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“Architects and engineers are few

lucky people for they build their


monuments on public consent, on
public approval and often using
public money.”
Abstract
 In the Year 2000 The Total Population of Thimphu was
43,479
 98,676 in the year of 2005
 This means the population got increased by 2.27 times
in five years
 According to the ‘Thimphu Structure Plan 2002 to
2027’ the city is expected to have 3.73 times the
population size of what it had in year 2000, which
means Thimphu will have to shelter 162,327 people.
 Thimphu will face many difficulties which would
require engineering solutions.
 Doebum Lam which origins from Memorial Chorten
and ends connecting Chhubha Chhu Circle with
Memorial Chorten is also called Royal Boulevard.
 Ever since Norzin Lam was made one-directional lane,
Doebum Lam as per TSP is suppose to handle the
traffic pressure.
 4-lane carriage way with 0.75m wide separator in the
centre, dividing each 2-lane carriage ways in different
directions.
 Total of 4.5 square meters of parking space is provided
along the Royal Boulevard.
 The length of Doebum Lam is 1.6km
 Doebum Lam at Swimming Pool Junction provides
vehicles to change lanes without proper designed
rotary
 Hence this region is more accident prone for both
vehicles and pedestrians who cross these lanes
 In spite of two built up Subways (Underpasses), the
pedestrians prefer not to use them due to lack of
proper maintenance. This just leads to functional
failure of those two underpasses.
Design of Rotary
Definitions:

 At-grade intersection: an intersection is where all roadways join or cross at the


same level.
 Diverging: the dividing of a single stream of traffic into separate streams.
 Intersection Angle: the angle between two intersection legs.
 Merging: the converging of separate streams of traffic into a single stream.
 Rotary Intersection: a road junction laid out for movement of traffic in one
direction round a central island.
 Rotary Island: a traffic island located in the centre of an intersection to compel
movement in a clock-wise direction and thus substitute weaving of traffic
around the island instead of direct crossing of vehicle pathways.
 Weaving: the combined movement of merging and diverging of traffic streams
moving in the same general direction.
 Weaving Length: the length of a section of a rotary in which weaving occurs.
Advantages of Rotary Intersections
 An orderly and regimented traffic flow is provided. Individual
traffic movements are subordinated in favor of traffic as a whole.
 All traffic proceeds at a fairly uniform speed. Frequent stopping
and starting are avoided.
 Weaving replaces the usual crossing movements at typical at-
grade intersection. Direct conflict is eliminated, all traffic
streams merging or diverting at small angles. Accident occurring
from such movement are usually of a minor nature
 Rotaries are epically suited for intersections with five or more
intersection legs though these can also be adopted at
intersections with 3 or 4 legs.
 For moderate traffic, rotaries are self-governing and need no
control by police or traffic signals.
Disadvantages of rotary Intersections
 Once the rotary has locked up the movement of vehicles
completely stops and the traffic will have to be ultimately sorted
out by the police.
 A rotary requires a comparatively larger area and may not be
feasible in many built up locations.
 Where pedestrian traffic is large, a rotary by itself is not
sufficient to control traffic and has to be supplemented by traffic
police.
 Where the angle of intersection between two road is too acute, it
becomes difficult to provide adequate weaving length.
 The provision of rotaries at close interval makes travel
troublesome.
 Traffic turning right has to travel a little extra distance.
 Width of weaving Section
The width of the weaving section of the rotary should be one
traffic lane (3.5m) wider than the mean entry width
thereto.

 Capacity of the Rotary


Capacity of the individual weaving sections depends on
factors such as
(i) width of the weaving section
(ii) average width of entry into the rotary
(iii) the weaving length and
(iv) proportion of weaving traffic and
The Capacity of the Rotary will be calculated

Qp= Practical capacity of the weaving section of the rotary in


passenger car units (Pcu) per hour.
w= width of weaving section in metres (within the range of 6-18 m)
e=average entry width in metres (i.e., average of ‘e1’ and ‘e2’), e/w to
be within a range of 0.4 to 1.00
l= length in metres of the weaving section between the ends of
channelizing islands (w/l to be within the range 0.12 and 0.4)
p=proportion of weaving traffic, i.e., ratio of sum of crossing
streams to the total traffic on the weaving section
(p=(b+c)/(a+b+c+d)), range of being 0.4 to 1.0
Total hourly Traffic Volume
Total Hourly
Traffic Volume = 1796 per hr.

Calculation of traffic
proportion:

P1=0.71
P2=0.839
P3=0.813
P4=0.737
Design of Rotary with Standard Weaving Length

Weaving length=40m
Width of carriage at entry(e1)=6.5m
Width of carriage at exit=6.5m
Width of non-weaving section(e2)=6.5m
Width of weaving section(w)=10m
Capacity Qp =2661 passenger car units (Pcu) per hour

Design of rotary wit widened road but with manipulated weaving length

Radius of central island=3.5m


Weaving length=12.5125m
Width of carriage at entry(e1)=6m
Width of carriage at exit=6m
Width of non-weaving section(e2)=6.5m
Width of weaving section(w)=9.75m
 Capacity Qp = 1832 passenger car units (Pcu) per hour
Desing of rotary without road widening

Radius of central island=3m


Weaving length=12.35m
Width of carriage at entry(e1)=4.4m
Width of carriage at exit=4.4m
Width of non-weaving section(e2)=6.4m
Width of weaving section(w)=8.425m
 Capacity Qp=1660 passenger car units (Pcu) per hour
Pedestrian Overpass and Underpass
Pedestrian overpasses and underpasses allow for the uninterrupted flow of
pedestrian movement separate from the vehicle traffic.
However, they should be a measure of last resort, and it is usually more
appropriate to install safe crossings that are accessible to all pedestrians.
Studies have shown that many pedestrians will not use an overpass or underpass
if they can cross at street level in about the same amount of time or less.
Purpose
Provide complete separation of pedestrians from motor vehicle traffic
Provide crossings where no other pedestrian facility is available
Connect off-road trails and paths across major barriers

Considerations
Use sparingly and as a measure of last resort. Most appropriate over busy, high-
speed highways, railroad tracks, or natural barriers.
Pedestrians will not use if a more direct route is available or if the grade is
relatively flat.
Lighting, drainage, graffiti removal, and security are also major concerns with
underpasses.
Must be wheelchair accessible, which generally results in long ramps on either
end of the overpass.
Underpasses for Doebum Lam

Present subways

Currently there are two underpasses for Doebum Lam. One is located near the
Swimming Pool Junction and the other one is located near the Chhubha Chhu
Circle below Changangkha School. The current situations of these two
underpasses are:
1. The underpasses are not used by the pedestrians
2. The underpasses are not in condition to be used
3. The underpasses are facing water leakage problem from the adjacent drains
present, making the subways slippery and not usable for the general public
4. The underpasses don’t have proper lighting facilities
5. The underpasses are used as toilets by the general public
With all the points keeping in mind, one can conclude that the subways are
facing functional failure.
Reasons for functional failure of these two Underpasses

The pedestrians prefer to cross the road from the part where the separator blocks
are removed. This causes inconvenience for both pedestrians as well as vehicles and
both the parties are prone to inter or intra accidents.
Underpasses situated below the road, seeing at those just gives the pedestrians a
notion, that it is tiresome job to go through them.
The subway is not in a condition to be used.
No proper lighting facilities are provided for these subways, so, it just is
inconvenient to be used at nights.

Comment: The problem for both the vehicles and pedestrians is that, the peak hours
for both of them coincides and level of service is not enjoyed by both of them.
Proposals for the Underpasses to attract Pedestrians
Keeping the subway clean and providing it with lighting facilities.
The walls too need to be renovated and just like any other underpasses; this
underpass too deserves decoration which would be source of attraction for
general public to use the pedestrians. The walls either should be tiled or plastered
in order to look usable.
The floor too needs to be renovated with tiles or marble or any other flooring
material that gives the subway an expensive look.
Proper accessibility should be provided especially for the one situated at the
Swimming Pool Junction.
Thank You