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Evolution of Management thought
Early Approach to Management (1771-1924) *Robert Owen: (1771-1858) Human Resource Management Pioneer *Charles Babbage: (1792-1871) Inventor and Management Scientist Andrew Ure: (1778-1857) & Charles Dupin: (1784-1873) Management Education Pioneers Henry Robinson Towne: (1844-1924) ³Engineer as an Economist´
Robert Owen (1771-1858)
Charles Babbage: (1792-1871)
Evolution of Management thought
Andrew Ure: (1778-1857) Charles Dupin: (1784-1873)
Henry Robinson Towne: (1844-1924)
Classical Approach (1856-1920) Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924) Henry Laurence Gantt (1861-1919) Administrative Theory Classical Approach -Scientific Management *Frederick Winslow Taylor *Frank & Lillian Gilbreth *Henry Laurence Gantt -Administrative Theory *Henri Fayol:(1841-1925) -Bureaucratic Management Bureaucratic Management Evolution of Management thought .
Behavioral Approach Mary Parker Follet Elton Mayo Evolution of Management thought Abraham Maslow Douglas McGregor Chris Argyris Behavioral Approach Mary Parker Follet:(1868-1933) Focusing on Group Influences Elton Mayo:(1880-1949) Focusing on Human Relations Abraham Maslow:(1908-1970) Focusing on Human Needs Douglas McGregor:(1906-1964) Traditional Assumption about Employees Chris Argyris: Matching Human & Organizational Development .
Quantitative Approach Overview Management Science Operations Management Management Information Systems Evolution of Management thought Quantitative Approach: -Management Science -Operations Management -Management Information systems .
Modern Approach to Management: -Systems theory -Contingency theory Evolution of Management thought .
Emerging Approaches in Management Thought: -Theory Z -Quality Management Evolution of Management thought .
Emerging Approaches in Management Thought: -Theory Z -Quality Management Early Approach to Management (1771-1924) *Robert Owen: (1771-1858) Human Resource Management Pioneer *Charles Babbage: (1792-1871) Inventor and Management Scientist Andrew Ure: (1778-1857) & Charles Dupin: (1784-1873) Management Education Pioneers Henry Robinson Towne: (1844-1924) ³Engineer as an Economist´ Classical Approach -Scientific Management *Frederick Winslow Taylor *Frank & Lillian Gilbreth *Henry Laurence Gantt -Administrative Theory *Henri Fayol:(1841-1925) -Bureaucratic Management Modern Approach to Management: -Systems theory -Contingency theory Evolution of Management thought Quantitative Approach: -Management Science -Operations Management -Management Information systems Behavioral Approach Mary Parker Follet:(1868-1933) Focusing on Group Influences Elton Mayo:(1880-1949) Focusing on Human Relations Abraham Maslow:(1908-1970) Focusing on Human Needs Douglas McGregor:(1906-1964) Traditional Assumption about Employees Chris Argyris: Matching Human & Organizational Development .
was the midstarting point for the development of management concepts and theories The rapid growth in the number of factories during this period and the need to coordinate the efforts of large number of people in the production process necessitated the development of management theories and principles Slide 3 . which began in Revolution. Europe in the mid-1700s.Early Approaches to Management(1771Management(1771-1921) The Industrial Revolution.
Robert Owen (1771-1858) (1771Human Resource Management Pioneer A successful British entrepreneur in the early 19th century He was one of the earliest management thinkers to realize the significance of human resources He believed that workers¶ performance was influenced by the environment in which they worked He introduced a standard working day of 10½ hours and refused to employ children under the age of ten Mary Parker Follet:(1868-1933) Follet:(1868Slide 3 .
Mathematics professor publicly supported the idea of division of labor He was impressed by the work specialization (the degree to which work (the is divided into various tasks) tasks) .Charles Babbage: (1792-1871) (1792Inventor and Management Scientist British professor of Mathematics is widely known as the ³father of modern ³father computing´.
Charles Babbage: (contd) The management scientist believed that each factory operation should be thoroughly understood so that the necessary skill involved in each operation could be isolated Each operation could then be trained in one specific skill and made responsible only for that part of the operation Babbage felt that work specialization would reduce training time and improve (through constant repetition of each operation) the skills and efficiency of workers Slide 3 .
usually in a factory using machines Slide 3 .Andrew Ure: (1778-1857) British academician who taught at Glasgow University. published the philosophy of Manufacturing Philosophy of Manufacturing explains the various principles and concepts of manufacturing It is in 1771 the wheel was invented and an academician (an art / science teacherteacherprofessor) is talking of production or manufacturing (to produce goods in large numbers.
may have influenced Henry Fayol¶s contributions to the theory of management Slide 3 . Dupin was appointed as a 1819. which marked the beginning of an illustrious career His writings. management professor in Paris.Charles Dupin: (1784-1873) A French Engineer ±an early proponent of the study of management In 1819. well-known throughout wellFrance.
President of the Yale and Towne manufacturing company and a mechanical engineer.´ presented in 1886.Henry Robinson Towne: (1844-1924) Henry R Towne. Slide 3 . "The Engineer as an Economist. realized that good business skills were essential for running a business He emphasized the need to consider management as a separate field of systematic study on the same level as engineering In the paper.
Early Approaches to Management The early pioneers (preclassical theorist): (preclassical ± generally tried to find solution to contemporary (of yester years) managerial problems ± with their technical backgrounds did not regard management as a separate field of study ± Ideas did lay the foundation for the management theories (a theory is a conceptual framework for organizing knowledge that provides a blueprint for various courses of action) of the 1900s Slide 4 .
Classical Approach (1856-1920) (1856Classical theorists formulated principles for setting up and managing organizations These views are labeled ³ classical´ because they form the foundation for the field of management thought In this approach we have three schools of thought: Scientific Management Administrative theory Bureaucratic management .
administrative thoughttheory and bureaucratic management. it is a scientific study of work methods to improve the efficiency of the workers The major contributors to the three schools of thought.Scientific Management (1856-1919) (1856Scientific Management was defined as that kind of management which conducts a business or affairs by: Facts Truths gained through systematic observation Experiment Reasoning In other words. Henry Fayol and Max Weber respectively .scientific management.are managementFrederick W Taylor.
At Midvale. Taylor first began to experiment with new managerial concepts in 1878 while employed at the Midvale Steel Co. wrote The principles of Scientific Management in 1911 An engineer and inventor.Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) Frederick Winslow Taylor took up Henry Towne¶s challenge to develop principles of scientific management Taylor. considered ³father of scientific management´. his rise from laborer to chief engineer with in 6 years gave him the opportunity to tackle a grave issue faced by the organization-the soldering problem .
other workers would lose their jobs Faulty wage systems employed by the organization encouraged them to work at a slow pace Outdated methods of working handed down from generation to generation led to a great deal of wasted efforts .Soldiering Refers to the practice of employees deliberately working at a pace slower than their capabilities (why) Workers indulge in soldiering (?) why) (? for the following three main reasons: Workers feared that if they increased their productivity.
scientific management as per Taylor: Need for developing a scientific way of performing each job Training and preparing workers to perform that particular job Establishing harmonious relations between management and workers so that the job is performed in the desired way .Scientific Methods The scientific management approach involved using scientific methods to determine How a task has to be done instead of depending on the previous experience of the concerned worker In short.
easier and better way of performing a work or job Slide 4 . his wages would increase proportionately ± The aim of this system was to reward the worker who produced the maximum output Time-andTime-and-motion study: ± In a ³time ±and-motion´ study. jobs are broken anddown into various small tasks or motions and unnecessary motions are removed to find out the best way of doing a job ± The objective of a time-and-motion analysis is to time-andascertain a simpler.Then how to do it? Piece ±rate incentive system: system: ± Under this system: A worker who met the established standards of performance would earn the basic wage rate set by management If the worker¶s output exceeded the set target.
Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924) Frank Gilbreth is considered the ³father of motion study.´ Motion study involves finding out the best sequence and minimum number of motions needed to complete a task Frank Gilbreth also developed the micro-motion study: ± A motion picture camera and a clock marked off in hundredths of seconds was used to study motions made by worker as they performed their tasks ± He is known for his experiments in reducing the number of motions in bricklaying .
Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972) She was associated with the research pertaining to motion studies Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were mainly involved in exploring new ways for eliminating unnecessary motions and reducing work fatigue Lillian had great interest in the human implication of scientific management and focused her attention on designing methods for improving the efficiency of workers Slide 4 .
Henry Laurence Gantt (1861-1919) Henry Laurence Gantt was a close associate of Taylor at Midvale and Bethlehem steel He is probably best remembered for his work on: The task-and-bonus (incentive plan) system The Gantt chart .
e. in less than the standard time. who would be paid a bonus for every foreman. i. he received a bonus. he would receive an extra bonus Gantt felt that this system would motivate foreman to train worker to perform their tasks efficiently . worker who reached the daily standard ± If all the workers under a foreman reached the daily standard. ± He also introduced an incentive plan for foreman.Gantt¶s incentive plan Under Gantt¶s incentive plan: ± If the worker completed the work fast.
time.Gantt Chart A simple chart that compares actual and planned performance The Gantt chart was the first simple visual device to maintain production control The chart indicates the progress of production in terms of time rather than quantity Along the horizontal axis of the chart. work scheduled and work completed are shown The vertical axis identifies the individuals and machines assigned to these work schedules The Gantt chart is still used today by many organizations .
Limitations of scientific management scientific management revolve round problems at the operational (production) level and do not focus on the management of an organization from a manager¶s point of view People were ³rational´ and were motivated primarily by the desire for material (economic and physical needs) gain whereas people were also interested in other needs (social needs) (social needs) Scientific management theorists also ignored the human desire for job satisfaction Slide 4 .
Administrative Theory Scientific management was developed basically for getting more from workers whereas another classical theory ± the administrative management theory ± focused on principles that could be used by managers to coordinate the internal activities of organizations The most prominent of the administrative theorists was Henri Fayol .
Fayol believed that satisfactory results were inevitable: with scientific forecasting Proper methods of management He was not known in America till his most important work. General and Industrial Management. a prominent European management theorist. developed a theory of management. was Management. the business operations of an organization could be divided into six activities Technical Commercial Financial Security Accounting Managerial .Henri Fayol:(1841-1925) French industrialist Henri Fayol. translated into English in1949 According to Fayol.
Henri Fayol¶s Managerial Activity Fayol focused on the last activity: activity: Managerial Activity Within this. he identified five major functions: ± Planning ± Organizing ± Commanding ± Coordinating ± Controlling .
Authority and responsibility: responsibility: ± Authority is defined as ³the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience.´ ± Authority can be: Formal-derived from one¶s official position FormalPersonal-derived from factors like: Personal± Intelligence ± experience . Division of work: work: ± Work specialization results in improving efficiency of operations The concept of division of work can be applied to both managerial and technical functions 2.Fourteen Principles of Management 1.
Unity of command: command: ± Each employee should receive orders or instructions from one superior only .Fourteen Principles of Management (contd) 3. Discipline: Discipline: ± Discipline is vital for running an organization smoothly ± It involves: Obedience to authority Adherence to rules Respect for superiors Dedication to one¶s job 4.
Fourteen Principles of Management (contd) 5. Unity of direction: direction: ± Activities should be organized in such a way that they all come under one plan and are supervised by only one person 6. Subordination of the individual interest to the general interest: ± Individual interests should not take (over take) precedence over the goals of the organization .
Centralization: Centralization: ± Depending on the situation.Fourteen Principles of Management (contd) 7. Remuneration: Remuneration: ± The compensation paid to employee should be fair (reasonable) and based on factors like: Business condition Cost of living Productivity of employees and the ability of the firm to pay 8. an organization should adopt a centralized or decentralized approach to make optimum use of its personnel .
Order: ± This refers to both material and social order in organizations Material order indicates that everything is kept in the right place to facilitate the smooth coordination of work activities Social order implies that the right person is placed in the right job . Scalar Chain: Chain: ± This refers to the chain of authority that extends from the top to the bottom of an organization ± The scalar chain defines the communication path in an organization 10.Fourteen Principles of Management (contd) 9.
Fourteen Principles of Management (contd) 11. Stability of tenure of personnel: personnel: ± A high labor turnover should be prevented and managers should motivate their employees to do a better job . Equity: Equity: ± All employees should be treated fairly ± A manager should treat all employees in the same manner without prejudice 12.
Espirit de corps: corps: ± This means ³a sense of union.´ ³a union. Initiative: Initiative: ± Employees should be encouraged to give suggestions and develop new and better work practice 14.´ ± Management must inculcate a team spirit in its employees Slide 4 .Fourteen Principles of Management (contd) 13.
emphasizes (importance) the need for organizations to function on a rational (showing clear thoughts or reasons) basis Weber (1864-1920): (1864A contemporary (lived in the same period) of Fayol.Bureaucratic Management Bureaucratic management. one of the schools of classical management. was one of the major contributors to this school of thought .
He observed that nepotism (hiring of relatives regardless of their competence) was prevalent in most organization. Weber felt that nepotism was grossly unjust and hindered the progress of individuals. Therefore, he identified the characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy to show how large organizations should be run
What is bureaucracy?
The term ³bureaucracy´ (derived from the German buro. buro. meaning office) referred to organizations that operated office) on a rational basis According to Weber, ³a bureaucracy is a highly structured, formalized, and impersonal organization.´ organization.´ In other words, it is a formal organizations structure with a set of rules and regulations These characteristics would exist to a greater degree in ³ideal´ organizations and to a lesser degree in other, less perfect organization These type of organization help bring in clarity and remove ineffectiveness
Limitations of Classical approach
Classical theorists ignored important aspect of organizational behavior (action) They did not deal with the problem of:
Leadership Motivation Power or informal relations
Max Weber¶s concept of bureaucracy is not as popular today as it was when it was first proposed The principal characteristics of bureaucracy destroy individual creativity and the flexibility to respond to complex changes in the global environment Some of the managerial principles (order, equity) propounded by the classical theorists were not universally applicable to today¶s complex organizations
Behavioral Approach The behavioral school of management emphasized what the classical theorists ignored ±the human element While classical theorists viewed the organization from a production point of view. the behavioral theorists viewed it from the individuals point of view The behavioral approach to management emphasized Individual attitude Individual behaviors Group processes This approach recognizes the significance of behavioral processes in the workplace Slide 5 .
Mary Parker Follet:(1868-1933) Focusing on Group Influences: Though Follet worked during the scientific management era. she understood the significance of the human element in organizations She argued that organizational participants were influenced by the group within which they worked She suggested that organizations function on the principle of ³power with´ rather than ³power over´ What is the power she is talking about? .
was the ability to influence and bring about change She argued that power should not be based on hierarchy. instead.The Power Power according to Follet. it should be instead. based on cooperation and should involve both superiors and subordinates In other words. she advocated (publicly supported): power sharing The concept of integration (finding a solution acceptable to all group members) Slide 5 .
´ led the team which conducted a study at: ± Western Electric¶s Hawthorne Plant (1927) Objective: To evaluate the attitude and psychological reaction of workers in on-the-job situation Participants: The researchers and scholars associated with the Hawthorne experiments were: ± ± ± ± Elton Mayo Fritz Roethlisberger T N Whitehead William Dickson The study was started in 1924 by Western Electric¶s industrial engineers and was extended through the early 1930s The experiments were conducted in four phases: ± ± ± ± Illumination experiments (1924-1927) Relay assembly test room experiments (1927-1923) Interview phase (1928-1930) Bank wiring observation room experiments (1931-1932) .Elton Mayo:(1880-1949) Focusing on Human Relations: Elton Mayo The ³Father of the Human Relations Approach.
Illumination experiments (1924-1927) (1924These experiments involved manipulating the illumination for one group of workers (called the experimental or test group) and comparing their subsequent productivity with the productivity of another group (the control group) for whom the illumination was not changed The results of the experiments were ambiguous (more than one information) (more .
productivity also tended to rise ± The researchers concluded that group productivity was not directly related to illumination intensity but something else ± At this point Elton Mayo was called to participate in conducting the next phase of the experiments .Illumination experiments (contd) For the test group: ± The performance improved as the ± However. the performance of the Test group rose steadily even when The illumination for the group was made dim light ± Compounding the mystery. the control group¶s mystery.
Relay assembly test room experiments (1927-1933) In this phase. researchers were concerned about working conditions like: Working hours Frequency Duration of rest periods ± The researchers selected six women who were informed about the experiment were asked to assemble a small device called an electric relay .
productivity increased regardless of how the factors under consideration were MANIPULATED .Relay assembly test room experiments In the course of the experiments the following were altered: altered: Wages increased Rest period varied Duration of work was shortened Privileged to leave the workstation without permission Received special attention from the researchers Generally.
³Hawthorn effect´ The Harvard University group ultimately concluded: Better treatment of employees made them more productive One of the findings of the study was the identification of the concepts which came to be described as the ³Hawthorn ³Hawthorn effect´ The ³Hawthorn effect´ is defined as the possibility that individuals picked up to participate in a study may show higher productivity ONLY because of the added ATTENTION they receive from the researchers rather than any other factor listed in the study .
Interview phase (1928-1930) ± During the course of the experiments. about 21. 000 people were interviewed over a three year period to explore the reasons for human behavior at work ± The following points were observed: The social demands of the workers are influenced by social experiences in groups both inside and outside the workplace The social organization of the company represents a system of values from which the worker derive satisfaction or dissatisfaction according to his perception of his social status and the expected social rewards .
objects. such as hours of work. wages work. Their relation to employee meaning. and features of his environment. persons and events carry social meaning. satisfaction or dissatisfaction is purely based on the employee¶s personal situation and how he perceives them .Observations (contd) ± The position or status of the worker in the company is a reference from which the worker assigns meaning and value to the events. etc. ± Objects.
it can also be a symptom of disturbance. the causes of which may be deep-seated deep- .Observations (contd) The personal situation of the worker consists of: ± A personal reference: Pertains to a person¶s: ± Sentiments ± Desires ± Interests ± A social reference: Pertains to a person¶s: ± Past interpersonal relationships ± Present interpersonal relationships A complaint is not necessarily an objective recital of facts. personal disturbance.
output increased Researchers observed that output stayed at a fairly constant level.Bank wiring observation room experiments (1931-1932) These experiments were undertaken by researchers to test some of the ideas they had gathered during the interviews The fourteen participants in the experiment were asked to assemble telephone wiring to produce terminal banks This time no changes were made in the physical working conditions Workers were paid on the basis of an incentive pay plan. under which their pay increased as their plan. which was contrary to their level. expectations Their analysis showed that the group encouraged neither too much nor too little work .
and the conclusions reached were found to be questionable (little evidence) The relationship made between the satisfaction or happiness of workers and their productivity was too simplistic These studies failed to focus attention on the attitudes of employees at the workplace Slide 5 . which laid the foundation for the Human Relations Movement.Contributions/Criticisms of Hawthorne experiments Contributions: ± The Hawthorne experiments. analysis of findings. made significant contribution to the evolution of management theory Criticism: ± The have been criticized on the following: The procedures.
theorized that people were motivated by a hierarchy of needs ± His theory rested on three assumptions: First ± All of us have needs which are never completely fulfilled Second ± Through our actions we try to fulfill our unsatisfied needs .Abraham Maslow:(1908-1970) Focusing on Human Needs: ± A Brandeis University psychologist.
food. shelter & clothing ± Safety or security needs ± Social or belongingness needs ± Esteem or status needs ± Self-actualization needs According to Maslow. once needs at a satisfied. specific level have been satisfied. they no longer act as motivators of behavior Then the individual strives to fulfill needs at the next level Slide 5 .Abraham Maslow (contd) Third ± Human needs occur in the following hierarchical manner: ± Physiological needs (Basics need.
Douglas McGregor:(1906-1964) Challenging Traditional (old) Assumption about employees Douglas McGregor developed two assumptions about human behavior: ± Theory X: Presents an essentially negative view of people ± Theory Y: Is more positive and presumes that workers can be creative and innovative Are willing to take responsibility Can exercise self-control and can enjoy their work They have higher level needs which have not been satisfied by the job .
Some more ideas about Theory X & Y According to McGregor. managers assume that: Workers are lazy Have little ambition Dislike work Want to avoid responsibility Need to be closely directed to make them work effectively Like Maslow¶s theory. these two theories reflect the two extreme sets of belief that different managers have about their workers Theory X. McGregor¶s Theory X & Theory Y influenced many practicing managers These theories helped managers develop new ways of managing the workers Slide 5 .
Chris Argyris: (1923 Matching Human & Organizational Development A Yale University professor in psychology made significant contributions to the behavioral school of management thoughts The major contributions of this behavioral scientist are: The maturity-immaturity theory Integration of individual and organizational goal Model I and Model II organization analysis .
The maturity-immaturity theory Argyris points out the inherent (in-built) (inconflict (opposing each other) between the healthy individual and the rigid structure of the formal organization He believes that people progress from a stage of immaturity and dependence to a state of maturity and independence Many organizations tend to keep their employees in a dependence state. thereby blocking further progress resulting in failure and frustration .
How to correct it? Integration of individual and organizational goals. that conflict can be corrected by techniques such as: ± Job enlargement ± Job loading This will: ± Increase the work-related responsibilities of the workindividual ± Allow him to participate in the decision-making decisionprocess . Argyris argues.
managers should strive to create a Model II environment Slide 5 .Model I and Model II organization analysis Argyris classifies organizations on the basis of the employees¶ set of values as : ± Model I: The employees here are manipulative and pitted against each other They are not willing to take risks ± Model II: Workers are open to learning and less manipulative Their access to information gives them freedom to make informed choices This intern increases their willingness to take risks Hence. according to Argyris.
) problems faced by the army .Quantitative Approach The quantitative management perspective emerged during World War II between US Army and UK Navy (Royal Navy) brought together managers. government officials and scientists to help it deploy its resources more efficiently and effectively These war experts used some of the mathematical approaches to management devised earlier by Taylor and Gantt to solve the logistical (supply of material/ positioning of ships/men/arms and ammunitions etc.
Quantitative Approach (contd) This approach focuses on achieving organizational effectiveness through the application of: ± Mathematical concepts ± Statistics concepts The three main branches of the quantitative approach are: ± Management science ± Operations management ± Management information systems Slide 6 .
Management Science The management science approach stresses the use of: Mathematical models: models: ± ± ± ± ± Waiting line theory or queuing theory Linear programming The decision theory The situation theory Time series analysis etc. the action of which can be expressed in terms of: Measurement data Mathematical symbols Relationship among them Another name commonly used for management science is operations research Slide 6 . Statistical models for decision-making decision- Here. we visualize that management as a logical entity.
Operations Management Operations management is an applied form of management science It deals with the effective management of the production process and the timely delivery of an organization¶s products and services Operations management is concerned with: ± Inventory management ± Work scheduling ± Production planning ± Facilities location and design ± Quality assurance .
Operations Management (contd) The tools used by operations managers are: ± Forecasting: Example: Assessing before hand the next years sale ± Inventory analysis ± Material requirement planning systems ± Networking models ± Statistical quality control methods ± Project planning ± Control techniques Slide 6 .
in the needed form Slide 6 .Management Information Systems Management information system focus on designing and implementing computer based information systems for business organizations In simple terms. the MIS converts raw data into information and provides the needed information to each manager at the right time.
Profits and other results produced by the organization ± Feedback : Refers to information about the outcomes and the position of the organization relative to the environment it operates in Slide 7 . an organizational system has four major components ± Inputs: Money. Machines and Information are required to produce goods and services ± Transformation process : Managerial and technical abilities are used to convert inputs into outputs ± Output : Products.Modern Approaches to management Two of these approaches are: Systems Theory: What is a system? (contd) According to this theory. Men. Material. Services.
Systems Theory (contd) Two basics types of systems are: ± Open systems: A system that interacts with its environment is regarded as an open system What is an environment? environment? ± ± ± ± ± ± Society Government Creditors and Suppliers Customers Employees Shareholders ± Closed systems: A system that does not interacts with its environment is regarded as a closed system Slide 7 .
Contingency Theory: This is also known as the situational theory Management (1856-1919) (1856Management Science Scientific According to this theory there is no one best way to manage all situations The contingency approach was developed by : Managers Consultants Researchers ± The above (Rudy Giuliani -the new York city mayor) make (Rudy management decisions or adopt a particular management style only after carefully considering all situational factors Which is the best way? ± The response ³It depends´ holds good for several management ³It depends´ situations Example: September 9/11 (2001) attack on new York city Example: Slide 7 .
The organization shows concern for its employees¶ wellwellbeing Lays important on their training and development . information control and performance measurement (why?) ± Here.Emerging Approaches in Management thought Theory Z: ± This theory combines the positive aspect of both American and Japanese management styles ± This approach involves providing: providing: ± Job security to employees to ensure their loyalty ± Long-term association with the company Long- Job rotation of employees to develop their cross-functional crossskills ± This approach wants their employees to get involved decisionin decision-making process.
this approach needs to be integrated with an organization's strategy .Emerging Approaches in Management thought (contd) Quality Management: ± Is a management approach that directs the efforts of management towards bringing about continuous improvement in product and service quality to achieve higher levels of customer satisfaction and build customer loyalty ± To be successful and effective.
Summary Stages of evolution of management thought: ± Pre-classical approach Pre± Classical Approach ± Behavioral Approach ± Quantitative Approach ± Modern Approaches .
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