I. General Description
Descriptive writing or text is usually also used to help writer develop an aspect of their work, e.g. to create a particular mood, atmosphere or describe a place so that the reader can create vivid pictures of characters, places, objects etc. 1. Purpose of the text : Social function (purpose) : to describe a particular person, place or thing. As a feature, description is a style of writing which can be useful for other variety of purposes as: • To engage a reader’s attention. • To create characters. • To set a mood or create an atmosphere. • To being writing to life. 2. Generic Structure : Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification: identifying the phenomenon to be described. • Description: describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics. 3. Lexico Grammatical : • Using Simple Present Tense. • Using action verbs. • Using passive voice. • Using noun phrase. • Using adverbial phrase. • Using technical terms. • Using general and abstract noun. • Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.
II. Lexico In Detail
1. Simple Present Tense : Pattern : a) (+) S + Be (is, am, are) + Object S + Verb1 + object Example : - I am lazy. - You bring my book. b) (-) S + do/does + not + verb1 + Object S + be + not + Object Example : - I am not lazy. - You do not bring my book.
c) (?) Be + S + Object +? Do/does + S + Verb 1 + object +? Example : - Am I lazy? - Do you bring my book? We use the simple present tense when: • The action is general. • The action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future. • The action is not only happening now. There are three important exceptions: • For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary. • For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary. • For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and negatives.the statement is always true. 2. Action Verbs
Picture 1 Picture 2 In Picture 1, a boy is playing with a ball, while in Picture 2, a girl is eating an ice cream. The words playing and eating tell us what the boy and girl are doing. Words that tell what people or things do are called Action Verbs. Examples : - The ship sailed an hour ago. - The swimmer dived into the water. 3. Passive Voice a) Use of Passive Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action. Example: My bike was stolen. In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows: Example: A mistake was made. In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.). b) Form of Passive
Pattern : Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs) Example: A letter was written. When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following: • The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. • The finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle). • The subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped). c) Example of Passive Active : Rita is writing a letter. Passive : A letter is being written by Rita. 4. Noun Phrase A noun phrase is either a single noun or pronoun or a group of words containing a noun or a pronoun that function together as a noun or pronoun, as the subject or object of a verb. a. Example of Noun Phrases Example 1 : John was late. ('John' is the noun phrase functioning as the subject of the verb.) Example 2 : The people that I saw coming in the building at nine o'clock have just left. ('The people ... nine o'clock' is a lengthy noun phrase, but it functions as the subject of the main verb 'have just left'.) 5. Adverbial Phrase An adverbial phrase is a group of related words which play the role of an adverb. Like all phrases, an adverbial phrase does not include a subject and a verb. Example : o Tony decided to move to Reading yesterday. (normal adverb) o Tony decided to move to Slough in June last year. (adverbial phrase) 6. General/Common Noun A common noun is a noun that refers to a person, thing and place. Examples : dog, house, picture, computer • Common nouns are represented in the singular and plural form. • Common nouns are represented by lower case letters. Examples of the usage of common nouns: • The red book is on the table. • The black dog is in my yard. • The computers are new. 7. Abstract Noun
An abstract noun refers to states, events, concepts, feelings, qualities, etc., that have no physical existence. Example : Freedom, happiness, idea, music An abstract noun can be either a countable noun or uncountable noun. Abstract nouns that refer to events are almost usually countable: a noise; a meeting.
III. Example Text Text 1
Identification : The giraffe has big brown eyes. They are protected by very thick lashes. This giraffe has brown spots on the skin. This coloring helps protect the giraffe. It also has two short horns on its head. Description : Like a camel, it can go for a long time without drinking water. One source of water is the leaves which it eats from trees. It is tall, so the giraffe can reach the tender leaves at the top a tree. The giraffe has two methods of self protection. If something frightens an adult giraffe, it can gallop away at about fifty kilometers per hour or stay to fight with its strong legs.
Identification : Snakes do not see or hear as well as other animals. A snake has eyes but no eyelids. They have clear scales over their eyes. Most snakes can see movement, but some snakes are blind. Description : Snake do not have ears. They have bones in their heads that can sense low sounds and vibrations. Snakes have a great sense of smell. A snake flicks out its forked (divided) tongue to collect scents. It doesn’t mean the snake is hungry. The snake pulls its tongue in and sticks the forked tips other snakes as well as prey (animals they hunt for food). Pit vipers, boas, and pythons have small pits on their heads that can sense heat. These pits help a snake sense when warmblooded animal is near.
Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds being their closest living relatives. Although there are only eight living species of bear, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found in the continents of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. Description : Common characteristic of modern bears incloude a large body with short and solid legs, a long snout, shaggy hair, plantigrade paws with five nonretractile claws, and a short tail. While the polar bear is mostly carnivorous and the giant panda feed almost entirely on bamboo, the remaining six species are omnivorous, with largely varied diets including both plants and animals. With exceptions of courting individuals and mothers with their young, bears are typically solitary animals. They are sometimes diurnal, but are usually active during the night (nocturnal) or twilight (crepuscular). Bears are aided by an excellent sense of smell. Despite their heavy build and awkward gait, they can run quickly and are adept climbers and swimmers.
Kansai International Airport
Identification : Kansai International Airport (KIX) in Japan is the world’s first international airport built on a man-made island, 5 km off the Senshu coast Osaka Bay. Description : Its terminal, a beautiful, modern four-story structure, is the longest in the world (1,7 km) and was designed by the prominent Italian architect, Renzo Piano. Indeed, even first-time passengers feel the comfort and the convenience of KIX in terms of the procedures and flow that need to be followed, from the time one disembarks up to picking the baggage. International arrivals sort out immigration matters and baggage on the first floor, while international departures take place on the third floor after one is ticketed on the fourth floor. A 24-Hour Airport Lounge, Business Center, VIP and Conference Rooms, and, of course, Duty Free Shops offering branded good at attractive prices are readily available. If you happen to be traveling with your pet, you can always have to kept at the Pet Hotel, the first ever in Japan. The fact that the airport is 5 km away from Osaka is hardly a problem. With scheduled ferry, bus services, and taxis in places, you only need a very short time to reach the other side.
Text 5 Animal Identification : Zoologists divide animals into about 30 groups. First, they divide them by whether they have a backbone. Animals that have a backbone are called vertebrates. Animals that do not have a backbone are called invertebrates. Description : The biggest and best-known animal group is vertebrates. Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish are vertebrates. You are vertebrate. Your backbone is also called your spine. There are about 40.000 species of vertebrates. There are far more species of invertebrates. Even though you can probably think of many vertebrates, the many kinds of invertebrates greatly outnumber vertebrates. Almost all invertebrates are small animals. Insects, spiders, mollusks, and worms are all invertebrates. The biggest invertebrates is the giant squid. It can be up to 60 feet (18 meters) long.
Identification : The Durian is the fruit of trees of the genus Durio. This fruit is distinctive for its large size, unique odor, and a formidable thorn-covered husk. It can grow up to 30 centimeters (12in) long and 15 centimeters (6in) in a diameter, and typically weighs one to three kilograms (2 to 7lb). Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the color of its husk green to brown, and its flesh paleyellow to red, depending on species. The hard outer husk is covered with sharp, prickly thorns, while the adible flesh within emits the distinctive odor, which is regarded as either fragnant or overpowering and offensive. The odor of the ripe fruit is very strong and penetrating, even when the husk of the fruit is still intact. Description : The flesh of the durian, famously described by the British naturalist. Alfred Russel Wallace, as “rich custard highly flavored with almonds”, can be consumed at various stages of ripeness and is used to flavor a wide variety of edibles, both savory and sweet. Durians from different species or clones can have significantly different aromas, for example red durian has a deep caramel flavor with a turpentine odor and red-fleshed durian emits a fragrance of roasted almonds. The degree of ripeness has a great effect on the flavor as well. Three scientific analyses of the composition of durian aroma – from 1972, 1980, and 1995 – each found a different mix of volatile compounds, including esters, ketones, and many different organosulfur compounds,
with no agreement on which may be primarily responsible for the distinctive odor.
Identification : The Eiffel Tower is really amazing. It is divided by three platforms : the first lies 57 meters up, the second at 115 meters, and the third at 276 meters. Above this, Gustave Eiffel had his own office installed, which was later to become a Television Transmitting Station with its aerial terminating at 320 meters. Description : The restaurants and boutiques on the first and second floors attract many visitors, most of whom naturally choose tha lifts installed in the pillars. One of the most unique panoramas in the world can be seen from the third floor; here the eye spans an ocean of town planning, rising out of which are the most noted monuments of Paris as well as the ultra-modern Tours de la Defense. Although no damage was incurred during the tower’s construction, it was indirectly responsible afterwards for the thousands of mad acts carried out by some very unusual characters that did not always succeed in their adventurous attempts. For example, some fun-loving runners organized races to the top of the first floor, while others tried to cycle down the steps. The tower stands high and mighty above the Champ-deMars, which at one time was the scene of military maneuvers and later turned into public gardens at the beginning of the century. Walking though, we can admire the flowerbeds, waterfalls, tiny lake, and the wide avenues that cross the gardens.
Identification : Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Central Java in Indonesia, located approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta. Description : The temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the largest Hindu temples in south-east Asia. It is characterised by its tall and pointed architecture, typical of Hindu temple architecture, and by the 47m high central building inside a large complex of individual temples. It was built around 850 CE by either Rakai Pikatan, king of the second Mataram dynasty, or Balitung Maha Sambu, during the Sanjaya Dynasty. Not long after its construction, the temple was abandoned and began to deteriorate. Reconstruction of the compound began in
1918. The main building was completed in around 1953. Much of the original stonework has been stolen and reused at remote construction sites. A temple will only be rebuilt if at least 75% of the original stones are available, and therefore only the foundation walls of most of the smaller shrines are now visible and with no plans for their reconstruction. The temple was damaged during the earthquake in Java in 2006. Early photos suggest that although the complex appears to be structurally intact, damage is significant. Large pieces of debris, including carvings, were scattered over the ground. The temple has been closed to the public until damage can be fully assessed. The head of Yogyakarta Archaeological Conservation Agency stated that: “it will take months to identify the precise damage”. However, some weeks later in 2006 the site re-opened for visitors. The immediate surroundings of the Hindu temples remain off-limits for safety reasons.
1. Text 1 Giraffe 1) Adult giraffe can gallop away at about… a. Fourty kilometers per hour b. Fifty kilometers per second c. Thirty kilometers per hour d. Fifty kilometers per hour e. Sixty kilometers per minute 2) The word “it” in paragraph 1 reference to… a. Giraffe b. Skin c. Horn d. Spot e. Eyes 3) The word ‘gallop’ in the last sentence means… a. Run b. Fight c. Protect d. Walk
e. Reach 4) From the description, we may conclude that giraffe… a. Need more water than camels b. Do not need much water c. Eats tree leaves for water d. Need water and do not need leaves e. Do not need tree leaves 5) The giraffe has … eyes. a. Black b. Blue c. Brown d. White e. Chocolate 2. Text 2
1) What does the text tell you about? a. b. c. d. e. Snake senses Phytons Boas Pit vipers Bones
2) What does a snake flick out its tongue for? a. To clean its mouth b. To show its hunger c. To collect scents d. To breathe well e. To see other animals 3) What is the main idea of the third paragraph? a. b. c. d. e. Snakes have a great sense of smell Jacobson’s organ is very important Other snakes can be snake’s preys Certain snakes always pull their tongues The food snakes.
4) “… find other snakes as well as prey (animal they hunt for food).” What does the word “they” refer to? a. The organs b. The roof of their mouths
c. The preys d. The snakes e. The tongue 5) “… their heads that can sense heat.” The synonym of underlined word is … a. b. c. d. e. Cold Feel Fresh Heavy Hot Bears
3. Text 3
1) How many species of bear are still living now? a. b. c. d. e. 8 7 6 5 4
2) The following statements are true based on the text above, except … a. b. c. d. Bears in the genus of giant panda only eat plants Bears are hardly found in the Northern Hemisphere Most species of bears generally feed on plants and animals There are only eight species of bears existing in the world today e. Characteristics of modern bear doesn’t include large body 3) What is the main idea of the last paragraph? a. b. c. d. e. Bears are expert in climbing and swimming Animal can sense smell from a long distance All creatures can run quickly as human can Bears are naturally isolated animals Characteristic of bears
4) The purpose of the text is … a. b. c. d. To To To To describe about bears protect bear’s habitat show that bears are large make people aware of bears
e. To entertain with bear’s attraction 5) “… bears are typically solitary animals.” Synonym of the underlined word is … a. b. c. d. e. Crowd Many Much Lonely Mate Kansai International Airport
4. Text 4 1) The text is about …
a. The Kansai International Airport (KIX) b. The Osaka Bay c. The Senshu coast at Osaka Bay d. The prominent Italian architect, Renzo Piano e. The Pet Hotel, the first ever in Japan 2) The Kansai Airport belongs to the … airport in the world built on a man-made island. a. b. c. d. e. Fifth Fourth Third Second First
3) The following statements are true about the airport, except … a. b. c. d. e. It is one of the beautiful airports Its terminal is very modern It has a terminal with four-story structure It is not the longest one in the world It has Pet Hotel
4) On which floor is the international departure done? a. b. c. d. e. The The The The The fifth floor fourth floor third floor second floor first floor
5) How far the KIX from the Senshu coast at Osaka Bay? a. b. c. d. e. 1 km 2 km 3 km 4 km 5km Animal
5. Text 5 1) What is the text about? a. b. c. d. e. Zoologist’s work Kinds of animals The biggest animals Species of human Insect and mollusks
2) Squids belong to invertebrate because they have … a. b. c. d. e. No backbone Backbone Good spines Fins to swim Small body
3) The text shows that the number of invertebrates is … the vertebrates. a. b. c. d. e. More than As many as Almost equal The same Less than
4) What is the main idea of paragraph 2? a. b. c. d. Almost all vertebrates belong to small creatures A human being belongs to the best vertebrate There are about 40.000 species of vertebrates The biggest and best-known animal group is vertebrates
5) The biggest invertebrate is … a. Spider b. Worm
c. Fish d. Mollusk e. Squid 6. Text 6 Durian
1) The text is about the fruit called … a. b. c. d. e. Caramels Ketones Almonds Durians Ester
2) Which of the following statements is not true based on the text? a. b. c. d. e. The The The The The odor of the ripe fruit is enjoyable deep caramel is one of the durian’s flavors hard outer husk is covered with sharp thorns ripeness determines the flavor of the fruit degree of ripeness has a great effect on the flavor as well
3) The above text is written … us about durians a. b. c. d. e. To To To To To promote entertain avoid inform buy
4) “The degree of … the flavor as well.” What is the meaning of “flavor”? a. b. c. d. e. Taste and smell of food Sharp unpleasant taste Strong taste of a meal Taste of sugar Taste of sweet’s food
5) “… at various stages of ripeness …” The synonym of underlined word is … a. b. c. d. Step Weight Long Done
e. Phase 7. Text 7 Eiffel Tower
1) What does the text tell you about? a. b. c. d. e. The The The The The beauty of Paris Eiffel Tower Champ-de-Mars unique panoramas boutiques
2) How many floors does the tower have? a. b. c. d. e. 7 6 5 4 3
3) The boutiques are located on the … of the tower. a. b. c. d. e. First floor Second floor Third floor Fourth floor Fifth floor
4) What is the third paragraph about? a. b. c. d. e. The The The The The mad acts done by people in the Tower garden surrounding the Eiffel Tower damage of the construction ways to step down the tower visitors of the Tower.
5) “… always succeed in their adventurous attempts.” The synonym of underlined word is … a. b. c. d. e. Lose False Satisfied Stride Luck Prambanan
8. Text 8
1) What is the text tell you about? a. b. c. d. About About About About temple Prambanan Temple UNESCO Rakai Pikatan
2) When Prambanan Temple was built? a. b. c. d. e. 1200 CE 570 CE 670 CE 690 CE 850 CE
3) Where is Prambanan Temple located? a. b. c. d. e. In In In In In Central Java 18 km east of Klaten Magelang Semarang Kebumen
4) When the temple was damaged? a. b. c. d. e. During the earthquake in 2006 When it was built In 850 CE In 690 CE In 1953
5) Below is true based text, except … a. b. c. d. e. Prambanan was built in 850 CE It’s one the largest Hindu temples in south-east Asia Located approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta It’s a Buddhist temple It’s high is 47 m
V. Bibliography :
http://inibapakbudi.blogspot.com/2009/11/descriptiontext.html http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive http://www.grammarmonster.com/glossary/adverbial_phrases.htm http://www.usingenglish.com/glossary/abstract-noun.html Picture : http://www.shutterstock.com/pic-38348803/stock-photo-littlegirl-eating-the-ice-cream.html http://www.ehow.com/how_5473414_host-team-tailgatingparty-event.html
1. A change is as good as a rest 2. A good beginning makes a good ending 3. A problem shared is a problem halved 4. A soft answer turneth away wrath 5. A trouble shared is a trouble halved 6. A woman's work is never done 7. A word to the wise is enough 8. Ask no questions and hear no lies 9. Boys will be boys 10. Better safe than sorry
1. No man or woman is worth your tears, and the one who is, won't make you cry. 2. The worst way to miss someone is to be sitting right beside them knowing you can't have them. 3. To the world you may be one person, but to one person you may be the world. 4. Don‘t waste your time on a man/woman, who isn't willing to waste their time on you. 5. Don't try so hard, the best things come when you least expect them to.
Anggota : 1. 2. 3. 4. Faizal Syahrul F. (13) Nagati S. (21) Nur Abrid D.(23) Teguh P. (28)
SMAN 1 MUNTILAN 2010/2011