P. 1
CRM

CRM

|Views: 1,089|Likes:
Published by msbantel6541

More info:

Published by: msbantel6541 on Mar 30, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/05/2013

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • 1CRM Training
  • 1.2.1CRM Introduction Course
  • 1.2.2CRM Indoctrination Course
  • 1.2.3CRM Update Course
  • 1.2.4CRM Recurrent Training
  • 1.2.5CRM Upgrade Training
  • 1.2.6CRM Transition CRM
  • 2Modules Content
  • 2.1Threat and Error Management
  • 2.3Automation
  • 2.4Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics
  • 2.5Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)
  • 2.6Problem-Solving & Decision Making
  • 2.7Cognition
  • 2.8Stress & Alertness Management
  • 2.9Situational Awareness
  • 3Threat and Error Management
  • 3.2CRM Training in Aviation
  • 3.3Human Performance
  • 3.4Evolution of CRM
  • 3.6Human Factors In Design
  • 3.7The Error Chain
  • 3.9Threat and Error Management
  • 3.10Threat and Error
  • 3.11Warning Flags
  • 3.12Avoid, Trap, Mitigate
  • 4Culture
  • 4.2National Culture
  • 4.3Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)
  • 4.4Effects on Crew Behaviors
  • 4.5Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)
  • 4.6Power Distance (PDI)
  • 4.7Organizational and Professional Culture
  • 5Automation
  • 5.2Flight Deck Automation
  • 5.3What to Automate
  • 5.4Fitts’ List
  • 5.5The Automation Pyramid
  • 5.6The Irony of Automation
  • 5.7The Automation Issue
  • 5.8Interfaces
  • 5.10From an Aircraft Manufacturer
  • 5.11Ergonomic Design Principles
  • 5.12Conclusion
  • 6Leadership and Team Dynamics
  • 6.2Leadership
  • 6.3Leadership Theory
  • 6.4Action-Centred Leadership
  • 6.6Team Building and Maintenance
  • 6.7Individual Development and Satisfaction
  • 6.8The Role of Leader
  • 6.8.1Regulating Information Flow
  • 6.8.2Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities
  • Directing and coordinating crew activities
  • 6.8.3Motivating Crew Members
  • 6.8.4Leadership Styles
  • 6.9Cockpit Authority Gradient
  • 6.10Followership
  • 6.11Team Dynamics
  • 7Communication
  • 7.2Principles of Communication
  • 7.3Communication Barriers
  • 7.4Communication Styles
  • 7.4.1Assertive Behavior [a1]
  • 7.4.2Aggressive Behavior [a2]
  • 7.4.3Supportive Behavior [s1]
  • 7.4.4Submissive Behavior [s2]
  • 7.5Dealing with Aggression
  • 7.6Conflict Resolution
  • 7.7Problem Solving
  • 8Problem Solving and Decision Making
  • 8.2Structured Decision Making
  • 8.2.1The Model “Footprint”
  • 8.2.2Providing “Seamless Integration”
  • 8.3A Problem-Solving Model
  • 8.4Time Management
  • 8.5The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model
  • 9Cognition
  • 9.3A Model of the Cognitive Brain
  • 9.4Input functions
  • 9.4.2Attention
  • 9.4.3Divided Attention
  • 9.5Perception
  • 9.6Processing Functions
  • 9.6.2Sensory Memory
  • 9.6.3Short-Term Memory
  • 9.6.4Long-Term Memory
  • 9.6.5Flashbulb Memory
  • 9.6.6Central Processor/Decision-Maker
  • 9.6.7Problems with Decision Making
  • 9.7Conclusion
  • 10Stress and Alertness
  • 10.1Introduction
  • 10.3Types of Stress
  • 10.3.1Acute Stress
  • 10.3.2Episodic Acute Stress
  • 10.3.3Chronic Stress
  • 10.3.4Sources of Stress
  • 10.3.5Life Stress
  • 10.3.6Environmental Stress
  • 10.3.7Cognitive Stress
  • 10.4Alertness
  • 10.5Sleep Management
  • 10.6Circadian Rhythms
  • 10.7Stress and Alertness Management
  • 10.8Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck
  • 11Situational Awareness
  • 11.1Introduction
  • 11.2Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)
  • 11.3Loss of Situational Awareness
  • 11.4The Safety Window
  • 11.5Situational Awareness and Error Management
  • 11.6Factors Affecting Situational Awareness
  • 11.7Communication and Shared Situational Awareness
  • 11.8Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management
  • 12Reference Notes

Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

Page: TOC-1

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

Page: TOC-3

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

Page: TOC-3

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

Page: 4

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

and team management skills. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre . and a series of role-plays. 1.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. leadership and team management.2. assisted by the facilitator. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). This will be delivered during the ground school phase. 2 Modules Content 2.2.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools. The candidates will conduct their own debrief. 1. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type.2.

8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.4 Leadership. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .

to the brightness required of an electronic display. knowledge. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. and with other humans. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. Despite improvements in technology. environment.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. home. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. 3. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. skill and attitude. Flight Crew Training Centre . because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. This includes everything from the design of a tool. This is due. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. HPL. 3. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. design and engine reliability.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. in part. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. to the design of a checklist.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical.

1990. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. Most of these errors are small. 3. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. especially on a long. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. 3. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. 3. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. In particular this means designing for error. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback. J. Flight Crew Training Centre .4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. encompassing the best of previous generations.

existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. of which the operating crew are the last link. Others were management failures. it snaps. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. the accident does not occur. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. Rather. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. Without assigning a principle cause. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. the holes will line up. In isolation it is insignificant. occurring years ago on the drawing board. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. 3. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. For example. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. Reason used Swiss cheese. Flight Crew Training Centre . the last line of defense. If they can break the chain. Some were latent failures. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. Occasionally.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. but placed together they form a robust wall. It was but it is not an isolated case.

e. but as long as the holes do not line up. (Errors made by other people ATC. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. at any level.e. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. Engineering. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i.External influences Errors . Threats and errors are unavoidable.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. 3. safe operations are the norm. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. Regulators etc are threats to the crew. 3. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. because despite the risks.) Threats .e. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. Management. the accident chain is broken. and it is up to us to break the chain. Flight Crew Training Centre . performing a checklist from memory. the start of an accident chain. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard.

These have been termed warning flags. Trap. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. nine common factors existed. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. 3. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. However in all cases.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. 3. such as an unstabilized approach.12 Avoid. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger. However. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing.

The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. cohesive in-groups. Uncertainty Avoidance. not to the state. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. Again.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. 4. often extended families (with uncles. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. 4. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. On the collectivist side. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. collectivism. 4. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. regarding all societies in the world. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. professional and safety culture. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. (which are predominantly male). versus its opposite. such as organizational.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre . Power Distance.

but defined from below. and motivated by inner nervous energy. but some are more unequal than others. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. Power and inequality. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. and different from usual.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. they try to have as few rules as possible. of course. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. not from above. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. Unstructured situations are novel. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. unknown. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. The opposite type. It suggests that the followers.   4. uncertainty accepting cultures. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. surprising. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. This represents inequality (more versus less). safety and security measures. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal.

against a conflicting trend. either physical or cognitive. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. Flight Crew Training Centre . Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. Furthermore. by a machine function. such as pilots. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. not what we thought we told them to do. (Norbert Wiener) 5. or an organizational culture can prevail.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. including radio operators. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues. navigators and flight engineers. 5. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. there can be anomalies where a professional group. In particular. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent.

3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. In particular. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. not to mention the human (social) effects. 5. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. Flight Crew Training Centre . The latter will not be discussed here. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. In practice this does not always happen. accuracy and reduced costs. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation.

subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. difficult to re. Whiteside. fast. Rather. J & George. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. Poor program. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. easy to re program. narrow range. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. Spine. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. M. P. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. 1986. T. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. detecting messages in noise.Good inductive. Good quantitative assessment. inaccurate. slow.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . accurate. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources.” (Good. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. Poor spoken material. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges.

The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. In the aviation scenario. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. 5.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. an area of weakness in interface design. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. resulting in further reduced workload. according to any change in tactical goal. There is a reduced cognitive load. vigilance and complacency may become issues. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. with different cognitive skills required. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . so the overall workload is drastically reduced. Overall result is reduced workload. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. – This is a high workload situation. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. Although in some systems.

Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. 5.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. Flight Crew Training Centre . The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. For this new knowledge and skills are required. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. Habsheim etc). The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. 5. communications and monitoring. Unfortunately.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. In particular. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. Cali. will disengage or will revert to another mode. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage.

Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. A lack of. 5. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . easy-to-use systems. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated. Consequently. or subtle. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. but not replace. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. 5.

In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. which is assigned. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. Humans are capable of devising strategies. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. the leader becomes a means of change and influence. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. the Captain is the designated “leader”. 6. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. which is acquired. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. We must guard against the threats posed by automation.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. 5. Through the use of example and persuasion. and authority.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. In the flight-deck environment. Flight Crew Training Centre . An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error.

This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. In fact. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. Personal qualities required are those of courage. and Manage Decision-Making Model. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . from a practical view point the Captain has a right. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. and a duty. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. In addition. the team and the individual. will power. to decide on a course of action. 6. 6. The leader must balance the demands of the task. initiative and integrity. with use of the Assess. Action. and be able to maintain team morale. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership.

6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs.5 Task To achieve the task. With a wide variety of background.8. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6. manage and direct the flow of information. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6. suggestions Giving opinions.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6.

Flight Crew Training Centre . It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making. In between.8.8. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader.8.

Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. a different style is adopted according to the situation.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. using information available at that time. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. For most effective leadership. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. but not if things are going wrong. Together. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    .

encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. The role is much like that of a chairman.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. Hughes. 6. 6. While this might be an individual’s view. 1988.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. passive/critical. Followers are a vital part of a team. RE. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. cited by Kern. R. and followership is a skill in its own right. active/uncritical and active/critical. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. G2. R & Curphy. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. Flight Crew Training Centre . Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. Ginnett. 1997. For successful team performance. since there are a number of nationalities. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. The optimum gradient. along with good communication skills. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. T.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. G (Eds). supportive followers are as important as a leader. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two.

unless identified and brought “back onside”. Making a good first impression is vital. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. 6. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. Sheep are akin to human automatons. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. because they actively support without thinking. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. The only way to ensure this is. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. Flight Crew Training Centre . Survivors are the Company men.

Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. the words used tend to be very important. 7. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. noise is still a factor. Barriers to communication are also identified. in communication within a crew. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. insulting. However.e. along with methods of eliminating them. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. This chapter describes the principles of communication. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. The actual words used accounting for about 10%. 7. and very rarely are raised voices heard. as much as 90%. While modern flight decks are well insulated. In the case of Jade Cargo International. Between a Captain and a First Officer. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. So. culture plays a large part. rank could impinge on communication as well. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. degrading language. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre .

By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. supportive and submissive. aggressive. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). whether on the needs of others or your own. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. two aspects of the message content will be considered. the focus. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority. 7. 7. and the manner. Flight Crew Training Centre . assertive.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications.4.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people.

not recommended but part of life. Referring to the matrix. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. 7. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. It is unlikely to motivate the team.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors.4. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”.downs. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. In a non-critical situation. However this may change depending on circumstances. 7.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. such as during training or non-normal situations.4.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7.4. Flight Crew Training Centre . and will likely isolate the aggressor. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. However. are avoided at all times. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team. They put themselves down. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. Therefore. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated.

be supportive. Dealing with aggression is not easy. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. will find a style that works well for them. If the other person is submissive. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. Flight Crew Training Centre . the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. An assertive response might also be effective. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. If someone is submissive. their needs will be overlooked. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. Each individual and in fact every team. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. it is likely communication that will break down completely. In other words.

Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. 7. High respect for mutual support. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. You must give to get. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. and stretch their imagination. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. which will lead to better results. communications may breakdown.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. objectives and values. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. the stage is set for potential conflict. When conflict is dealt with constructively. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. Differences in perceiving motives. If conflict does occur. Flight Crew Training Centre . the results may be positive or negative. Unwillingness to work through issues. Differing expectations of outcomes . No one person or idea is perfect. productivity will diminish or stop. Animosities can develop. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. There is more than one way to do anything.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together.favorable versus unfavorable. collaborate or compromise.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. Assertive and cooperative. trust and support will deteriorate. words.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. No one makes major concessions. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. actions and situations. test their position and beliefs. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. When sides are chosen.

2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. 8. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. rather that a model is used. However. It is not which model that is used that is important. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. Advocacy. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. Action and Critique. or good or bad outcomes. once in a while. It is the end result that we are interested in. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. Flight Crew Training Centre . either for routine or novel situations. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making. Conflict Resolution.

2. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. Flight Crew Training Centre . Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However.2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions.2. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided. 8. further modification to the RMM was required.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. 8. as well as the appropriate CRM principals.

Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. to make sure we fully understand the implications. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. there are two typical responses. Flight Crew Training Centre . By staying below the line as much as possible. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action. This does not always produce the best solution. the problem and the solution. seeking more information about it. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. its implications and how much time is available. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution.Information seeking. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . Whenever a problem is encountered at work.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. The situation can be considered in two separate domains.

Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. On the other hand.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. using a traffic light system.  Time Critical situations require immediate action. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. immediate action is required. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response.solving resource. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. Time can be considered as. A solution in the form of a question however. critical. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. In the latter case. may at best get a query in response. EFIS architecture. when there is little available.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). 8. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . In all cases. but will probably be accepted. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. losing vital feedback. available and required. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. others may be less time dependent. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. A fast decision may not always be the correct one. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). is a valuable problem.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). Open questions allow more options. this limits the opportunity for assessment. Once a time frame has been established. all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented.

propose. NAVIGATE. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. seek information. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. 8. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. prioritize. prioritize. the Captain must manage. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. test understanding propose. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. test understanding. test understanding. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. Good teamwork needs good communication. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK.

Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. When the process is complete. 8. For example in the first stages of a diversion.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. 8. Once this is under control. including the navigation away from terrain. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. An important point here is that you do not rush. However. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. all the circles are the same size. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. Flight Crew Training Centre . obstacles and weather. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. the team and the individual. Once the Group is informed and placated. it is time to manage. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. the task need is paramount. It is a circular or iterative process. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change.

Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. do something with that information and then act on it. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. we receive information. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. output functions and an internal processing function. these are known as “mental models”. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. individuals create internal representations of how systems work.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. In the same way. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. 9. Flight Crew Training Centre .3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. but functionally can be quite accurate.

so much that. touch. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time.4. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. are actually switching from one to the other.4. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function.4. sound and touch. but it is not being ignored completely. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this.4 Input functions 9. 9. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . Perception is incredibly powerful.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name).3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. sight. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. sound. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation. but only a limited signal can be conveyed. 9. 9. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. even though they do not have the loudest voice. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. if we miss-perceive an event.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. During a busy. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. This is quite normal. smell and taste. not all of them get through to the processing stage. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional.

for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285.6.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds. 9.72”.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain. 9. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. Flight Crew Training Centre . expect 150 by xxx. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. unless it is consciously being dealt with. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information. and contact 119.6.6. speed 310. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. the original message has been replayed by the mind. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions.6 Processing Functions 9. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. short-term and long-term. which really belongs with the input functions. descend 180. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. and retained by conscious attention. Another type of memory is sensory memory. you have as little as 0. 9.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost.

. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. long after the event. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. patterns or mini theories.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. Flight Crew Training Centre . Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. However the problem is not with forgetting. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. 9.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. but it is top secret. 9. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. For example. but with inability to retrieve or access the information. but becomes irretrievable due to interference. even if the correct data has never been learned.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information.6.6. Trap. and Mitigate). Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. manageable by most. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. such as ATM (Avoid. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver ….

as they are referred to by the date itself. in particular responses to RTO. It can only deal with one issue at a time. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. however it is a single channel device. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre .7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. The events of September 11. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. 9. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. 9.6. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986].Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful.6. this is when the action has become a learned routine. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. the assassination of JFK [November 1963].

some a combination of both. This chapter covers the effects of stress. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. others mental strains. In this respect. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. Performance varies with a number of factors. Some of these place physical strains on the body.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. Our interest is human performance. stress and fatigue produce similar results. 9.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. including workload and circadian rhythms. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre .

The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. In the diagram above. Flight Crew Training Centre . largely impossible. and then falls away. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve.3. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. By the same token. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise. as stress increases. consider that arousal refers to stress. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing.stimulation. upset stomach. Too little stress causes complacency. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. The right side shows over stimulation. and other symptoms. such as take-off and landing. into the optimum performance range (shaded). for example. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. Critical phases of flight. require the crew to be at optimal performance.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. tension headaches. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. acute and chronic. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. is exhilarating early in the day. 10. After a certain point. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. Initially. from being somewhat dormant. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. performance actually peaks. As stress increases further. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. 10. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. but too much is exhausting. performance improves.

anxiety. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. migraine headaches. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. stomach. anxious. cold hands or feet. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. and heart disease. dizziness. If something can go wrong. They're always in a rush. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. irritable. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. they tend to be abrupt. shortness of breath. sweaty palms. flatulence. generally requiring professional help. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. the loss of an important contract. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. their child's occasional problems at school. Flight Crew Training Centre . acid stomach.3. rapid heartbeat. and depression. heart palpitations. jaw pain. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused." Always in a hurry. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. however. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. and chest pain. who suffer acute stress frequently. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. hypertension. muscular problems including tension headache. it does. and tense. and so on. migraines. a deadline they're rushing to meet. diarrhea. They take on too much. Often. the three stress emotions.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. back pain. Because it is short term. and it is highly treatable and manageable. but always late. and irritable bowel syndrome. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. have too many irons in the fire. The work becomes a very stressful place for them.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. 10. chest pain. constipation. shorttempered. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches.

the individual gives up searching for solutions. and sometimes. sweating. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. 10.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. 10. violence. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. With no hope. which exhibits as either a physical response e. Frequently.3. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. heart arrhythmia. heart attack. This could come in many different forms. More precisely. Generally. People wear down to a final. It's the stress of poverty. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. Flight Crew Training Centre .3. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. hyperventilation. stroke. year after year. they see their lifestyle.. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. minds and lives. even cancer.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. almost comfortable. promotion to Captain). It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. their patterns of interacting with others. change in job or responsibilities (i.g.e. They blame their woes on other people and external events. They forget it's there. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. 10.3. Chronic stress destroys bodies. environmental and cognitive. or a mental response such as irritability. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. perhaps. of dysfunctional families. and. Chronic stress kills through suicide. chronic stress is not. tremors. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. familiar.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. fatal breakdown. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career.

deck. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). In the long-term. When workload is high. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. but with a dissimilar function. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. this will be covered later in the chapter. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. 10.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. or in the flight. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. Noise arouses the individual. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. 10.3. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. However. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. Two common examples could be heat and noise. especially when it involves an operating pilot. either on the apron.3. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. and mismanage priorities. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress.

As in the case of stress. thereby inducing further errors. Immediately after awakening. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. after reaching a peak. when workload is at an absolute minimum. with an inability to sleep further. It cannot be stored. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. self. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . 10. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. Response time. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. 10. or state of awake ness. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. This might be due to time since awake. the range of optimal performance is reached. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. this continues to improve performance until. Depending on the individual. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. Although this can be an effective strategy. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). Typically. they may become bogged down in processing the data. However.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). workload (physical exertion). Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. On a night flight. After some time of being awake. For example. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness.

This is known as jet-lag. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. which extend the operating day.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . However.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. 10. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. on the wrong time zone. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. sleep is deeper rather than longer. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue.

circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. 10. 11 Situational Awareness 11. providing awareness and in need of management. This chapter will explain what it is. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports. Others prefer mental stimulation.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. 11. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. when conducted in a structured fashion. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. this is a potentially dangerous practice.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. the Flight Crew Training Centre . computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. It is another warning flag. In accidents involving human error. 10. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. Managing stress and sleep effectively. In the modern world. with dire consequences in the aviation industry. is the duty of every crewmember. However it is often quoted without really being explained. As any medical practitioner will verify.

but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. one must understand and think ahead. Navigate. systems. In addition to three levels of SA. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. 11. crew. passengers and company). The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. Flight Crew Training Centre . there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot.” This is quite complex. In a well-known phrase: Aviate. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. automation modes. which mitigates part of the problem. fuel and time). and Communicate. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA). The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. It is not just enough to notice a situation.

These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. fuel burn. identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion .Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity.descent and leads up to the approach. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. Avoiding error is the initial course of action. The trapping phase begins at top-of.vague or incomplete statements 11. Results from observations at several different airlines.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. fixation and confusion. Trap. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity. After descent initiation. minimums. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity . during the take-off and landing phases.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively . less time is available for noticing and avoiding. there is much to be concerned about here. A three-stage model “Avoid. if potential problems can be identified in time. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. Flight Crew Training Centre . etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . Prior to descent. fixation and confusion exist. Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation .

11. attention-sharing. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. too fast etc) must be avoided. communications. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. Should such a state occur. Finally. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA]. contingency planning.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent. Human error is inevitable. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. 11. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. By analyzing how we deal with the problem.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember.e. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. Skills relating to spatial ability. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. task management and prioritization. and use the speed brake if necessary. scan patterns and checklist use. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. too high.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands.” Flight Crew Training Centre . psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA]. However. an undesired aircraft state (i. 11. there is very little time left to correct it. self-monitoring. unstabilized approach. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. so that we can take action to improve it.

Rotate attention from plane to path to people . Speak up when you see SA breaking down. etc.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. Flight Crew Training Centre . Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. Focus on the details and scan the big picture.don't fixate. maintenance. Project ahead and consider contingencies. ATC.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. dispatch. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level.

Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. April-May.. Colombus. CRM Advocate. T.. & Sherman. Merritt.. Merritt.S.C. 1997. Guangzhou. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. R. R.L. Flight Crew Training Centre .L. (1995). November 26-28. & Helmreich. Jakarta. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. J. Ohio. 1997. 1996. (1996).. CRM: I hate it. 1995. P. Sydney.C.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4). & Helmreich. P.R. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. Merritt. Merritt.C.. Merritt. (1997).A. Cultural influences on flight operations. (1995). New Zealand. Colombus. 1. Merritt. R. stress.. what is it? (Error..C.... Cultural issues in crew resource management.C. April 23-25. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2. R. W. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. & Merritt.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich.J. (1991). Columbus: Ohio State University.L. May 1995. (1996). Taggart. Ohio. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. April). A.. A. A. Ooi.C. A. 1996. (1996. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture. 8-12.. Helmreich. R. April-May.C. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar.L. (1996). November 20-24. & Helmreich. (1997).L. Indonesia. A.L.C.R. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar.. Auckland. 1991. April. R.0 (International) & 2. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance... Helmreich. A. (1995). A. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. A. Wilhelm.C. & Merritt.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->