯ a´srayet
gurum
.
] µUTSα
1
β
1
FCγ; t¯ am
.
ca K
1
, t¯ am
.
va K
3
, guru K
2
P, gurun J
3
, gurun K
5
• natv¯ a ]
SMVK
5
γ; matv¯a µUTα
2
K
3
J
2
J
4
K
4
PFC, om. K
1
, nattv¯ a K
2
, mattv¯ a J
3
• sam¯a´srayet ]
AJ
7
UTSα
1
K
3
βγ; sam¯a´srayet J
6
, sam
.
m¯a´srayet K
1
1.4c durlabh¯ a khecar¯ıvidy¯ a
durlabh¯ a ] µUTSαVJ
3
FK
5
γ; durllabh¯ a J
2
K
4
K
2
C, durllabham
.
J
4
, duralarllabh¯ a P (unm.) •
khecar¯ı ] codd. • vidy¯ a ] µUTSMJ
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
Cγ; v¯ıdy¯ a α
2
V, mudr¯ a α
3
1.4d tadabhy¯ asa´s ca durlabhah
.
tad ] µUTSα
1
βγ; tad K
1
, tam K
3
• abhy¯ asa´s ] Sα
1
β
1
FK
5
; abhy¯ asam
.
µ, abhy¯ aso U-
T, abhy¯ as¯a´s K
1
, a

dn

¯ıv¯ a K
3
, abhy¯ asas K
2
B, abhy¯ asa PJ
3

2
W
2
, abh¯ aso R • ca ]
µSαβ
1
FK
5
; pi UTR, s¯a´s K
3
, ta K
2
, tu B; ˚sya PCγ
2
W
2
, su˚ J
3
• durlabhah
.
] UTSα
1
V-
J
3
FK
5
γ
2
RB; durlabham
.
µW
2
, durlabh¯ a α
3
, durllabhah
.
J
2
K
4
PC, durllabh¯ a J
4
, durllabh¯ ah
.
K
2
1.5a abhy¯ aso melakam
.
caiva
abhy¯ aso ] MFB; abhy¯ asa µK
3
, abhy¯ asam
.
UTSα
2
K
1
β
1
K
2
PJ
3
K
5

1
• melakam
.
] S; melanam
.
µUTα
1
K
1
βγ; metvanim
.
K
3
• caiva ] codd.
1.5b yugapan naiva sidhyati
yugapan ] µUTSαβ
1
K
2
PK
5
Cγ; yugayat J
3
, yugam
.
yat˚ F • naiva ] µUTSαβ
1
J
3
K
5
Cγ,
aiva K
2
P, ˚nena F • sidhyati ] µUTSα
2
K
1
β
1
PJ
3
K
5
Cγ; sidhyatah
.
M, siddhyati K
3
K
2
F
1.5c abhy¯ asam¯ atranirato
om. VK
5
W
2
• abhy¯ asa ] µUTSαJ
2
J
4
K
4
PJ
3
FCγ
2
RB; abhy¯ asam
.
K
2
• m¯atra ] µUTαP-
J
3
FCγ
2
RB; nira˚ S, matra J
2
K
4
, mam
.
tra J
4
, m¯ana K
2
• nirato] J
6
J
7
α
3
; virato A, nirat¯ a
UTα
1
J
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PJ
3

2
RB, ˚t¯a devi S, nirat¯ ah
.
F
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
196
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a Full Collation 197
1.5d na vindeteha melakam
om. VK
5
W
2
• na ] µUTSαJ
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PJ
3

2
B; vim
.
˚ F • vindeteha ] µ; vim
.
dam
.
te ha
UT, vim
.
dam
.
t¯ıha SMJ
2
J
4
K
4
PB, ca vim
.
dam
.
ti N, ca vim
.
dati W
1
, vindat¯ıha α
3
C, vim
.
dati sa
K
2
, vidam
.
t¯ıha J
3
, ˚dam
.
ti na ca F, vadam
.
ti hi J
1
R, vidam
.
ti ha J
5
• melakam
.
] µα
3
J
3
;
melanam
.
UTSα
1
J
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PFCγ
2
RB
1.6a abhy¯ as¯ al labhate devi
om. J
3
W
2
• abhy¯ as¯al ] µα
3
; abhy¯ asam
.
UTSα
1
β
1
K
2
PFK
5

2
R, abhy¯ aso B • labhate ]
AUTSαJ
2
VK
4
K
2
PFK
5
CJ
1
; labhyate J
6
J
7
J
4
RB, late J
5
• devi ] µTSα
1
J
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PFK
5

2
-
RB; brahman U, dev¯ım
.
α
3
, dev¯ı V
1.6b janmajanm¯ antare kva cit
om. J
3
W
2
• janma ] µUSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5

2
RB; yog¯ı T • janm¯ antare ] µUTSαJ
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
-
PFK
5

2
RB; janm¯ am
.
tara V • kva ] µUTSαβ
1
PFK
5

2
RB; pi K
2
• cit ] µUTSαβ
1
PF-
K
5

2
RB, ca K
2
1.6c melakam
.
janman¯ am
.
tat tu
om. Mα
3
J
3
J
1
R • melakam
.
janman¯ am
.
tat tu ] melane bhujag¯ an¯ am
.
ca A, melanam
.
bhujag¯ a
n¯ ama J
6
, melanam
.
bhujag¯ an¯ am
.
ca J
7
, melanam
.
janman¯ am
.
tat tu U, melanam
.
tatvajanm¯ı-
rn
.
am
.
T, abhy¯ asam¯atranirat¯ a Sα
2
J
2
VK
4
K
2
PK
5
CJ
5
W
2
B, abhy¯ asam¯arganirat¯ a J
4
, abhy¯ asa-
m¯atranirat¯ ah
.
F
1.6d ´sat¯ ante ’pi na labhyate
om. Mα
3
J
3
J
1
R • ´sat¯ante ’pi na labhyate ] UT; janm¯ am
.
te tu na labhyate µ, na ca vim
.
dam
.
ti
melanam
.
SNJ
4
, na ca vim
.
dati melanam
.
W
1
, na ca vim
.
dam
.
ti melakam
.
J
2
K
4
PFK
5
CB, na ca
vim
.
dati melak¯ am
.
V, na vim
.
dati hi melanam
.
K
2
, na ca vidam
.
tti melakam
.
J
5
, na ca vidam
.
ti
melakam
.
W
2
1.7a abhy¯ asam
.
bahujanm¯ ante
om. Sαβγ • abhy¯ asam
.
] µU; abhy¯ asa T • bahujanm¯ ante ] UT; vahujanm¯ am
.
te µ
1.7b kr
.
tv¯ a sadbh¯ avas¯ adhitam
om. Sαβγ • kr
.
tv¯ a ] µUT • sadbh¯ avas¯adhitam ] A; tadbh¯ avas¯adhitam J
6
J
7
U, tadbh¯ ava-
s¯adhitah
.
T
1.7c melakam
.
labhate devi
om. K
2
J
1
R • melakam
.
] Sα
2
α
3
J
2
VK
4
PJ
3
FK
5
CJ
5
W
2
B; melake µ, melanam
.
UTMJ
4

labhate ] µUTSαβ
1
PFK
5
CJ
5
W
2
B; labhyate J
3
• devi ] µSα
1
K
3
J
2
J
4
K
4
PFK
5
CJ
5
W
2
; ka´s
cid U, dev¯ı TK
1
VJ
3
, yog¯ı B
1.7d yog¯ı janm¯ antare kva cit
om. K
2
J
1
R • yog¯ı ] µUTα
1
J
2
J
4
K
4
PJ
3
K
5
CJ
5
W
2
; janma S, yoge α
3
, yogi V, yo∗ F
ac
, yoga
F
pc
, devi B • janm¯ antare kva cit ] codd.
1.8a yad¯ a tu melakam
.
k¯ am¯ı
yad¯ a ] UTSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; tad¯ a µR, mela˚ K
2
• tu ] UTSαβγ; tan µ • melakam
.
]
ATSα
2
α
3
β
1
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; malakam
.
J
6
J
7
, melanam
.
U, labhate M, ˚nam
.
yad¯ a K
2
, melaka P
k¯ am¯ı ] SW
1
α
3
βγ
2
W
2
B; karma µ, yog¯ı UTR, caiva N, devi M • tad¯ a ´sivatvam ¯apnoti
vimuktah
.
sam
.
sr
.
tivr
.
t¯ a

t

add. A
1.8b labhate parame´svari
labhate ] µUTSα
2
α
3
β
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
CB; melanam
.
M, labhyate J
3
γ
1
• parame´svari ] µSN-
MK
5
K
6

1
; guruvaktratah
.
U, parame´svar¯ı TW
1
PJ
3
F, paramesvar¯ım α
3
, paramesvar¯ı J
2
,
paramesvari J
4
VK
4
B, parame´svar¯ım
.
K
2
1.8c tad¯ a tat siddhim ¯ apnoti
tad¯ a ] µUTSαβJ
1
W
2
RB; nad¯ a J
5
• tat siddhim ] µUTSαJ
4
VK
4
PJ
3
K
5
K
6
γ; tatt siddhim
J
2
, siddhim av˚ K
2
, tac ciddhim F, tat siddham C • ¯apnoti ] codd.
1.8d yad uktam
.
´s¯ astrasam
.
tatau
yad ] µUTSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ, yath˚ J
3
• uktam
.
] µTSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; ukt¯ a U, ˚oktam
.
J
3
• ´s¯astra ] µUTSαβ
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; ´s¯astram
.
P • sam
.
tatau ] µUTSαJ
2
VK
4
K
2
FK
5
C;
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
197
198 Appendix A
sam
.
matau J
4
, satato P, sam
.
mat¯am
.
J
3
, sam
.
tataih
.
K
6
, sattamaih
.
J
1
W
2
RB, sattameh
.
J
5
1.9a granthata´s c¯ arthata´s caiva
granthata´s ] µUSW
1
α
3
VPJ
3
FK
5
K
6
CB; sr
.
jatam
.
T, gram
.
thatas N, abhy¯ as¯a M, gram
.
that¯ a´s
J
2
K
4
, gram
.
thatam
.
´s J
4
, gram
.
th¯ ad ¯ a˚ K
2
, grathata´s γ
1
• c¯arthata´s ] µUSW
1
α
3
J
2
VK
4
PF-
K
5
K
6
C; c¯aryatam
.
T, v¯ arthata´s N, ch¯astrata´s M, c¯aryata´s J
4
K
2
J
3
γ
2
W
2
B, caiva yadR •
caiva ] µUTSαβγ
2
W
2
B; uktam
.
R
1.9b melakam
.
labhate yad¯ a
melakam
.
] TSα
2
α
3
J
2
J
4
VK
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
γ; labhate µ, melanam
.
UM, melam
.
kam
.
K
4
• lab-
hate ] UTSαJ
2
VK
2
PFK
5
K
6
C; melakam
.
µ, labhave J
4
, labhyate J
3
γ • yad¯ a ] J
6
UTSαβγ;
tad¯ a AJ
7
1.9c tad¯ a ´sivatvam ¯ apnoti
tad¯ a ´sivatvam ] codd. • ¯apnoti ] µUTSα
2
α
3
βJ
1
W
2
RB; ¯apno M (unm.), ¯ aproti J
5
1.9d vimuktah
.
sam
.
sr
.
ter bhay¯ at
vimuktah
.
] µ; nirmuktah
.
USαJ
4
VK
4
K
2
PK
5
K
6
Cγ, nirmuktas T, nirmuktam
.
h
.
J
2
, niryuktah
.
J
3
, nirmukta F • sam
.
sr
.
ter ] Sα
1
J
2
VK
4
FK
5
CB; sam
.
sr
.
ti µα
3
, sarvasam
.
˚ U, sam
.
smr
.
ti T,
sam
.
sr
.
te J
4
, sa mr
.
ter K
2
J
3
γ
2
R, sa mr
.
te P, sa sr
.
ter K
6
, sam
.
mr
.
ter W
2
• bhay¯ at ] Sα
1
βγ;
vr
.
t¯ an A, vra

j

¯at J
6
, vr
.
t¯ at J
7
, ˚sr
.
teh
.
U, praj¯ at Tα
3
1.10a ´s¯ astram
.
vin¯ a sam¯ aboddhum
.
´s¯astram
.
] µUSαβ
1
J
3
FK
5
K
6
γ
1
; ´s¯astra T, ´s¯a´stram
.
K
2
PC, vin¯ a B • vin¯ a ] µUSαβγ
1
; vinna T,
´s¯astram
.
B • sam¯aboddhum
.
] Sα
2
F; sam¯avod
.
hum
.
A, sam¯avod
.
ham
.
J
6
J
7
, pi sam
.
boddhum
.
U, pi sam
.
bhoktum
.
T, bodhayitum
.
M, samam ¯avoddhum
.
K
1
(unm.), mas¯avoddhum
.
K
3
,
sam¯avoddham
.
J
2
K
2
, sam¯avoddhum
.
J
4
K
4
K
5
K
6
C, sam¯aboddhu V, sam¯ avo

ddhum
.

P, sam¯a-
vodhum
.
J
3
, samobodham
.
J
1
, samovoddham
.
J
5
, samoboddhum
.
W
2
B, sam¯avoddham
.
vai R
(unm.)
1.10b guravo ’pi na ´saknuyuh
.
guravo pi ] µUTSNMα
3
J
4
VFK
5
C; gur

u

vo pi W
1
, guruvo pi J
2
K
4
K
2
J
3
K
6
, guruvo

pi

P, gu-
rur api γ
1
, guror api B • na ] codd. • ´saknuyuh
.
] µUTSαVK
4
K
2
PJ
3
K
5

2
W
2
; ´saknayuh
.
J
2
F, ´sa

kn

uyuh
.
J
4
, ´sakyayuh
.
K
6
, ´saknuyu R, ´saknuy¯ at B
1.10c tasm¯ at sudurlabhataram
.
tasm¯at ] µUTSα
2
α
3
β
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; tasm¯ad M, tasm¯ ac K
2
• sudurlabha˚ ] J
6
UTSα
3
J
2
V-
K
4
J
3
FK
5
B; sa durlabha˚AJ
7
γ
1
, tu durlabha˚α
2
, dhi durlabhata˚M (unm.), sudullabham
.
˚
J
4
(unm.), ca durllabha˚ K
2
, sudurllabha˚ PC , sa durllabha K
6
• taram
.
] codd.
1.10d labhyam
.
´s¯ astram idam
.
priye
om. T • labhyam
.
] AJ
6

3
; labhy¯ am
.
J
7
, tebhyah
.

1
β
1
K
2
J
3
K
5
K
6
Cγ, tyebhyah
.
P, tebhya
F • ´s¯astram ] µUSαJ
2
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
γ; ´s¯astram
.
m J
4
, ´s¯a´stram C • idam
.
] µGUTSα-
β
1
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
Cγ; id¯ am
.
K
6
• priye ] µSαJ
2
J
4
VK
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; mune U, priyo K
4
, pviye P
1.11a y¯ avan na labhyate granthas
om. T • y¯ avan ] µUSαJ
2
VK
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; y¯ avat J
4
, p¯ avan K
4
• na ] µUSαJ
2
VK
4
K
2
-
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; ta J
4
• labhyate ] J
6
J
7

3
J
4
J
3
; labhate Aα
1
VK
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ, labhyate S,
llabhyate J
2
K
4
• granthas ] µSα
2
VK
6
γ; ´s¯astram
.
U, gram
.
tham
.

3
K
5
, gram
.
tha J
2
J
4
K
4
,
gram
.
thah
.
K
2
, grathas P, ´s¯astra J
3
, gram
.
thah
.
s F, granthas C
1.11b t¯ avad g¯ am
.
paryat
.
ed im¯ am
om. T • t¯ avad ] µUSMW
pc
1
α
3
β
1
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
C; t¯ avan NW
ac
1
, t¯ ad K
6
(unm.), t¯ avat γ • g¯am
.
]
µUSMW
pc
1
α
3
β
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
C; na NW
ac
1
, a˚K
2
, pa˚γ • paryat
.
ed ] µUSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
C; ˚pi
ryars
.
t
.
id ighn¯ am
.
yath¯ a K
2
(unm.), ˚ryat
.
ate γ • im¯am ] µSα
1
β
1
PJ
3
FK
5
C; yatih
.
U, i´s¯am
.
α
3
, vidy¯ am
.
K
2
(unm.), im¯ a K
6
, di´s¯a γ
2
W
2
, di´s¯am
.
R, di´sah
.
B
1.11c yad¯ a sa labhyate devi
om. T • yad¯ a ] µUSαβ
1
K
2
PJ
3
FK
6
J
5
W
2
RB; y¯ avat K
5
, ya∗ J
1
• sa labhyate ] µ; sam
.
-
labhyate USα
3
β
1
PJ
3
γ
2
W
2
, sam
.
labhate α
2
K
2
FK
5
K
6
CR, sa labhate M, ca labhate B • devi ]
µSα
2
β
1
K
2
PK
5
K
6
Cγ; ´s¯astram
.
UMα
3
, dev¯ı J
3
F
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
198
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a Full Collation 199
1.11d tad¯ a siddhih
.
kare sthit¯ a
om. T • tad¯ a ] codd. • siddhih
.
] µUSNK
1
VFK
5
Cγ; siddhi W
1
K
3
J
4
K
2
J
3
, muktih
.
M, sid-
dhim
.
J
2
K
4
, siddhim
.
h
.
P, va siddhi K
6
(unm.) • kare ] J
6
J
7
USαβγ; karai A • sthit¯ a ]
µUSW
1
MJ
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
CJ
5
W
2
B; sthit¯ ah
.

3
VJ
1
R
1.12a na ´s¯ astren
.
a vin¯ a siddhir
om. T • na ] codd. • ´s¯astren
.
a ] µUSα
2
α
3
VJ
3
FK
5
K
6
γ; hi ´s¯astram
.
M, ´sastrena J
2
, ´s¯astrena
J
4
K
4
K
2
, ´sastren
.
a P, ´s¯a´stren
.
a C • vin¯ a ] µUSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; vin
.
¯a J
3
• siddhir ] µU-

2
α
3
β
1
J
3
FK
5
γ; siddhir M, siddhih
.
r K
2
PK
6
C
1.12b at
.
ato ’pi jagattraye
om. T • at
.
ato ’pi ] µSαJ
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ, dr
.
s
.
t
.
¯a caiva U, at
.
ato hi V • jagattraye ]
J
7
U; jagatraye AJ
6
MF
ac
, jagattrayam
.

2
α
3
J
2
VK
4
PK
6
γ
2
W
2
, jagatrayam
.
J
4
K
2
F
pc
K
5
, jagat-
trayam J
3
C, jagatrayam RB • abhy¯ asam¯atranirat¯ a na ca vim
.
dam
.
ti (vim
.
dati R) melakam
.
melakam
.
labhate devi yog¯ı janm¯ am
.
tare kva cit add. J
1
R
1.12c tasm¯ an melakad¯ at¯ aram
.
om. T • tasm¯an ] µUSαJ
2
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; tasm¯at J
4
• melaka ] AJ
6
SαβJ
1
RB;
meka J
7
(unm.), melana U, malaka J
5
W
2
• d¯ at¯ aram
.
] µUSα
1
J
4
VK
2
PJ
3
FCγ; d¯ am
.
t¯ aram
.
α
3
, t¯ am
.
d¯ aram
.
J
2
, t¯ ad¯ at¯ aram
.
K
4
(unm.), d¯ at¯ aram
.
K
5
, d¯ ah
.
ram
.
K
6
(unm.)
1.12d ´s¯ astrad¯ at¯ aram ¯ı´svari
om. T • ´s¯astra ] µUSα
2
α
3
β
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
γ; ´s¯astra M, ´s¯astram
.
P, ´s¯a´stra C • d¯ at¯ aram ]
codd. • ¯ı´svari ] µSα
1
J
2
K
4
PK
5
K
6
Cγ; acyutam U, ¯ısvar¯ım α
3
, ¯ısvari J
4
V, ¯ı´svar¯ım
.
K
2
, ¯ı´svar¯ı
J
3
F
1.13a tadabhy¯ asaprad¯ at¯ aram
.
om. T • tad ] codd. • abhy¯ asa ] µUSW
1
MJ
2
VK
4
K
2
K
5
Cγ; ¯ abhy¯ asa Nα
3
J
4
J
3
FK
6
, abhy¯ a
P (unm.) • prad¯ at¯ aram
.
] µUSα
2
α
3
βγ; pradam
.
devi M
1.13b ´sivam
.
matv¯ a sad¯ a yajet
´sivam
.
] J
7
UTαβ
1
FK
5
Cγ; ´siva AJ
6
K
2
PJ
3
K
6
, gurum
.
S • matv¯a ] µUTSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ;
nattv¯ a K
2
• sad¯a ] µSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ, sam¯a˚ U, tad¯ a˚ T, prayo J
3
• yajet ] µSα
1
P-
K
5
Cγ; ˚´srayet U, ˚´sraye T, japet α
3
J
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
K
6
, jayet V, payet J
3
, vrajet F
1.13c tantr¯ a´s ca bahavo devi
om. U • tantr¯ a´s ] AJ
6
; t¯ am
.
tra´s J
7
, mam
.
tr¯ a´s TSα
1
βγ, mam
.
tra´s α
3
• ca ] AJ
6
TSαβγ;
c¯a J
7
• bahavo ] TSα
2
VJ
3
FJ
1
W
2
B; vahavo µMα
3
J
4
K
4
K
2
PK
5
K
6
CJ
5
R, vahevo J
2
• devi ]
µSαβγ; divy¯ a T
1.13d may¯ a prokt¯ ah
.
sur¯ arcite
om. U • may¯a ] µTSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; m¯ay¯ a K
2
• prokt¯ ah
.
] µSαVB; prokt¯ a TJ
4
K
4
K
2
-
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6

1
, pnokt¯ a J
2
• sur¯ arcite ] µαJ
2
VK
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
CJ
5
W
2
B; sure´svar¯ı T, sure´svari
S, pur¯ arcite J
4
K
4
, sur¯ arccite J
1
R
1.14a na tes
.
u khecar¯ısiddhir
om. U • na tes
.
u ] codd. • khecar¯ı ] µTSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
CW
2
RB; khecar¯a J
3
, khecaro γ
2
• siddhir ] µTSαβ
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6

2
B; siddhi PR, siddhih
.
W
2
1.14b ¯ akhy¯ at¯ a mr
.
tyun¯ a´sin¯ı
om. U • ¯akhy¯ at¯ a ] J
6
J
7
SW
1

3
β
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
C; ¯aks
.
y¯ at¯ a A, ¯ apy¯ at¯ am T, ¯akhy¯ ato N, v¯ a-
khy¯ at¯ a P, vikhy¯ at¯ a˚γ • mr
.
tyun¯ a´sin¯ı ] J
6
J
7
TSαβ; mr
.
tyun¯ a´san¯ı A, ˚mr
.
tav¯ asin¯ı γ
1.14c mah¯ ak¯ alam
.
ca m¯ artan
.
d
.
am
.
om. U • mah¯ ak¯ alam
.
ca ] codd. • m¯artan
.
d
.
am
.
] J
6

1
K
1
J
4
K
5
B; m¯arttam
.
dam
.
AJ
2
VK
4
,
m¯arttam
.
d
.
am
.
J
7
K
2
PK
6
CJ
1
, m¯art¯ am
.
d
.
am
.
T, m¯artt¯ ad
.
am
.
K
3
, m¯artam
.
d
.
o J
3
, m¯art¯ am
.
d
.
a F, m¯ a-
rttad
.
am
.
J
5
R (unm.), m¯artad
.
am
.
W
2
1.14d vivek¯ adyam
.
ca ´s¯ abaram
om. U • vivek¯ adyam
.
] µβγ; vivek¯ artham
.
T, vivek¯ ad
.
hyam
.
S, vivek¯ akhyam
.
α • ca ] codd.;
su˚ S
ac
• ´s¯abaram ] conj.; ´s¯abharam
.
A, ´s¯am
.
varam
.
J
6
J
7
, ´s¯am
.
bhavam TSα
1
β
1
PFK
5
K
6
γ,
´sobhanam α
3
, s¯am
.
bhavam
.
K
2
, ´s¯am
.
bhava J
3
, ´s¯am
.
bhavam C
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
199
200 Appendix A
1.15a vi´suddhe´svarasam
.
j˜ nam
.
ca
om. U • vi´suddhe´svara ] µTSNα
3
J
4
VK
2
PJ
3
K
5
K
6
Cγ; vi´suddhe´svara W
1
, tam
.
tram
.

vi´suddha M, vi´suddho´svara J
2
, vi´suddhe´svaram
.
K
4
(unm.), vi´sudde´svara F • sam
.
j˜ nam
.
]
µSαβγ; tam
.
tram
.
T • ca ] codd.
1.15b tath¯ a vai j¯ ala´sam
.
varam
om. U • tath¯ a ] µSα
2
α
3
βγ; tathya T, ´s¯astram
.
M • vai ] µSαβγ
2
W
2
B, ve TR • j¯ ala-
´sam
.
varam ] µJ
2
K
4
PK
5
C; j¯ ala´sam
.
baram
.
α
2
, ˚t¯ ala´sam
.
baram
.
T, j¯ ala´s¯abaram
.
S, j¯ alasam
.
j˜ nitam
.
M, j¯ alamam
.
vare α
3
, j¯ ala´sam
.
varam
.
J
4
, j¯ alasam
.
varam
.
VK
2
, j¯ alam eva ca J
3
, j¯ alasam
.
bharam
.
F, j¯ ala´sam
.
va

r¯ am
.

K
6
, j¯ ala´sam
.
bhavam
.
J
1
R, j¯ ala´sabhavam
.
J
5
W
2
(unm.), j¯ alasam
.
bhavam
.
B
1.15c etes
.
u tantravaryes
.
u
om. U • etes
.
u ] J
6
J
7

2
α
3
βγ; etes
.
um
.
A, mam
.
tres
.
u M • tantra ] µα
1
β
1
K
5
; mam
.
tra
TSα
3
K
2
PJ
3
FK
6
Cγ • varyes
.
u ] µTSα
1
β
1
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; varyyes
.
u W
pc
1
, caryes
.
u α
3
K
2
, vars
.
es
.
u
J
3
1.15d tadabhy¯ asah
.
prak¯ a´sitah
.
om. U • tadabhy¯ asah
.
] Sα
1
J
2
VK
4
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
CB; tadabhy¯ asa µγ
2
W
2
, tad¯ abhy¯ asa TK
2
R,
tad¯ abhy¯ asah
.
α
3
J
4
• prak¯ a´sitah
.
] SαVK
2
J
3
K
5
K
6
CW
2
B; prak¯ a´sitam
.
µJ
4
K
4
, prak¯ a´satah
.
T,
prak¯ırtitah
.
SF, pr¯ ak¯ a´sitam
.
J
2
, pr¯ ak¯ a´sitah
.
P, prak¯ a´sit¯ah
.
γ
2
, prak¯ a´sita R
1.16a kva cit spas
.
t
.
am
.
tath¯ aspas
.
t
.
am
.
om. U • kva cit ] codd. • spas
.
t
.
am
.
] ATSα
2
J
2
VK
4
J
3
K
5
K
6
Cγ; spr
.
s
.
t
.
am
.
J
6
J
7
α
3
, spas
.
t
.
as M,
spais
.
t
.
am
.
J
4
, spam
.
K
2
(unm.), spamr
.
m
.
P,

spa

s
.
t
.
am
.
F • tath¯ aspas
.
t
.
am
.
] TSα
2
K
1
J
4
VK
4
-
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; tath¯ aspas
.
t
.
a A, tath¯ aspr
.
J
6
J
7
(unm.), tath¯ aspas
.
t
.
ah
.
M, tath¯ apyas
.
t
.
am
.
K
3
,
t¯ ath¯ aspas
.
t
.
am
.
J
2
1.16b kva cit tanmelak¯ adikam
om. U • kva ] codd. • cit ] µTSNMK
1
β
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; ci W
1
K
2
, cin K
3
• tan ] TS-
α
1
K
1
F; tam
.
µJ
2
VK
4
K
2
PK
5
K
6

2
W
2
B, om. K
3
, ta J
4
,

t

an J
3
, a R • melak¯adikam ]
ATSα
1
βγ; melak¯adik J
6
J
7
(unm.), melak¯adhikam
.
α
3
1.16c asmin tantravare divye
om. U • asmin ] µSW
1

3
J
2
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; asi T, asmim
.
s N, asmi J
4
P, asmit VK
4

tantravare ] Sα
1
β
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; tam
.
tre vare AJ
7
, tam
.
trai vare J
6
, bhyo javare T, mam
.
tra-
vare α
3
, ttam
.
travare P • divye ] µTSαJ
4
VK
4
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
C; di

vy

e J
2
, d¯ıvye J
3
, devyam
.
γ
2
W
2
, devi RB
1.16d melak¯ adi prak¯ a´sitam
om. U • melak¯adi ] µTSαβ
1
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; mek¯adi K
2
P (unm.) • prak¯ a´sitam ] µTSα
1
βγ;
prak¯ a´sate K
1
, prak¯ a´site K
3
1.17a yad yaj j˜ neyam
.
bhavet kim
.
cid
om. U • yad yaj j˜ neyam
.
] S; yady aj˜ neyam
.
AJ
pc
7
β
1
BF
pc
, ya

dy

aj˜ neyam
.
J
6
, yady ej˜ neyam
.
J
ac
7
, yad yad j˜ neyam
.
TF
ac
K
5
C, yadi j˜ neyam
.
α, yad yat j˜ neyam
.
K
2
, yady aheyam
.
P, yad
aj˜ neyam
.
J
3
, yad yad veyam
.
K
6
, yady abhayam
.
J
1
R, yad yad j˜ nayam
.
J
5
, yad yad a∗yam
.
W
2
• bhavet ] µTSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; bhave J
3
• kim
.
cid ] AW
1
MK
1
PFK
5
Cγ; kim
.
ci
J
6
J
7
K
3
VK
4
K
2
J
3
, kim
.
cit TJ
2
K
6
, loke S, kim
.
cird N, kim
.
cita J
4
1.17b durj˜ neyam
.
khecar¯ımate
om. U • durj˜ neyam
.
] µTSα
1
J
2
K
4
K
2
J
3
K
5
C; durj˜ ney¯ a α
3
, durgeyam
.
J
4
, durjeyam
.
V,

ga

r-
j˜ neyam
.
P, dur

j˜ n

eyam
.
F, taj˜ neyam
.
K
6
, guruj˜ neyam
.
γ
2
W
2
(unm.), garuj˜ neya R (unm.),
gurugam˚ B • khecar¯ı ] µTSαJ
2
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6

1
; khecar¯ım
.
J
4
, ˚yam
.
ca khe˚ B •
mate ] µTJ
4
K
2
J
3

1
; ˚m r
.
te Sα
1
J
2
VK
4
PK
5
K
6
C, mat¯a α
3
, ˚car¯ı B
1.17c tat tat sarvam ih¯ asm¯ abhis
om. U • tat tat sarvam ] TSα
2
α
3
J
2
J
4
K
5
K
6
CJ
1
R; tatah
.
samyag µ, tat tat sarvam
.
MK
2
,
tat ta sarvam
.
V, tatat sarvam K
4
, tatrat sarv¯ a P, tat sarva J
3
(unm.),

tattvas

sarvam
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
200
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a Full Collation 201
F, tatat sam
.
rvam J
5
, tat tat sarvam
.
m W
2
, mate tat sar˚ B • ih¯ asm¯abhis ] µSα
2
α
3
J
2
J
4
-
VFK
5
; ih¯ asm¯abhih
.

1
, may¯ a devi MJ
3
, ihasm¯abhis K
4
, mah¯ atm¯abhis K
2
P, ah¯ asm¯abhis K
6
,
ih¯ atm¯abhis C, ˚vam ¯ asm¯abhis B
1.17d tava pr¯ıty¯ a prak¯ a´sitam
om. U • tava ] codd. • pr¯ıty¯ a ] TSα
1
K
1
J
4
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; devi µ, ´sam
.
ty¯ a K
3
, proty¯ a
J
2
• prak¯ a´sitam ] µTSα
1
β
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6

2
W
2
B; prak¯ a´site α
3
, prak¯ a´syate J
3
, pr¯ ak¯ a´sitam
.
R
1.18a tasm¯ ac ch¯ astram
.
pralabhyeta
om. U • tasm¯ac ] J
6
SK
2
FK
5
; tasm¯a AJ
7
α
1
β
1
PJ
3

2
W
2
B, tasm¯at T, tada α
3
, tasm¯a dr
.
K
6
(unm.), tasm¯a R • ch¯ astram
.
] µSα
1
β
1
J
3
K
5
γ
2
W
2
B, ´s¯astram
.

3
, chastram
.
K
2
PR, c¯astram
.
F, ch¯ astra K
6
, ch¯ a´stram
.
C • pralabhyeta ] µα
3
FR; pralabhyaitan SNMJ
4
VK
4
K
5

2
W
2
B,
pral¯ıbhyate T, pralabhyaitat W
1
J
2
, pralabhate K
2
, pralabhyetan P, prayatnena J
3
, prala-
bhyeta

m
.

K
6
1.18b mayoktam idam adbhutam
om. U • mayoktam ] µTSα
1
J
4
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; yathoktam α
3
, mayoktam
.
m J
2

idam ] µTSαJ
4
VK
4
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; idam
.
m J
2
P • adbhutam ] codd.
1.18c gopan¯ıyam
.
mahe´s¯ ani
om. UNMα
3
• gopan¯ıyam
.
] µSW
1
J
4
K
4
K
2
PFK
6
Cγ; guhy¯ ad guhyam T, gopan¯ıyam
.
n J
2
,
suguhyatv¯ an VK
5
, goyaniyam
.
J
3
• mahe´s¯ani ] TSW
1
J
2
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; suguptatv¯ a A, sug-
uhyatv¯ an mahe´s¯ani J
6
K
4
(unm.), suguptatv¯ an mahe´s¯ani J
7
(unm.), mahe´s¯an¯ı J
4
J
3
, mah¯ a´s¯ani
V
1.18d na sarvatra prak¯ a´sitam
om. UNMα
3
• na sarvatra ] µ; samyak satyam
.
T, yatah
.
sarvam
.
SW
1
K
2
K
6

2
RB, samyak
sarvam
.
J
2
J
4
K
4
K
5
, samyak sarva V, yatah
.
sam
.
rva P, yatah
.
sarva J
3
W
2
, yatas sarvam
.
F •
prak¯ a´sitam ] µSW
1
β
1
J
3
FK
5
K
6
γ; prak¯ a´syate T, prak¯ asitam
.
K
2
PC
1.19a manmukh¯ amburuh¯ aj j¯ atam
.
om. U • man ] µTSαβ
1
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
C; tan K
6
γ • mukh¯ ambu ] F; mukh¯ am
.
vu µα
3
J
4
K
4
J
3
-
K
5
K
6
CJ
5
RB, mukh¯ ah
.
bh¯ u T, mukh¯ am
.
bu Sα
2
VJ
1
W
2
, mukh¯ am
.
bho M, mukh¯ am
.
cu J
2
, mukh¯ a-
mvu K
2
, mukh¯ am
.
vvu P • ruh¯ aj ] µSαJ
2
K
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6

2
W
2
B; rih¯ a T, ruh¯ a J
4
V, r¯ uh¯ a
R • j¯ atam
.
] µTSαJ
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; j∗¯atam
.
V, jyatam
.
J
3
1.19b yas tu ´s¯ astr¯ amr
.
tam
.
vadet
om. U • yas tu ] µSα
1
β
1
K
2
PFK
5
Cγ; yas T (unm.), tath¯ a α
3
, y¯ as tu J
3
, yas t¯ u K
6

´s¯astr¯ amr
.
tam
.
] µTSα
2
β
1
J
3
FK
5
K
6
CJ
5
W
2
B; ´s¯astr¯am idam
.
MK
1
, ´s¯astram idam
.
K
3
, ´s¯astram
r
.
tam
.
K
2
R, ´s¯astr¯am
.
mr
.
tam
.
P, ´s¯astram r
.
tam
.
J
1
• vadet ] µα
3
; ca tat T, dadet SNW
pc
1
K
5
γ,
dahet W
ac
1
, dadat MJ
2
K
4
K
2
PK
6
C, dad¯ at J
4
, datat V, mahat J
3
, dhadhat F
1.19c sa eva hi guruh
.
satyam
om. U • sa ] codd. • eva ] µSα
1
β
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; vai gu˚ T, caiva α
3
, evam
.
K
2
• hi ]
µSαβγ; ˚ru´s T • guruh
.
] J
6
SαVPJ
3
K
5
CJ
5
W
2
RB; guru AJ
7
J
2
J
4
K
4
J
1
, ca vai T, guro K
2
,
gurus F, ruh
.
K
6
(unm.) • satyam ] µSα
3
βγ; samyak T, satyam
.
α
1
1.19d arthato vetti yah
.
punah
.
om. U • arthato vetti ] µTSα
3
J
2
K
4
PJ
3
FK
6
Cγ; vedayad yah
.
pu˚ N, vedayed yah
.
pu˚ W
1
,
yo vetti ca pu˚ M, arthatau meti J
4
, arthat¯ a vetti V, hy arthato vetti K
2
, arthato citti K
5
yah
.
] µSα
3
β
1
K
2
PFK
6
K
5
γ
2
W
2
B; tam
.
T, ˚nah
.
α
1
, yat J
3
, ya C • punah
.
] µTSαβγ
2
W
2
B;
puna R
1.20a sa c¯ adhikatamah
.
khy¯ ato
om. UNM • sa ] µSF; na TW
1
α
3
J
2
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
K
5
K
6
Cγ, ta J
4
• c¯adhika ] ATSW
1
J
2
K
2
P-
K
5
Cγ; c¯adhikah
.
J
6
J
7
, v¯ adhika K
1
J
4
VK
4
J
3
, v¯ adhikas K
3
, hityadhi F, c¯ adhika K
6
• tamah
.
khy¯ ato ] S; sam¯ akhy¯ ato µ, s∗m¯akhy¯ ato T, tam¯akhy¯ ato W
1
K
3
PJ
3
K
6
CJ
5
RB,

ta

m¯akhy¯ ato
K
1
, tam¯akh¯ ato J
2
VK
4
, tamay¯akhy¯ ato J
4
, may¯ akhy¯ ato K
2
, kam¯akhy¯ ato F, tay¯ akhy¯ ato K
5
,
tam¯akhy¯ ato J
1
, ttam¯akhy¯ ato W
2
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
201
202 Appendix A
1.20b gurur n¯ asti tato ’dhikah
.
om. UNM • gurur ] SW
1
α
3
J
2
VK
4
PJ
3
FK
5
γ; na gu˚ µ, gurun T, gurura J
4
(unm.), guror
K
2
, guru K
6
, gur C (unm.) • n¯ asti ] TSW
1
α
3
βγ, ˚rus te˚µ • tato ] TSW
1
α
3
βγ; ˚na c¯a˚
µ • ’dhikah
.
] µTSW
1
α
3
βγ, kah
.
G (readings from G start here)
1.20c labdhv¯ a ´s¯ astram idam
.
guhyam
labdhv¯ a ] GUTSMVFK
5
; lavdh¯ a AJ
7
K
1
J
2
K
4
PC, la

dhv

¯a J
6
, labdha α
2
W
2
, luddh¯ a K
3
,
ladhv¯ a J
4
K
6
, lavdha K
2
J
1
, labdh¯ a J
3
B, ladhva J
5
, la∗ R • ´s¯astram ] µGUTSαβ
1
J
3
F-
K
5
K
6
γ; ´s¯a´stram
.
m K
2
, ´s¯a´stram PC • idam
.
] J
6
J
7
GUSαβγ; iham
.
A, idam T • guhyam ]
GSαJ
2
VK
4
J
3
FK
5
K
6
γ; guhyam
.
µ, mahyam U, mahyam
.
T, guhyam
.
m J
4
PC, guhyem K
2
1.20d anyes
.
¯ am
.
na prak¯ a´sayet
anyes
.
¯am
.
] µUTSαβ
1
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
CJ
1
RB; anyes
.
¯an G, anyes
.
¯a K
6
J
5
W
2
• na ] J
6
GUTSαVK
2
P-
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; ma AJ
7
, tat J
2
K
4
, nat J
4
• prak¯ a´sayet ] AJ
6
GUTSαJ
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ;
k¯ a´sayet J
7
(unm.), prak¯ a´sate V
1.21a suvic¯ arya pravaktavyam
om. GU • suvic¯arya ] µSMα
3
J
4
VK
4
PFK
5
K
6
; vic¯aryeva T, suvic¯ ary¯ a α
2
, sucic¯arya J
2
, su-
vic¯ aryya K
2
, suvic¯arah
.
J
3
, suvircc¯arya C, savic¯arya γ
2
W
2
, sarvav

a

rya R, samyag vic¯a˚
B • pravaktavyam ] µTSα
3
β
1
FK
5
; pravaktavya NM, pravaktavyam
.
W
1
, prakarttavyam
K
2
PK
6

2
, prakarttavyah
.
J
3
, prakartavyam W
2
R, ˚rya kartavyam B
1.21b etanm¯ argopaj¯ıvin¯ am
om. GU • etan ] SPFK
6
CJ
1
W
2
RB; eka µ, etad T, es
.
a α
1
β
1
K
5
, ekam
.
α
3
, etat K
2
, tena J
3
,
ettan J
5
• m¯argo ] µSαβ
1
K
2
PJ
3
K
5
K
6
CJ
1
R; ¯ atmo T, m¯a∗ F, m¯ arge J
5
W
2
B • paj¯ıvin¯ am ]
SNMβ
1
FK
5
K
6
C; paj¯ıvin¯ a µJ
3
, paj¯ıvinam
.
TK
1
, pi j¯ıvanam
.
W
1
γ
1
, pajivitam
.
K
3
, praj¯ıvan¯ am
.
K
2
, paj¯ıv¯ın¯ am
.
P, ca j¯ıvanam
.
B
1.21c ya idam
.
paramam
.
´s¯ astram
.
om. U • ya idam
.
] TSW
1

3
β
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
C; s
.
at
.
padam
.
µ, prak¯ a´si˚ G, ya imam
.
N, japa-
dam
.
K
2
, iyame γ
2
W
2
, ichami˚ R, idam e˚ B • paramam
.
] J
6
J
7
TSαJ
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
FK
5
K
6
C;
parasam
.
A, ˚tam
.
yadi G, praramam
.
V, parama P, ´sr
.
n
.
¯ um
.
y¯ a J
3
, ˚dam
.
param
.
J
1
R, ˚dam
.
para J
5
W
2
• ´s¯astram
.
] µTSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
γ; punar G, ch¯ astram
.
J
3
, ´s¯a´stram
.
C
1.21d yatra tatra prak¯ a´sayet
om. U • yatra ] TSαβγ, yath¯ a µ, m¯ ud
.
he˚ G • tatra ] S
pc
α
3
β
1
K
2
PJ
3
K
5
K
6
Cγ; tath¯ a
µ(unm.), ˚n¯ atm¯a˚G, kutra TS
ac
α
1
, yatra F • prak¯ a´sayet ] µTSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; ˚bhit¯ a-
tin¯ a G, prak¯ a´sayat K
2
1.22a sa ´s¯ıghram
.
bhaks
.
yate devi
om. U • sa ] µGTSα
1
K
1
β
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; ´sa K
3
, tam
.
K
2
• ´s¯ıghram
.
] µGTSαβ
1
PJ
3
F-
K
5
K
6
Cγ; ´s¯ıvram
.
K
2
• bhaks
.
yate ] µSNMJ
2
VK
4
FK
5
K
6
B; vadyate G, bhaks
.
ito T, labhyate
W
1
, bhaks
.
ayed α
3
γ
2
W
2
, bhyaks
.
yate J
4
, bhaks
.
ate K
2
PJ
3
, bhaks
.
yete C, takrayed R • devi ]
µGSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; dev¯ı TJ
3
1.22b yogin¯ıbhih
.
´siv¯ aj˜ nay¯ a
om. U • yogin¯ıbhih
.
] µSαJ
2
J
4
VK
2
PK
5
K
6
Cγ; yogin¯ıbhi´s G, yo´s¯ım
.
tobhih
.
T, yogin¯ı´sobhih
.
K
4
(unm.), yoganibhih
.
J
3
, yogin¯ıbhih
.
´s F • ´siv¯aj˜ nay¯ a ] µTSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; ´siv¯aj˜ n¯ ay¯ a G,
siv¯ aj˜ nay¯ a K
2
1.22c granthim
.
nodgranthayed asya
om. U • granthim
.
] em.; gram
.
thi µ, gram
.
tham
.
GSαJ
4
VK
4
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
CB, ´srajam
.
T, gra-
tham
.
J
2
K
2
, gram
.
tha γ
1
• nodgranthayed asya ] µ; samarpayet tasya G, sad¯ accayekr
.
sya
T, tu n¯ arpayed devi SPK
5
K
6
C, samarpayed asya NM, samarppayed asya W
1
, sam¯arpaye

d
y

asya K
1
, sam¯arpayed yasya K
3
, tu n¯ aryayad devi J
2
, tu n¯ arcayedevi J
4
, ju n¯ arppayed dev¯ı
V, tu n¯ arpayad devi K
4
, tu n¯ aryayed devi K
2
, tu n¯ aye devi J
3
(unm.), tu n¯ arcayed devi F,
tu c¯ arcayed devi γ
2
B, tu c¯ arcayad devi W
2
, tu c¯ aryayad devi R
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
202
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a Full Collation 203
1.22b vin¯ a kaulikatarpan
.
¯ at
om. U • vin¯ a ] µGSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; vinna T, n¯ asti˚ K
2
• kaulika ] µSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
6
Cγ;
ca guru G, kaus
.
aka T, ˚ke kaula K
2
, ´sam
.
kara K
5
• tarpan
.
¯at ] µGSJ
2
J
4
K
4
J
3
FJ
1
W
2
RB;
darpan
.
am T, tarpan
.
am
.
α, tarppan
.
¯at VK
2
C, tarppan¯ at P, p¯ ujan¯ at K
5
, tarpan¯ at K
6
, tarpa∗-
n
.
¯at J
5
1.23a p¯ ujitam
.
´subhavastrastham
.
om. U • p¯ ujitam
.
] µGSαJ
4
VK
4
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; p¯ ujite T, pujitam
.
J
2
P • ´subha ] J
6
Sα-
β
1
K
2
PFK
5
Cγ; subha AJ
7
J
3
, ´subhra G, tu bha˚ T, bha K
6
(unm.) • vastrastham
.
] µβ
1
F-
K
5
K
6
CB; vastren
.
a GSα
1
, ˚vet svastham
.
T, vastrastha α
3
, va´strastham
.
K
2
P, vach¯ astram
.
J
3
,
vastustham
.
J
1
W
2
R, v¯ astustham
.
J
5
1.23b divyadh¯ upasudh¯ upitam
om. U • divya ] µGSαβ
1
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
γ
2
W
2
B; divyair T, divyavya C, ditya R • dh¯ upa ]
µGαJ
4
VK
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; dh¯ upai´s TS, dhupais J
2
, dh¯ upais K
4
• sudh¯ upitam ] µGα
1
K
3
J
4
-
PJ
3
FK
5
γ; ca dh¯ upiteh
.
T, ca dh¯ upitam
.
S, sudh¯ upitam K
1
C, tu dh¯ upitam
.
J
2
K
4
, susdh¯ upitam
.
V, sudh¯ upit¯ am
.
K
2
, sud¯ıpitam
.
K
6
1.23c ´sr¯ avayed vijanasth¯ ane
om. U • ´sr¯avayed ] J
6
J
7
GTSW
1

3
β
1
J
3
FK
5
K
6

2
W
2
B; ´sr¯avan
.
ed A, ´sr¯avayet N, ´srava-
yed K
2
PR • vijana ] GTMα
3
βJ
1
W
2
RB; vijane µ, vijasam
.
˚ SW
1
, dvijasam
.
˚ N, dijana J
5
• sth¯ ane ] codd.
1.23d yogine yoga´s¯ aline
om. U • yogine ] µGTSα
2
α
3
β
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
; yogin¯ı M, yog¯ıno K
2
, om. C, yogino γ
1
, yogin¯ a
B • yoga´s¯aline ] µGTMα
3
J
3
K
5
γ; yoga´s¯ıline SNJ
2
K
4
PFC, yoga´s¯ılane W
1
J
4
VK
6
, yogas¯ılane
K
2
1.24a yasminn ap¯ ujitam
.
´s¯ astram
om. U • yasminn ] J
6
TSαβ
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
; yasmin AGJ
1
W
2
RB, yasmim
.
n J
7
PK
6
C, yasmi J
5

ap¯ ujitam
.
] µSαJ
4
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
C; nu p¯ ujitam
.
G, aprajitam
.
T, apujitam
.
J
2
, vai p¯ ujitam
.
γ
• ´s¯astram ] GSαFK
5
K
6
Cγ; ´s¯astram
.
µT, ´s¯astram
.
m β
1
, ´s¯a´stram K
2
, ´s¯a´stram
.
m P, gratham
.
m
J
3
1.24b idam
.
tis
.
t
.
hati vai gr
.
he
om. U • idam
.
] µGSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; yadi T, ida K
2
• tis
.
t
.
hati ] GSα
1
K
5
K
6
CB; tis
.
t
.
am
.
ti
µTJ
4
J
5
, tis
.
t
.
ati α
3
J
2
VK
2
PFJ
1
R, tis
.
t
.
a K
4
(unm.), tis
.
t
.
ham
.
ti J
3
W
2
• vai gr
.
he ] J
6
J
7

3
β
1
-
K
2
PFK
5
K
6

1
; vigrahe A, om. G, vai grahe T, caiva hi α
2
, sundari M, ve grahe J
3
, ya∗he
B
1.24c tatr¯ agniruggrah¯ ar¯ ati
om. GU • tatr¯ agni ] µTSα
2
α
3
J
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; tad¯ agni M, tatr¯ asi V • ruggra ]
SJ
3
K
5
; rudga AJ
6
, rudgr
.
J
7
, cora˚ T, rugra α
2
J
2
K
4
K
2
FCB, v¯arr¯ a M, rugna α
3
, rugr¯ a J
4
,
rugma V, ruggna P, stagra K
6
, rugn
.
a γ
2
W
2
, ∗gn
.
a R • h¯ ar¯ ati ] Sα
2
β
1
FK
5
W
2
B; h¯ ar¯ atri µα
3
,
˚j¯ a p¯ıd
.
¯a T, r¯ at¯ın
.
¯am
.
M, gr¯ ah¯ artti K
2
, h¯ ar¯ artti PK
6
C, h¯ ar¯ arti J
3
, h¯ ar¯ atti γ
2
R
1.24d p¯ıd
.
¯ a bhavati ni´scitam
om. GU • p¯ıd
.
¯a ] µSαJ
2
VK
4
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; bhava˚ T, p¯ıt
.
h¯ a J
4
, p¯ ad
.
¯a J
3
• bhavati ] µS-
αβγ; ˚ty eva hi T • ni´scitam ] µSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; ni´scayam
.
T, bh¯ı´scitam
.
K
2
1.25a yatredam
.
p¯ ujitam
.
grantham
.
om. GU • yatredam
.
] Sαβ
1
PFK
5
K
6
; yatremam
.
µ, yatr¯ ayam
.
TB, yan nedam
.
K
2
, yatreham
.
J
3
, tatredam
.
C, yatreyam
.
γ
1
• p¯ ujitam
.
] µSαJ
4
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
C; p¯ ujit¯ a´s T, pujitam
.
J
2
,
p¯ ujite γ • grantham
.
] µSα
3
J
2
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
; cah
.
T (unm.), gratham
.
NJ
4
, ´s¯astram
.
W
1
-
MC, gram
.
the γ
1.25b gr
.
he tis
.
t
.
hati p¯ arvati
om. U • gr
.
he ] J
6
J
7
TSαJ
2
J
4
K
4
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; grahe AVK
2
, om. G • tis
.
t
.
hati ] Sα
1
K
1
-
F
pc
K
5
CW
2
B; tis
.
t
.
ati µTK
3
J
2
VK
4
K
2
PF
ac
K
6
γ
2
R, om. G, tis
.
t
.
am
.
ti J
4
J
3
• p¯ arvati ] µGSα
1
J
2
-
J
4
K
4
PJ
3
F
pc
K
5
γ; p¯ avati T, p¯ arvat¯ı α
3
VF
ac
K
6
, p¯ arvat¯ım
.
K
2
, p¯ arvvati C
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
203
204 Appendix A
1.25c tatra sarv¯ arthad¯ ayinyo
om. U • tatra ] codd. • sarv¯ artha ] µGTSα
1
K
1
β
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; sav¯ artha K
3
, sarvv¯ artha
P • d¯ ayinyo ] J
6
TSαJ
2
VK
4
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; d¯ ayinyau AK
2
, d¯ avinyo J
7
, d¯ ayanyo G, d¯ ayiny¯ a J
4
,
d¯ ay¯ınyo J
3
1.25d vasanti kuladevat¯ ah
.
om. U • vasanti ] µGTSα
1
βγ; vasam
.
te α
3
• kula ] µGTSαβ
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; krula P •
devat¯ ah
.
] µGTSα
1
K
1
J
2
VK
4
K
2
PFK
6
CB; devat¯a K
3
J
4
J
3
γ
1
, devat¯ ah
.
K
5
1.26a tasm¯ at sarvaprayatnena
tasm¯at ] µGUSαβγ; tasmat T • sarvaprayatnena ] codd.
1.26b gopan¯ıyam
.
vij¯ anat¯ a
gopan¯ıyam
.
] µGUSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6

2
W
2
B; goniyam
.
T (unm.), gopaniyam
.
J
3
, gopan¯ ayam
.
R • vij¯ anat¯ a ] µUTSα
1
J
2
J
4
VK
2
PFK
5
Cγ; prayatnatah
.
G, vij¯ anatah
.
α
3
, vij¯ anat¯ ah
.
K
4
K
6
,
vij¯ anit¯ a J
3
1.26c yas tu yog¯ı may¯ a prokt¯ a
om. U • yas tu ] Gα
1
, yo smin µ, ya´s ca T, yasmin Sβγ, tasmin α
3
• yog¯ı ] J
6
J
7
GTαJ
4
-
VK
4
K
2
FK
5
K
6
C; yogi A, yoge Sγ, yogo J
2
, yog∗ P, yog¯a J
3
• may¯a prokt¯ a ] α
2
; mayokt¯ ani
µGTSα
3
J
2
J
4
K
4
PJ
3
FK
5
Cγ, im¯am
.
prokt¯ am
.
M, mayokt¯ ati V, may¯ a prokt¯ an K
2
, mayo bha-
kt¯ a K
6
1.26d im¯ ah
.
siddh¯ıh
.
sam¯ıhate
om. U • im¯ah
.
siddh¯ıh
.
sam¯ıhate ] W
1
; sam
.
siddh¯ıni sam¯ıhate µ, sam
.
siddh¯ ani sam¯ıhate G,
sam
.
siddhir na sam¯ıhate Tα
3
, siddhav¯ aky¯ ani sam
.
vadet SK
4
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
CJ
1
W
2
B, im¯ah
.
siddhi
sam¯ıhate N, may¯ a siddhim
.
sam¯ıhate M, siddhiv¯ aky¯ ani sam
.
vadet J
2
, ´siddhav¯ aky¯ ani sam
.
-
vadet J
4
, siddhav¯ aky¯ ani satvadet V, siddhav¯ ac¯ani sam
.
dadet K
2
, siddhav¯ akyani sam
.
vadet J
5
,
siddhav¯ aky¯ a sam
.
vadeta R
1.27a sa yog¯ı sarvabh¯ avena
om. U • sa yog¯ı sarvabh¯ avena ] codd.
1.27b gopayet pustakam
.
tv idam
om. U • gopayet ] GTSαβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; gopaye µ, gopan¯ı˚J
3
• pustakam
.
] µTSα
1
K
1
-
J
2
J
4
VK
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; pustakan G, puktakam
.
K
3
, pustakam
.
m K
4
, ˚yam
.
vij¯ a˚J
3
• tv idam
.
]
µGTSαJ
4
VK
2
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; idam
.
J
2
, im
.
dam
.
K
4
(unm.), ˚nat¯ a J
3
1.27c aham
.
tasya gurur devi
om. U • aham
.
] µGTSα
1
β
1
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
Cγ; hy aham
.
α
3
, ahan K
6
• tasya ] GTSαβγ; tas
tu µ • gurur ] GSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; gurum
.
µ, guru T, guror K
2
• devi ] µGSNMJ
2
J
4
-
K
4
J
3
FK
5
K
6
γ; dev¯ı Tα
3
V, ddevi W
1
K
2
PC
1.27d yatr¯ aste pustakam
.
svayam
om. U • yatr¯ aste ] J
6
J
7
GTSαβ
1
J
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; ya´s¯aste A, yatraste K
2
P • pustakam
.
] µ-
GTSαFK
5
γ; pustakah
.
β
1
K
2
PK
6
, pustaka J
3
C • svayam ] µTSα
2
α
3
β
1
K
2
PJ
3
FK
6

1
; tv
idam
.
GMK
5
B
1.28a gun
.
¯ agun
.
am
.
mahe´s¯ ani
om. U • gun
.
¯agun
.
am
.
] J
6
Sαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
C; gun
.
¯a´sun
.
am
.
AJ
7
, gun
.
¯agun
.
¯a G, gun
.
¯agun
.
au T,
gun
.
¯agun
.
a K
2
K
6
γ • mahe´s¯ani ] codd.
1.28b pustakasya ca raks
.
an
.
¯ at
om. U • pustakasya ] µGTSαβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6

2
W
2
B; pustakam
.
ye K
2
, pustakasyai˚ R
• ca ] µGTSα
1
βγ
2
W
2
B; tu α
3
, ˚va R • raks
.
an
.
¯at ] GSβ
1
K
2
PJ
3
K
5
K
6
Cγ; raks
.
an
.
e µTα,
raks
.
an
.
¯ıt F
1.28c prakat
.
am
.
ca may¯ a proktam
om. U • prakat
.
am
.
] µα
1
β
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
C; prakat
.
¯am
.
G, prakat
.
e T, prakat
.
a˚S, tat prakat
.
am
.
α
3
(unm.), prakam
.
t
.
am
.
P, pragat
.
am
.
γ • ca ] µGTαβγ, ˚tvam S • may¯a ] µGTαβγ
2
W
2
-
B, iti S, maya R • proktam ] SNMK
1
β
1
K
5
K
6
B; proktam
.
µTK
2
PJ
3

1
, prokt¯ am GW
1
F,
´sektam K
3
µ=AJ6J7
α=NW1MK1K3; α1
=NW1M; α2
=NW1
β=J2J4VK4K2PJ3FK5K6C; β1
=J2J4VK4
γ=J1J5W2RB; γ1
=J1J5W2R; γ2
=J1J5
204
Khecar¯ıvidy¯ a Full Collation 205
1.28d id¯ an¯ım
.
khecar¯ım
.
´sr
.
n
.
u
om. U • id¯ an¯ım
.
] AJ
6
GTSαβγ; id¯ an¯ı J
7
• khecar¯ım
.
] µGTSαJ
2
J
4
VK
2
PFK
5
K
6
CRB; khe-
car¯ı K
4
J
3
γ
2
W
2
• ´sr
.
n
.
u ] µTSαJ
2
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
W
2
RB; ´srun
.
u G, ´sr
.
n
.
um
.
J
4
, ∗∗ C, ´sr
.
n
.
uh
.
J
1
, ´sr
.
n
.
¯ u J
5
1.29a yatr¯ aste ca gurur devi
yatr¯ aste ] µGUTSαJ
4
VK
4
K
2
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; yam
.
tr¯ aste J
2
, yatr¯ am
.
stam
.
P, yaste J
3
(unm.) • ca ]
µGUTMF; sa S
pc
β
1
K
2
PK
5
Cγ, sad S
ac
J
3
, tva N, tvad W
1
, c¯a α
3
, san K
6
• gurur ] GUS-
αβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; guru ATM
ac
, gurum
.
J
6
J
7
, guror K
2
• devi ] µGSMK
2
J
3
FK
5
J
5
W
2
RB;
brahman U, dev¯ı TNJ
4
VK
4
, ddevi W
1
PK
6
CJ
1
, dev¯ım
.
α
3
, ddev¯ı J
2
1.29b divyayogapras¯ adhakah
.
divyayoga ] µGUTSα
1
βJ
5
W
2
B; divyayogah
.
α
3
, yatr¯ aste pu˚ J
1
R • pras¯ adhakah
.
] µTα
1
-
β
1
K
2
PFK
5
CJ
5
W
2
B; prabh¯ avatah
.
G, prad¯ ayakah
.
U, ˚sya s¯adhakah
.
S, pras¯ adhaka α
3
, pra-
s¯adakah
.
J
3
, pra´s¯addhakah
.
K
6
, ˚stakam
.
svayam
.
J
1
R
1.29c tatra gatv¯ a ca tenokt¯ am
.
tatra ] J
6
J
7
GUTSαβγ; tatr¯ a A • gatv¯ a ] codd. • ca ] µGUSαβγ; tu T • tenokt¯ am
.
]
µGTVK
4
K
2
PK
5
K
6
CJ
5
W
2
B; tenokta U, tenoktam
.
U
vl
SαJ
4
J
3
FJ
1
R, tenokt¯ a J
2
1.29d vidy¯ am
.
sam
.
gr
.
hya khecar¯ım
vidy¯ am
.
] µUTSJ
4
VK
4
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
CB; divy¯ am
.
G, sam
.
pra˚α, vidyam
.
J
2
P, vidy¯ a γ
1
• sam
.
-
gr
.
hya ] µGUTSβγ, ˚dh¯ arya pra˚ N, ˚dh¯ aryya pra˚ W
1
, ˚dh¯ aryam
.
pra˚ M, ˚d¯ aya tra˚ α
3
• khecar¯ım ] µGUTSβ
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
CB; ˚yatnatah
.
α, khecar¯ı Pγ
1
1.30a tenoktam
.
samyag abhy¯ asam
.
tenoktam
.
] GSβ
1
K
2
PFK
5
K
6
CJ
1
R; tenokte µ, tenoktah
.
U, tenokta T, samyag a˚α, teno

kl

-
am
.
J
3
, tenokt¯ am
.
J
5
, tenokt¯ am W
2
B • samyag ] µGUTSJ
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; ˚bhy¯ asam
.
MK
3
, ˚bhy¯ asa˚α
2
K
1
, sam
.
myag V • abhy¯ asam
.
] µGUTSβ
1
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
Cγ; yatnena α, ¯ abh-
y¯ asam
.
K
2
1.30b kury¯ ad ¯ ad¯ av atandritah
.
kury¯ ad ] codd. • ¯ad¯ av ] GUTSα
1
β
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
C; ¯ah¯ av µ, vett¯a α
3
, ¯ ad¯ ac P, ¯ adau γ • atan-
dritah
.
] GUSα
1
K
1
β
1
K
2
J
3
FK
5
K
6
C; atlam
.
dritah
.
A, alam
.
dritah
.
J
6
J
7
, atadritah
.
TP, atam
.
driya
K
3
, ca tam
.
tatah
.
γ
1.30c vidy¯ am
.
ca khecar¯ım
.
devi
om. U • vidy¯ am
.
] J
6
J
7
Sαβγ
2
RBO; vidy¯ a AW
2
, vidy¯ an T, t¯ am
.
vi˚G • ca ] µSα
2
α
3
J
2
V-
K
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
CγO; ˚dy¯ am
.
G, na T, tu M, om. J
4
• khecar¯ım
.
] µGSαVK
4
K
2
FK
5
K
6
CB;
khecar¯ın T, khecam
.
r¯ı J
2
, khecari J
4
, khecar¯ı PJ
3
γ
1
O • devi ] µSNMα
3
J
4
K
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
-
Cγ; dev¯ım
.
GW
1
, dev¯ı TJ
2
VO
1.30d pravaks
.
ye yogasiddhid¯ am
om. U • pravaks
.
ye ] J
6
J
7
GTSαβ
1
PFK
5
K
6
Cγ; pravaks
.
e AJ
3
, pravaks
.
o K
2
, prapade O
• yogasiddhid¯ am ] µGTSJ
2
J
4
K
4
K
2
PJ
3
K
5
K
6
CO; gan
.
asiddhid¯ a N, gan
.
asiddhid¯ am
.
W
1
, sar-
vasiddhid¯ am M, gan
.
asiddhid¯ am α
3
, yogasiddhid¯ a V, yogasiddid¯ am
.
F, yogasiddhit¯ am
.
γ
2
W
2
,
yogasiddhid

a

m
.
R, yogasiddhij¯ am
.
B
1.31a na tay¯ a rahito yog¯ı
na tay¯ a ] µα
3
J
2
VK
4
K
2
PJ
3
FK
5
K
6
CO;

¯adau hi

G, anay¯ a UT, naitay¯ a Sα
1
, ni tay¯ a J
4
, na
kheca˚γ • rahito ] µSα
2
α
3
βO;

ka´si

to G, vidyay¯ a U, sahito T, khecar¯ı M, ˚ry¯ a hito γ
2
W
2
-
B, ˚ry¯ a vin¯ a R • yog¯ı ] µGUTSα
2
α
3
J
2
VK
4
K
2
PFK
5

2
W
2
BO; devi MJ
3
R, yog¯ı J
4
, yogi
K
6
, devi yog¯ı J
1
(unm.)
1.31b khecar¯ısiddhibh¯ ag bhavet
khecar¯ı ] J
6
J
7
GUTSα
2
α
3
β
1
K