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Published by: msbantel6541 on Mar 30, 2011
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  • 1CRM Training
  • 1.2.1CRM Introduction Course
  • 1.2.2CRM Indoctrination Course
  • 1.2.3CRM Update Course
  • 1.2.4CRM Recurrent Training
  • 1.2.5CRM Upgrade Training
  • 1.2.6CRM Transition CRM
  • 2Modules Content
  • 2.1Threat and Error Management
  • 2.3Automation
  • 2.4Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics
  • 2.5Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)
  • 2.6Problem-Solving & Decision Making
  • 2.7Cognition
  • 2.8Stress & Alertness Management
  • 2.9Situational Awareness
  • 3Threat and Error Management
  • 3.2CRM Training in Aviation
  • 3.3Human Performance
  • 3.4Evolution of CRM
  • 3.6Human Factors In Design
  • 3.7The Error Chain
  • 3.9Threat and Error Management
  • 3.10Threat and Error
  • 3.11Warning Flags
  • 3.12Avoid, Trap, Mitigate
  • 4Culture
  • 4.2National Culture
  • 4.3Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)
  • 4.4Effects on Crew Behaviors
  • 4.5Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)
  • 4.6Power Distance (PDI)
  • 4.7Organizational and Professional Culture
  • 5Automation
  • 5.2Flight Deck Automation
  • 5.3What to Automate
  • 5.4Fitts’ List
  • 5.5The Automation Pyramid
  • 5.6The Irony of Automation
  • 5.7The Automation Issue
  • 5.8Interfaces
  • 5.10From an Aircraft Manufacturer
  • 5.11Ergonomic Design Principles
  • 5.12Conclusion
  • 6Leadership and Team Dynamics
  • 6.2Leadership
  • 6.3Leadership Theory
  • 6.4Action-Centred Leadership
  • 6.6Team Building and Maintenance
  • 6.7Individual Development and Satisfaction
  • 6.8The Role of Leader
  • 6.8.1Regulating Information Flow
  • 6.8.2Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities
  • Directing and coordinating crew activities
  • 6.8.3Motivating Crew Members
  • 6.8.4Leadership Styles
  • 6.9Cockpit Authority Gradient
  • 6.10Followership
  • 6.11Team Dynamics
  • 7Communication
  • 7.2Principles of Communication
  • 7.3Communication Barriers
  • 7.4Communication Styles
  • 7.4.1Assertive Behavior [a1]
  • 7.4.2Aggressive Behavior [a2]
  • 7.4.3Supportive Behavior [s1]
  • 7.4.4Submissive Behavior [s2]
  • 7.5Dealing with Aggression
  • 7.6Conflict Resolution
  • 7.7Problem Solving
  • 8Problem Solving and Decision Making
  • 8.2Structured Decision Making
  • 8.2.1The Model “Footprint”
  • 8.2.2Providing “Seamless Integration”
  • 8.3A Problem-Solving Model
  • 8.4Time Management
  • 8.5The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model
  • 9Cognition
  • 9.3A Model of the Cognitive Brain
  • 9.4Input functions
  • 9.4.2Attention
  • 9.4.3Divided Attention
  • 9.5Perception
  • 9.6Processing Functions
  • 9.6.2Sensory Memory
  • 9.6.3Short-Term Memory
  • 9.6.4Long-Term Memory
  • 9.6.5Flashbulb Memory
  • 9.6.6Central Processor/Decision-Maker
  • 9.6.7Problems with Decision Making
  • 9.7Conclusion
  • 10Stress and Alertness
  • 10.1Introduction
  • 10.3Types of Stress
  • 10.3.1Acute Stress
  • 10.3.2Episodic Acute Stress
  • 10.3.3Chronic Stress
  • 10.3.4Sources of Stress
  • 10.3.5Life Stress
  • 10.3.6Environmental Stress
  • 10.3.7Cognitive Stress
  • 10.4Alertness
  • 10.5Sleep Management
  • 10.6Circadian Rhythms
  • 10.7Stress and Alertness Management
  • 10.8Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck
  • 11Situational Awareness
  • 11.1Introduction
  • 11.2Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)
  • 11.3Loss of Situational Awareness
  • 11.4The Safety Window
  • 11.5Situational Awareness and Error Management
  • 11.6Factors Affecting Situational Awareness
  • 11.7Communication and Shared Situational Awareness
  • 11.8Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management
  • 12Reference Notes

In the 1950s, Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those
where the human is better. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today:

Table 2: Fitts’ list3

Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are
poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. The principle task allocated
to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally

Flight Crew Training Centre





Power Output







Much superior

Superior in level and

Ideal for repetitive activity

Multi-channel, fast

Ideal for literal reproduction,
access restricted and formal

Good deductive, difficult to re-
program, fast, accurate. Poor
error correction

Specialized, narrow range,
Good quantitative assessment.
Poor at pattern assessment

Poor at coping with variation in
written & spoken material. Poor
at detecting messages in noise.

Comparatively slow

Comparatively weak

Unreliable, subject to
learning and fatigue

Single-channel, slow

Better for principles and
strategies, access
versatile and innovative

Good inductive, easy to re
program, slow, inaccurate.
Good at error correction

Wide energy ranges,
some multi-function

Good at coping with
variation in written &
spoken material. Poor at
detecting messages in

Page: 17

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

suited. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last
minute changes, an area of weakness in interface design.

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