RIVER TRAINING STRUCTURES: - GROYNES

By
Arun Lila Design Engineer Mahendra Chaudhari Design Engineer Maccaferri Environmental Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
ABSTRACT River training is the stabilization of the channel in order to maintain the desired cross section and alignment. Training structures are then necessary in order to protect the channel against the changes that occur due to this disturbance. River training has assumed considerable significance in India due to huge annual recurring damage caused by the floods. The paper attempts to highlight the requirement of Groynes, followed by detail design consideration such as planview shape and cross section of Groynes, length and spacing of Groynes, orientation and permeability of the Groynes, as per International and Indian standards. This paper also emphasize on the scour protection work near the Groynes due to localized scour around the Groynes as per Indian standards. A working example of installation of Groynes using Gabion as a construction material is presented to understand the design procedure. The design instructions given in this paper must be used as guide line and not interpreted as a strict code of practice. Key Words: River training work, Groynes, Gabions 1. INTRODUCTION River training is the stabilization of the channel in order to maintain the desired cross section and alignment. The practice of training a river dates back to the sixteenth century where the Yellow River in China was trained by building embankments along its banks so that the flow would be confined to a single deep channel, which would transport the sediment load to the sea. Modern river training practice, however, started in Europe in the nineteenth century, driven by the demands of the industrial revolution for the purpose of maintaining sufficient channel depth and a better course for navigation. In general, the objectives of river training may be summarized as: To increase the safety against flooding by accommodating the flood flow To improve the efficiency of the sediment transport To minimize bank erosion by stabilizing the course of flow To direct the flow to a desired river stretch To reduce the probability of meandering And in most of the cases the primary objective of river training is to improve navigation by maintaining channel depth Natural processes and human interference may disturb the equilibrium between the sediment load contributed to the channel and the transport capacity of the flow. Seasonal variations in the flow, dredging of the river, construction of a reservoir, and deforestation in the catchment area are all examples of causes of disturbance. Training structures are then necessary in order to protect the channel against the changes that occur due to this disturbance. They could be classified into: I. Longitudinal structures II. Transverse structures In this paper, the focus will be only on the Groynes as a transverse structure.

Minimol Korulla GM Design

length of the Groynes. IV. not only various habitats but also a refuge as a flood for fishes and microorganisms are provided. a strong flow in a bight of a river causes sediment in environs to move. Beckstead (1975). rock. III. Alvarez (1989). They serve to change the direction of flow without repelling it. T-head.1 TYPES OF GROYNES Various types of Groynes can be distinguished according to their construction. crest elevation and slope. straight Groynes with pier head. gravel. are constructed using rock. hockey shaped. They serve to repel the flow away from themselves. They are made of stone. expected by installation of a bank. on the other hand. Deflecting Groynes are generally short ones and used for local protection. They serve to maintain a desirable channel for the purpose of flood control. deflecting or repelling Groynes. Improvement of ecological environment and scenery:. In short Groynes contribute to create ecological environments. Repelling Groynes point upstream. they serve to attract the stream flow towards themselves and do not repel the flow towards the opposite bank. earth.(1995). beginning at the riverbank with a root and ending at the regulation line with a head. The first effect is that an existing thalweg can be led to other direction. (as reported by Przedwojski et al. inverted hockey shaped Groynes. or gabions. construction materials and scour. The main object of installation of Groyne in rivers is to prevent the breaking of a bank caused by sediment erosion as a flood.2 DESIGN OF GROYNES The most important considerations involved in Groynes design are plan view shape. 2. Which of the two types will be used is dictated by the design conditions. As a result.A Groyne is a protection technique which can protect a bank and improve scenery in environs at the same. TRANSVERSE STRUCTURES (GROYNES) Groynes are structures constructed at an angle to the flow in order to deflect the flowing water away from critical zones. These effects controlling flow cause a flow to concentrate affect maintenance of the depth of water for navigation and reduce the velocity of a river bank.There are two main effects controlling flow. Then another is as the strong velocity of a river bank in a bight can be reduced. Functions of Groyne (1) Prevention of river bank erosion:. and Przedwojski et al. as the velocity in a Groynes field would be reduced enough compare to a main stream. Examples are straight Groynes. According to this phenomenon. orientation to the flow. In particular. (1975). gravel. or tail Groynes. permeable Groynes may be designed owing to the fact that they disturb the flow much less than solid Groynes. wing. For submerged conditions. which brings out problems related to erosion. bamboo or timbers whereas impermeable Groynes also called solid Groynes.2. Classification according to the action on the stream flow: Groynes may be classified as attracting. action on stream flow and appearance. Attracting Groynes point downstream. a flow would be delayed. . improved navigation and erosion control. Classification according to the method and materials of construction: Groynes may be permeable allowing the water to flow through at reduced velocities or impermeable blocking and deflecting the current. Usually impermeable Groynes are designed to be non-submerged since flow over the top of solid Groynes may cause severe erosion along the shanks. (2) (3) 2. a river bank would be protected. L-head. so the direction of flow would be controlled. Richardson et al. II.In particular. Permeable Groynes are fabricated from piles. Classification according to their appearance in plan: Groynes may be built with different plan view shapes. cross-section. Classification according to submergence: Groynes may be designed either as submerged or as nonsubmerged. 1995) considers the following. necessary for a full description of Groynes: I. Flow Control:. spacing between Groynes. or piles.

provide greater protection to the banks and are more effective in channelization for navigation when the length closes 45 to 65 percent of the gap between Groynes. spacing. The minimum extent of bank protection determined from Figure 1 should be adjusted according to field inspections to determine the limits of active scour.3) . L-head. which remains embedded in the bank. Hockey-shaped Groynes have scour holes that are more extensive in area than the T-head Groynes. The total length of the Groynes includes the anchoring length. Extent of protection required at a channel bend (after USACE (1981)(11) ) Groynes length depends on the location. which stays in the flow.2 LONGITUDINAL EXTENT & LENGTH OF THE GROYNES The longitudinal extent of channel bank requiring protection is discussed in Brown (1985)(1.The purpose of Groynes design to ensure a set of structures which Are of a length and height to maximize their effectiveness Are located and oriented to maximize their effectiveness Are able to withstand bed scour adjacent to the structures and Have sufficient structural strength to withstand hydraulic and debris forces without failure Firm design rules for Groynes not exist.2. less scour at their head. The design instructions given in this paper must be used as guide line and not interpreted as a strict code of practice.1 PLANVIEW SHAPE Of the above mentioned types of Groynes according to their appearance in plan view. and aerial photography and field investigations at high flow. and the working length.2. and economics of construction. The T-head Groynes is normally set at a right angle from the bank and it has a straight shank with a rectangular guide vane at the outer end. 2. the straight Groynes is set at an angle from the bank and has a rounded head to provide extra volume and area for scour protection at the outer end. purpose. channel surveys at low flow. The length can be established by determining the channel width and depth desired. functions and construction material means that design becomes a judgmental process which must rely heavily on the experience and common sense of the designer. The range of conditions.1. 2. Figure 1 was developed from USACE(1981)(11) studies of the extent of protection required at meander bends. Flexibility in the design process can be lead to innovative implementations and major cost saving without sacrificing effectiveness. Figure:. The working length is usually kept between the lower and upper limits of the mean depth and a quarter of the mean width of the free . wing or tail Groynes have larger sediment deposits between Groynes. Providing the major principle are recognized and incorporated.

Laboratory tests indicate that diminishing returns are realized from Groynes lengths greater than 20 percent of channel width. permeability. whereas for bank protection the ratio of spacing to Groynes length is less and distances from 2 to 6 times the Groynes length are generally used. The length of bank protected measured in terms of projected Groynes length is essentially constant up to Groynes lengths of 20 percent of channel width for permeable and impermeable Groynes. is a function of Groynes permeability and the ratio of Groynes length to channel width. orientation to the flow. Field installations of Groynes have been successful with lengths from 3 to 30 percent of channel width. The flow expansion angle. Impermeable Groynes are usually installed with lengths of less than 20 percent while permeable Groynes have been successful with lengths up to 25 percent of channel width. Thus assuming angle of repose of sand to be 2. The anchoring length on the other hand is recommended to be less than a quarter of the working length. Figure:. to keep a spacing of 1. Relationship between Groynes length and expansion angle for Groynes permeability (Brown (1985)(2)) Groynes spacing is a function of Groynes length. If the Groynes are spaced too close together on the other hand. In order to obtain a well defined deep channel navigation. although there exists successful examples of bank protection with short Groynes spaced apart 10 to 100 times their length where the banks are protected with riprap or vegetation. The length of both permeable and impermeable Groynes relative to channel width affects local scour depth at the Groynes tip and the length of bank protected. However. (1975) recommends a spacing of 1.5H : 1V & anticipated maximum depth of scour below bed be ds. Normally the effective length of Groynes should not exceed 1/5th of width of the flow in case of single channel.3 SPACING BETWEEN GROYNESS The spacing between Groynes is measured at the riverbank between their starting points. the protrusion of the Groynes in the deep channel should not exceed 1/5 th of the width of the channel on which the Groynes is proposed excluding the length over the bank. a meander loop may form between Groynes. and angle to the bank. It is related to river width.al. Figure 2 indicates . 2.2. However.2. If the spacing between Groynes is too long. bank curvature. velocity of flow. shallow & braided rivers.. Groynes length. only the most permeable Groynes were effective at greater lengths. Groynes angle. As per IS 8408 : 1994 the Groynes length should not be less than required to keep the scour hole formed at the nose away from the bank. construction costs will be higher and the system would work less efficiently without making best use of each individual Groynes. and the degree of curvature of the bend. and cause a hindrance to navigation.5ds. In case of wide. Richardson et.5 to 6 times the upstream projected Groynes length into the flow. This ratio is susceptible to alteration by excavation on the inside of the bend or by scour caused by the Groynes installation. or the angle at which flow expands toward the bank downstream of a Groynes.5 to 2 times the Groynes length is recommended. Long and far apart spaced Groynes may contract the flow resulting in channel degradation and bank erosion. it is often expressed as a multiple of the Groynes length. and purpose. the length should be more than 2.surface respectively.

Groynes spacing in a meander bend (Brown (1985)(2)) As per IS 8408 1994 the spacing of the Groynes is normally 2 to 2.5 times its effective length. Groynes with 35 percent permeability have almost the same expansion angle except where the Groynes length is greater than about 18 percent of the channel width. Therefore. Groynes of this kind are best suited for bank protection and sedimentation purposes. The amount of deposition between Groynes is maximized in case of upstream inclination due to their ability to protect bank areas upstream and downstream of themselves. Groynes may be oriented perpendicular to the flow or be inclined either upstream or downstream. 2. draw an arc representing the desired bankline. Groynes spacing in a bend can be established by first drawing an arc representing the desired flow alignment (Figure 3).2. The desired flow alignment may differ from existing conditions or represent no change in conditions. deflector Groynes or retarder/deflector Groynes are appropriate. The arc describing the ends of Groynes projecting into the channel will be essentially concentric with the arc describing the desired flow alignment.3. depending on whether there is a need to arrest erosion of the concave bank or reverse erosion that has already occurred. draw an arc connecting the nose (tip) of Groynes in the installation. The distance from this arc to the arc describing the desired bank line. along with the expansion angle. Figure:.4 ORIENTATION OF THE GROYNESS Groynes orientation refers to Groynes alignment with respect to the direction of the main flow current in a channel. which attracts the stream flow towards itself. For site specific cases model studies may be conducted. Repelling Groyne. which repel the flow away. A Groynes pointing downstream is an attracting Groynes. The arc representing the desired flow alignment may be a compound circular curve or any curve which forms a smooth transition in flow directions. Next. point upstream. If the flow alignment must be altered in order to reverse erosion of the bank or to alter the flow alignment significantly. and deflecting Groyne.that the expansion angle for impermeable Groynes is an almost constant 17°. which deflect the flow away from the bank. This may approximately describe the existing concave bank or a new theoretical bankline which protects the existing bank from further erosion. Figure 4 defines the Groynes angle such that an acute Groynes angle means that the Groynes is angled in an downstream direction and an angle greater than 90° indicates that the Groynes is oriented in a upstream direction. Each orientation affects the stream in a different way and results in different deposition of sediment in the vicinity of the Groynes. A Groyne that is oriented upstream causes more deposition than a perpendicular one at the downstream bank and also at the area upstream where a reverse eddy is formed and causes suspended load to settle. Also. If the need is to arrest erosion. . fixes the spacing between Groynes. This arc will represent the desired extreme location of the thalweg nearest the outside bank in the bend. permeable retarder Groynes or retarder structures may be appropriate.

(2001)) No consensus exists regarding the orientation of permeable retarder/deflector Groynes and impermeable deflector Groynes. Groynes that are perpendicular to the flow have protection over a smaller area. result in greater scour depth at the tip. best performance is obtained by perpendicular or downstream pointed Groynes. and they perform this function equally as well without respect to the Groynes angle. The flow towards the root of the downstream Groynes threatens the surrounding bank area as well as the Groynes itself. For the purpose of maintaining a deep channel to improve navigation on the other hand. Groynes orientation at approximately 90° has the effect of forcing the main flow current (thalweg) farther from the concave bank than Groynes oriented in an upstream or downstream direction. Scour adjustment for Groynes orientation (Richardson et. Downstream facing Groynes are not suitable for bank protection purposes due to their attracting effect on the flow.Figure:. Since Groynes oriented normal to the bank and projecting a given length into the channel are shorter than those at any other orientation. .5. Permeable retarders Groynes are usually designed to provide flow retardance near the streambank.al. and have a greater tendency to accumulate debris. Figure:. Definition sketch for Groynes angle (Karaki (1959)). There is some agreement that Groynes oriented in an upstream direction do not protect as great a length of channel bank downstream of the Groynes tip. all retarder Groynes should be constructed at 90° with the bank for reasons of economy.4. Therefore.

Groynes oriented in an upstream direction cause greater scour than if oriented normal to the bank. Where bends are mild and only small reductions in velocity are necessary. flow passes over the crest of the Groynes generally perpendicular to the Groynes as illustrated in Figure 6. It should be noted that permeability also affects scour depth. Figure 7 shows the results of laboratory tests of the effects of permeability and orientation on the expansion angle of flow downstream . can create erosion of the stream bank at the Groynes root. It is recommended that the Groynes furthest upstream be angled downstream to provide a smoother transition of the flow lines near the bank and to minimize scour at the nose of the leading Groynes.2. Above a permeability of 35 percent. in particular. Scour along the stream bank and at the Groynes tip are also influenced by the permeability of the Groynes. i. and the severity of the channel bend.e. The implication is that Groynes orientation affects the length of bank protected only because of the projected length of the Groynes along the channel bank..5 GROYNES PERMEABILITY The permeability of the Groynes depends on stream characteristics. 2. The lateral extent of scour can be determined from the depth of scour and the natural angle of repose of the bed material the expansion angle downstream of Groynes. However. Subsequent Groynes downstream should all be set normal to the bank line to minimize construction costs. This can occur if the crests of impermeable Groynes are lower than the height of the bank.more positive flow control is achieved with Groynes oriented approximately normal to the channel bank. while Groynes with permeability of 35 percent or less caused bank erosion similar to the effect of impermeable Groynes. This is acceptable provided the bed load transport is high. Impermeable Groynes. highly permeable Groynes can also provide required bank protection under more severe conditions where vegetation and debris will reduce the permeability of the Groynes without destroying the Groynes. the angle of flow expansion downstream of the contraction at the Groynes is about 17° for impermeable Groynes for all Groynes angles.6. and Groynes oriented in a downstream direction cause less scour. A method to adjust scour depth for permeability is presented in the following section. Under submerged conditions. highly permeable retarders Groynes can be used successfully. Richardson et. the length of bank protected decreases with increasing permeability. Impermeable Groynes can be used on sharp bends to divert flow away from the outer bank. Laboratory studies of Groynes with permeability greater than about 70 percent were observed to cause very little bank erosion. Figure 5 can be used to adjust scour depth for orientation. al (2001) Figure:. the degree of flow retardance and velocity reduction required. Flow components in the vicinity of spurs when the crest is submerged (Brown (1985)(2)) Permeability up to about 35 percent does not affect the length of channel bank protected by the Groynes.

sloping crested Groynes work best normal or angled upstream.7 Groynes permeability and spur orientation vs. (Brown (1985)(2)) From the above discussion. sloping-crested Groynes are recommended by Alvarez (1989) with a slope of 0. when submerged. To avoid overtopping the crest elevation should be higher than the expected levels of water.2. cause erosion of the stream bank. less material needed for construction. Groynes lengths were 20 percent of the channel width projected normal to the bank. For this figure.6 CREST ELEVATION.1 to 0. level crested Groynes work best normal to the flow or angled downstream. faster deposits of sediment between Groynes. Figure:. whereas. expansion angle (Brown (1985)(2)) 2. For navigation channel control. Crests may be either level or sloping downwards from the bank towards the end of the Groynes (Figure 8). Groynes with permeability up to about 35 percent can be used in severe conditions but permeable Groynes may be susceptible to damage from large debris and ice. Figure:. Impermeable Groynes provide more positive flow control but cause more scour at the toe of the Groynes and. SLOPE & CROSS SECTION OF GROYNES The crest elevation of Groynes depends on the purpose and possible problems due to overbank flow. High permeability Groynes are suitable for use where only small reductions in flow velocities are necessary as on mild bends but can be used for more positive flow control where it can be assumed that clogging with small debris will occur and bed load transport is large. it is apparent that Groynes of varying permeability will provide protection against meander migration.8 Groynes Crest Sloping and Level (Courtesy of Maccaferri ) For bank protection. For bank protection. Richardson et al .25 due to their advantages of reducing scour at the Groynes end. the crest should be at least as high as the bank.of Groyness.

In general a top width equal to the width of a dump truck can be used. in many cases the top width will be dictated by the width of any earth moving equipment used to construct the Groynes.5 D o Transition from nose to shank and first 30 to 60m in upstream 1.25 to 1:5. should be designed to a height that will allow heavy debris to pass over the top. highly permeable Groynes consisting of jacks or tetrahedrons are dependent on light debris collecting on the Groynes to make them less permeable. expansion angle (Brown (1985)(2)).473 (Q/f)1/3 ------------------------------Eqn 1 Where. In which D = 0. in particular erosion of the bed adjacent to the river training structure. The crest width ranges from 1to 6m and side slopes from 1:1.0 D o Transition from nose to shank and first 15 to 30m in downstream 1. 2. straight Groynes should be used for most bank protection. For Groynes scour can be localized. The minimum crest width of 1m is controlled by the equipment placing the Groynes and wider crests make placing easier. Scour Apron should be placed on the upstream and downstream faces as well as on the nose of the Groynes to inhibit erosion of the Groynes.0 D Where.0 D to 2.).33 (q2/f)1/3 Where. which could cause damage by particle erosion or damage to the stream bank. ------------------------------Eqn 2 . The expected scour near the structure during the construction and during the service is one of the most important aspects to consider during design. However.76 d1/2. and in particular those constructed of light wire fence.7 SCOUR PROTECTION FOR THE GROYNES River training works should be designed to resist scour.2. However. The top width of embankment Groynes should be a minimum of 1 m (3 ft. In general. Bank erosion is more severe if the Groynes are oriented in the downstream direction. For permeable Groynes. The side slopes of the Groynes should be 1V:2H or flatter. Where d is the mean diameter of river bed material in mm. The crest profile of permeable Groynes is generally level except where bank height requires the use of a sloping profile. Groynes permeability and Groynes orientation vs. Q = discharge in cum/sec.5D o Next 30 to 60M in upstream 1. impermeable Groynes should be designed so that overtopping will not occur at the bank. If flood stages are lower than the bank height. Therefore the expected scour depth should be taken into consideration in the determination of the base depth of the Groynes. The crest of impermeable Groynes should slope downward away from the bank line. As per IS 8408 1994: the top width of Groynes should be 3 to 6m as per requirement the slopes of the side & nose the Groynes would be 2:1 to 3:1 depending upon the material used. Permeable Groynes. the width depends on the type of permeable Groynes being used. The depth of scour for different portions of Groynes can be adopted as per IS 8408: 1994 o Nose 2.(1975). Straight Groynes are more easily installed and maintained and require less material. impermeable Groynes should be equal to the bank height. Where stream stages are greater than or equal to the bank height. and f = silt factor = 1. because it is difficult to construct and maintain a level Groynes. Impermeable Groynes are generally designed not to exceed the bank height because erosion at the end of the Groynes in the overbank area could increase the probability of outflanking at high stream stages. q=intensity of discharge in cum/sec/m. Most failures of the river training structures result from an underestimation of depth of scour. following formula may preferably used D = 1. D = The depth of scour below HFL estimated using Lacey’s formula. Use of a sloping crest will avoid the possibility of overtopping at a low point in the Groynes profile. When the discharge intensity is known. general or a combination of both. Less permeable retarder/deflector Groynes which consist of a soil or sand embankment should be straight with a round nose.

5 Dmax Nominal or No Apron 1. T – Thickness in m. Crates should be of made of G. .Angle of sloping bank. φ . Ss – Specific gravity of stones Thickness of Wire Crates or Gabion as per IS 8408: 1994 In case of crates. V – Velocity on m/s. θ .0 Dmax Nominal or No Apron Detailed plan & Sections drawings of straight Groynes as per IS 8408:1994 is shown in Appendix:-1 Thickness of Loose stone Pitching as per IS 8408: 1994 Thickness of pitching should be equal to two layers of stones determined for velocity from equation given below in the case of free dumping stone W= Where 0.245 + 0.5 Dmax 1.5 Dmax 1. The mass specific gravity of the crates can be worked out from the formula given below Sm = (1-e)Ss ------------------------------Eqn 7 For working out the volume of crates Sm should be used instead of Ss in Eqn 3. should be PVC coated as per International standards. V – Velocity in m/sec.02323S s 6 V 3 K (S s − 1) 1 ------------------------------Eqn 3  sin 2 θ  K = 1 −  sin 2 φ     2 ------------------------------Eqn 4 .Shape and Size of Launching Apron as per IS 8408: 1994 o o o o o o Nose at upstream Transition from nose to shank and first 30 to 60m in upstream Next up to upstream bank line Nose at downstream Transition from nose to shank and first 15 to 30m in downstream Next up to downstream bank line 1.I wire of adequate strength and should be with double knots. Ss – Specific gravity of stones. W – Weight of stone in Kg. the shape of the crates as far as possible cubical. the mass specific gravity of the crate is required to be worked out to account for the porosity. protection material. For estimating it an empirical relation between void ratio and mean diameter of stone in mm is as follows: e = 0.21 ------------------------------Eqn 6 D50 – Mean diameter of stone used in crates in mm. The stone size should be larger than opening of the crates. The thickness of crates or Gabions is decided on the basis of the Eqn 5 the condition that the mass of each crate should not be less than that determined on the basis of velocity consideration in Eqn 3 for Gabions or crates.Angle of repose of Thickness of protection layer should be checked for negative head created due to velocity from the following formula T= V2 2 g (S s − 1) ------------------------------Eqn 5 Where.864 (D50 ) 0.

It has been assumed that for this particular site the conditions are favorable for the use of Gabions as a construction material. based upon the following design example. . Figure 9. Type of Groynes Impermeable deflector Groynes are suitable to accomplish these objectives and the stream regime is favorable for the use of this type of countermeasure. Although the number of Groynes is not known in advance. Therefore for the present example the effective length of Groyne is = 1/5 x 50 = 10 m. To stop migration of the meander before it damages the highway stream crossing. We have assumed that the width of the river from the desired (North) bank line to the existing bank line is 50m and the other river flow parameters are assumed and given in appendix 2. To reduce scour at the bridge abutment & piers by aligning flow in the channel with the bridge opening. Step 1. seven Groynes will be required. It has been desired to achieve the 30% porosity of the Gabions.2. 9. Existing bank line conditions are shown with a solid line.2. Example of Groynes design. Length and Expansion angle of Groynes As per IS 8408:1994 the effective length of Groyne should not exceed the 1/5th (20 percent) of the desired river width. Ultimately. Objectives of Groynes installation:• • • To establish a different flow alignment & to reverse erosion of concave (outer side) bank. indeed will allow the water to pass through it and will help in protecting downstream bed. Step 2. the Groynes (and other design steps) are shown as dashed lines on Figure 9 as they will be specified after completing the following design example. The expansion angle for this Groyne type is approximately 17° for a Groyne length of about 20 percent of the desired channel width. For the present scenario as per plan view appearance the straight Groynes is set an angle from the bank and has a rounded head to provide extra volume and area for scour protection at the other end.8 DESIGN EXAMPLE OF GROYNE INSTALLATION We have assumed a location at which a migrating bend threatens an existing bridge as shown in Figure. as indicated in Figure 2.

Locate Remaining Groynes Groynes upstream of Groyne number 1 are then located by use of Eqn 8. Using this Groyne spacing. the first Groyne could be considered to be either the upstream end of the abutment or guide bank if the Groyne field is being installed upstream of a bridge. Thus. also three alternatives of Groynes cross section using Gabions has been shown in the appendix 3. Groynes are set at 90° to a tangent with the arc for economy of construction. the size of the scour hole at the Groyne directly upstream of the bridge should be estimated. smoothly joining the left bank at the upstream extremity of eroded bank .2) the distance.e. Hence 33m spacing is ok. using dimensions as illustrated in Figure 3 (i. The seventh and last Groyne upstream is shown oriented in a downstream direction to provide a smooth transition of the flow approaching the Groyne field. determined in Step 5). This Groyne could have been oriented normal to the existing bank.Eqn 8 As per IS 8408: 1994 the minimum spacing of Groyne should be 2 to 2.7. Then draw an arc representing the desired bank line in relation to thalweg locations.. Design of Scour protection work using Gabions as per IS 8408:1994 Scour depth & scour apron length for different parts of Groynes is calculated as per section 2. Visualize both the high-flow and low-flow thalwegs.5 times of its effective length . Furthermore. the Groyne spacing. It may be desirable to place gabion mattress protection on the stream bank at the abutment. Alternatively. The calculation & supported assumed data for the presented working example is shown in appendix 2. S. from the desired bankline to the Groyne tips (Figure 9) would be: The effective length of Groynes = 1/5 x 50 = 10 m Step 5. This can be determined by extending the maximum scour depth at the Groyne tip. For an actual location. and decreases scour at the nose of the Groyne. it would be necessary to examine a greater length of stream to establish the most desirable flow alignment. total scour depth at the pier may be increased. Sketch Desired Thalweg The third step is to sketch the desired thalweg location (flow alignment) with a smooth transition from the upstream flow direction through the curve to an approach straight through the bridge waterway (Figure 9). Locate First Groyne Step number five is to locate Groyne number 1 so that flow expansion from the nose of the Groyne will intersect the stream bank downstream of the abutment. Step 6. Detailed plan of the Groyne as per design is shown in appendix 3. Step 6. Step 4. S. The thickness of the Gabion mattress is calculated on the Groynes slope on river bed. deposition will be encouraged between the desired bank line and the existing eroded bank.2. the spacing. The theoretical or desired left bank line is established as a continuation of the bridge abutment and left bank downstream through the curve.Step 3. The . This is accomplished by projecting an angle of 17° from the abutment alignment to an intersection with the arc describing the nose of Groynes in the installation or by Eqn 8.2. concentric with the desired bankline alignment. therefore Minimum S = 10 x 2. L. and been shorter and more economical. up to the existing bed elevation at the pier at the angle of repose. Orienting the furthest upstream Groyne at an angle in the downstream direction provides a smoother transition into the Groyne field. would be: S=L x cot θ=10 x cot17° = 33m ---.5 = 25 m. Using a guideline of 1/5th (20%) of the desired channel width for impermeable Groynes (see Section 2. If the extent of scour at this Groyne overlaps local scour at the pier. but might have caused excessive local scour. Sketch Alignment of Groyne Tips The forth step is to sketch a smooth curve through the nose (tip) locations of the Groynes. Last Groynes should be anchored well into the bank to prevent outflanking.

47 pp. 6. (1989).selection of suitable alternative depends upon important of structure. construction.. Washington." FHWA/RD-84. S. model experiments for a relevant river. 2.A. No. and Nwachukwu. W. The ecological connectivity of Gabion Groynes increases through the opening in the Gabion Groynes. construction viability. Washington.S. and E. Richardson. 3.. FHWA-IP-89-016. Washington. FHWA NHI 01-004. The opening allows the better migration of species." Colorado State University.C. D. Report CER59SSK36. S. U. Vol. E. 8. HY3. IS 8408:1994 Planning and Design of Groynes in alluvial river Guidelines. Alvarez. Przedwojski. Final Report. (1995). S. “The design of Groyness for river training. "Design of Riprap Revetment. S. J. Hydraulic Design Series No. E. ASCE. 33(2). The design instructions given in this paper must be used as guide line and not interpreted as a strict code of practice. V. "The Streambank Erosion Control Evaluation and Demonstration Act of 1974. (1995). D. A. B. 1985. 1985. Przedwojski. which make them popular worldwide.. M.B. 1985. M. 9. Brown. Karaki. Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration. B. Firm design rules for Groynes not exist. D. 382-388.C. September. Executive Summary and Conclusions. Brown. "Design of Spur-Type Streambank Stabilization Structures. 11. Brown. K. S. 13. Simons. Vegetation growth and prevents scouring of downstream bank. Brown. Brazil. A. A. 100 Federal Highway Administration. 2001." FHWA/RD84-101. B.. Rajaratnam. Stevens..A. 2. "Design of Groynes-Type Streambank Stabilization Structures. 2.2.S." Final Report to Congress. B.A. (1975). 6.” XVIth . "Hydraulic Model Study of Groynes Dikes for Highway Bridge Openings. 10. 257-273. Richardson. "River Engineering for Highway Encroachments Highways in the River Environment... 5. New Orleans. 12." Report No.” Journal of Hydraulic Research.. 1959. REFERENCE 1. environmental & hydraulics stability. Blazejewski. R.C. 296-301." Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 109." FHWA/RD-84101. Final Report. Civil Engineering Section. pp. “Bed topography and local scour in rivers with banks protected by groynes.9 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 1. “Flow near groyne-dike structures. To install Groynes properly it is required to take four-steps: the fundamental design.C. design and application.. D. availability of stone & other geotechnical. Clyde.S. Federal Highway Administration. . and Pilarczyk..F. 1989. Sao Paulo. Lagasse. (1983). Rotterdam. 3.11. Balkema. Federal Highway Administration. cost. VA. "Streambank Stabilization Measures for Highway Engineers. 463-480. D. 7. River training techniques fundamentals. McLean. pp. “Design of groins and Groynes dikes. Among the different types of structures for river Groynes are most nature friendly.A. 4. IAHR congress.V.” Proceedings 1989 National Conference On Hydraulic Engineering. and Simons. D. Washington. Federal Highway Administration. and then the river itself should follow the nature system to create topography formation. Army Corps of Engineers.. N.A. 4. 1981. and P.” Journal of Hydraulic Div.

APPENDIX:-1 PLAN AND SECTION OF GROYNES (As per IS 8408:1994) .

5 942. 5 Assume Gabion Mattress of 0.551 0. 3 Weight of Stone W= 26. 6 The mass specific gravity of Gabions (Sm) From Eqn. 3 0.5 m thickness with diaphragms at every 1 m Volume of Gabion (1 x 1 x 0. 5 Assume Gabion Mattress of 0.446 0.56 0.88457 190.282 cum Kg Hence 0.5 )= Mass of Stone Weight of Stone in each gabion is higher than that computed by Eqn.5 )= Mass of Stone Weight of Stone in each gabion is higher than that computed by Eqn. 4 From Eqn.2. 3 Weight of Stone W= 150 0.27517 1.46 Kg m mm 3.5 m thickness with diaphragms at every 1 m Volume of Gabion (1 x 1 x 0. 7 From Eqn.5 1 2.5 942.6 m/s cum/sec m cum/s/m Degree m m Thickness of Gabion From Eqn.7 ASSUMED DATA Velocity of Water (V) Discharge (Q) Desired Width of River (W) Discharge Intensity (q) Angle of Repose of Fill Material ( Ф ) HFL Free Board Specific gravity of stones (Ss) Thickness of Gabion Protection work on Bed for Scour Protection Assumed Opening of Gabions 100mm x 120 mm Assumed D50 of stones in Gabions Void ratio (e) From Eqn.5 m thick Gabion Mattress can be adopted for the Launching apron on Bed Thickness of Gabion Protection work on Side Slope of Groynes Assumed Side slope of Groynes is 2H:1V Slope Factor K From Eqn. 3 0.282 cum Kg .46 Kg m Degree Thickness of Gabion From Eqn.44753 425.APPENDIX:-2 PROTECTION WORK CALCULATION FOR WORKING EXAMPLE AS PER SECTION 2.8 2000 50 40 30 4.

5 times of its effective length Assumed 2.0558 11.5 times Scour depth Calculation For Top Width of Groynes Top Width of Groyne Assumed Width of Groynes Calculation For Height of Groynes Top level of Groyne Spacing of Groynes Minimum Spacing of Groyne should be 2 to 2.1673 11.0558 5.0558 22.6394 m m 33.0558 m m m m m m m .0558 33.Hence 0.1115 16.5837 11.0558 11.5 times of Effective length than Spacing S = 25 m 5.5 m 3 to 6 3 m m 10 27.5558 11.5279 m m m m m m 1 15.5 m thick Gabion Mattress can be adopted for the Launching apron on Bed Calculation For Depth of Scour Assumed Silt Factor f = Lacey's Scour Depth (D) From Eqn.8755 11. 1 Maximum Scour Depth For Nose Portion consider Dmax = 2 D Transition from nose to shank and first 30 to 60m (Assumed up to Scour Depth) in upstream Next up to upstream River Bank Transition from nose to shank and first 15 to 30m (Assumed up to 50 % of scour Depth ) in downstream Next up to downstream River Bank Calculation For Length of Scour Apron Nose at upstream Transition from nose to shank and first 30 to 60m(Assumed up to Scour Depth) in upstream Next up to upstream (Assumed up to Scour Depth) River Bank line Nose at downstream Transition from nose to shank and first 15 to 30m (Assumed up to 50 % of scour Depth ) in downstream Next up to downstream (Assumed up to Scour Depth) bank line (50% of Maximum Scour Depth ) Check For Length of Groynes As per Desired Width of River Effective Length Total Length of Groynes should be Greater than 2.1673 24.

APPENDIX:-3 PLAN VIEW AND SECTION OF WORKING EXAMPLE .

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