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AIM: To demonstrate the use of venturimeter as flow meters and to determine the coefficient of discharge APPARATUS: 1. Measuring tank to measure the flow rate 2. 3 pipe lines of different diameters with a venturimeter 3. Tappings with ball valves are provided at inlet and throat of venturimeter and these are connected to manometer 4. A constant steady supply of water with a means of varying the flow rate using mono block pump 5. Separate valves are provided for three pipe lines to conduct experiments separately 6. Stop watch THEORY: venturimeter is a device which is used for measuring the rate of flow of fluid through pipe line .The basic principle on which a venturimeter works is Bernoullis principle, It consists of a short convergent cone, a throat and a long divergent cone. The inlet section of the venturimeter is of the same diameter as that of the pipe which is followed by a convergent cone .The convergent cone is a short pipe which tapper from the original size of the pipe to that of the throat is a short tube having its cross sectional area smaller than that of the pipe .The divergent cone of the venturimeter is gradually diverging pipe with its cross sectional area increasing from that of the throat to the original size of the pipe, Total length of venturimeter is nearly 10 times the diameter of the inlet pipe. The long divergence is given to minimize the loss of energy due to expansion. The pressure difference between the inlet and throat is measured using an U- tube manometer, from this the discharge is calculated. PROCEDURE: 1. Fill in the sump tank with clean water 2. keep the delivery valve closed 3. Connect the power cable to ph , 220v, 10A with earth connection 4. Switch on the pump and open the delivery valve

FM & HM Lab

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5. Open the corresponding ball valve of the venturimeter 6. Adjust the flow through the control valve of the pump 7. Open the corresponding ball valve fitted to venturimeter tappings 8. Note down the differential head reading in the manometer 9. Operate the butterfly valve to note down the collecting tank reading and keep it open when the reading are not taken 10. change the flow rate and repeat the experiment 11. Repeat the experiment for different pipes TABLE OF READINGS: Dia of pipe Differential head h1 h2 Rise in water level ‘R’ Time taken in sec

TABLE OF CALCULATION: Dia of pipe Loss of head H = 12.6h metres Actual discharge ‘Qa’ in m3 /sec Theoretical Coefficient discharge of Qt in discharge m3/sec ‘Cd’ Average Cd

FM & HM Lab

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SAMPLE CALCULATION: Basic data/Constant: Area of Collecting tank ‘A’ Rise of water level ‘R’ Time taken for rise water level Area of the inlet pipe a1 Area of the throat a2 Theoritical discharge : Qth = a1 a2 X√(2gH) ∕ √( a1²- a2²) m³/s k= a1 a2 X√(2g) ∕ √( a1²- a2²) m³/s Qth = k√H Where H = 12.6 (h1-h2) 1000 h1 and h2 are manometer reading in mm 12.6 and 1000 are convertion factors a1=area of inlet pipe =π/4*d1² a2=area of throat =π/4*d2² g = acceleration due to gravity 9.81m/sec Actual Discharge : Qa = A X R m³/s 100Xt Where A =Area of collecting tank R = rise of h 10cm T = time for R cm rise in sec Co-efficient of discharge : Cd = Qa/Qth Precautions: 1) While testing for one pipe line, the valve of the other line should be closed 2) Open the delivery valve when monoblock pump is on, to avoid spillage of mercury. 3) If there is any chance or indication for mercury spillage, then immediately switch off the motor. 4) Mercury is poisonous don’t come in contact with it. = = = = = 0.16m2 100mm sec m2 m2

FM & HM Lab

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Graphs: Qa vs √H RESULT : The average “Cd” for venturimeter is __________ CONCLUSION: The flow rate has been determined using venturimeter practically and theoretically.

FM & HM Lab

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CALIBRATION OF ORIFICEMETER

AIM : To demonstrate the use of orifice meter as flow meters and to determine the co-efficient of discharge APPARATUS: 1. Measuring tank to measure the flow rate 2. 3 pipe lines of different diameters with a orificemeter 3. Tappings with ball valves are provided at inlet and outlet of orifice meter and these are connected to manometer 4. A constant steady supply of water with a means of varying the flow rate using mono block pump 5. Separate valves are provided for three pipe lines to conduct experiments separately 6. Stop watch THEORY: An orifice meter is simple device used for measuring the discharge through pipes. orifice meter also works on the same principle as that of the venturimeter i.e. by Bernoullis principle. It consists of a circular plate with an orifice opening at the center, inserted in a pipe line. The flow converges, passes through the opening and expands and occupies the full size of the pipe. The pattern of flow is similar to that of venturimeter, but the losses are more because of sudden obstruction of flow. Hence the cd will be far less than the venturimeter. The pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of orificemeter is measured using an U- tube manometer, from this the discharge is calculated. PROCEDURE: 1. Fill in the sump tank with clean water 2. keep the delivery valve closed 3. Connect the power cable to ph , 220v, 10A with earth connection 4. Switch on the pump and open the delivery valve 5. Open the corresponding ball valve of the orifice meter pipe line 6. Adjust the flow through the control valve of the pump 7. Open the corresponding ball valve fitted to orifice meter tappings 8. Note down the differential head reading in the manometer

FM & HM Lab

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6h metres Actual discharge ‘Qa’ in m3 /sec Theoretical Coefficient discharge of Qt in discharge m3/sec ‘Cd’ Average Cd FM & HM Lab 6 . Operate the butterfly valve to note down the collecting tank reading and keep it open when the reading are not taken 10. change the flow rate and repeat the experiment 11.9. Repeat the experiment for different pipes TABLE OF READINGS: Dia of pipe Differential head h1 h2 Rise in water level ‘R’ Time taken in sec TABLE OF CALCULATION: Dia of pipe Loss of head H = 12.

6 (h1-h2) 1000 h1 and h2 are manometer reading in mm 12.SAMPLE CALCULATION: Basic data/Constant: Collecting tank ‘A’ Rise of water level ‘R’ Time taken for rise water level Area of the inlet pipe a1 Area of the orifice a2 Theoritical discharge : Qth = {a1Xa2*√(2gH)} ∕ √( a1².16m2 100mm sec m2 m2 Co-efficient of discharge : Cd = Qa/Qth Precautions: 5) While testing for one pipe line.a2²) m³/s k= a1 a2 X√(2g) ∕ √( a1².81m/sec Qa = AXR m³/s 100Xt Where A = area of collecting tank R = t= rise of h 10cm time for R cm rise in sec = = = = = 0.6 and 1000 are convertion factors a1=area of inlet pipe =π/4*d1² a2=area of orifice =π/4*d2² g = acceleration due to gravity 9. FM & HM Lab 7 . the valve of the other line should be closed 6) Open the delivery valve when monoblock pump is on. 7) If there is any chance or indication for mercury spillage. to avoid spillage of mercury. then immediately switch off the motor.a2²) m³/s Qth = k√H Where H = 12. 8) Mercury is poisonous don’t come in contact with it.

Graphs: Qa vs √H RESULT : The average “Cd” for orifice is __________ CONCLUSION: The flow rate has been determined using orifice meter practically and theoretically. FM & HM Lab 8 .

Stop watch 3. Pressure Gauge 2. APPARATUS: 1.81 m/s2 a = area of jet in m2 ρ = density of water=1000 kg/m3 v = velocity of jet in m/sec θ = angle the deflected jet makes with the axis of the striking jet in degrees = 60o Ft=the theoretical force acting parallel to the direction of jet Fa=actual force developed as indicated by the analog force indicator FM & HM Lab 9 .IMPACT OF JET ON VANES _____________________________________________________________ AIM: To determine the coefficient of impact of jet –vane combination by comparing the actual force with the theoretical force for stationary vanes of different shapes i.e hemispherical. flat plate and inclined plate. 2 ρav 2 Hemi spherical-----Ft= g Flat plate ----.Ft= ρ 2 av g ρav 2 Inclined plate -----. Measuring tank THEORY: When the jet of water is directed to hit the vanes of any particular shape the force is exerted on it by the fluid in the opposite direction the amount of force exerted depends on the diameter of jet shape of vane fluid density flow rate of water more importantly it also depends on whether the vane is moving or stationary in our present care we are concerned about the force exerted on the stationary vanes the following are the theoretical formulae for different shapes of vanes based on flow rate.Ft= g sin2θ (θ = 600) Where g = 9. Force through digital indicator 4.

The provision is made to change the size of nozzle/jet and the vane of different shapes. 2) Keep the delivery valve closed and switch on the pump. 3) Close the front transparent cover tightly. The jet is made to strike the vane. The water is issued out of nozzle as jet. The flow control value is provided for controlling water into the nozzle. 6) Note down the diameter of jet. 5) Observe the force as indicated on force indicator.Description: It is a closed circuit water re-circulation system consisting of sump tank. flow rate and force and tabulate the results. mono block pump set. 7) Switch off the pump after the experiment is over and close the delivery valve. The rotometer is a direct indicating flow rate instrument. jet/vane chamber. shape of vane. Table of Readings: Dia of Jet Vane type Discharge(Q) (LPM) Pressure “P”in kg/cm3 Force indicator reading (Fa) inkgf FM & HM Lab 10 . rotometer for the flow rate measurement direct reading analog force indicator. The water drawn from the sump tank by mono block centrifugal pump and deliver it vertically to the nozzle through rotometer. which gives the discharge in LPM (Litres/minute) which is determined by the top position of the float. PROCEDURE: 1) Fix the required diameter of jet and the vane of required shape in the position and the force indicator to zero. The force is read in kgf or N. the force of which is transferred directly to the force indicator. 4) Open the delivery value and adjust the rate of water as read on the rotameter.

16m2 R = Rise of water in mm = 100mm T = time taken for rise of water in sec.Table of Calculations: Diameter of jet in mm Vane type Discharge “Q” in m3/s Actual force Fa in kgf Theoretical Force Ft in kgf coefficient ( Fa/Ft) SAMPLE CALCULATIONS: Basic data /Constants: A = Area of Collecting Tank = 0. Q = Discharge in m3/sec d = jet diameter = 5mm Straight vane: a= Velocity v= Ft = Inclined vane: a= π 4 d 2 =___________ Q =_____________ A ρ 2 av g =____________ d 2 =___________ 4 Q v= =_____________ A π FM & HM Lab 11 .

ρav 2 Ft = g 2 sin θ =_____________ Hemi spherical vane: A= V= π 4 d 2 =___________ Q =_____________ A 2 ρav 2 Ft = g RESULT: Fa The coefficient for straight vane. FM & HM Lab 12 . 5mm diameter is:______________ F t Fa The coefficient for inclined vane. 5mm diameter is:______________ F t Fa The coefficient F t for hemispherical vane. 5mm diameter is:______________ CONCLUSION: Thus the force exerted by the jet on different type of vanes is verified practically and theoretically.

3) Connect the power cable to 1ph. Resulting in loss of head or energy of liquids. one at either end of the pipe line fitted with a ball valve. PROCEDURE: 1) Fill in the sump tank with clean water.FRICTION IN PIPES AIM: To determine Darcy friction co-efficient and to investigate the relationship between the hydraulic gradient “(h/l)” and velocity “v” for different diameters of pipe. pipes are assumed to be running full and of circular cross-section. APPARATUS: 1) Pipe line of three different diameters of G. FM & HM Lab 13 . Liquids flowing through pipes are encountered with resistance. THEORY: A closed circuit of any cross-section used for flow of liquid is known as a pipe in hydraulics generally. 10 amps with earth connection. 2) Keep the delivery valve closed.The resistance is of two types depending upon the velocity of flow. 220v. 4) Switch on the pump & open the delivery valve. 6) Adjust the flow through the control valve of the pump 7) Open the corresponding ball valves 8) Note down the differential head reading in the manometer.I 2) U-tube manometer with a stabilizing valve to measure the pressure difference across the tappings. 1) Viscous resistance and 2) Frictional resistance. 3) A constant steady supply of water with a means of varying the flow rate using centrifugal pump. 5) open the corresponding ball valve of the pipeline. 4) Measuring tank to measure the flow rate. due to different diameters. 5)Each pipe line is provided with a separate control valve toexperiment separately.

V= Q= Q m/sec A h1-h2 = AR m3/sec 100 xt Where ‘R’ is the rise of water in cm &‘t’ is the time in sec. TABLE OF READINGS: Discharge of water collected Pipe dia Rise in water Level in ‘R’in mm Time taken ‘t’ in secs Differential ‘d’in mm of Hg FM & HM Lab 14 . 10) Change the flow rate & repeat the experiment for different diameter of pipes.6(h1-h2) = the length of the pipe = friction factor of the co-efficient differential head in mm of Hg Therefore. FORMULAE: For straight pipes: Darcy’s formula for finding the loss of head in a pipe is 4 flv 2 H= 2 gd Where h l f = loss of head due to friction = 12.9) Operate the butterfly valve to note down the collecting tank reading against the known time and keep it open when the readings are not taken.

81m/sec2 = = = Diameter of pipe “d”= 25.(say 10cm) t = time for R cm rise of water in sec 2) Velocity: V = Q/a m/s Where Area of the pipe (a) = (π/4)Xd2 Diameter of the pipe (D) = 3) Darcy’s friction factor: FM & HM Lab 15 . 19.4mm.TABLE OF CALCULATIONS: SAMPLE CALCULATI ONS: Basic data/ Constants: Area of measuring tank “A” = Length of pipe “l” Density of water “ Acceleration due to gravity 1)Discharge Q= AR 100 xt 0.7mm m3/sec Where. 12.5 meters 1000kg/m3 9.16 m2 1.07mm. A = Area of the collecting tank R = Rise of water .

4) Mercury is poisonous don’t come in contact with it. RESULT: CONCLUSION: FM & HM Lab 16 .f= 2 gdH lv 2 where. the valve of the other line should be closed 2) Open the delivery valve when monoblock pump is on. then immediately switch off the motor. 3) If there is any chance or indication for mercury spillage. to avoid spillage of mercury. g = acceleration due to gravity d = diameter of pipe considered in mm H = total head L =length of pipe=1.5m V = velocity/sec Precautions: 1) While testing for one pipe line.

8) Close the drain valve in the collecting tank. It is customary to refer the losses of all fittings in a pipe by specifying constant F the friction factor. there are other sources of loss of head due to sudden enlargement. globe valve. Determination of friction factor helps in the selection of transition / fittings in a pipe line carrying liquids. contraction. ball valve. bend.DETERMINATION OF MINOR LOSSES AIM: To determine the friction factor for sudden enlargement. 4) Connect the upstream and down stream tubes of the manometer to the pressure tappings of the fitting which is to be tested. 7) Open the delivery valve slightly. gate valve. APPARATUS: 1) Experimental set up 2) Stop watch. globe valve. 2) Fill up the manometer with mercury up to half level. 11) Repeat the steps 7 to 10 and take a set of readings for each transition/fitting. THEORY: Apart from the head loss in a pipe due to friction. contraction. gate valve. PROCEDURE: 1) Fill up the sump tank with sufficient quantity of water. 3) Measure the dimensions of the collecting tank. FM & HM Lab 17 . 10) Note the left and right limb readings of the manometer. elbow. 9) Note the time taken for 10cm rise of water level in the collecting tank. 6) Start the pump. ball valve. elbow. 5) Close the valve of the other pipe lines. bend.

12) After the experiment is over. TABLE OF READINGS: Discharge of water collected Pipe dia Rise in water Level in ‘R’in mm Time taken ‘t’ in secs Differential ‘d’in mm of Hg TABLE OF CALCULATIONS: SAMPLE CALCULATIONS: Basic data/Constant: Area of Collecting tank ‘A’ FM & HM Lab = 0.16 m2 18 . open the drain valve of the collecting tank and remove the drain plug of the sump tank and empty the tanks completely.

Rise of water level ‘R’ Time taken for rise water level Actual discharge (Qa ) Where = = = 100 mm sec A X R m³/s 1000Xt A =Area of collecting tank R = rise of h 100mm Head lost due to friction (Hf) = 12. 3) If there is any chance or indication for mercury spillage.Sudden enlargement: F= [v1 − v 2 ] 2 g . the pressure tappings of other fittings should be closed. v2 = Where a1 and a2 are the area of the pipe before enlargement and after enlargement. 2. RESULT: FM & HM Lab 19 . Gate valve. 2) While testing for one fitting . the pressure tappings and control valve of the other pipe lines should be closed.Hf 2 Where v1 and v2 are the velocity of flow of the pipe before enlargement and after enlargement. Sudden contraction: F= 2 g . Ball valve: F= v= 2 g .H f [v1 ] 2 Where v1 is the velocity of flow of the pipe after contraction.6 (h1-h2) 1000 Where h1 and h2 are manometer reading in mm 12. Bend. PRECAUTIONS: 1) While Testing for one pipe line.H f [v ] 2 Q a Where v is the velocity of flow of the pipe of fitting a is area of fitting. v1 = Q a1 Q a1 . 3.6 and 1000 are convertion factors 1. Elbow. then immediately switch off the motor. Globe valve.

and hence not suitable for very high heads.50Hz with neutal & earth connections Motor Pressure gauges Vaccum gauges Speed Indicator Measuring Tank : AC Motor. A Centrifugal pump. uses the centrifugal force to raise the pressure of the fluids.25m2 Centrifugal pump : 1 Hp. 1. But their hydraulic heads per stage at low flow rates is limited. in action. 1500 RPM : 2 kg/cm2 : 0-760mm of HG : 0-9999 RM (Digital Tyupe) : 0. more suitable for handling viscous. 3000 RPM(Max). SPECIFICATIONS: Electrical Supply : 230V.kirloskar make Energy Meter constant : 1500Rev/kwh FM & HM Lab 20 . It increases the pressure energy of liquids in a closed system using principle of conversion of mechanical energy into pressure energy.1phase. 15A.5 HP.Friction factor for the given fitting F = CONCLUSION: PERFORMANCE TEST ON SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AIM: To conduct a test on a single stage centrifugal pump at various speeds and to draw performance characteristics of the pump APPARATUS: 1) Centrifugal pump Experimental setup 2) Stop watch THEORY: A pump is a device used for lifting water/liquid from lower level to higher level.e.AC. the liquid is made to rotate in a closed chamber (volute casing) creating the centrifugal action which gradually builds the pressure gradient towards outlet thus resulting in the continuous flow. turbid(muddy) liquids. i. These pumps compared to Reciprocating pump are simple in construction .

PROCEDURE: 1) Fill the sump tank with clean water. 12) Change the belt to different speed positions and repeat the experiment. TABLE OF READINGS: Delivery Vaccum Energy meter Reading Pressure pressure(Pv) ‘P’ in mm of Hg No. 11) Repeat the experiment for different openings of the delivery valve and suction valve. 6) Now. 3) Connect the power cable to 1 ph. of Time kg/cm2 revolutions Taken in sec Discharge Rise of Water Time level ‘h’ ‘t’ in in mm sec Speed of pump FM & HM Lab 21 . and time for number of revolutions of energy meter disc. 8) Operate the butterfly valve to note down the collecting tank reading against the known time and keep it open when the readings are not taken. 5) Switch-On the mains. you will find the water starts flowing to the measuring tank. 14) After the experiment is over . 230V. 9) Note down the pressure gauges. vaccum gauges. keep all delivery and suction valves open. 15A with earth connection. 7) Close the delivery valve slightly so that the delivery pressure is readable. 2) Keep the delivery valve closed and suction valve open after initially priming the pump. Now switch on the starter. 10) Note down the other readings as indicated in the tabular column. 13) Tabulate the reading as shown. 4) Confirm the belt is put to the lowest speed position. so that the mains ON indicator glows.

25m2 Efficiency of motor and transmission = 75% ( assumed) 2) Electrical power as indicated by energy meter : HPelec= 5 1000 60 x60 16 .TABLE OF CALCULATIONS: Speed in rpm HPElec Total Discharge head ‘Q in ‘H’ in mts m3/sec HPhyd % % Pump SAMPLE CALCULATIONS: 1) Basic Data/constants: 1 HP 1kg/cm2 = 736 Watts = 760 mm of Hg (10m of water) Density of water w = 1000 kg/m3 Energy meter constant = 1500 rev/ Kwh Area of collecting tank = 0.3 x x = 1500 736 t t Where t = Time taken for 5 rev of energy meter disc in sec 3) Total head: FM & HM Lab 22 .

25 3 x x = m /sec 1000 t 1000 t PV ] 760 Where A=Area of collecting tank= 0. FM & HM Lab 23 . a) Speed Vs Discharge b) Speed Vs Output c) Speed Vs Efficiency RESULT: PRECAUTIONS: 1) Do not start the pump if the voltage is less than 180v 2) There is a no danger of water being not there in the sump tank.H = 10 [ Delivery head + Suction head] = 10[P + 4) Discharge.25 m2 h = height of water collected in mm t = Time taken in sec for collecting tank 5) Hydraulic Horse power(Delivered by the pump): HPhyd = 6) Overall efficiency: %η = HPhyd HPElec x100 W QH 75 GRAPH: Draw the following graphs. Q= A h h 0. CONCLUSION: The Performance curves are drawn. since the measuring tank is fitted with overflow pipe.

The pressure rise is due to the reciprocating action of the piston. The piston is connected to a crank by means of connecting rod . As the crank is rotated at uniform speed by prime mover. 2) Stop-Watch. Qt = Swept volume of cylinder /second.e. APPARATUS: Reciprocating pump experiment setup. The cylinder is connected to suction and delivery pipes and are fitted with non return valves to admit the liquid in one direction only. To conduct a test on a Reciprocating pump at various speeds and to draw performance characteristics of the pump and also to determine percentage slip. Coefficient of Discharge: It is the ratio of actual discharge (Qa) to theoretical discharge(Qt). Cd = Qa/Qt Actual discharge (Qa) = Area of the collecting tank x rise of height of water in mm Time taken Qa = A x R/t Theoretical discharge is calculated as the volume of liquid that can be drawn inside the cylinder. the plunger moves to and fro thus creating continuous flow of liquid The following characteristics becomes significant in determining the performance of the pump. The pump consists of plunger which moves to and fro in a closed cylinder.PERFORMANCE TEST ON RECIPROCATING PUMP AIM. i. Qt = n a L N 60 Where n = number of strokes of the pump / revolution n = 1 for single acting pump n =2 for double acting pump a = area of cross section of the cylinder = Π d2 FM & HM Lab m2 24 . THEORY: A reciprocating pump is a device used for lifting liquids from a lower level to a higher level by increasing the pressure energy of the liquid in a closed system.

220V. 10) Repeat the experiment for different speeds and repeat the steps (4) & (9). Now. 7) Note down the Pressure Gauge.4 m x 0. 15 Amps. so that the Mains – ON indicator glows. 2) Keep the delivery and suction valves open. Vacuum Gauge and time for number of revolutions of energy meter disc at full opening of delivery and suction valve. Here being a double acting pump. This tank is fitted with a gauge glass scale fitting and a drain valve. The belt can be put in different grooves of the pulleys for different speeds. Suitable pressure and vacuum gauges and a pressure relief valve is fitted in the pump pipe lines. 6) Select the desired speed using step cone pulley arrangement & digital rpm indicator. FM & HM Lab 25 . The pump is driven by an electric motor through a cone pulley arrangement to operate at 4 different speeds. The outlet from the pump is collected in a collecting tank of cross sectional area 0.4 d = diameter of cylinder in metres L = length of stoke of piston in metres. Specification of the pump: Type: Double acting single cylinder a) Piston Stroke b) Piston Diameter L = d 40 mm m = 55 The experimental set up consists of a reciprocating pump mounted on a sump tank. An energy meter is provided to determine the input power to the motor. PROCEDURE: 1) Fill in the sump tank with clean water. 4) Select the required speed using step cone pulley arrangement 5) Switch-ON the Mains. 9) Repeat the experiment for different openings of the delivery valve (Pressure & Flow Rate). one for allowing water into the cylinder from the suction pipe and the other for discharging water from the cylinder through the delivery pipe.4 m. 8) Operate the butterfly valve to note down the collecting tank reading against the known time. The cylinder has two valve. Switch –ON the motor. note down the readings as indicated in tabular column. 3) Connect the power cable 1ph. And keep it open when the readings are no taken. by loosening the belt and shifting it to the required pulley groove.

keep the delivery valve open and switch off the mains. TABLE OF READINGS: Pump speed in rpm Motor speed in rpm Delivery pressure in kg/cm2 (P) Vacuumm gauge in mm of Hg (Pv) Time for 5 Revs of Energymeter in Sec(t) Water collected in mm of height (h) Discharge Time taken in sec TABLE OF CALCULATIONS: Speed of pump in rpm Head ‘H’ in metres Discharge ‘Q’in m3/sec HPelec HPshaft HPpump %η l ovral %η p pum % slip SAMPLE CALCULATIONS: 1) Basic Data / Constants: 1 hp 1 Kg/Cm2 Density of Water ‘W’ FM & HM Lab = = = 736 Watts 760 mm of Hg (10m of water ) 1000 Kg/m3 26 .11) Tabulate the readings as shown in Annexure. 12) After the experiment is over. 13) Calculate the results using Formulae .

‘ T’ = The time taken in seconds for collecting water. 3) Shaft Horse Power : HPshaft = HPshaft = ηmotor X HPelec HPelec X 0.Energy meter constant = 1500 rev = 1KWH 0.125 x h 1000 x T Where ‘A’ = 0. 5) Total Head : H = 10 (Delivery Pressure + Vacuum Head ) 10 ( P + Pv/ 760) metres Where ‘P’ is the pressure in Kg/ Cm2 Pv is the Vacuum in mm of Hg .125 m2 is the area of Collecting Tank ‘ h’ = The height of water collected in mm.3/t Where ‘t’ is the time taken by the Energy Meter for 5 revolutions in seconds. 6) Hydraulic Horse Power (Deliverd by the pump ): HPpump WQH 75 Where ‘W’ = 1000 Kg/m3 ‘Q’ = Discharge ‘H’ 7) Pump Efficiency: FM & HM Lab 27 = Total Head = .75 Where ηmotor = Efficiency of motor = 75% 4) Discharge: Q Q = = A x h m3/sec 1000 x T 0.125m2 Area of Collecting Tank ‘A’ = 2) Electrical Power as indicated by Energy Meter: HPelec HPelec = = 5 1000 60 x 60 x x 1500 736 t 16.

RESULTS: CONCLUSIONS: Performance curves are drawn FM & HM Lab 28 .Va Vs x 100 Where Vs= Swept volume of piston Va = Actual volume of water collected Va = Q X 60 X 106 cm3/min PRECAUTIONS: 1) Do not start the pump if the voltage is less than 180V 2) 3) 4) Do not exceed 5 kg/cm2 on pressure gauge reading and never fully close Frequently grease/ oil the rotating parts Initially put clean water free from foreign material the delivery valve GRAPHS: Draw the following graphs a) Head (H) Vs percentage Efficiency b) Head (H) Vs percentage slip.%η pump = HPpump HPshaft x 100 8) Overall Efficiency : %η overall = HPpump x 100 HPelec 9) % of Slip for Reciprocating Pump: %S = Vs .

switch on the pump. In this pump the liquid is made to rotate in a closed chamber (volute casing) thus creating the centrifugal action which gradually builds the pressure gradient towards outlet thus resulting in the continuous flow. THEORY: Centrifugal pump consisting of two or more impellers the pump is called the multistage centrifugal pump. 440V. 3) Connect the power cable to 3 ph. These pumps are more suitable for handling viscous. 30 amps with earth connection 4) Switch ON the mains . you will find the water starts flowing to the measuring tank through notch tank 6) close the delivery valve slightly. 1. 2. To produce high heads. so that the delivery pressure is readable. 7) Operate the butterfly valve slightly to note down the collecting tank reading against the known time and keep it open when the readings are not taken. turbid(muddy) liquids. 5) Now. FM & HM Lab 29 . PROCEDURE: 1) Fill in the sump tank with clean water. the pressure gradually builds up in successive stages. 3) Water sump and a collecting pump. To produce large quantities of liquids. 2) Keep the delivery and suction valves open. so that mains ON indicator glows. The multistage centrifugal pump have the following functions. APPARATUS : 1) A Four stage centrifugal pump with pressure and vacuum gauge fitted at delivery and suction sides. The impeller may be mounted on the same shaft or on different shafts. If a high head is required the impellers are connected in series (on the same Shaft ) while the discharge is required to be large the impellers are connected in parallel. Now.PERFORMANCE TEST ON A MULTI STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AIM: To conduct a test on a three stage centrifugal pump at various heads and discharge to obtain the pump characteristics. 2) An electric motor for driving the pump. 4) Energy meter.

IV Kg/cm2 Vacuum pressure Pv Energy meter reading for 5 rev in‘t’ in sec Rise of water ‘h’ in mm Discharge Time taken ’t’ sec TABLE OF CALCULATIONS.III. 9) Note down the pressures in each stage on pressure indicator & pressure gauges also by operating the corresponding ball valve 10) Note down the other readings as in tabular column. TALBE OF READINGS: Speed in rpm Delivery pressure/ head stages I.8) Note down the time taken in seconds for the number of revolutions of energy meter disc.II. Head ‘H’ in mm Discharge ’Q’ in m3/sec HPpump HPelec (with load) %η pump %η ovreall FM & HM Lab 30 . 11) Repeat the experiment for different openings of the delivery valve and suction valve.

25m2 Density of Water ‘w’ = Area of Collecting tank= A x h m3/sec 1000X t Where.24hp 736 Watts 760 mm of Hg = 10 m of water 1000 Kg/m3 500 rev = 1 KWH 0. A = Collecting tank area h = Rise in water level in mm t = Time taken in sec 3) Total Head : H = H = 10(Delivery pressure + vaccum head) 10 [ P + Pv/760] metres Where P = Pressure in kg/cm2 Pv = Vacuum head in mm of HG.SAMPLE CALCULATIONS: 1) Basic Data /Constants: 1hp 1Kg/cm2 Energy meter HPelec (no load)= 2) Discharge: Q = = = = 0. 4) Electric Power: HPelec= 5 1000 60 x 60 16 .3 x x = 150 736 t t 5) Hydraulic Horse Power: HPpump WQH 75 3 Where W = 1000 kg/m Q = Discharge in m3/sec H =Total Head in m 6) HP shaft = HPelec x η m Where η m = Efficiency of motor = 75% HPpump x 100 HPshaft 31 = 7) Pump Efficiency: %η pump = FM & HM Lab .

FM & HM Lab 32 . HPelec RESULTS: PRECAUTIONS : 3) Do not start the pump if the voltage is less than 300v 4) There is no danger of water being not there in the sump tank.GRAPHS: Draw the following graphs a) Total Head Vs Efficiency b) Discharge Vs pump Efficiency. 5) Frequently grease/ oil the rotating parts 4) Initially put clean water free from foreign materia Conclusion: Hence performance characteristics for one particular speed at various heads has been studied. since the measuring tank is fitted with overflow pipe. head in m.

b) Change the position of guide vane angles and repeat the readings. 6) a) Note down the voltage and current . high efficiency can be maintained over wide range of operating conditions. 5)a) Slowly. scroll casing. electrical supply. with neutral and earth connections and ensure the correct direction of pump motor unit. . and tabulate the results. speed. 4) Press the green button of the supply pump starter & then release. vacuum on the control panel. PROCEDURE: 1) Connect the supply pump-motor unit to 3ph. open the gate so that the turbine rotor picks up the speed and attains maximum at full opening of the gate. by keeping all the switches at ON-position. b) Keep the guide vane angles at maximum.30A. the gate valve (butterfly valve) also can be used for speed control. 2) Stop-Watch THEORY: Hydraulic turbines are the machines which use the energy of water(Hydro power) and convert it into mechanical energy. Francis Turbine is a reaction type turbine consists of Runner. a) Brake power (b) APPARATUS: 1) Francis Turbine experiment setup. 2) Keep the gate closed.PERFORMANCE TEST ON FRANCIS TURBINE AIM: To conduct the Brake Test on Francis Turbine and to determine. Guide mechanism and draft tube. pressure. Between the scroll casing and runner. the water turns through right angle and passes through the runner and thus rotating the runner shaft. 3) Keep the electrical load at maximum. When guide vanes are varied. head over the notch. 440V. Thus the turbine becomes the prime mover to run the electrical generators to produce electricity. FM & HM Lab 33 Turbine Efficiency ii) To evaluate the performance characteristics of the Francis Turbine. If necessary.

unit quantities. and tabulate the results. b)To obtain constant head characteristics: (Main characteristics): 1) Select the guide vane angle position. c)To obtain run-away speed characteristics: 1. 4) For different electrical loads. Slowly open the gate to maximum and note down the turbine speed. See that the voltage does not exceed 250 V to avoid excess voltage on Bulbs. so that the speed is held constant. 3) Reduce the gate opening setting to different position and repeat(2) for different speeds 1500 rpm. 1000 rpm. 3. change the guide vane angle position. a)To obtain Constant speed characteristics: ( operating characteristics): 1) Keep the gate opening at maximum.. This is the runaway speed which is maximum d) Performance under unit head. b) Efficiency and BHP Vs Discharge characteristics. Keep guide vane angle at optimum position. 2) For different electrical loads on the turbine/generator. a) Percentage of Full load Vs Efficiency. 2) Keep the gate closed. it is often convenient to express the test results in terms of certain unit quantities. In order to predict the behavior of a turbine working under varying conditions and to facilitate comparison between the performances of the turbines of the same type but having different outputs and speeds and working under different heads. 2. and start the pump. and maintain the constant head and tabulate the results as given in table-II. change the guide vane angle position.7) Close the gate and then switch OFF the supply water pump set. 8) Follow the procedure described below for taking down the reading for evaluating the performance characteristics of the Francis Turbine. 3) Slowly open the gate and set the pressure on the gauge. 4) The above readings will be utilized for drawing constant speed characteristics Viz. From the output of a turbine corresponding to different working heads ( table calculations-II) it is possible to compute the output which would be developed if the head FM & HM Lab 34 . Switch OFF all the load on the turbine.

was reduced to unity ( say 1mt): the speed being adjustable so that the efficiency remains unaffected. = = P/H3/2 Q/√H c) Unit Discharge = N/√H TABLE OF READINGS-I Constant speed characteristics: METHOD: By keeping the gate constant & By changing the guide vane position. in Kg/C m2 Vacu ume ‘Pv’ in mm of Hg Head over Notch (Flow rate ‘h’ in mts Load on generator ‘V’ Volt s ‘I’ Amp s Energy Meter reading Time 5 Revolutions in seconds. Head on turbine Pressure ‘P. Guide vane position Turbine Speed in RPM Wattage of Bulb in action FM & HM Lab 35 .e. a) Unit speed Nu b) Unit Power Pu Qu d) Specific Speed The specific speed of any turbine is the speed in rpm of a turbine geometrically similar to the actual turbine but of such a size that under corresponding conditions it will develop 1 metric horse power when working under unit head (i. 1 meter ). The specific speed Ns = N√P / H5/4 is usually computed for the operating conditions corresponding to the maximum efficiency.

‘Pv’ in in mm of Kg/Cm2 Hg Turbine speed in RPM FM & HM Lab 36 .Vacuume ure ‘P. Discharge (Flow rate) Q’ in m3/sec %ηturbine % of Full Load HP hyd BHP TABLE OF READINGS – II Constant Head Characteristics : Method : By keeping the Gate opening constant & By changing the guide vane angles. Turbine Speed in RPM Net Head on Turbine ‘H’ in mtrs. Head over Load on Notch Generator (Flow rate) ‘h’ ‘V’ ‘I’ in mts Volts Amps Energy Wattage Meter of bulb Reading in Time for 5 action revolutions in sec Head on Turbine Press.TABLE OF CALCULATIONS-I Constant Speed Characteristics.

6 (assumed ) B = 0.TABLE OF CALCULATIONS-II Constant Head Characteristics. Cd = 0. P = Pressure gauge reading in Kg/Cm2 Pv = Vacuum gauge reading 2) Discharge (Flow rate) of water through the turbine: Flow rate over the rectangular notch is = Q = Cd 2/3 b √2g h3/2 m3/sec Where. W = 1000 Kg/m3 Q = Flow rate of water in m3/sec from Formulae-2 H = Head on turbine in mts from formulae-1 4) Break horse power of the turbine: FM & HM Lab 37 HP hyd = . % of Full Load Discharge (Flow rate) Q’ in m3/sec %ηturbine HP hyd BHP SAMPLE CALCULATION: 1) Head on the Turbine ‘H’ in meters of Water : H = 10 (P + Pv/760) Where. Turbine Speed in RPM Net Head on Turbine ‘H’ in mtrs.5m (width of notch ) 3) Hydraulic input to the turbine: WQH 75 Where.

5) Turbine Efficiency: %η tur = BHP/ HP hyd x 100 6) Unit quantities – under unit head.75 is the Efficiency of Transmission & Generator and HPelec= 5 1000 60 x60 16 . b) Unit Power Nu Pu = = = N / √H P / H3/2 Q / √H c) Unit discharge Qu 7) Specific spped: Ns = N √P / H5/4 8) Percentage full load = (obtained at maximum efficiency) Part load BHP Max. load BHP x 100 (At any particular speed.M = 1500 rev/KWH (Energy meter constant ) and is the time in seconds for energy meter disc to rotate by 5 revolutions.) GRAPH: Draw the following graphs. BHP PRECAUTIONS: 1) Do not start the pump if the supply voltage is less than 300v 2) To start and stop the pump.3 x x = EM 736 t t BHP = Where. E. a) Unit speed. always keep Gate valve closed 3) Gradual opening and closing of the gate valve is recommended for smooth operation RESULT: FM & HM Lab 38 . Constant head characteristics: a) Unit speed Vs Unit power b) Unit speed Vs Efficiency Constant speed characteristics(operating characteristics): a) DischargeVs %η of Turbine .Electrical output η of generator = HPelec 75 where 0.

The centrifugal pump set supplies the water from sump tank to the turbine through control valve which has the marking to meter the known quantity of water. Pelton wheel is an impulse type of turbine where the available energy is first converted into the kinetic energy by means of an nozzle. Rectangular Notch THEORY: Hydraulic turbines are the machines which use the energy of water(Hydro power) and convert it into mechanical energy. Notch Tank 7. Stop Watch 3. the high velocity jet from the nozzle strikes a series of suitably shaped buckets fixed around the rim of a wheel. Description: The actual experiment facility consist of multi stage centrifugal pump set. Sump Tank 5. The water after passing through the turbine unit enters the collecting tank. APPARATUS: 1. turbine unit . Thus the turbine becomes the prime mover to run the electrical generators to produce electricity. Brake Drum 8.CONCLUSION: PERFORMANCE TEST ON PELTON WHEEL _____________________________________________________________ AIM: To find the efficiency of the pelton wheel turbine. The buckets changes the direction of the jet with out changing its pressure. sump tank. The water after passing through the turbine unit enters the collecting FM & HM Lab 39 . collecting tank. Centrifugal Pump Set 4. notch tank arranged in such a way that the whole unit works as a recirculating water system. the resulting change in momentum set bucket and wheel in to rotatory motion and thus mechanical energy made available at the turbine shaft. Pelton wheel turbine experimental setup 2. Collecting Tank 6. ii) To evaluate the performance characteristics of the Francis Turbine.

it is often convenient to express the test results in terms of certain unit quantities.The water then flows back to sump tank with 600 v-notch for the measurement of flow of rate. Keep the brake drum loading at minimum. FM & HM Lab 40 . C.Head over notch and tabulate the readings as per table 2. 2. A. 3. To obtain constant speed characteristics: 1. Press the green button of the supply pump starter now the pump picks up the full speed and becomes operational. For the different brakedrum loads on the turbine change sphere rod setting between maximum and minimum so that the speed is held constant 3. Connect the supply water pump-water unit with 3-phase. Slowly open the sphere valve so that turbine rotor picks up the speed and attain the maximum at full opening of the valve. keep the sphere rod setting and butterfly valve setting as maximum. 4. Performance under unit head unit quantities: In order to predict the behaviour of a turbine working under varying condition and to facilitate comparison between the performances of the turbines of the same type but having different outputs and speeds and working under different heads. Note down the speed . To obtain run way speed characteristics: 1. 20A. 2. D. 400v. Keep the butterfly valve and sphere valve closed. Keep the butterfly valve opening at maximum. Tabulate the readings in table 1. To obtain constant Head characteristics: 1. PROCEDURE: 1. B. 2. keep the load on the zero. The provision for measurement of turbine speed. For different brake load. electrical supply with neutral and earth connection and ensure the correct direction of the pump motor unit. head on the turbine are built in the control panel.tank . keep sphere rod and butterfly valve at maximum. 2. The loading of the turbine is achieved by rope brake drum connected to spring balance. 5.

Unit discharge: Qu = 4. The specific speed is usually computed for the operating conditions corresponding to the maximum efficiency. Unit speed: Nu= 2.Specific speed: The specific speed of any turbine is the speed in rpm of a turbine geometrically similar to the actual turbine but of such a size that under corresponding conditions it will develop 1 metric horse power when working under unit head.Unit power: Pu = 3. Ns=N√P/H5/4 TABLE OF READINGS: Constant Speed characteristics: Method : By keeping butterfly valve position fully open By changing the sphere valve position N in rpm Sphere valve position in mm P in kg/cm2 Head over the notch in h mts F1 in kgf F2 in kgf Energy meter reading for 5 rev.From the output of a turbine corresponding to different working heads it is possible to compute the output which would be developed if the head was reduced to unity the speed being adjustable so that the efficiency remains unaffected. 1. Q H N H P H 3 2 FM & HM Lab 41 .

TABLE OF CALCULATIONS (Constant head characteristics): FM & HM Lab 42 .TABLE OF CALCULATIONS Constant speed characteristics: N in rpm H in mts Flow rate Q in m3/sec HPhyd BHP %ηturbine full load % TABLE OF READINGS Constant head characteristics: Method: Sphere rod at fixed position Butterfly valve fully open Change brake drum load N in rpm P in kg/cm2 Head over the notch in h mts F1 in kgf F2 In kgf Energy meter reading for 5 rev.

Hydraulic input to the turbine : HPhyd= W QH 75 where W =1000 kg/m3 4.h=head over the notch in m.N in rpm H in mts Flow rate Q in m3/sec HPhyd BHP %ηturbine Unit quantities under unit head Net head on turbine H mts Unit speed Nu Unit power Pu Unit discharge Qu Specific speed Nu %ηturbine SAMPLE CALCULATIONS: 1. H = 10P =_______ “P” is the pressure gauge reading in kg/cm2 2. 3. g=9. θ=600 .81.Brake horse power of the turbine : FM & HM Lab 43 .6. Flow rate of water through the turbine over 600 V-notch Q= 8 Cd √2g tanθ/2 h5/2 1 5 Assuming Cd =0. Head on turbine in meter of water.

Unit discharge: Qu = 4. BHP ( at any particular speed) 7. BHP x100 Maxload . BHP= 5.Turbine efficiency : %ηtur = B HP x100 HPhyd 6. always keep Gate valve closed 3) It is recommended to keep the sphere rod setting at close position before starting the turbine.2πN ( F1 − F2 ) r 4500 Where F1.Unit quantities. Unit speed:Nu= 2. Specific speed:Ns= GRAPHS: Draw the following graphs a) Total head Vs Brake power b) Total head Vs Efficiency PRECAUTIONS: 1) Do not start the pump if the supply voltage is less than 300v 2)To start and stop the pump. RESULT: Hence the the average efficiency of pelton wheel is CONCLUSION: Performance characteristics are drawn. N H P 5 4 N H P H 3 2 Q H PERFORMANNCE TEST ON KAPLAN TURBINE FM & HM Lab 44 . % full load = ηtur = Partload .F2 are spring balance readings in kgf and r=0. This is to prevent racing of the runner shaft with out load.Unit power: Pu = 3.under unit head: 1.15 radius of break drum.

the Reaction type consists of main components such as propeller(runner). turbine unit. THEORY: Hydraulic turbines are the machines which use the energy of water(Hydro power) and convert it into mechanical energy. In other words even at part loads. Between the scroll casing the runner. high efficiency can be maintained over wide range of operating conditions. scroll casing and draft tube. 2) Stop-Watch. Additionally. The provisions for measurement of electrical energy AC voltmeter and ammeter turbine speed (digital RPM indicator) Head on the turbine (pressure gauge) are built-in on the control panel. where as this provision does not exist in Francis and propeller turbines where. notch arranged in a such a way that the whole unit works on recirculating water system the centrifugal pump set supplies the water from the sump tank to the turbine through gate valve which has the marking to meter the known quality of water. The runner has four blades which can be turned about their own axis so that the angle of inclination may be adjusted while the turbine is in motion. Thus the turbine becomes the prime mover to run the electrical generators to produce electricity. when a low discharge is flowing through the runner. when runner blade angles are varied.AIM: To determine the performance characteristics of Kaplan Turbine at constant speed and under constant head. Kaplan turbine. collecting tank.” The loading of the turbine is achieved by electrical AC generator connected to lamp bank. the runner blade angles are fixed and integral with hub. The water after passing through the turbine unit enters the collecting tank through the draft tube. a high efficiency can be attained in case of Kaplan turbine. The water then flows back to the sump tank through the notch tank with cipolleti notch for the measurement of flow rate. DESCRIPTION: The experimental setup consists of a centrifugal pump set . FM & HM Lab 45 . the provision is also made to estimate the rate of flow of water using the “Bend Meter. the water turns through right angle into the axial direction and passes through the runner and thus rotating the runner shaft. sump tank. APPARATUS: 1) Kaplan turbine experiment setup.

4) For different electrical load. 3) Press the green button of the supply pump starter and then release. 7) Follow the procedure described below for taking down the reading for evaluating the performance characteristics of the Kaplan turbine. 3) Slowly open the gate and set the pressure on the gauge. pressure vacuum on the control panel head over the notch. b) Efficiency and BHP Vs Discharge characteristics. change the rotor pitch position and maintain the constant head and tabulate the results. 2) For different loads on the turbine/generator. 2) Keep the gate closed and also keep the electrical load at maximum by keeping the all switches at ON position. change the gate position so that the speed is held constant say at 1500 rpm. a) % of full load Vs efficiency. 3) Reduce the gate opening setting to different position and repeat (2) for different speeds 1500 rpm . 4) Slowly. b) To obtain constant speed characterics(operating characteristics): 1) Keep the gate opening at maximum . 2) Keep the gate closed and start the pump. a) To obtain constant head characteristics(main characteristics): 1) Select the propeller vane angle position. 1000 rpm and tabulate the results.PROCEDURE: 1) Connect the supply pump-motor unit to 3ph. and tabulate the results. 5) Note down the voltage and current. See that the voltage does not exceed 250V to avoid excess voltage on bulbs. open the gate so that the turbine rotor picks up the speed and attains maximum at full opening of the gate. c) Performance under unit head-unit quantities: FM & HM Lab 46 . 440V. 6) Close the gate and then switch off the supply water pump set.30A electrical supply with neutral and earth connections and ensure the correct direction of pump-motor unit. speed . 4) The above readings will be utilized for drawing constant speed characteristics.

it is often convenient to express the test results in terms of certain unit quantities. From the output of a turbine corresponding to different working heads it is possible to compute the output which would be developed if the head was reduced to unity (say 1 mt) the speed being adjustable so that the efficiency remains unaffected. The specific speed Nu = is usually computed for the operating conditions N√P/H5/4 corresponding to the maximum efficiency FM & HM Lab 47 .e. a) unit speed : Nu b) unit power Pu Qu = = P/H3/2 Q/ √H c) Unit discharge = N/√H d) Specific speed: The specific speed of any turbine is the speed in rpm of a turbine geometrically similar to the actual turbine but of such a size that under corresponding conditions it will develop 1 metric horse power when working under unit head (i.In order to predict the behavior of a turbine working under varying conditions and facilitate comparison between the performances of the turbines of the same type but having different outputs and speeds and working under different heads. 1 meter ).

TABLE:1 Constant speed characteristics: Method: By keeping the rotor pitch constant & By changing the gate position. Pressu Vaccuu re ‘P’ m in ‘Pv’ Kg/cm mm of 2 Hg Table of calculations :Constant speed characteristics Method: By changing the rotor pitch constant & By changing the gate position Turbine speed in rpm Net head on turbine ‘H’ in mts Discharge ‘Q’ in m3/sec % of full load HPhyd BHP %η tur FM & HM Lab 48 . Gate positi on Head on turbine Turbin e Speed in rpm Head over notch ‘n’ (mts) Load on generator Volts ‘V’ Amps ‘I’ Wattage of bulb in action Energy meter reading in secs for 5 rev.

Table:2 Constant head characteristics Method: By keeping the gate opening constant & by changing the rotor pitch Head on turbine Turbine Pressure Vaccume speed in RPM in Pressure 2 kg/cm in mm of Hg Head over notch ‘H’ in mts Load on generator Volts ‘V’ Amps I Wattage of bulb in action Energy meter reading time for 5 rev Table of calculations-II Constant head characteristics: Turbine Net head Discharge speed in on turbine ‘Q’ in HPhyd rpm ‘H’ mts m3/sec BHP %η tur Table:5 Unit quantities under unit speed Net head Unit speed Unit power Unit on turbine ‘N’ Pu Discharge ‘H’ mts Qu Specific speed NS %η tur FM & HM Lab 49 .

P = V 736 = = x I x 0.48 h3/2 HPele 0.75 Q/√H 50 N/√H P/H3/2 Unit Discharge ‘Qu’ = FM & HM Lab .SAMPLE CALCULATIONS: Constant speed characteristics: Basic data /Constants: Turbine speed ‘N’ Pressure ‘P’ Vacuum ‘Pv’ = = = mm of Hg mtrs 188 volts = 1.3 x x = EM 736 t t HPtur x 100 HPhyd Unit Quntities under unit head: Unit Speed (Nu) Unit Power (Pu) Where.53 Amps 1500 rev/Kwh 1300 rpm Head over notch ‘h’ = Load on generator ‘V = ‘ I’ Energy meter constant = 1)Net Head on Turbine ‘H’ : H = 10(p + Pv/760) m 2)Discharge ‘Q’: Q = 3)Input to Turbine: HPhyd = WQH/75 Where W = 1000kg/m3 Q = Discharge H = Net head 4)HPtur HPtur = 5) HPele HPelec= 6) % η turbine 1.75 5 1000 60 x60 16 .

always keep Gate valve closed 6) Gradual opening and closing of the gate valve is recommended for smooth operation 7) Fill the water enough so that the pump does not choke. FM & HM Lab 51 . a) % of full load Vs Efficiency b) Discharge Vs Efficiency.Specific Speed ’Ns’ = N√P/H5/4 x 100 Percentage Full Load = Part Load BHP Max BHP GRAPHS: Draw the following graphs. BHP c) Unit Speed Vs Unit Discharge d) Unit speed Vs Efficiency PRECAUTIONS: 4) Do not start the pump if the supply voltage is less than 300v 5) To start and stop the pump. RESULTS: CONCLUSION: Hence the performance characteristics of Kaplan turbine at constant speed and under constant head has been studied.

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