Building Skills for the TOEFL iBT

Beginning READING

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TRANSCRIPTS
Listening Section / Speaking Section / Writing Section

Listening

Note: Highlighting indicates a repeated listening sample.

Chapter 1
Skill A
01 Campus Life
M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: I’m worried about my girlfriend. Why is that? She thinks she’s too fat. Is she? No, but she keeps skipping meals. Then, she only eats chips and drinks cola. I used to do that. It’s called binging. It was no fun! Why did you stop doing it? Well, my doctor told me to eat when I’m hungry. She said, “Eat till you’re full or you’ll eat too much later.” She said a lot of girls ruin their health this way. Did she say what to eat? She said, “Eat fruit, vegetables, meats, and grains. Have regular meals and snacks. Get exercise, too.”

W: Thanks! OK... it’s 9.1 centimeters tall and 5 centimeters wide. Just what I need!

05 Anthropology
W: Track and Field events happened long before they became a sport. The San people in Africa are one example. They still hold what’s called a “Persistence” hunt. The men find the tracks of an antelope herd. They find the antelope and follow them for several days and nights. During this time, they study the animals and choose one. Then, the hunt begins. Only the fastest runner will go after the chosen animal. He and the animal may run for as long as eight hours. If the hunter “persists,” the deer will finally get tired and fall. Then, he’ll slaughter it.

06 Business Writing
W: When you’re writing a business letter, it’s important to be specific. That is, tell the reader exactly what he or she needs to know. If something is wrong, list what the problem is and what should be done to fix it. If you need information, state clearly what you want to know. Next, um, be positive. Say “no” in a good way. M: How can we do that? W: Use polite language. For example, “we regret to inform you that...” or “we’re sorry, but...” Always keep in mind this golden rule: write the kind of business letter that YOU would like to receive.

M: W:

02 Music History
M: We know that Ludwig van Beethoven was born in 1770 in Bonn, Germany, but we are uncertain of the month. Beethoven wrote hundreds of songs. One of his most famous is his Fifth Symphony. The first four notes go like this: dah dah dah da! Almost everyone recognizes them. He was the first to use trombones in a symphony. At age 28, he began to go deaf. Yet, he kept on writing and conducting. He never got married. But after he died, friends found some love letters. We don’t know who he wrote them to. Beethoven died in 1827.

07 Campus Life
M: Come on Holly, we’re going to be late. W: For what? M: Today’s the day of the parking-space lottery. I want to see if I get a parking space for next year. W: What?! You mean if they choose your number, you get a place to park your car? M: Yes. Parking is very limited. Only a few students can bring their cars. And freshmen are never allowed to park on campus. W: If your number is chosen, do you get to park for free? M: No. It costs $120 a year. W: So, you’re hoping to win the privilege of paying money? M: Yes. Now, come on!

03 Biology
W: OK...let’s talk about animals we don’t see in the winter. Many animals hibernate during the cold months of the year. Basically, they go to sleep. Some animals hibernate in holes in the ground. Others sleep in caves, under bushes, or at the base of trees. Bears hibernate. So do cold-blooded animals, like frogs and snakes. When animals are hibernating, it seems like they’re dead. They have slow heartbeats, and they almost stop breathing. They have stored extra energy and fat to keep them alive. By the end of winter, they are very weak. They must eat soon after waking up.

08 English
W: Professor Smith, I forget many English words. What’s a good technique to remember them? M: Try using index cards. Uh, small pieces of heavy paper. W: What do I do? M: On the front of the card, write the new word. On the back, write a definition of the word at the top...in English. W: In English? M: Yes. No native language! Then, divide the bottom part of the back into two halves. On the left, write a correct English sentence using the word. On the right, draw some kind of picture...anything that helps you remember the word. W: Then what? M: Review the cards every day.

04 Campus Life
M: Hey Julie, what’s up? W: Hi, Brian. Taking a break from studying. I’m surfing the Internet for an MP3 player. M: Do you like the iPod? W: Yes, but I need a really small one. M: Oh, it’s small! W: Really? Someone told me it holds 5,000 songs! M: It’s 3.6 inches tall and two inches wide. I have one. W: What’s that in centimeters? M: The math textbook says one inch is 2.54 centimeters. W: OK, so first I need to multiply 3.6 by 2.54. M: Here! Use my calculator.

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Transcripts

Skill B
01 Geography
W: Another name for the South Pole is Antarctica. This is a continent, but no people live there. There’s a good reason for this. It’s the coldest, windiest place on Earth. The lowest temperature ever measured was in Antarctica. Minus 88 degrees celsius! Ninety-eight percent of the ground is permanently frozen, and the continent contains 87 percent of the world’s ice. Antarctica’s only human occupants are scientists. They go there to learn how Antarctica used to be millions of years ago, when it was located at the equator. Antarctica used to be connected to Australia, before all the continents on the planet shifted.

M: There’s free Internet information --- The Hermit Crab Association. They help crabs in captivity. And we will take them back to a beach someday.

06 University 101
M: As we study in university, we find we have a lot of reading. It’s very productive to learn how to read faster. To do this, you need to know how fast you read now. I’ll show you a quick test to find out. But before I do, let me say this. In this test, it’s important to understand what you have read. Rushing to beat the clock is pointless. You won’t enjoy the reading or understand it well. You’ll also get a false measure of your reading speed. When you finish, you should try to see what you remember.

02 Campus Life
W: Hey Joe, where are you going? Are you on your way to class? M: No. I’m on my way to the recreation center to play basketball. Want to come? W: I can’t. I’m not a member. M: If you’re a full-time student, membership is included in your tuition. Do you have your student ID card? W: Yeah. Does that mean I can use any part of the rec center? M: Yes. You can use the swimming pool, the gym, the weight room...anything you want. All you need to do is show your ID card at the door. W: Hey, cool. I’ll come with you.

07 Health
W: We all know that we can get Vitamin D from sunshine. Long winters make it hard to get enough. People who don’t get outside often don’t get enough either. Without Vitamin D, we may develop weak bones and teeth. We can get certain kinds of cancer more easily, too. Few foods other than fish naturally have much Vitamin D, so it’s important to get some sunshine every day. But be careful. Too much can cause skin cancer. Notice what most animals that live outside all the time do. They are most active during the hours before sunrise and after sunset.

08 Campus Life 03 Literature
M: If a play makes you laugh, it’s a comedy. Comedies have humorous characters and happy endings. A good example of a comedy is Shakespeare’s classic Much Ado About Nothing. Another popular style is called tragedy. Tragedies usually tell how a hero ruins his life, falling from good fortune to bad fortune because of a “tragic flaw” in character. One example is the play Ghosts, by Henrik Ibsen. Um, modern years have produced a third style, called tragicomedy. In tragicomedies, the play seems as though it will end in tragedy but instead has a humorous or unclear ending. An example is Saint Joan, by George Bernard Shaw. W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: Ha ha! Hey Trevor, check this out! I’m trying to study here! Oh, sorry. But this is really funny. What is? This article about strange inventions. Like what? Well, one guy invented a ladder for spiders. It’s a rubber strip you can put on the side of your bathtub. Ha! Yeah? What else? A portable seat. You carry it around your waist like a big cushion. Ha! That’s really stupid. Here’s the best one: A car license plate that tells if the driver’s a man or a woman. I like that one. Then I could stay away from women drivers. Yeah... Hey!

04 Physics
W: It’s a beautiful blue sky today. Ever wonder why it’s blue? It’s because the sun’s rays scatter, or spread out, as they enter the Earth’s atmosphere. Blue rays are scattered most; they seem to be all over the sky. Yellow rays are scattered less. This is why the sun looks yellow most of the time. But, after sunrise and just before sunset, the sun looks red. Why? Because then the rays must travel a longer path into the atmosphere. More of the blue and yellow rays are scattered. The red rays are scattered the least. So, they come through in the largest numbers.

Skill C
01 Campus Life
M: I’m interested in your course on Indian culture. Can you tell me about it, please? W: Certainly. The course is eight weeks long. There will be a mid-term examination, a final exam, and two essays. M: How do you determine the grades? W: The final will account for 30 percent of your mark. The mid-term is 15 percent, the first essay is 10 percent, and the second essay is 30 percent. M: Let’s see. 30, 15, 10, 30...that’s only 85 percent. W: The other 15 percent is based on your attendance and participation in the class. M: It sounds interesting. I think I’ll take it.
Transcripts

05 Campus Life
M: W: M: W: M: Hi, Ms. Jansen. Can we keep Romeo and Juliet in our dorm room? What on Earth...! They’re our pet hermit crabs! Oh, poor crabs! Don’t you think they’d be happier on the beach? Well, at the store they were squished into a little box. We thought they’d be happier with us. We let them out when we’re home. We give them baths too! W: I see. Do you know what to feed them?

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02 English
W: One of the most effective ways to increase your vocabulary is through newspapers. They are cheap, and they have a wide variety of words. When you read an English newspaper, make a list of eight to ten words you don’t know. Look them up in a dictionary. Then add them to your vocabulary notebook. If you learn eight new words each day, you will be learning new words faster than the average American. M: Professor? W: Yes? M: How can we remember the words after we write them? W: Spend 15 minutes each day reviewing words from the previous day. You’ll be surprised how fast you learn.

M: Thank you! Let me tell you about my “white noise” machine. Does noise ever annoy you or keep you awake? Well, we can lessen noise by using “white noise.” Think of water. Think of sending one big wave toward another coming in. My machine does that with sound. It can tell how much noise is coming in, then send back “white noise.” You don’t hear it, but it shuts out the noise! I hope that my machine will help those who need quiet. Thank you!

07 Health
M: Acupuncture is a way of treating sick people. The Chinese developed it over 2,500 years ago, and it is still used today. In acupuncture, small metal needles are inserted into spots on the human body. There are 787 of these spots. Each one is connected to a special body part or system. If, um, your ear hurts, for example, the doctor will put needles into all the spots connected with your ear. The needles don’t hurt because they don’t go in very far. Sometimes the doctor runs an electric current through the needles. We don’t understand exactly why this helps people.

03 Campus Life
W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: I really like art! Especially paintings. Really? Do you have a favorite one? Yes, Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. What do you like about it? Her smile. If you look closely, it seems she’s not smiling at all. Look again, she’s smiling! So many artists try to copy that smile. It must be hard to paint something so beautiful. Did you ever notice that she doesn’t have any eyebrows? Really? No! I never noticed. I wonder why? Girls in that time shaved their eyebrows. I just read it in our art history textbook. Hey! That’s cool. Nowadays, she’d have an eyebrow ring!

08 Math
W: Geometry is the study of points. Now, a point is a small dot, like a period at the end of a sentence. If we have two points, we know that there can be other points between them. There can also be a line. The line is continuous. It has no space between each point. Part of a line, with points at each end, is called a line segment. Two line segments can be the same length. We call these line segments congruent. That just means the line segments are equal in length.

04 Anthropology
M: In North America, the best weavers are a group of people called the Pueblo --- that’s P-U-E-B-L-O. The Pueblo have been weaving clothes, baskets, and blankets since at least 1000 BC. At first, they used their fingers to weave together vegetable fibers and animal hair. In the first century AD, they began growing cotton. About this time, they also started using a loom --- a kind of, um, machine that helped them weave the cotton into cloth more quickly and easily. By the year 1600, the Pueblos had sheep, so they began weaving wool, using the same methods they had used for weaving cotton.

Chapter 1

Skill Review
A-C
01 Campus Life
W: What should I do to prepare for my exams? I have some old exams from last year. Do you think it’s a good way to study? M: Yes, it can help. Being familiar with the way the test is made up is beneficial. You may be less anxious at exam time. First, quickly look over all the material you’ve studied. Then decide which things you need the most work on. Then use questions from the exams to practice. W: Great! I should just memorize all the answers! M: No, I don’t think that’s a good idea. Questions on the new exam will probably be different. You need a strong understanding of the material. Memorizing won’t replace a thorough knowledge of the subject. W: I guess that’s probably true. So, what else can I do? M: Make sure you go to all the review sessions. Go to your professor’s office hours too. W: I always do that. I really like my professor. M: Good! In the exam, be sure to read the directions carefully. They may be different from the practice exams. Also, make sure you get to the exam in plenty of time. Get comfortable before it begins. W: OK! Thanks for your help.

05 Campus Life
M: Have you heard about Mexican turtles disappearing? W1: Yes. It’s because they lay their eggs on the beach, right? M: Yeah, and people eat the eggs. But my professor said there’s a plan to save them. W1: What is it? M: I don’t know, but he gave us a phone number. W1: Let’s call! M: OK, here goes... W2: Hello, Environmental Protection Hotline. How may I help you? M: I’d like to find out about the program to save Mexican turtles. W2: Yes, of course. I can send you something to read or you can look at our website, www.enviro.com. M: Thanks! I’ll look at the website. W2: Thanks for calling!

06 Physics
W: And now, the winner of this year’s science fair, Choi Min-Soo! Min-Soo, tell everyone about your work.

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Transcripts

The smallest country is Surinam. South America lies between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. water. Chad. Earth. I really want to learn to do lithos! M: W: M: W: M: 06 Geography M: South America is a large continent. 02 Communications W: Do you say what you really mean? We learn from listening to others. This is not allowed in public schools. Why don’t you go outside and take a few deep breaths? That’ll give you lots of oxygen. There are three other categories: students. Adding “of opinion” is not needed. In 1921. At home. What are you doing with that camera? I’m taking pictures for our class photo exhibit next week. He told the US president that Hitler was making an atomic bomb. and was interested in science from an early age. he failed on his first try to enter university. he won the Nobel Prize for physics. And students are taking all the pictures? Yes..500 kilometers wide. something in the wood changes. Wow. At this point. or charcoal. I need to get three or four good shots of nature on campus.mom or dad --. but it has only 12 countries. 04 History W: Albert Einstein is considered the greatest scientist of the twentieth century. “We’ve reached a consensus of opinion. Einstein moved to the United States. but fire is really different.. The equator crosses the northern part of the continent. 05 Campus Life M: W: M: W: M: W: Yaaaahh Quit yawning! I’m trying to read.” “Consensus. Hmm.” already means that all of the people have the same idea. A third part of the wood becomes carbon. go outside and try doing something interesting. South America is about 1. Rita. Part of the wood turns into gas. enlarge them. lighters. Yeah. This new bomb helped end World War II. burns slowly and hotly without smoke.” What we really mean is. Of course. and buildings. even magnifying glasses can be used. Will all the photos be of nature? No. But if we’re not careful. We have to be ’ careful in using cliche s. water. Yep. This is smaller than many US states. Here’s an example. it’s because your lungs need more oxygen. we need a spark or heat source to start it. but it really isn’t matter at all. And some want to teach their children about their religion. Usually. This gives us enough time to cook food. Some think public schools are too dangerous. and frame them. and air are all forms of matter.02 Physical Science W: Some people once thought that only four things made up the Earth: earth. And parents are sometimes not the best teachers. You often hear. Of course. The US made one first. Fire also has to have air so that it can burn. We see this gas as smoke. I need a break from this boring textbook. or char. You can even move it from place to place. It’s a good way to learn. M: Oh. You’re going to be busy. “I like it a lot. When Hitler came to power in Germany. white powder left after a fire. It is matter changing form. This means the parents teach them at home. leaving room for air. For example. Where’s that going to be? In the student center. air. You’re probably not breathing as deeply as you should. he did enter a university in Switzerland. we learn other people’s mistakes. He had trouble in school.” 07 Campus Life W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: Hello. two students. Good idea. In 1896. The southern-most point in South America is a narrow tip called Tierra del Fuego. What exactly is on my transcript? M: Well. It may seem the same in that you can see it. Well. If you’re bored. children can help choose which subjects to study. He was born in Germany in 1879. It is almost as big as the United States! A lot of people don’t realize that from just looking at a map. 641 03 Sociology M: More and more US parents are choosing to homeschool their children. What’s happening? Not much. A saying that’s used too often is called a cliche . Maybe a break and some fresh air will give you some energy. See ya. It’s $8. We have to take them. And since there are only one or Transcripts . yeah? So you’ll have to send them your transcript. basically all your courses and grades. We can make sun shine through it to form a very hot spot of light. W: How do I get it? M: At the transcript office. Skill D 01 Campus Life M: Hey. Brazil takes up almost half the land in South America. homeschoolers might get lonely. Since fire doesn’t start by itself. Our biology professor said when you yawn. what are you looking at? W: I’m looking at a Nova Scotia College of Art catalog. Some think the education level is too low. however. That’s a glass piece. the teacher --. W: Great! I can do this soon. specially made for seeing small things. we first put down easily flammable material like newspaper or dry leaves. develop them. too. We call this fuel. It takes the secretary three or four days to do it for you.can give them lots of attention. It cleans your blood. They do this for several reasons. Then. Wood has to reach about 150 degrees Celsius. The largest country in South America is Brazil. we carefully place pieces of wood over it. Then. Sorry. The parts of the wood that don’t burn change to ash. This is the soft. I’m going to transfer there. In fact. Matches. This char. “I love chocolate. and smell it.my blood must be filthy. W: I guess so. but I’ll still be tired. I’m gonna go photograph the cherry tree blossoms. I’m just tired today. feel it. They have a great lithography program. This is only about 300 kilometers north of Antarctica. It’s an activity. professors. when we build a fire. I think I’ll go for a bike ride. then. it’s easy to say something ’ like. fire has to have something to burn. and fire.

every place on the planet would have either daylight or darkness all year long. I don’t know where he was going. or image. Is it true that Mars once had rivers and oceans? A lot of scientists think so. For two weeks. The person counting Romans and getting the taxes was called the “Censor. Walk backwards sometimes. But on the train. Skill E 01 Campus Life M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: Hey. Then. But it gave me so many websites! W: Maybe you can ask Professor Cohen if there’s a good video you could watch. Choose carefully! 05 Campus Life W: M: W: M: W: Hey. Ed. Well.08 Social Studies M: A population is all the people. Are you a friendly person who enjoys meeting people and talking with them? Perhaps you should become a salesperson or a teacher. and movement. people vote for the leader. but it has many rules. take a rest every hour and go for a short walk. sir!” Mark Twain asked. 08 Psychology M: It’s easier to remember something if we make a picture. It turns completely around once each day. instead of taking the elevator to class. give it color. it could jump up and lock you out. Take something you often lose. is one of the best liked sports around the world. whatever you decide.and Venus. In a democratic government. There is one very basic soccer rule.” be an accountant or scientist. Make the key special in your mind. for two weeks. One was taken in 2 AD and the other in 140 AD. Democracies need to know everyone who is old enough to vote. Does anyone know how fast it spins? M: Two thousand kilometers an hour? W: Close. of it in our minds. you can’t study all the time. If you don’t watch it. you have to do that job every day. That’s easy.. W: Well. And when you’re studying. but not Venus.we all know that the Earth spins as it rotates around the sun. M: Wow! I’m still looking for information on George Washington. Just type the words you’re looking for and then click the “search” button. Will you be interacting with others or spending most of your time alone? There are many factors to consider in choosing a career. 07 Campus Life W: I finished writing my paper on the American Revolution. Make it shiny gold. Hmm. Anything else? Yeah. I’ve got to study for my mid-term exams. “I’m so proud to have you on this train.200 kilometers an hour. I wrote down all the important people and then looked them up on the Internet. A ticket-office worker said there was no room on the sleeping coach. M: Soccer. It’s too hot. Taking a census means getting information about every member of a population. The two oldest known censuses were taken in China. So is social status. Censuses were taken by the Roman Empire. like a key. you’re not likely to forget it again. Give it detail. “General McClellan. mmm. It’s the next closest. I could do that. at least we can see them with your new telescope! M: W: M: W: M: 06 Astronomy W: OK. Now. Money is certainly one of them. You know. M: I wish I’d seen that show. You can remember a common object by giving it three qualities: detail. Man. the conductor saw him and came right over. But remember. animals. We can most easily see Mars --. You’ve gotta exercise! How? I don’t have the time! You can do simple things. Imagine it has very sharp teeth. It’s an easy game to understand. or football.. It strengthens the back of your lower legs.. walk up the stairs. run well. This is a warning. He or she will not be allowed to play anymore. especially democracies. That would help you know what to look for. Each player must follow the rules carefully. A player who doesn’t can be given a yellow card. Have fun at basketball. “Oh! Who am I?” and heard. A player who gets a red card is forced out of the game.it’s closest to Earth --.” You can imagine his surprise. it shines on the back side.yeah. This is similar to the situation on the moon. I saw a TV show about it last week. the sun shines on the front side. what would happen if the Earth stopped spinning so fast? If it slowed down to one rotation every 365 days. 03 Literature W: There’s a famous story about Mark Twain. neat! You got a telescope for your birthday! Yes. or plants living somewhere. maybe you should 642 Transcripts . Think about what your job requires. How do you think a slower rotation would affect your lives? 02 Phys. Did you know it has two moons? No! Amazing! How many moons does Venus have? None! Do you think people will ever visit Mars? Maybe someday. Now. Tony. give it movement. 04 Psychology M: It’s important to choose a job that’s right for your personality. Imagine it is alive. just squeezing a tennis ball makes your hands stronger and helps you relax. Like. Census information helps governments. we can look at the moon! Can we see any planets with this telescope? Yes. He made especially sure that Twain was comfortable. Thanks. The Bible also tells of three different censuses. Then. He showed him to a sleeping coach in first class. Once he got on a train in New York. but the train was full. It is one that everyone knows. A player who breaks the rules many times may get a red card.. About 2. M: I tried. W: You can still find information on the Internet. Then he said. for instance. Finally. If you think of it this way. color. A player cannot do anything that could hurt another player. If you’re quiet and thoughtful.. Want to go play basketball? I can’t. too.

In 1952. In April 1943. Dr. how long have you been a university professor? M: Eighteen years. Shin. 07 Campus Life M: W: M: W: M: W: Hi. How many seconds have passed? The lightning is one kilometer away for every 3 of those seconds. narrow strips. Robin first appeared as Batman’s partner. That cooler air may flow about 3 miles ahead of the storm. They brought back lots of gold and silver. Personally. The license plates there say USA. evaporation. in Arizona. The air becoming suddenly cooler tells you about how close it is. What did you do there? Well. Alfred. In one cave. 03 Literature M: Batman has changed several times since he first appeared in a comic book in May 1939. That’s pretty fast! Sound travels much more slowly at 1 kilometer per 3 seconds. such as Cuba and the Philippines. In May 1964. In the 16th Century. And he cut open dead people to learn how the human body works.sixty miles of them. Thanks. Sandra. Italy. But I did discover that I love teaching. He was also a scientist and inventor. begin counting seconds. It’s a state in the southwestern US. That’s funny. and emulsification. she taught me that “the pen is mightier than the sword. Batman and Robin were joined by their butler. But Leonardo was also an excellent scientist. Transcripts 643 . After that. So I’ve been a writing teacher ever since. called windrows. the “new look” Batman appeared. I really enjoyed your class. Do you have a thermometer? Yes.Skill F 01 History W: Spain is a country in Southwest Europe. There’s another way to know how close a storm is. Spain lost Cuba and the Philippines in the SpanishAmerican War. stop counting. let me read the thermometer for you. Other times. humans accidentally spill it when digging for oil or carrying it on boats. 05 Campus Life W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: I don’t feel well. W: And you became a writer like your mother? M: No. south of France and west of Italy. the oil forms long. it cools the air. we’re certainly glad you became one. 06 Science M: Light travels at 297. When oil spills. I wasn’t very good about taking my medicine.” So when I entered university. After America was discovered in 1492. As rain falls. I could have malaria. three things happen: spreading.. Spain lost a famous war against England. It established colonies in other parts of the world. the lighter parts of the oil disappear. The first Batman is now called the “Golden Age” Batman.600 kilometers per second. What are those? Caves --. I do. not his strength. Knowing this. NEW Mexico. Joe. The oil also mixes with other things floating in the water. 02 Campus Life W: Dr. I think I’ll skip class today. She was a writer. But in 1588.weren’t built until after he died. we can judge the distance of a storm. we went to Albuquerque --the biggest city in New Mexico. He began studying painting at age 14 and became famous just a few years later. You can remember this word as “wind” plus “rows. it was the most powerful nation in the world. Here you go. But his two most famous inventions --. to catch criminals. Only the heavier parts remain. Ooh! That doesn’t sound very good! You’d better take your temperature. His costume had a black bat in a yellow oval. its power began to decline. Spain sent many people there. Thank you for being on the show today. This forms a heavy and sticky substance. Trade with the new American colonies made Spain rich. Finally. He was the only one who knew Batman and Robin’s real names. and I ache all over.. In evaporation. The first Batman did not have the oval. It was awesome! Then. M: W: 04 Ecology W: The kind of oil that usually spills into the sea is called crude oil. In April 1940. Here. Leonardo was born in 1452 in Vinci. E-M-U-L-S-I-F-I-C-A-T-I-O-N. At an early age.Uh-oh. These are malaria symptoms. I started to study writing. Barb! How was your vacation? Great! We went to New Mexico. W: Well. His best-known paintings are Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. I just came back from a trip to Africa with my parents. Then we visited Carlsbad Caverns. so people don’t get confused. I actually never wrote any books. Sometimes it leaks naturally.” The wind pushes the oil into long rows across the water. on our way there we stopped at the Grand Canyon. You went to Mexico? No. Batman teamed with Superman for the first time. he was an inventor.the parachute and the war tank --. In spreading. What’s wrong? I feel hot then cold. we had to wear hats with lights so we could see in the dark. When you hear the thunder. He was famous for using his mind. In 1898. which is sometimes called chocolate mousse. In emulsification. the waves mix water into the oil. W: Could you please tell our campus radio listeners what made you want to become an educator? M: I guess it was my mother. your temperature is really high! You’d better go see the school nurse! You know. He kept detailed notebooks of observations about the natural world. Shin. 08 History W: Leonardo da Vinci was not only a great artist. When you see a lightning flash.

Chapter 1

Skill Review
A-F
01 Psychology
W: Some people can remember things in a way that seems almost impossible. It’s as if their minds just take photos. They might be able to repeat a lecture word for word. They can even accomplish this feat many years later. Some very good chess players can play with their eyes covered. This is called “Blindfold Chess.” They can play against several other players at once --- and win! Someone tells them the other players’ moves. They can easily remember where the pieces are on all the boards. Scientists call this “eidetic memory,” though many people call it photographic memory. However, this may be misleading. Scientists believe the memories are not stored photographically, but in another way. A scientist named Dr. DeGroot did a test to show this. A chessboard was set up a certain way, and some chess players were given fifteen seconds to look at it. Then, they were asked to set the pieces up again in the same way. The more seasoned chess players easily set up the pieces again. The beginners had a more difficult time doing it. In the next test, Dr. DeGroot began in the same way. However, this time he set them up in a way that would never happen in a real game. Now, the really good players had difficulty remembering, too, remembering only as well as the beginning players. It seemed they needed to apply their knowledge of what was really possible in a game. That is, they needed to apply what they knew about chess to remember well.

4. Try reading the ending first, so you know where the passage is going. 5. The next day, look over the passage again. Only read what you’ve underlined. Do it again a week later. Now, each night for several nights before a test, look at your list. Take an hour or two. You’ll remember some things from class. When you find something you can’t remember, look it up. You’ll learn what you don’t remember this way. You’ll have no problem getting a high score on the exam. Learning this does take time, though. So don’t get discouraged. Keep practicing. You’ll get it.

Chapter 2
Skill A
01 Culture
M: Let’s talk about sneezing. When someone sneezes --- Ah choo! --- the customary response is, “Bless you” or “God bless you.” Why do we say this? There are several theories. Some of these are superstitions --that is, things that many people believe but that aren’t really true. One superstition is that saying “bless you” keeps the devil from flying down your throat. Another is that “bless you” keeps your soul from flying out of your body. Actually, there is a historical reason for this custom. There was a pope in Rome named Gregory the Great. When he was elected pope, the great plague was beginning all over Europe. Thousands of people were dying. In fact, the pope before Gregory had died of the plague. To get rid of the plague, Pope Gregory ordered people to march through the streets, asking for God’s help. If someone sneezed, others would immediately say “God bless you!” They hoped this would keep the person who sneezed from getting the plague. Today, of course, we know that when you sneeze, the devil isn’t trying to rush down your throat. Your soul won’t leave your body. And saying “bless you” to sneezers in the street is not going to cure disease. We do know, though, that each sneeze forces thousands of germs into the air. People keep germs out of public places by covering their mouths when they sneeze. And hearing an old-fashioned “bless you” from a stranger can make us feel better when the sneezes begin.

02 General Studies
M: Some people really go overboard using their yellow markers to underline everything. I’m going to suggest that this isn’t the best strategy for studying. The first time you read a passage, don’t highlight. You can end up with an all-yellow text. Just read the passage first. Then ponder it for a while. Then read it again, this time looking for the most important ideas. In the next reading, you can start highlighting. Only underline one or two key words or phrases per page. Even better --- compile a list of the words and phrases. Write the page number beside each one so you can look them up again. Now, when you review, you won’t have pages and pages to read. This makes it much easier to review for an exam. W: Excuse me, Professor Hill. M: Yes, Jacqueline? W: Can you give us some suggestions on how to choose the words and phrases? M: Yes, of course! Here are some steps to help you decide what to choose: 1. Look for the main idea. Follow the way it’s being told through the passage. 2. Look at the beginning and ending paragraphs. They often give the information in a simple form. 3. Pick out transitional words that give you important information. i.e., “the point is,” “in sum,” “most importantly,” and so on.

02 Campus Life
W: M: W: M: W: M: W: Hey Alex. How’s it going? OK. I just finished math class. Man, I hate math! Why? It’s easy! Yeah, right. I’ve got a secret that helps me in math class. Wanna know what it is? OK. But it probably won’t help me. Listen and try it. Math is too abstract, right? Well, try to make it real for yourself. My secret is I think about numbers in math as if they were money. Huh? Yeah. I have a hard time picturing numbers. But if I see the numbers as dollars and cents, then I can see them clearly in my head.

M: W:

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M: Really?! W: Yeah. For example, if the teacher says, “What is 853 minus 727,” I think of eight dollars and fifty-three cents minus seven dollars and twenty-seven cents. The answer is one dollar and 26 cents---one twenty-six. It’s easy! M: Hey, that’s awesome! I’ll try it tomorrow. Thanks. W: No problem. See you at the basketball game tonight. M: See you.

03 Computer Science
W: More people are buying home computers and using them for home networks. They need faster ways to get information over the Internet. Right now, there are mainly two avenues for information to be sent. These are cable modems and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines or ADSL. These faster ways of sending information are called broadband connections. Cable modems and ADSL are both types of broadband connections. They are much faster than a 56K modem. There is another new kind of DSL connection. It is known as very high bit rate DSL or VDSL. Some companies already have this for certain places. VDSL isn’t everywhere yet, but it may be very soon. Many people like it and are beginning to use it. VDSL accommodates a very, very large amount of bandwidth. It gives up to about 52 megabytes per second. In other words, it provides 52Mbps. In comparison, ADSL or cable modems can only give 8 to 10 megabytes per second. It’s easy to see that VDSL is a lot faster. VDSL will soon be more common, making home networks cost much less. In the United States, a telephone line has two copper wires. These wires have a very broad bandwidth. A telephone call only uses a very small part of the bandwidth. The telephone wires can carry much more information than telephone calls. DSL can use this extra bandwidth at the same time a call is being made. It can do this without changing the sound of the telephone call.

the surroundings in which they live, which makes them hard to see. Deer and other forest animals, for example, have light brown colors that help them blend in with the brown trees and dirt on the forest ground. Many fish have a gray-blue color. This helps them blend in with the soft light under water. Other animals use color patterns to help them blend in. A tiger’s pattern of black stripes and orange fur blends into the long grass where it hunts. This makes the tiger difficult for its victims to spot---until it’s too late! Another form of camouflage is called copying. For instance, a king snake is red, yellow, and black. It copies the colors of the coral snake. The coral snake is very dangerous; its bite can kill you. The king snake is not dangerous, but other animals are afraid to attack the king snake because it looks like a coral snake. A third form of camouflage is disguise: D-I-S-G-U-I-S-E. This means that an animal looks like something else. For instance, a crocodile in the water can look just like a floating log. This disguise helps it catch deer when they come near the water to drink.

06 Psychology
W: Do you ever wonder why we dream? Many people do. For centuries, in fact, people have been trying to understand what our dreams mean...or if they mean anything at all. In ancient Egypt, about 2000 BC, people thought dreams were very important. They believed that dreams foretold what would happen in the future. The Egyptians wrote books that listed what dreams meant. If a man saw himself looking out a window in his dream, it was considered a good omen. It meant that his cry would be heard by a god. If a man saw himself in his dream looking at people who were far away, it was considered a bad sign. It meant that he was soon going to die. In modern times, Sigmund Freud is famous for his research on dreams. Freud believed that dreams represent our suppressed desires --- things we want to do, but can’t. Dreams allow our minds to act out desires that we can’t express in our everyday lives. Usually, these suppressed desires involve sex. For example: A train going into a tunnel represents a man and woman having sex. According to Freud, this dream would mean you want to have sex, but for some reason you can’t. Another famous dream researcher was Carl Jung --- um, J-U-N-G. Jung believed dreams allow us to think more about ourselves than when we are awake and to solve problems that we have during the day. In 1973, researchers named Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley said dreams don’t mean anything. Dreams are just the result of natural activity in our brains.

04 Campus Life
M: Hey Lucy, are you going to watch any of the movies at the film festival? W: No, I wasn’t thinking of it. I have too much homework to do. M: Aw, that’s no fun! Can’t you even take one night off? Your dormitory is so close to the Annenberg Center! It’ll take you five minutes to get there. W: Well, maybe I will go to one. M: How about tomorrow night? I can go then. W: What movie is playing? M: School of Rock. Have you seen it? W: No. What’s it about? M: Well, it’s a comedy and it’s really funny. It’s about this guy who’s really trying to make it as a rock star. He gets kicked out of his band and he really needs money. So he acts like he’s somebody else to get a teaching job. Then, he tries to turn his class into a rock band. W: Sounds pretty crazy! OK, I’ll come see it.

Skill B
01 Biology
W: I’m still confused about the lecture today on blood types. M: OK. What questions do you have? W: Well, first, the way we classify blood types. We use the letters A, B, and O, right? M: That’s right. There are four different types of blood: A, B, AB, and O. Each person on Earth has one of these types. W: And...where do we get our blood types? M: They come from both our father and mother. Your blood type could be the same as one of your parents, or completely

05 Biology
W: Most animals in the world have some kind of way to hide themselves so that they can hunt for food and protect themselves from other animals. This method of hiding is called camouflage: C-A-M-O-U-F-L-A-G-E. The simplest form of camouflage is for animals to “blend in” with their surroundings. Their colors match

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different. W: But everyone’s blood is red! M: Yes, it all looks the same, but it’s dangerous to mix two different blood types together. If you get hurt and need blood, you have to make sure the new blood is the same type as yours. If it’s not, you might die. W: But didn’t the professor say there was one type that could mix with any of them? M: Yes. That’s type O.

02 Literature
W: Folktales are stories that grow out of the lives or imaginations of people, or folk. Folktales began as an attempt to explain and understand the world around us. Many folktales all over the world are nearly the same. Travelers passed them on from one country to another. Each person telling the folktale changes it slightly. The stories that traveled mostly over land changed a great deal. The ones that traveled by water changed less. There are many different kinds of folktales. Some have simple plots with lots of repeated phrases and words. These are called cumulative folktales. One example is called “There Was an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly.” This sentence is repeated on almost every page of the story. In some stories, animals talk just like humans. These are talking beast folktales. A famous example is “The Three Little Pigs.” Humorous tales are meant for fun and nonsense. They are usually about someone who makes unbelievably funny mistakes, such as the Norwegian husband who has to take care of his house and nearly destroys it. Romances are stories in which lovers seem hopelessly separated until magic brings them back together. A good example is “Beauty and the Beast.” Tales of magic are types of stories we commonly call fairy tales. These include things like talking mirrors, enchanted forests, and magic kisses. “Snow White” is a popular example.

Spiders use silk in many different ways. They often use it the same way a mountain climber uses rope. They’ll drop down on a silk strand. If they get into trouble, they can quickly run back up again. Another way they use silk is to make homes for their babies. Most kinds of spiders spin a thick silk covering around their eggs. Some spin it around the new little spiders. Spiders can make different kinds of silk strands. One way is to coat a silk strand with different materials. They might make it sticky to catch a fly. I think we’ve all seen a fly getting stuck on a spider’s web. You sometimes notice because the fly buzzes loudly. Or a spider might water-proof the silk with something. Then, they can stay dry in a rainstorm. A trapdoor spider’s home is a good example. The door over the trapdoor spider’s hole is a water-proof roof made of spider silk.

05 Physics
M: A good way to understand why balloons float in the air is to understand why things float in water. Let’s say that you have a plastic one-liter bottle of Coca-Cola. If you pour out the Coke and put the cap back on, you have a one-liter bottle full of air. Now, tie a string around it and take it to the bottom of a swimming pool. What will happen when you let go of the bottle? W: It will rise to the top? M: Yes. If you sit on the bottom of the pool holding the string, the bottle will act just like a balloon does in the air. Does anyone know why the bottle rises? W: Uh, because the air is, um, lighter than the water? M: Exactly! The bottle and the air inside it weigh just a few grams, But a liter of water weighs about 1,000 grams. The air is lighter than the water the air displaces, so the bottle floats. We call this the law of buoyancy. Balloons work by the same law of buoyancy --- except balloons are filled with helium, not air. Helium is a gas that is much lighter than air. You can think of the helium balloon you are holding as floating in a huge “pool” of air. The helium balloon displaces an amount of air, just like the empty bottle displaces an amount of water. As long as the helium and the balloon are lighter than the air they displace, the balloon will float in the air.

03 Campus Life
W: Hello, Lance! What can I help you with today? M: I heard there’s a tutoring center for each department. Can you tell me where it is for the English Department? W: Yes! Ours is just next door. M: Can I go there right now? W: You can, but they might still be at lunch. You know, you’ll have to sign up for an interview first, anyway. You can do that over the Internet, too. M: OK. Can you give me the address? W: Go to www.pentutoring.info. They’ll get in touch with you within three working days. M: What will they send me? W: They’ll send you the tutor’s name, phone number, email address... Oh, yes, and how much you have to pay per hour. M: Uh-oh! I don’t have any money. W: That’s OK. You can get free tutoring. You’ll just need to agree to do a three-week feedback survey. M: That’s all? W: That’s all! M: Great! Thanks! W: No problem!

06 Health
W: Mmm. I love coffee. It wakes me up! You know why? Because it has caffeine. Caffeine is a kind of drug. Ah! Caffeine is found naturally in many plants, such as coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa nuts. It’s also added artificially to many other kinds of food and drinks. So, it’s safe to say that the typical American gets plenty of caffeine. As a matter of fact, most of us get too much. More than half of all adults in the United States consume more than 300 milligrams of caffeine each day. Including me! Seriously, though...too much caffeine is not good for your body. Caffeine interferes with a chemical in your brain called adenosine. That’s A-D-E-N-O-S-I-N-E. Now normally, adenosine helps prepare your body for rest. This chemical slows down nerve cells, which causes you to become sleepy. To the nerve cells in your brain, caffeine looks just like adenosine, but caffeine acts differently. Instead of slowing down your nerve cells, caffeine speeds them up. As a result, your heart starts to beat faster. Your breathing tubes open wider. Your blood pressure rises. Blood vessels tighten near the surface of your skin. The

04 Biology
M: Spiders can spin silk better than any other insect. Only a few others, like silkworms, can make silk.

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blood flowing into your stomach slows down. Your muscles tighten up, ready for action. This is why, after consuming a big cup of coffee, you feel excited. You can feel your heartbeat increasing. You’re ready to do something, go somewhere, run, play, fight, conquer the world....or else start STUDYING to get ready for the next test!

Skill C
01 Science
W: We use microscopes to help us study cells. Because cells are so small, we can’t see them without magnification --- um, the ability to make them look bigger. The first microscopes were called light microscopes. They were pretty simple devices. They were also simple to use. Scientists first cut the cells, or specimens, into thin sections. Then they stained the specimens with different colored materials, called dyes. The dyes helped them see the specimens more clearly. Unfortunately, dyes often killed the cells, too. That limited what scientists could find out about the specimen. In recent years, we have developed more powerful microscopes. These help us view living specimens. One of these new microscopes is called the phase-contrast microscope. It’s made in such a way that part of the light passing through it moves more slowly than the rest of the light. We say this part of the light is “out of phase” with the rest of the light. This enables scientists to see differences in living specimens as light and shade. Another type of new microscope is the electron microscope. This uses electrons to form images, instead of light. Electrons travel in waves, similar to light, but their wavelengths are over 100,000 times shorter than those of light. Therefore, they can give much clearer magnification. Electron microscopes even allow scientists to take pictures of the cells they are studying!

The worst battle of the American Civil War was fought in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The Northern Army fought back the Southern Army. The battle lasted three days. Afterward, the field was left covered with bodies of dead soldiers. In November 1863, President Abraham Lincoln came to Gettysburg. He was to speak at the opening of the cemetery there. Music played and soldiers saluted. Edward Everett, governor of Massachusetts, talked first for almost two hours. Then Lincoln stood up. He looked out over the valley. Then, he began to speak. He said they couldn’t do anything to make this place special. He said that the soldiers who had fought so hard had already done that. He said that everyone would soon forget what was spoken that day, but he said that what the soldiers did would never be forgotten. He said everyone should keep doing what these soldiers began. They should keep fighting for freedom for all the people. Then, they could make sure the soldiers didn’t die needlessly. The president’s speech only lasted two minutes! Everyone cheered and then left. Lincoln turned to Edward Everett. He said he thought he should have planned his speech better. Edward Everett didn’t agree. He said, “It was perfect. You said more in two minutes than I did in two hours.” Afterward, the newspapers said it was a great speech. And, as you know, Americans still remember it today.

04 Phys. Ed.
W: Some people are surprised to know that walking is very good exercise. It seems very easy, but it does us a lot of good. It cleans the blood, tones up muscles, and strengthens bones. It even helps people lose weight. One study showed that fast walking keeps your heart healthy. Men who walked fast were 50 percent less likely to have heart disease. You don’t need much equipment to do it, and almost anyone, anywhere, at any time, can do it. It’s not difficult to plan walks into your day. You can walk to work, to catch a train, or to a park. You can walk to shops or enjoy walks in the country. It’s a great way to spend time with family and friends. People have some of their best conversations while walking. It’s best to do some stretches before and after you walk. Take short quick steps, stand straight, and take deep breaths. For basic health, it’s good to walk most days of the week. Walk for 20 to 30 minutes or more at a “talking pace.” To lose weight, walk for 30 to 45 minutes or more. Walk as many days as you can. Walk fast enough so that you finish slightly out of breath. To make your heart stronger, walk quickly for 20 minutes or more. If you can, walk where there are some small hills. Walk two or three times a week. Go as fast as you can, but enjoy yourself. Exercise should never be painful.

02 Campus Life
W: Hey Frank. If you could be any person in the world, who would you be? M: That’s easy. Bill Gates! W: Why? M: I’ll give you 30 billion reasons. Ha, ha. W: Ah, so it’s the money. M: Not totally. But the money is nice. I was reading that if you made all of Gates’ money one-dollar bills, and then laid them end-toend, the line would stretch for almost six million kilometers. W: Wow! But what would you do with all that money? M: Gates gives a lot to the poor. He’s donated almost seven-anda-half billion since the year 2000. I’d give away even more. W: Really? M: Sure! It costs about $240 a year to feed a starving child. So, Bill could save almost 121 million children. W: Hmm...why else do you like Gates? M: I admire his confidence. Did you know he earned a scholarship to Harvard, but left after two years to start Microsoft? That took courage!

05 Campus Life
W: Josh, what are you doing tonight? M: I have a biology class. What are you doing? W: Well, my friend’s sorority is having a party, but I don’t want to walk by myself in the dark. M: Why don’t you use Campus Escort? W: What’s that? M: Campus Escort is a free service that gives students rides. Other students drive you to the place you’re going.

03 History
M: So, you’ve heard of the Gettysburg Address. But do you know the story behind it?

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M: There are several different plans. Trade wind deserts are located between 30 degrees and 35 degrees north and south of the equator. But if you’re on the computer. Seems like a lot of trouble to get up. is a trade wind desert. W: Really? Hmm. In defining a desert. it’s easy to miss words that are misspelled. The second factor is how much of that rain or snow evaporates --. The Judean Desert in Israel is a rain shadow desert. We also classify deserts by their location and main weather pattern. you can look up words online. dry. You cannot bring extra paper to write on. Saturday’s the big day. Do a spell check. 02 Geography W: We usually think of deserts as hot. Susan? W: Tests make me nervous. If you’re taking the math portion of the test. You cannot bring compasses. or meals. The important thing is: don’t panic. Let’s learn about some of them. You’ve studied hard for this test. We will bill your home through the Student Accounts office. W: What if I want to treat my friend? Can I use two meals at one time? 648 Transcripts 03 Business Writing M: Today.will they escort me back home? M: Sure. a desert is a place where evaporation is greater than rainfall or snowfall. There’s a car that will take you from your dorm room to the party. They work like an ATM card. It runs 5 p.” it won’t catch it.. use a spell check.what if I uh. And read carefully. Have a friend read your resumé. So. Here are some tips. You should have identification --. notes. You’ll need to show this at every meal. have to go to the bathroom during the test? M: You can’t. All of our meal plans offer these points. M: Yes. sandy places. It runs from 6 p. If you use “form” instead of “from. too. 15. or coasts. That’s different than my old school. or dictionaries. protractors. They blow away clouds. we have to consider two factors. or other aids --. most deserts are hot. You cannot bring any portable tape recorders. and the ground is permanently frozen. It’s natural to be a little nervous before a test. but then read every word carefully. It depends on your schedule and eating habits. You should have your admission ticket. And there’s a small van that picks students up each hour at the student center and the mall. so more sun reaches the ground. W: I see. You should have two number-two pencils and a good eraser. Be confident! Relax! Now. to 1 a. but read everything yourself. That’s why it’s important that you choose your meal plan carefully. for instance. OK. then back to your dorm. If you read quickly. I imagine it is. You cannot bring cell phones or pagers. no. of continents. One coastal desert. Temperatures there can reach 57 degrees Celsius. snacks. You cannot bring colored pens. If you want to treat a friend. In the Atacama. What happens when I run out of declining balance points? M: You can buy more points at any time. you should have a calculator. Coastal deserts are on the western edges. there will be breaks after each section of the test. no. and look up the word. 06 General Studies M: All right. The North and South poles. You can pass it. W: But. Questions? W: Um. the Atacama Desert of South America. The spell check can’t catch every mistake. these deserts are formed in the “shadow” of the mountains.m. Use a dictionary. know what you can’t bring to the test. M: Sorry. Another type of desert is the rain shadow desert. W: Um.that is. Here’s your student ID card. before you leave home. . W: My what? M: Declining balance points. you can use your declining balance points. At the dining halls. you’re more likely to be relaxed if you are well prepared. there can be measurable rainfall only once every 50 years. Just call 874-SAFE and tell them what time you would like to be picked up. As clouds rise over the mountains. We call this loss of water “evaporation. You can buy food. One example is trade wind deserts. Let’s begin with spelling. walkmans. 12. you use the points like cash. You’ll be able to go then. This was mailed to you last week.m. too. a driver’s license. You cannot bring a watch with a loud alarm.. what if I buy the 15-meal plan and only eat 13 meals that week? Will I get 17 the next week? M: No. goes back into the atmosphere or is used up by plants. But not all. Do you know about our meal plans? W: Meal plans? Uh.. Um. The winds that blow over these areas are very strong.your student ID card. Most of the major deserts in the world lie in the areas crossed by the trade winds. is Earth’s driest desert. they spill all of their rain or snow before they get to the other side. or a passport. And many deserts are. They get less than 250 millimeters of snow each year. or highlighters. Still another kind of desert is the coastal desert.. in North Africa. meals do not carry over into the next week. So is a large part of the western United States called the Great Basin.” Simply stated. to midnight. Are you ready? Yes. The Sahara Desert. You cannot bring any books.W: Really? It’s free? M: Yep. are cold deserts. or each time you buy something at a campus dining hall. rulers. Then the points are withdrawn from your declining balance account. Deserts get less than 250 millimeters of rain or snow each year. find a dictionary. deserts come in several forms. or headphones.except for the calculator. check to make sure you have everything you need. Chapter 2 Skill Review A-C 01 Campus Life M: All right. pencils. W: What if I want to stay later? M: Call campus police for a free escort: 874-2121. So.m. Rain shadow deserts lie next to tall mountains. I’d like to give you some basic rules for writing a resumé. You cannot bring any food or drink. Don’t use words you don’t know. Second. But actually. First. Only one meal each meal period. The first is the annual amount of rainfall. You can choose to buy 9. So go before! Don’t worry. or 18 meals each week. Because so much water evaporates. Just go to the One Card office on the North Campus. What can I do? M: Good question. We have a unique system here.

I jump rope or do aerobics to improve my balance and coordination. One hundred and eighty-four countries belong to it. or dig. The tiny. and interest-free credit. address. And use active tense like “directed staff” rather than passive tense like “was staff director. Make your resumé look nice. 04 Economics W: Our world is so rich! All the people together make more than $31 trillion a year. “I manage” or “I teach” now. there’s an aerobics class at 5 o’clock. or marital status. choose your words carefully. keep the same tense. which contains carbonic acid. How often do you go? M: I try to go three times a week. although they usually act together. In each part of your resumé.especially because more people are born every year. Now. The duties you do now should be in the present tense. Use a font like Times Roman that’s easy to read. W: Do you usually just lift weights? M: No. W: Uh. Skill D 01 Campus Life W: Hi Tony! Where are you headed? M: Hey. These include the freezing and thawing of water in the crevices --. manage office and staff. It is one of the world’s biggest banks for poor countries. 02 Physical Science W: Rocks wear down and break apart due to a process called weathering. age. This includes the processes of oxidation. These countries all put money into it and help maintain it. When the countries get loans. Transcripts 649 . For example. Limestone is a type of rock that is dissolved by water. We’ll go into more detail about that reaction later. Animals are also responsible for mechanical weathering. For example. they answer questions. Leave plenty of space. W: Wow! I wish I had that much discipline. Then. where there is little water and few plants. Want to come? Um. It’s really a part of the United Nations. Being poor keeps more than 100 million children out of school.2 billion earn less than $1. If they don’t receive help. wet conditions. It helps them take care of the money.” That means. and hydration. W: You should go to a review session. I sit too much. Use a good printer and print on only one side of white paper. too. There are two main types of weathering: mechanical and chemical. Things you did in the past should be in the past tense. more than one woman dies in childbirth. hair-like roots grow into small cracks in rocks. They burrow. DC. Anyway. Some words sound alike but don’t mean the same thing. let’s say you started your job several years ago in September. but I don’t understand them.” The active tense gives a stronger feeling. I don’t feel good unless my body gets some exercise. It’s helping protect the people’s surroundings.” or “teach at Canyon High School. carbonation. If they do. personnel means staff members. Then. M: Bye! Good luck on your mid-term. and get water and electricity. 1. They are from nearly every country in the world. Mary.000 people work in World Bank offices. like these: personal means private. about grammar. It sounds funny. In fifty years. But there are World Bank offices in 109 countries. A review session is a discussion that’s led by a student who has already taken the class. An employer may decide to see you or not because of it. they have 35---40 years to pay them back. Well. have fun. W: Thanks for the advice. The World Bank is not like other banks. They review the professor’s lecture and the homework assignments for each week. low-interest loans. but try to make it just one page. Limestone is a rock that does this. The World Bank gives them some money. M: Start slowly and do a little more each day. Helping the poorer countries is a very big task --. chemical weathering takes place in warm. Chemical weathering involves the decomposition of rock by chemical changes or solution. In the year 2002. AIDS is a very big problem.Another thing. I run on the treadmill to help my heart and lungs. I took notes. of rocks by mechanical processes. I’m going to the campus gym to lift weights. Maybe I’ll go next week. I lift to get stronger. not just my mind. Make it as simple as you can. In some countries. Put your name. It’s making rich-country money into poor-country growth. Then. meaning they can quickly turn to rust. But if you’re listing a job you don’t have anymore “taught at Canyon High School” instead of “teach at Canyon High School. Some of this World Bank money is to help them fight this disease. many people make more than $40. Your resumé speaks for you. In general. but rocks can rust or oxidize. many more people will get the illness. Mechanical weathering is especially common in high altitudes. there will be about 3 billion more people. where it’s so cold that freezing and thawing happen every day.000 children die every day in these poorer countries. too. I’ve got to study for my chemistry mid-term.000 a year. holes and cracks --of rocks. the roots crack the rocks.00 a day. Maybe next time. chemical weathering is more common than mechanical weathering. You might write on your resumé “September 2003 to present. Mechanical weathering involves the disintegration. It’s helping them build schools and health centers. For some of the poorest countries. Then. Its headquarters is in Washington. It’s also common in deserts. But in other countries. there is carbonation. Then. many people make less than $700 a year. as the roots get bigger. race.uh. When I study. 33. many iron minerals found in rocks are rapidly oxidized. Because of this. M: A review session? W: Yeah. Of these.” Don’t give your sex. Also. About 10. How much money you made before is also personal information. M: It sounds like an extra class. the roots of plants can cause rocks to break apart. Most of them are girls. the bank agreed to give about $15 billion to low-income countries. 03 Campus Life M: I just don’t get it! W: Get what? M: Professor Johnson’s biology lecture. into the rocks and the dirt around the rocks. they have to pay very high interest rates. no thanks. Each minute. A professional-looking resumé tells an employer that you do things well. The low-income countries can’t usually borrow money in world markets. and telephone number on it and any letters. The World Bank is a bridge between the rich and poor people. They can have ten extra years if they need it. or destruction.

video games. One famous ballad from the 1800s is called “Shenandoah. I went to one last year when I had Professor Johnson’s class. they come from oral tradition. The trade winds begin in regions called the Horse Latitudes. It’s an advertisement in disguise.. the story in a ballad is one that began with oral tradition.” Such dialog is typical of ballads. Ah. Turn on the TV. It also made their boats lighter.all right. M: My serial number? Just a minute. Which company does Toms Hanks work for at the start of the movie? W: Fed Ex. W: All right. would you believe you’ve actually seen more ads than you think? You’ve also been watching secret ads. There they are. M: Bingo! That’s a product placement. how many of you have seen the movie Cast Away. The Firm. I love your daughter Away. She lived near the Missouri River. When done correctly. most of you. but not the focus of attention. They’re everywhere. Ballads are often sung in rhyme. ballads do not use a lot of explanation. Do you remember what the equator is? W: The imaginary circle around the middle of the Earth that divides the planet into the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere. trading ships would become stalled in the Horse Latitudes. in the old days. sailors used to sail their boats back and forth across the equator on their way to trade things with other nations.. Product placement used to be limited to movies. M: I’ve got economics on Tuesday. Next. The words are usually simple. or Tuesday from 3 to 4. I wish there weren’t so many of them. M: Here you are.. Usually. oh yeah.for her I’ve crossed the rolling river. trade winds. I need some identification with your address on it. This way. 04 Business M: Advertisements. It’s an effective technique. 05 Music M: Today we’re going to learn about a kind of song called a ballad. In the Southern Hemisphere. even in books. though. they blow from the southeast and are called the Southeast Trade Winds. The white man tells his lover’s father: “Oh Shenandoah. W: That will be four dollars. Fed Ex --. product placement can add a sense of realism to a movie or television show that something like a bottle simply marked “beer” cannot. you need to fill out this bicycle registration card. now I need your bicycle serial number. Using your computer? There they are. They want their products to be visible within a scene. they blow from the northeast and are called the Northeast Trade Winds. Two. one of the two largest rivers in the United States.. and the weather there is hot and dry. I’m bound away Cross the wide Missouri Notice the dialog in the second verse.. S-H-E-N-A-N-D-O-A-H. One. sales of Red Stripe increased 50 percent. M: My address? Um. The trade winds between about 30 degrees latitude and the equator are steady and blow about 22 to 24 kilometers per hour. M: Hmm. you rolling river For her I’ve crossed the rolling water Away. Parents passed it down to their children from generation to generation. we see it on TV shows.that is. I guess I could go Monday. they could drink the water meant for the horses.” Um. The winds in the Horse Latitudes are light. The trade winds blow from the Horse Latitudes toward the equator. Product placement is like an ad that’s not an ad. clear. M: How long is the permit valid for? W: It’s valid for the next four years. These are regions between 30 degrees and 35 degrees north and south of the equator. M: Very good! Now. A7-10023.is not usually told. ads! Aren’t you getting tired of them? W: Yes! Especially on my computer and on TV. Now. M: I’ll think about it. A ballad is a song that tells a story. W: It’s up to you. your driver’s license will be fine. a review session will help you a lot. And the motives of characters --. Because of the light winds. today we are seeing lots more of something called product placement. But companies have to be careful. I have my driver’s license. ads. There they are. Instead of regular ads. I love your daughter. And the permit will let me park my bike anywhere on campus? W: Yes. and easy to read. the main character drank a beer from Jamaica called Red Stripe. why they do something --. 06 Earth Science M: Trade winds are a pattern of wind found in regions near the Earth’s equator.m. here it is..W: You don’t have to go. For example. Last but not least. It tells the story of a white man who was in love with an American Indian woman. M: Well. Waiting for an elevator? There they are.short for Federal Express --. so they threw their horses into the sea. You can’t hide from them. with Tom Hanks? Mmmm. When is the review session? W: Let’s see. There is not much emotion.. There’s no escape. You have your choice. but if you’re having trouble. In another movie.got more publicity from that movie than it could have with hundreds of traditional ads. In the Northern Hemisphere. Sailors were worried about running out of water. Listen to part of the song: The white man loved an Indian maiden Away. I’d like to buy a bicycle permit please. Looking out your car window? Ahhhhhh! Ads. you rolling river With notions his canoe was laden Away. I’m bound away Skill E 01 Campus Life M: Excuse me. They can quickly propel ships across the ocean. Turn on the radio. they repeat simple words and use dialog. Cross the wide Missouri O Shenandoah. So. M: Yeah? How did you do? W: I got an A-minus. we have three characteristics of ballads so far. W: Sure. They depended on the wind to get them there quickly. Hence the name. Unlike a poem. OK. Three. they tell a story. like a poem. In the movie’s first week. You can go Monday from 5 to 6 p. Then 650 Transcripts . so they could go faster.

the output. if input. then the output. that is exactly opposite. M: All right. W: Yes. Boolean logic maps information into bits and bytes. Porcelain is a material used to make plates. and decorating. Active vitamin D helps us have enough calcium for our nerves too. and if A and B are both the same. our bones can make enough calcium to stay hard. Their legs curve out. When it squeezes some of the gas out of its bladder. So. In the clay-making process. on the center post below the seat. Yes. glazing. China is a country. Simple. this forward movement pushes air around the wings. the forward movement creates lift --. called gates. Actually. If A is zero. W: Thank you. we’re going to see how much you know about china. M: No problem. especially. it’s ready to be sold. it changes again. Thanks ma’am. break far too easily. is one. Next is the AND gate. cups. The NOT gate takes one bit of input. A store in Canada once showed how strong china is by using four teacups to support a race car! Can you picture that---a heavy car with only one small cup under each wheel? After glazing. comes the glazing process. should be the same. We close windows to stay warm in the winter. the china is ready for decorating. You might just want to do it. and a copy of your identification --. cups. which we’ll label Q. It becomes what’s called active vitamin D.. It also helps our nerves and muscles work the way they should. Remember. next comes. These two gates are simply combinations of an AND or an OR gate with a NOT gate. not that China. 03 Campus Life M: I’d like to check out this book. Among other things. Then. Q. 02 Art W1: Today. After the NOT gate and the AND gate comes the OR gate. plaster is poured into metal molds to make production molds.kind of like a hot-air balloon. it helps our bodies use the important mineral. But there’s another china-the kind you eat off of. It was in my wallet.we’ll give you your permit. or if both A and B are one. If we can’t see it. It’s something we must have. When it’s heated. The bones in their heads haven’t come together as they should. say. please. I typed in “horses” and hit the search button. when the fish breathes oxygen. There are four main processes in creating china.the airplane and shark both rise. Happily. mold making. these children don’t look well Transcripts 651 . W: May I please see your student ID card? M: I’m sorry. “If A or B is one.” The next two gates are called NAND and NOR. The shark swings it back and forth to move forward. In summer. We get it mostly from the sun. W: You’ll be glad to have it. and bowls. This causes the fish to rise in the water. M1: It’s got the Great Wall. When people get married in America. called Q. The simplest gate is called a NOT gate. you need to make sure this permit is in plain sight on your bicycle. Today. Q will be one. In less than a second. Calcium makes our bones strong. they can also give you the form there. and produces an output. This china is a fancy type of porcelain.go up and down --.B-O-O-L-E. Fill it out and take it over to the Student Center. at all. some of that oxygen goes into its bladder. I suppose they’ll want a passport photo too. Last week. Sharks don’t have a swim bladder. This is a type of thinking developed in the mid-1800s by George Boole --. Now. These production molds are then used to shape the pugs into plates. With active vitamin D. Do you ever wonder how computers can think so fast? Well. Let’s open our textbooks to page 63. In both cases. These fins are in about the same position as the main wings and tail wings on an airplane. These tubes are called pugs: P-U-G-S. I’d like you to take a look at these pictures. The shark can position these fins at different angles. Attach it to the main frame. A. So. I’ll go over there. calcium. we learned how most fish use their swim bladder to move around in the water. A and B.00? W: It does. this forward movement pushes water around the fins. The tail is like the shark’s propeller. ma’am. Here. You won’t be allowed to sit for exams without it. though. it showed me more than 32 million websites related to horses. which was stolen. one of the oldest customs is for the bride and groom to choose which type of china they want for their new home. five ingredients are mixed together with water and shaped into tubes. I guess I’ll have to. A shark is more like an airplane. it’s been stolen. and I found out. M: Thanks. These children didn’t get enough Vitamin D. will be zero. I did another Google search. you will have to pay a fine. M2: And chopsticks! W1: No. The idea behind an AND gate is this: if there are two bits of input. and bowls. glaze forms a protective shell around each piece of china. we don’t see this too often any more. so they use their forward movement to control their vertical position. In the mold-making process. Now. As you can see.. This changes the path of the water around them and 04 Health M: Let’s begin our study of Vitamin D. Glaze is incredibly strong. I don’t think I’ll bother. Sharks have two pairs of fins on each side of their bodies.driver’s license or passport. In an airplane. M: Here you are. That’s why their heads are too big. It becomes what’s called previtamin D3. The bones are too soft to stand on. Many older people’s bones. W: I’m not allowed to check out any books for you without it. we close windows for air conditioning. it sinks toward the bottom. For a shark. it can move vertically --. which we’ll label A. Glaze is like liquid glass. M: Oh. It begins with seven electronic pathways. One main reason why is that people don’t get nearly enough sunlight. Vitamin D is not in most of the foods we eat. Ultraviolet rays from the sun transform something in our skin. then Q is also one. These are clay making. Inside our bodies. artists use 85 patterns and 400 different shapes to make the china look beautiful. Good luck! 06 Biology M: Let’s begin. M: All right. that’s great! What should I do now? W: You can download the form for a new student ID card from the computer. Its basic idea is. But we really need time in the sunshine almost every day. Thanks. W2: And rice. It was amazing. many people need to have stronger bones. This helps us feel calm and sleep well. 05 Computer Science W: I did a search on Google yesterday. Next. Doesn’t it cost $10.. Computer chips are based on something called Boolean logic.

Or if a bear avoided a certain plant. Take University Drive to Market Street. In real life. which we call a pneumatic system. I have to work on my paper this morning. They could have a battery. Sunburn is dangerous because it increases the chance that you will get skin cancer. We see movies and television shows in which robots move. After that. Then. we think certain things. One of them might stay with a bear for a whole year. So. a computer --. By that. 05 Campus Life M: Good afternoon. This means the lotion “eats” the UV rays. we can still learn from them. and Data from the Star Trek TV series. robots that walk on two legs like a person. We call this sunburn. robots that clean your house. almost all robots have a movable body. and robots that work in factories to help build cars. tours start at 1 p. speak.m. but I know one when I see one. First Nations people would stay away from it too. And third. But I love people. It’s at 10th and Market Street. or a hydraulic system. It’s about First Nations tribal totems. These parts are usually metal or plastic. exactly. We let go of old things and ideas for new ones. I haven’t. robots need a power source for their actuators. These are like the stabilizer fin on an airplane.because of this extra blood. It can block UV rays. Think of a snake. For us. Skill F 01 Computer Science M: Robots are very popular these days. M: That’s correct. Do you know what your duties would be as a tour guide? W: Sure. it’s easy. we have evolved little in our lifetime. Monday through Saturday. there are robot dogs. The body responds by sending more blood to these cells to repair the damage. the guide will give a 30-minute talk after the tour for students who want to study here but have not yet applied. Do you want to go? Isn’t that what your paper is about? W: Yea. people who build robots have a more precise definition. M: It’s in the Gallery Shopping Mall. It can remind us that we too need to change. Since long. Like R2D2 and C3PO in Star Wars. I bet we’ve all experienced this at some point in our lives. “I can’t define a robot. robots have some sort of actuator --. People who have been sunburned a lot get skin cancer much more often than those who don’t get sunburned very much. people have learned from animals they admired. Alex. M: I see. or they could plug into a wall. The shark also has two vertical fins on its back. I mean how people long ago learned from animals. And even today. 02 Health M: If you have white skin. The best way to do this is to use sunscreen. and I’ve been a student here for two years.enables the shark to move quickly upward or downward. Have you ever been a tour guide? W: No.m. Monday through Friday only. talk about student life. Natalie? W: Well. then. If a bear ate berries or roots of some plant. We take Market Street eastbound to 15th Street. You won’t know you’re sunburned until it’s too late. The rays stay in the lotion instead of your skin. On Sunday. M: OK.or UV rays. tell them the names of buildings. your skin can become red and sore. W: What time do they begin? M: At 10 a. they knew it was OK for people to eat. A snake grows new skin and sheds its old skin many times.you would like to apply for a position as a campus tour guide? W: Yes. then answer questions.” The easiest definition is that a robot is something most people say is a robot. They allow the shark to keep its balance as it moves through the water and help it turn quickly left and right. is a robot? That’s a surprisingly difficult question. so I know all about the campus. Different people have different ideas. The vast majority of robots have several features in common. What. Why? M: I was thinking about going to see an art show. Smith. They last for 90 minutes. Sunscreen is a lotion you put on your body about 30 minutes before you go outside. Knowing about these plants helped people. People and bears eat many of the same foods. it stops them before they reach your skin. They say a robot must have a reprogrammable brain --. An actuator could be an electric motor. The blood begins moving toward the damaged areas four hours after you’ve first been in the sun and will keep moving there as much as 24 hours afterwards. There are many ways that animals can help or teach us. Like a shield. Ms. But could you just quickly go over the directions with me first? W: Sure.in other words. If you don’t protect your skin when you go outside. especially if they migrated to a new area. Alex! Maybe I should go see the show before I work on my paper. and pneumatic systems. Some move only by wheels. 04 Social Studies W: Today I’d like to talk about animal helpers. follow the circle around City Hall to continue on Market Street..that moves a body. We keep going on Market Street until 10th Street. W: I know where that is. 03 Campus Life M: What’s your plan for the day. and have personalities that are almost human. So First Nations people would watch bears forage for food. Some First Nations people would go to live with and study bears. I’d walk people around the campus. you’re in danger of getting sunburn. This is why your skin is red when you get sunburned --. 652 Transcripts . sir. The snake’s old skin can be discarded because it has a new one. However. you remembered. At age seven. it’s the same. I’m free. First of all. the main door to the mall is right on the northwest corner of 10th and Market Street. One famous scientist said. or compressed gas.. Then. W: Good afternoon. hydraulics. for example. M: Now. They would learn all of the vegetation that bears know about. Do we think the same things at age thirty-seven? If so. M: I’ll drive. it’s very important to protect your skin when you’re in the sun. Some robots use all these actuator types: motors. long ago. What happens is this: UV rays damage the cells in your skin. Secondly. Sunscreen helps in two ways. and some have many movable parts that are joined together. Sunscreen can also absorb UV rays. The cells in your skin are not protected from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation --.that’s AC-CHEW-ATE-OR --and this actuator spins their wheels or moves their parts. Tours are held once each day.

yes. W: Yes. in fact they do. This helps them be alert and react to difficult problems in life. W: And how about historians? M: Oh. We are native speakers of that language. You can see how this would happen. They think that as we grow up. I’d need History 101 --History of Western Civilization. Thompson. And you’ll have some writing assignments. karate is much more than a style of self-defense. M: Yes. you talk differently to each group. M: Do these people ever feel like they have two different personalities? W: Well. my friend Kelly studied with her last year. that changes. Those people who know three or more are trilingual and multilingual. I’d be happy to. did you have a question? M: Are there a lot of French-English bilinguals in Quebec? W: Yes. It’s one of my favorite subjects. How can I help you? W: I’m thinking about majoring in history. Some academics believe that it teaches us how to think. you’ll get a good basic idea how our society became the way it is. They say we learn languages the same way we learn other things. She said they had great class discussions. So. This is especially true with a type of martial art called karate. W: So. W: Great! That’s what I’m most interested in. And then there are many people who learn a second language through study. There are places where two language groups may not talk to each other much. Ed. Take careful notes. People who know two languages are bilingual. they need to focus their strongest points on their opponents’ weakest points. W: Yeah. It’s mostly lectures. You end up learning two different ways of thinking. our mother tongue. They might think of one kind of dog when they say “dog” in English. but you’ll find the lectures won’t be exactly the same. 06 Phys.W: How much money do the tours cost? M: They’re free. They learn them without going to school. It is the best way to strengthen their minds and spirits.we want to make sure you get a good general education. the word for dog is “chien. Let me give you an example of what I mean. For karatekas. People who practice karate are called karatekas: K-A-R-A-T-E-K-A-S.. and she really gets students to ask questions. I had to study. they are ready to defend themselves and throw punches without thinking. BUT. We don’t know for sure just how it happens. they must be alert and be ready to react to a punch or kick from their opponent. Yes? W: How do you spell that? M: K-A-R-A-T-E. and it covers everything up through the 16th Century Reformations. Are you my student advisor? M: Yes. People who are bilingual will learn a third language even more quickly. Something interesting. in turn. M: From the class. We know this happens in Quebec. people who practice martial arts use their physical skills to make their minds and spirits stronger. This teaches them to concentrate better on their studies or jobs. karatekas learn to make their bodies physically strong. 02 Psychology W: Our mother tongue is the language we learn first from our families. so your curriculum must include the following: First. There are two basic ideas. of course.” When saying that word. You’ll find out how different governments were formed. And you’ll learn how technology has changed us. Second. how closely does she follow the textbook? M: Well. but I do know that Professor Jantzen makes her class interesting. This helps them work and focus harder on important things. W: Lucky for me! M: OK. You’ll learn about what our society thinks makes good citizens. pay close attention. Like me! I only heard English at home. You’ll be asked what you think about it too. Actually. Can you tell me what the course covers? M: Sure. Some say babies’ brains are specially ready for learning languages. In French. Tony. is very important. 03 General Studies M: OK. Karatekas say that the fighting principles they learn in karate help them in all areas of life. like the flying kicks. Canada to French-English bilinguals. yes. M: Yes. I’m going to tell you what courses you need to take to graduate. spinning punches. knowing your mother tongue is very important to getting an education. please. let’s see here. It starts with the beginning of Western civilization in the Near East. Their bodies know right away how to deal with new problems and challenges in everyday life.. most of us picture spectacular fights. She shows some very intriguing DVDs. Yes. called coordinate bilingualism. Chapter 2 Skill Review A-F 01 Campus Life W: Hello. there are quite a few. This. Fourth. Third. that can be a little boring. and fantastic flips we see in Jackie Chan movies. The first principle karatekas must learn is to concentrate on their own movements and not think about other things. Those can be basic writing classes in the English department. Mr. Each undergraduate can make his or her own curriculum. I think you’ll find that’s true. This means you can choose which classes you want to take. happens to people here. Many people have more than one native language. You’ll learn how historians decide what happened. They think about things in a special way. Amanda. she covers all the same basic material. Here are two different groups who don’t always get along. So. Others disagree with this idea. You need to understand both groups and have them understand you. makes their minds and spirits stronger. you will need six hours of composition. Educators have different ideas about how we learn languages. In order to learn Spanish. You will also need six credit hours in 300 and 400-level courses Transcripts 653 . That’s why it gets harder to learn languages. they think of a different kind of dog. W: Uh-oh. Knowing it well makes learning another language easier. M: When we think of the martial arts. or first language. hard! Now.

ethical. and two --. Part of a line. so they use their forward movement to control their vertical position.that require some kind of written project. The shark swings it back and forth to move forward. So you can choose just about anything from Phys. I had to study hard! 654 Transcripts . They allow the shark to keep its balance as it moves through the water and help it turn quickly left and right. Now. In a flat society. This changes the path of the water around them and enables the shark to move quickly upward or downward.how a society should work. the forward movement creates lift---the airplane and shark both rise. Does this sound like society here? I think it fits us pretty well. there is a foreign language requirement. We are native speakers of that language.kind of like a hot-air balloon. is called a line segment. Remember. It encourages people to be individuals and not conform to any one standard. Other societies reward the group over the individual. it can move vertically --. In a structured society. A political ideology is concerned with two things. social. I haven’t said anything yet about math or science. These are like the stabilizer fin on an airplane. Ed. It has no space between each point. We call these line segments congruent. we learned how most fish use their swim bladder to move around in the water. Some societies reward individuals over the group.” or common sense. like chemistry or biology. That just means the line segments are equal in length. you’ll need twelve hours of literature or fine arts. you’ll need twelve hours in history or social science courses. God is a higher level than people. If we have two points. All graduates are required to take six hours in the natural sciences. There can also be a line. Both the foreign language and computer courses require a grade of “C” or higher for credit toward graduation. The line is continuous. It encourages individuals to respect the established social order. And on top of those twelve hours. almost everyone is equal. I’ll go over the general humanities requirements. If you’re placed into the Spanish 103 class or the Spanish 201 class. A flat social order is thought to promote diversity. Like me! I only heard English at home. People who know two languages are bilingual. It forms the basis of the society’s “public opinion. A shark is more like an airplane. All lifestyles are acceptable. Two line segments can be the same length. In an airplane. Sharks have two pairs of fins on each side of their bodies. some of that oxygen goes into its bladder. Those people who know three or more are trilingual and multilingual. A structured social order is thought to promote uniform thinking and behavior. There’s political. so that they must depend on the rest of society. First. plus three hours in math.the rules needed to make it work that way. and the foreign language advisors will assign you to a class based on your score. it is seen as strange. The tail is like the shark’s propeller. This tends to create a society with a high level of economic interdependence among its members. and some cultures are higher than others. So you’ll need six hours of a foreign language or six hours of computer courses. And then there are many people who learn a second language through study. Also in the humanities. men are higher than women. So. Now. The shark also has two vertical fins on its back. In order to learn Spanish. They learn them without going to school. This ideology is usually invisible to most people within the society. In both cases. Every society has an ideology. like a period at the end of a sentence. One --. Those extra credit hours can be electives. People in a structured society might support the nuclear family unit and military programs. gay marriage. Other political ideologies believe in a structured social order. Everybody thinks this way. Some political ideologies believe in a flat social order. They will have a “W” next to them in your student catalogs. the rest of society. with points at each end. When it squeezes some of the gas out of its bladder. These societies encourage individuals to achieve self-sufficiency. Learning a computer language can count as a foreign language. and so on. Let’s look at rules that make a society work. Sharks don’t have a swim bladder. This causes the fish to rise in the water. 04 Political Science W: The simplest way to define ideology is as a collection of ideas.go up and down --. or maybe even dangerous or radical. Chapter 3 Focus A 01 01 Math W: Geometry is the study of points. a point is a small dot. For a shark. Many people have more than one native language. This tends to create a society with a high level of economic independence among its members. The shark can position these fins at different angles. you will only have to take one semester. it sinks toward the bottom. to music to fill in the remaining credits. You’re all required to have some of those credits too. Let’s look at political ideologies for a few moments. If you add up all those credits. For example. All cultures are equally valuable. Next. this forward movement pushes air around the wings. questions? W: I took three years of Spanish in high school. When somebody says or does something different from this normal thought. Men are equal to women. People in a flat society might support alternative lifestyles. There are different kinds of ideologies. 02 Biology M: Last week. These societies encourage individuals to increase the strength of their social ties. we know that there can be other points between them. so they don’t depend on 03 Psychology W: Our mother tongue is the language we learn first from our families. there are many different levels. And that math requirement could be business math or other courses like that. when the fish breathes oxygen. you’ll see that you still have quite a few credit hours needed for graduation. Do I have to take two semesters of Spanish here? M: No. You can take a test. this forward movement pushes water around the fins. These fins are in about the same position as the main wings and tail wings on an airplane. It is just “normal” thinking. These courses will usually require you to write at least two lengthy papers. for example. So those were the English requirements.

uh. The Judean Desert in Israel is a rain shadow desert.” Simply stated. for instance. It sounds funny. VDSL accommodates a very. But actually. there is carbonation. So is a large part of the western United States called the Great Basin. in North Africa. the roots crack the rocks. and the ground is permanently frozen. or destruction. Animals are also responsible for mechanical weathering. but it may be very soon. Then. it’s a comedy. it provides 52 Mbps. But not all. The Sahara Desert. chemical weathering is more common than mechanical weathering. Many people like it and are beginning to use it. ADSL or cable modems can only give 8 to 10 megabytes per second. chemical weathering takes place in warm. VDSL will soon be more common. They are much faster than a 56K modem. cable modems and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line or ADSL. south of France and west of Italy. We call this loss of water “evaporation. is Earth’s driest desert. most deserts are hot. There is another new kind of DSL connection. of continents.Focus A 02 01 Literature M: If a play makes you laugh. dry. they spill all of their rain or snow before they get to the other side. After America was discovered in 1492. falling from good fortune to bad fortune because of a “tragic flaw” in character. Chemical weathering involves the decomposition of rock by chemical changes or solution. Most of the major deserts in the world lie in the areas crossed by the trade winds. it was the most powerful nation in the world. the play seems as though it will end in tragedy but instead has a humorous or unclear ending.that is. although they usually act together. These are. are cold deserts. It’s also common in deserts. where there is little water and few plants. where it’s so cold that freezing and thawing happen every day. Also. as the roots get bigger. these deserts are formed in the “shadow” of the mountains. making home networks cost much less. into the rocks and the dirt around the rocks. called tragicomedy. In other words. sandy places. Focus B 01 01 History W: Spain is a country in Southwest Europe. In general. 02 Physical Science W: Rocks wear down and break apart due to a process called weathering. there are mainly two avenues for information to be sent. meaning they can quickly turn to rust. It gives up to about 52 megabytes per second. there can be measurable rainfall only once every 50 years. by George Bernard Shaw. An example is Saint Joan. So. For example. Spain lost a famous war against England. Let’s learn about some of them. we have to consider two factors. One coastal desert. Right now. modern years have produced a third style. Limestone is a type of rock that is dissolved by water. And many deserts are. In the Atacama. the Atacama Desert of South America. It established colonies in other parts of the world. In 1898. or dig. Another popular style is called tragedy. A good example of a comedy is Shakespeare’s classic Much Ado about Nothing. In tragicomedies. Temperatures there can reach 57 degrees Celsius. It is just “normal” Transcripts 655 . holes and cracks --of rocks. There are two main types of weathering: mechanical and chemical. but rocks can rust or oxidize. Um. One example is trade wind deserts. It’s easy to see that VDSL is a lot faster. The second factor is how much of that rain or snow evaporates --. It forms the basis of the society’s “public opinion. the roots of plants can cause rocks to break apart. This ideology is usually invisible to most people within the society. by Henrik Ibsen. This includes the processes of oxidation. goes back into the atmosphere or is used up by plants. its power began to decline. Then. VDSL isn’t everywhere yet. Mechanical weathering is especially common in high altitudes. and hydration. Another type of desert is the rain shadow desert. They brought back lots of gold and silver. deserts come in several forms. of rocks by mechanical processes. But in 1588. Deserts get less than 250 millimeters of rain or snow each year. hair-like roots grow into small cracks in rocks. In comparison. such as Cuba and the Philippines. Spain sent many people there. a desert is a place where evaporation is greater than rainfall or snowfall. One example is the play Ghosts. We’ll go into more detail about that reaction later. or coasts. 03 Geography W: We usually think of deserts as hot. is a trade wind desert. The North and South poles. The tiny. We also classify deserts by their location and main weather pattern. It is known as very high bit rate DSL or VDSL. The first is the annual amount of rainfall. Every society has an ideology. The winds that blow over these areas are very strong. Comedies have humorous characters and happy endings. carbonation. They blow away clouds. Trade with the new American colonies made Spain rich. Some companies already have this for certain places. which contains carbonic acid. Anyway. Cable modems and ADSL are both types of broadband connections. These faster ways of sending information are called broadband connections. They need faster ways to get information over the Internet. They get less than 250 millimeters of snow each year. These include the freezing and thawing of water in the crevices --. Limestone is a rock that does this. are located between 30 degrees and 35 degrees north and south of the equator. In defining a desert. Spain lost Cuba and the Philippines in the Spanish-American War. In the 16th Century.” or common sense. These are on the western edges. After that. Mechanical weathering involves the disintegration. Tragedies usually tell how a hero ruins his life. 02 Computer Science W: More people are buying home computers and using them for home networks. wet conditions. Still another kind of desert is coastal deserts. many iron minerals found in rocks are rapidly oxidized. so more sun reaches the ground. As clouds rise over the mountains. very large amount of bandwidth. They burrow. Because so much water evaporates. Trade wind deserts 03 Political Science W: The simplest way to define ideology is as a collection of ideas. Rain shadow deserts lie next to tall mountains.

The low-income countries can’t usually borrow money in world markets. He kept detailed notebooks of observations about the natural world. your skin can become red and sore. Some of this World Bank money is to help them fight this disease. It’s helping them build schools and health centers. But Leonardo was also an excellent scientist. People who have been sunburned a lot get skin cancer much more often than those who don’t get sunburned very much. They can have ten extra years if they need it. or UV rays. But his two most famous inventions --. Let’s look at political ideologies for a few moments.thinking. His best-known paintings are Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. they have 35--40 years to pay them back. The body responds by sending more blood to these cells to repair the damage. And he cut open dead people to learn how the human body works. you’re in danger of getting sunburn. they have to pay very high interest rates. and so on. it is seen as strange or maybe even dangerous or radical. the bank agreed to give about $15 billion to low-income countries. Finally. The cells in your skin are not protected from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.because of this extra blood. AIDS is a very big problem. social. many more people will get the illness.the parachute and the war tank --. 03 Economics W: The World Bank is a bridge between the rich and poor people. There’s political. Everybody thinks this way. The blood begins moving toward the damaged areas four hours after you’ve first been in the sun and will keep moving there as much as 24 hours afterwards. It’s making rich-country money into poor-country growth. You won’t know you’re sunburned until it’s too late. One --. Focus B 02 01 History W: Leonardo da Vinci was not only a great artist. He was also a scientist and inventor. For some of the poorest countries. If you don’t protect your skin when you go outside. 02 Health M: If you have white skin. too. and interest---free credit. If they don’t receive help. Sunburn is dangerous because it increases the chance that you will get skin cancer.weren’t built until after he died. Italy. sunburn. In the year 2002. It is one of the world’s biggest banks for poor countries. it’s very important to protect your skin when you’re in the sun. low-interest loans. Leonardo was born in 1452 in Vinci. When the countries get loans. It helps them take care of the money. ethical. he was an inventor. He began studying painting at age 14 and became famous just a few years later. There are different kinds of ideologies. and get water and electricity. We call this 656 Transcripts . When somebody says or does something different from this normal thought. What happens is this: UV rays damage the cells in your skin. and two --. This is why your skin is red when you get sunburned --. It’s helping protect the people’s surroundings.the rules needed to make it work that way. The World Bank gives them some money. So. A political ideology is concerned with two things.how a society should work. If they do.

I guess what’s been happening is being taken seriously. I saw this movie because several of my friends told me it was good.practice 2 M: Wow. the one on Monday and the one on Wednesday. One movie that fits this category is Spiderman 2. he’s not seriously ill. For example. W: Well. One reason I don’t want to try them is because I could get injured. Skill B Q3 --. Transcripts 657 . From this experience. She has worked hard to raise me and my brothers and sisters. I am not rich. and I discussed this issue and the story of this movie with my friend after the movie was over. Spending my free time with the theater club in high school was a great experience for me. Now. I spent my free time acting with the theater club. one thing I did was practice for shows. and that they have an extra week until the professor is back to finish their assignment. I don’t live on campus. My mother is a homemaker. Q3 --. I learned self-reliance. all this is good news after all! I’m behind in my work. I’ve also seen the heavy damage done to the campus square gates and all the yellow paint splashed onto the main building. I always try to take care of myself and be healthy. and that if anyone knows anything they should report it right away.practice 3 Sample response: One difficult experience that I went through was living alone in another city. Q2 --.practice 1 Sample response: One person I admire is my mother. I’m so happy because we have an extra week to finish the assignment!! W: What do you mean about having an extra week to finish the assignment? M: Both of next week’s classes are canceled. Today. Anyways. I did this because I thought acting was fun. I know how much money I should spend on food. I haven’t even read the article yet. This movie made me forget about real life for a few hours. I’m always worried about something being ripped off from my room. It was difficult because I didn’t have any friends or relatives there. she has shown me how important it is to do your life’s work the best that you can. Opinion 2: I prefer movies made to make audiences contemplate certain issues. and other expenses. Another reason I don’t want to try any extreme sports is because they cost a lot of money. Now. At first. Q1 --. In order to do this sport. After that. He taught me this skill by giving me an allowance when I was in school. I learned how to plan what I should spend my money on. W: What? That’s awful! He’s so sick he can’t come to class? M: Don’t worry. you have to be brave enough to jump out of the plane.practice 3 Opinion 1: I prefer movies made to entertain audiences. how about a movie on Saturday? Sample response: The woman learns that the professor is sick and that classes are being canceled. I did this because I enjoyed working with other members of the club. I also think that I would enjoy the feeling of free-falling. since we have both got an extra week. From this. they’re beefing up security on campus now. Q1 --.practice 1 Sample response: A useful skill my father taught me is managing my money. the woman feels glad because she was behind in her work. This sport looks like it would be a lot of fun. so I don’t want to hurt my body by doing an extreme sport. Lisa had her MP3 player stolen from her dormitory room last weekend and Chrissie had some money taken the very next night. Check the notice in the student lounge. I experienced this when I moved in order to go to school. That is why I want to try skydiving. I think the added guards are a good idea. Opinion 2 : I don’t want to try any dangerous or extreme sports. explains that the professor is not seriously ill. Brown is sick? He’ll be absent all of next week.practice 2 Opinion 1 : One dangerous sport that I would like to try is skydiving. This movie made people think about the issue of justice because it told the story of how a woman fought for the rights and safety of others. however. Even though she does not earn a wage or hold a high job in a company. she worries about the professor and the canceled classes. This movie made me contemplate how some businesses hurt the environment. I use this skill all the time when I get my monthly paycheck. I admire her because she works very hard. M: Well. W: Right. Q2 --. I want to see if I can be that brave. One movie that fits this category is Erin Brockovich. so I don’t want to waste my money. It’s terrible. clothing.Speaking Chapter 1 Skill A Q1 --.practice 2 Sample response: In high school. it is serious. I know that I can take care of myself. Q2 --. and I enjoyed the fantastic life of a superhero for a little while. I think whoever the culprit is should really be caught.practice 1 M: Hi Tara! Did you hear that Prof. The man. Another thing I did was build and paint things we used on stage. I saw this movie because my friend wanted to see it. but I surely understand how worried you are. It says next week’s assignments are now due on the 29th once he’s back. I think this was a good way to spend my free time. and doing that report would have taken all weekend. This meant I had to do everything myself and solve lots of problems by myself. Hey. W: Well. This movie was entertaining because it had lots of great special effects and an interesting story.

This music was different or special because it combined rhythms from African music with melodies from European music. Sample response: The reading passage says that the Dead Sea has a lot of mineral salt. It should help us better understand what the authors we study are doing if we have experience in writing literature ourselves. I also don’t mind because they are making the class available all the time. one of these musicians. They both agree that adding security guards on campus is a good idea. This salt is deadly to plants and fish. Q4 --. Most people thought it was too wild and unstructured. Last year. you know.. Sample response: The dean recommended that all literature majors should have practice in creative writing. Well. The class will make us better writers and better students of literature. was a large city with a rich culture. one thing you could do is find tutors to help you with your class work. so the English department made creative writing a required class for graduation. you could try to make extra time to practice football.yeah.practice 3 M: Have you ever taken a creative writing class? W: No.. their bodies were covered with ash and volcanic rock. people couldn’t escape. so there are no living things in the sea.nothing lives in it! Why not. Eventually. classmates who are smart in those subjects. The speaker says that white musicians didn’t like jazz at first. however. that might work. Tutors? Yeah. Or. but. rock and roll music has gone on to dominate the pop music scene.. Rivers carry mineral salts into the Dead Sea. When water evaporates. But I’ve also got to raise my grades. It will be easy to fit into my schedule. Tony. you ask. uh. Salt is trapped there because no rivers flow out of the Dead Sea. So what happened? Why couldn’t the people escape? Scientists have now discovered that the citizens of Pompeii did not die as a result of lava. They thought jazz was too wild and that it wasn’t real music.practice 1 W: M: W: M: Hey. um. so jazz. rhythm and blues. I think you’re right. The Dead Sea has ten times as much salt as the ocean. it has evolved into many modern forms such as punk. He also doesn’t mind because the class is easy to fit into his schedule. along with rock and other forms. Make extra time? W: M: W: M: W: M: 658 Transcripts . Sample response: This reading passage talks about the eruption of Mt. It erupted in 79 AD and destroyed Pompeii. the English department finally made the class a requirement. how’re you doing? OK. Maybe they could help you. it wiped out the city of Pompeii --. people in Pompeii died due to superheated air from the volcano and not lava. They just made creative writing a requirement for us. and hip-hop. The air from the volcano was so hot. Later. The man understands. I’ve already been doing some writing on my own. or molten rock. W: That’s a good idea. some white musicians began incorporating parts of jazz music into their songs. Vesuvius let out a great stream of superheated air. The woman states that things are serious. Vesuvius. This mineral salt is carried into the Dead Sea from rivers. The eruption began about noon on.POOF just like that! Pompeii. Sample response: This reading passage talks about how jazz music began. So. Then. or else I’ll flunk math and science. He has seen damage done to school property and buildings. mineral salt. became popular with younger people. August 24th. The speaker says that it was strange because even though the volcano erupted for 12 hours. Later. Because the Dead Sea is full of salt.I’ve got a problem. Since then. Today. Some people thought it was even more advanced than Rome. Q4 --. we’re all going to have to now. The man explains that the creative writing he has been doing on his own has helped him analyze the literary works he has had to study. Skill C Q5 --. too. jazz was not widely accepted as “real” music by mainstream “white” America. In fact. at that time.. when white musicians such as Elvis Presley began incorporating elements of jazz into their music. although the final eruption wasn’t until midnight that day. The woman agrees and adds that any information should be reported. Instead. the dean proposed all those studying literature should also have experience at doing creative writing. and you could help them with something else in return. Q4 --. why? M: Well. He thinks the required creative writing class will make him a better writer and a better student. M: Yeah.Sample response: The university is adding more security guards to campus night patrols. their bodies were covered in ash. if I can find someone willing to tutor me. The man thinks people doing all these things should be caught. Elvis Presley. It was especially popular with the younger generations. Water evaporation also makes the sea even saltier. Q3 --. Later. Hmmm. and I can tell you it helps me analyze the works we have to read. What is it? Coach says I need to practice more to make the football team.. making the sea even saltier. Students are informed this decision follows recent damage and thefts occurring on campus. I don’t know how I can find time to do both. Water evaporation and mineral salts carried into the sea from the rivers account for the Dead Sea’s unusual saltiness.practice 3 M: At the time of its origin. the music became wildly popular. it leaves behind all the dissolved minerals. became really popular. The woman’s friends had things stolen from their dormitory rooms and the woman herself is now worried about being robbed. and the man has the same opinion. The woman thinks this is a good idea. it says that African-American musicians made jazz music.. this salt is trapped here because no rivers flow out of the Dead Sea. However. First. that it killed the people instantly.practice 2 M: We call it the Dead Sea for one simple reason.practice 1 M: When Mount Vesuvius erupted in AD 79.

Did you check and see? No. Today. That way you’ll still be able to take both of them this year. I’m wondering. Second. she won’t be behind. he suggests that she take the class this semester and try to get along with the professor. he will have more time to concentrate on each class and can earn higher marks. here’s another idea. no one really knew much about giant squid. Opinion 2: The man’s problem is that he needs to take a world history class and a math class that are offered on the same days and at the same time. First.two Transcripts 659 . If the man has tutors. so he’ll be rested for football. Well. Q5 --. First. even if she might feel like she’s behind. have you got a moment? M: Sure. If he doesn’t have to get up early. he suggests that she take the class next semester.. Well. If he takes one mandatory class each term.and I’ve also got to take that! Maybe math is also offered on a Tuesday-Thursday schedule.. Also. Are you going to take world history this term? No. People used to think they were sea monsters. Opinion 1: The man’s problem is that he needs to take a world history class and a math class that are offered on the same days and at the same time. he can improve his grades in a short time. sure. but the problem is that it’s only offered at 10 a. show of hands please. he can get more sleep. Second. you could get up early every day and practice before classes. I think the first suggestion is better than the second one. he suggests that she take the class next semester. he will get to study with his friend. and the other next term. Second. The man suggests two solutions to the problem. right? M: Um. I know. Wendy. If she waits. she suggests that he take one of the necessary classes this term. Also. I thought about that. W: Sure. If she takes the class this semester. Second. of course. Also. he suggests that she take the class this semester and try to get along with the professor. she suggests that he get up early in the morning for extra football practice. but she doesn’t like the professor teaching it this semester. which will help him concentrate better in class. M: What about my sleep? W: You’re going to have to sacrifice something. See. How many of you like to eat squid? Some of you. and I just can’t stand him! M: I see. Opinion 2: The woman’s problem is that she needs to take Chemistry 202 to graduate. I can’t! Why not? You know we’re supposed to take it freshman year. she can catch up very quickly. That’s the same time as my Math 101. she suggests that he take one of the necessary classes this term. she suggests that he find tutors to help him with math and science.practice 2 W: Hey Mark. I didn’t think of it. The man suggests two solutions to the problem.practice 1 W: Okay everybody. Or. Take one class this term and the other next term. she needs to learn to get along with teachers and bosses she doesn’t like. Well. What’s up? Is everything all right? W: I don’t know what to do. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. but Professor Peabody’s teaching it this semester.W: Yeah.. so your studies each term will be less difficult. Yeah. W: What? M: Maybe you deserved it. Like. though. he will have enough time to improve at football. Q6 --. Part of education is learning to live with that. Opinion 2: The man’s problem is that he doesn’t have enough time to practice football and improve his grades in math and science. What if Peabody’s still teaching 202 then? M: Mmmm. I want to take 202 before I forget what I learned. but then I’ll be behind.practice 3 W: M: W: M: W: M: Hi. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. Jenny. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. too. if I have to choose between math and history. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. he can take history with his friend and complete both classes in one term. I see.m. If the man gets up early. good.. I have to take Chemistry 202 before I can graduate. she suggests that he might be able to take the math class on Tuesdays and Thursdays. that might work. I guess so. and next semester will be my last one before graduation. or not believe in them at all. which one should I take this term? History. Me. For a long time. How are you? Hey. and the other next term. she suggests that he might be able to take the math class on Tuesdays and Thursdays. um. Second. she suggests that he find tutors to help him with math and science.. From 6 to 8 or something. First. Mondays. Tyler. I think the first solution is better than the second one. we’ll be talking about a type of squid that probably none of you has tasted. I’ve only got two terms left to go. Opinion 1: The man’s problem is that he doesn’t have enough time to practice football and improve his grades in math and science. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. It might be better to spread them out. but I just hate that guy! When he taught me in Chemistry 101. you could wait and take the class next semester. We’ll be examining the giant squid. First. is Peabody all that bad? Couldn’t you just grin and bear it for one term? I mean. she suggests that he get up early in the morning for extra football practice. Hmm. we all get stuck with teachers we don’t like. I think the first suggestion is better than the second one. I’m doing great. First. he gave me a C! M: Wendy. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one.. but I kind of wanted to get them both out of the way this semester. and Fridays. Opinion 1: The woman’s problem is that she needs to take Chemistry 202 to graduate. I took 201 last semester. Wednesdays. Second. so we can study together! W: M: W: M: W: M: W: Q5 --. with a different professor she might get a higher mark. The morning exercise will clear his mind. OK. but she doesn’t like the professor teaching it this semester. W: I know. Both classes are pretty hard. If he is able to take math on Tuesdays and Thursdays. First. But.

Leonardo’s engineering skills were in bigger demand than his art. allowing scientists to study squid underwater more closely. Leonardo died in 1519 while serving as scientific counselor to King Francis I.practice 1 Sample response: One kind of work I am willing to do even if I never get paid for it is writing poetry. Leonardo’s big engineering breakthrough was writing the first systematic explanation of how machines worked. The speaker concludes that all his life. When I think about things in new. his engineering had been in bigger demand than his art. Many people believed a legend that a giant named Finn McCool made the Causeway and named it. Its discovery by the Bishop of Derry in 1692 made the Causeway famous. in effect. Theories written about it by several natural scientists started the debates. First. The 660 Chapter 2 Skill A Q1 --. He explained how the parts of any machine worked. Once word got around. ummm. Nowadays. Transcripts . Well. while leaders were looking for scientific ways to modernize. This gave him a really high profile and put him in great demand as an engineer for powerful leaders. nowadays. quite correctly. Because the whales eat the squid. the Causeway’s real origin remained pretty much a mystery up until modern scientists gave us definite answers. we know the truth. All the big debates about the Causeway’s origins started in the 1600s. Modern geologists know for sure the Causeway was formed by volcanic activity. The speaker explains that nobody knew for sure how it was formed until modern geologists provided the real answer. The speaker explains that Leonardo made breakthroughs in engineering. and how each part could be combined differently to improve the machine or build new inventions. this still remained a mystery for a long time.. Geologists explain that it was formed by volcanic activity in much the same way we see in Hawaii right now. Another reason I enjoy writing poetry is because I can think about things in a new way. it’s simply a fascinating geological discovery. Since then. What made Leonardo well-known were his breakthroughs in engineering. Leonardo was the first to explain how machines could be improved or invented. He worked for powerful leaders and on special projects. Q6 --. innovative ways. One reason I enjoy writing poetry is because it lets me create something beautiful. Q6 --.. it gives them a good feeling in their heart. When lava cools quickly by contact with water. Some said men with tools formed the Causeway. His work in engineering showed that he had the set of skills that powerful leaders wanted. He explains that many different theories on the Giant’s Causeway’s origin were being debated after it was discovered in the 1600s. There were a lot of different opinions and stories. Leonardo was Military Engineer for Cesar Borgia. All the theories that followed its discovery only started big debates about its origins. Whales hunt squid and the sizes of squid can be estimated by measuring parts of squid found in whale stomachs. Then. During his time. sperm whales have helped us learn a lot about giant squid. some fishermen caught an 18-meter-long squid. All his life. Years later.practice 2 W: Leonardo da Vinci spent most of his life working as an engineer. So. He came up with modern techniques to deal with existing problems. was develop modern techniques to solve existing problems. he supervised the huge project to divert the River Arno. leaders were really looking for scientific ways to modernize. sailors were the ones who first captured giant squid and allowed them to be measured or given to scientific academies. The speaker’s next point is that whales are especially helpful in studying squid. In 1861. Sample response: This lecture is about Leonardo da Vinci’s life as an engineer. we know the truth about how the Giant’s Causeway was formed. some French sailors caught one of the arms of a giant squid and gave it to the French Academy of Science.practice 3 M: So. and it helped us see the link between these animals. even boring things around my house become inspiring. some Russian sailors witnessed a struggle between a whale and a giant squid in which both died. we now know that squid can grow as long as 40 meters! Can you imagine that? Something to think about next time you’re at the beach. in. So. Leonardo the engineer was in bigger demand than Leonardo the artist. Others argued. Sample response: This lecture is about the origins of the Giant’s Causeway. scientists can estimate the size of giant squid by measuring squid parts found inside whale stomachs. too. They compare the Causeway’s origin to what’s happening in Hawaii right now. So. what he did. So. I do this all the time without getting paid because I enjoy writing poetry. it forms large crystal rocks that crack and result in the many joined columns we see in the Causeway. He developed mirrors for Pope Leo X in Rome. In fact. that natural processes formed the Causeway. It’s still the largest one ever measured.things helped scientists learn more about giant squid: the capture of squid by sailors and the study of whales. When people create something beautiful. The truth was. Whales can also carry cameras. basically. 1965. huh? Since we hardly ever see squid. how was the Giant’s Causeway formed? Well. Now. Sample response: This lecture is about giant squid. The link between whales and squid has also been better understood thanks to Russian sailors. speaker then explains how Leonardo spent much of his life working as an engineer for powerful leaders and on special projects. Leonardo spent much of his life working as an engineer. The speaker says that two things have helped scientists learn more about giant squid. even after its discovery in the 1600s. In fact. Some people believed a legend that suggested the Giant’s Causeway was made by a giant. Leonardo thus had the set of skills that leaders wanted. cameras have been tied to whales so we can study where squid live and check out how they behave. They brought the two bodies back. The speaker says that for a long time nobody really knew how the Giant’s Causeway was formed. A year later. Sailors helped scientists learn a lot about giant squid. These two things are sailors and whales. no one back then really knew for sure. the Causeway isn’t a mystery anymore.

practice 2 Sample response: What I regret the most was not spending enough time with my cousin when he was young. Q2 --. so students can improve their communication skills and develop confidence by speaking publicly as a student. I was going to vote this afternoon after my history class. the worst effect has resulted in families not communicating much anymore. when he was born. I think they’re ugly. Once my cousin is older. I thought I could spend a lot of time with him and teach him things. Sample response: The man’s opinion about the campus food service is that Option 2 is better. Also. The man likes this option because it adds several more places to get food.practice 2 W: Did you hear that they’re raising the student gym fee next semester? M: Oh. Second. So.practice 3 Sample response: The last time I needed to talk about an important topic. buses run on fuel that pollutes the air. and they’re much easier to park. Instead of playing sports. we all grew up together. First. Parents and children just watch silently rather than sharing their thoughts and experiences. The reason he doesn’t like the cafeteria is that it is too crowded and there is no place to put his bike. See. It is important for older family members to guide and teach younger family members. building a subway is better than increasing the number of buses. I don’t think the cafeteria food is so bad. which makes them difficult to park. my friend and I had an argument. I was no longer angry with my friend. so it’s more efficient. Q3 --. In my opinion. Finally. I spent most of the time lying in my sleeping bag trying to stay warm. Too many students try to eat there all at the same time. Sports cars. Secondly. W: M: Q2 --. while the subway. I would prefer to buy a sports car rather than an SUV. I think they look more impressive than SUVs. in contrast. there are lots of reasons we should close the cafeteria and vote for Option 2. He prefers Option 2 because he wants more variety.practice 4 Sample response: If I won some money. To top it off. Which option are you going to vote for? I’m going to vote to close the cafeteria and open a deli and barbecue grill on campus. reduces traffic. I talked with my brother. you know. the wet weather made me sick. First of all. First of all. M: Shoot. In addition. I don’t like the food in the cafeteria. it rained heavily the whole three days. I like variety. to compound the problem. I don’t have a job. I can never find a place to park my bike during lunch. they are too large and cumbersome. I better understood my friend’s point of view during our argument. they don’t get enough exercise.practice 1 Sample response: I think oral presentations are more beneficial for students than writing papers. spending a lot of time with him may be more difficult. and a less crowded place to eat. or negative effects are damaging families and children. it is cheaper over time.Q1 --. man! Really? W: Yeah. Lastly. increasing the number of buses also increases traffic on the streets. I often regret the many occasions I could have spent time with him but was preoccupied with something else instead. I chose to talk to my brother at that time because my brother is very familiar with my friend. Finally. He will not vote for Option 1 because he doesn’t like the cafeteria. so we stopped speaking to each other. This is regrettable because. In my opinion. better food. on the other hand. Another reason is oral presentations are interesting and educational for the other students who listen to them.practice 2 Sample response: I’m glad the government is finally going to address the transportation issue. Then. Another reason I don’t like the cafeteria is because it’s always so crowded. The important topic I needed to talk about was an argument I’d had with my friend.practice 3 Sample response: I think that watching too much television has produced several bad Transcripts 661 . Because of my brother’s aid. Skill B Q3 --. You think having those places on campus is better than having a cafeteria in the Student Center? Sure. while a subway is clean and efficient. This means that children are learning behavior from television. You can go fast. We couldn’t hike or swim. Q2 --. M: I’m already living on a tight budget. the better! Besides. when we finally left for home. Though a subway requires a lot of money to build. I don’t know if I can afford that. Q2 --. children just sit at home and watch them on TV. After talking with my brother. effects on society. so my brother and I have known my friend for many years. The fact that children grow up quickly is another reason why I regret spending too little time with my cousin when he was young. many jobs require oral presentations. not from their parents. are fun to drive. We had to walk five kilometers to get help. my brother’s car broke down. a subway train can carry many more people than a bus. W: It’s only $3. In addition. In fact. it’s going up to $15 a term. Q1 --. SUVs do not get good gas mileage. First of all. They burn less fuel than SUVs. watching too much television has resulted in lower levels of physical health among children. It’s too much like the food I used to eat in my high school cafeteria.practice 4 Sample response: The worst vacation I ever had to endure was a camping trip with my brother and a friend. Q1 --. the more food choices to select from. These bad. These days. oral presentations are easier in that they take less time to prepare and put less emphasis on grammar than papers do.practice 1 W: M: W: M: W: M: Are you going to vote about whether or not to close the cafeteria? Yeah.

far from destroying the landscape of Paris. In the lecture. Second. we have man-made chemicals. I guess my beer fund will have to absorb the loss. That means I miss a lot of the notes. if I go to the gym at the YMCA they’re going to charge me a lot more. how do we all feel about using chemicals to control plant diseases in gardens? M: I think it’s best not to use any chemicals. I just don’t like them jacking up fees all the time. farmers used chemicals found in nature. In the past. Most of the students sitting near me have the same problem I have. I don’t want the professor to see me sleeping. So. So. but proved very useful over the years and even right now is used for broadcasting French Radio and Television. $15 is still a good deal. the landscape of Paris. putting it another way. Sample response: The man decides that he will pay the higher fee to use the gymnasium.and what about weights? W: Seems like you’ll have to pay the fee. but they are outside and he can’t lift weights there. Q4 --. Hm. The first factor he considers is whether he can afford the new fee. as long as they are used correctly. Do you have any other ideas? Well. we’ve read that Parisians were opposed to building the tower and wanted it destroyed after it was done. but let’s start with this basic idea. Even though it’s only $3 more. There are other things involved with organic gardening. These man-made chemicals fight plant diseases and insects more effectively than natural chemicals. and he can play there even if it rains. M: W: M: W: Let’s start with a basic question. So. the tower has been very useful for broadcasting. Are they harmful for the plants and unhealthy for us? I would argue no. the gym is still the best bargain. W: M: 662 Transcripts . W: Well. Plants have natural chemicals in them to protect them from diseases and insects. He considers using the YMCA. so farmers can grow plants better today than in the past. M: I’ll pay it because it’s still cheap and the gym’s convenient. It was thought useless. but that’s more expensive. Today. you can’t fall asleep. keep writing. and that building it was a good idea. it now represents it. First.. She says that using chemicals is okay if they are used correctly. W: You could play for free on the high school playground. the tower has come to represent. OK. I guess. What did you do? I got to know this smart girl who sat in front of me. Try sitting at the front of the class. The second factor he considers is convenience. I mean. In the end. I think they were wrong. Perfectly true. They thought the tower would destroy Paris’s beautiful landscape. I had a problem like that with my math class. Tanya? Terrible! I have a big problem with that class. like sulphur. of course. W: Well. they usually think of gardening without chemicals. And why do you say that? Because now everyone seems to like the Eiffel Tower. Sample response: The speaker talks about organic gardening and using chemicals in gardens. W: M: W: M: W: M: Q4 --. farmers discovered that they could grow more crops by using other chemicals to help plants fight diseases and insects better. Sample response: Parisians were opposed to building the Eiffel Tower for several reasons. Finally. The professor points out that plants have natural chemicals in them. though.practice 1 M: W: M: W: M: W: M: How is your history class.practice 2 W: When people think of the Eiffel Tower they usually think of Paris. M: Sure.. rather than destroy. the skeletal design once considered ugly is now the world’s nicest example of 19th century industrial architecture. you’ll have to stay awake or the professor will see you.. think about this. When you’re actively writing things. The gym is close. These natural chemicals help the plant fight diseases and insects. I don’t know if that will work for me. What am I going to do? Well.practice 1 W: When most people think about organic gardening. How do you all feel about organic gardening? Or. Long ago. And so we can go on and say that the reasons for opposing the Eiffel Tower back then are no longer valid today. you should try to take as many notes as you can. Why do you say that? M: It’s healthier for us and healthier for the plants. farmers used other natural chemicals to help plants fight diseases and insects better. do you think building the Eiffel Tower was a good idea? Well. I appreciate your assistance. Then. although organic farming has some benefits. we see that all those reasons are no longer valid. Its “ugly” skeletal design is today considered the world’s finest example of 19th century industrial architecture. let me think. She let me borrow her notes. A nearby high school has basketball courts. They also thought the tower would be useless. he doesn’t have a job. instead of being useless. but I found a good way to solve that problem. However. I guess I would make more of an effort not to sleep if I were sitting in the front row. and I lift weights there too. I would agree with you that having built the Eiffel Tower was a good idea. As farming developed in the past. They considered the design to be like an ugly skeleton.. we got to be really good friends from that class. All right. Skill C Q5 --. Do you think those who opposed building the Eiffel Tower were right? In other words. and they fight diseases and insects better than anything in nature. Even if the information doesn’t seem that important. First.W: So what are you going to do? You love to play basketball at the gym! M: Yep. Where do you sit in your history class? At the back of the room. the Eiffel Tower has become the ultimate symbol for the city of Paris. What is the problem? My professor’s lectures are boring! I fall asleep every day in class. I’m not totally against using chemicals in gardens. personally. And while you’re sitting there. he decides that even with the new fee. W: OK. good. In fact. They usually fall asleep too. This eventually led to farmers using man-made chemicals today. Don’t you think? M: I suppose so. then how about this. but we can’t play there if it’s raining.

The Berlin Wall stood and actually grew over the next two decades. One thing that the man suggests is for the woman to sit in the front of the class and try to take lots of notes. It sounds like it’s still a lot of reading and a bit complicated too. in ancient times --. then only the book’s key passages. I don’t know. They just didn’t have any telescopes. called the Hubble telescope. What’s going on? M: I’m having a rough time in that class. so they moved to the west side. Key points of readings get covered. and finally one that magnified objects 33 times. the coach is pushing us to get ready for a tournament. people in Berlin could travel around the city freely. and we relate them to lecture topics that are going to be on the tests. How about coming to my study group. called the Hubble telescope. Today our largest telescope. here is another idea..practice 2 W: Hi. Today. the woman describes a problem she’s having in her class.practice 2 W: After World War II. he made telescopes that magnified eight times. craftsmen in Holland invented glass lenses that made objects appear larger and nearer. logically enough. One part was controlled by each of the countries that won the war. Later. These spots helped him conclude that the sun spins on its axis. he discovered the four largest moons around the planet Jupiter. Galileo used his large telescope to study the stars. They were losing all of their workers. This is a good idea. and I’ve got tennis practice every day. the Soviet Union realized they had to stop this. and the US brought East Berlin a democratic government and capitalist economy. The man offers suggestions to solve the problem. Doing this is a lot faster. the professor describes the Berlin Wall. M: All right. the people of Berlin themselves basically destroyed the wall that had divided their city for decades. but the Berlin Wall was built to keep people in a place. All during the 1950s. W: No sweat. the Soviet Union. We meet once or twice a week at my place and sit around talking about the readings for an hour or so. another war began in Europe: the Cold War. He soon made a more powerful telescope. telescopes have become more and more powerful..people believed that the Earth stood still. Sample response: In this lecture. W: OK. First. but you all know that after World War II. Today we’re going to learn about telescopes. over one weekend. and that the sun and other planets moved around it. The professor points out that the Berlin Wall was destroyed in one weekend. As more and more people moved out. France. he called sunspots. It helps us learn about the furthest parts of the universe. M: Really? How did you handle it? W: Well. Q6 --. His problem is that he has no time to read any of the books being assigned. W: Why. M: Hmm. sun spots.what’s the matter? M: I bombed the mid-term exam. It stood in the city for many years. It trapped people in West Berlin. It helped him discover many important things. and. in contrast. Since then. travel restrictions between East and West Germany were lifted. It was built during the Cold War in the 1960s. W: It’s fast and fun. It also gives you insights and ideas you’d probably miss in the book itself. Count me in.. they weren’t drunk. The problem the woman has is that she is bored and falls asleep in class. orbits the Earth in space and is used to study the furthest sections of the universe. I just don’t have time to read all the books we’re assigned. the Berlin Wall went up.practice 1 M: OK. such as four of Jupiter’s moons. I think this is a good suggestion. His first telescope magnified images three times. He made the first working telescope by fitting two lenses at either end of a long tube. Read quick summaries or critical notes. that is. people living in the communist part of Berlin could see that life was better for people living in the capitalist part of the city. It will solve the man’s problem because in short amounts of time he will hear and discuss key points in the readings with others and remember them more easily. Talking about this stuff is also the best way to remember it. The Soviet Union. Great Britain. Finally. Now. a huge telescope. formed a totalitarian government and communist economy in West Berlin. he proved that all planets in our solar system move around the sun. About 1608. During the Cold War. In 1961. Scott! You didn’t look too happy in philosophy class.yes. Now. quiet please. Q6 --.. the professor talks about telescopes. even before I was born --. M: I guess it would save me reading time if I could hear and discuss ideas in the books with others. The main point the professor makes about the Berlin Wall is that it was built to keep people in West Berlin. in 1989. Transcripts 663 . it made them appear three times larger. but people finally tore it down at the end of the 1980s. the city of Berlin was divided into four parts. France. which he used to study the stars. Now. well. right after the war. Sample response: In this lecture. Most walls are built to keep people out of some place. Meanwhile. It helped him make several important discoveries. which. Great Britain. I had that problem with basketball and literature last year. Since then. These caught the attention of an Italian scientist named Galileo. Sample response: The man in the conversation tells the woman he has a problem in philosophy class. Over the next two years. telescopes have gotten increasingly powerful. you don’t need to read entire books page by page to understand them. but I found a good way to handle it. This will solve the woman’s problem because she will worry about the professor seeing her sleep and she will keep active by writing a lot. No.Sample response: In this listening passage. and the fact that planets move around the sun. The first telescope was made about 1608 by the Italian scientist Galileo. think about this. is in space orbiting the Earth. and the US. Q5 --. Then he saw strange spots on the sun. That’s G-A-L-I-L-E-O. One thing the woman suggests is joining her study group that meets for an hour or two every week to discuss the readings.

5. He lent a car. 2. 5. 8. it was closed. 4. We pray. If the alarm rings. 5. biological environmental advantageous beneficial responsibility invitation flexibility admiration preferable negotiation Transcripts . both uploads and downloads 10. 3. a. 6. a history of England 4. To top it off. I ate the last of the pie. on Sundays. 4. 3. b. They waited over two hours to see him. Dan likes jazz and pop. b. 5. you will enjoy it. a. Step 2 --. 5.Final consonant sounds 1. 2. 3. 5. a. b. 2. The pretty flowers are growing. 4. 664 a. 8. 4. 7. 9. biology environment advantage benefit responsible invite flexible admire prefer negotiate b. Although we hadn’t finished. 3. When the wedding was over. slip leave wheel fool bin peel seek pull sleep live will full bean pill sick pool 1. 6. it can lead to lung and heart problems in later life.Stress related to content words Phrases 1. 8.Long and short vowel sounds 1. and will count for 25 percent. Sam is reading about the history of Canada. a. 3. 5. I would prefer to buy a sports car rather than an SUV. 6. she immediately ran to her car. as quick as a fox 2. we decided to go home. a. b. a. land of the rising sun 5. The test will be two hours long. Professor Brown will be absent all of next week. I broke the dish set. b. 2. 6. The professor gave us a deadline.Commonly mispronounced sounds: /l/ and /r/ 1. 7.Commonly mispronounced sounds: /th/. and /s/ 1. a. Step 2 --. If a person smokes.Chapter 3 Focus A Step 1 --. 2. 3.Stress related to parts of words 1. b. 5. last of the candy 6. put down your books. 6. 7. 3. 4. Step 4 --. 10. a. /d/. He feels better than yesterday. 6. 4. 4. Due to illness. the happy couple walked slowly from the church. taught thigh boss skate sank though thin torn thought sigh both scathe thank dough sin thorn Focus C 1. Step 3 --. 8. Beginning next term. and slowly leave the building. when we finally left for home my brother’s car wouldn’t start. Did you hear the lion roar? If you dance. on top of the world 3. It was raining so hard all day that they didn’t leave the house. b. Much study and hard work can lead to a good education and a bright future. When I went to the store. a. Homework is necessary in school. I like rivers. the eye of the storm 7. in the heat of the moment 9. 2. not play. 2. the student fees will increase by 20%. That hat is black. Look at that big berry. b. 2. b. 7. 6. If I won some money. When she stepped off the boat. 4. not only an MP3 player but a camera Sentences 1. The government’s attempt to raise taxes resulted in a loss of popularity. Let’s eat some meat. better than the rest 8. 3. Focus B Step 1 --.

On the bright side. England. Another key factor driving the spread of English today is the Internet. it might not have. But another reason is also important today. they keep detecting objects very similar to Pluto---I mean similar in size. tilted orbit makes Pluto seem even more like a comet than a planet.Writing Chapter 1 Skill A Practice 1 W: What is the big deal about Muslim women wearing head scarves in class? The big deal appears to be image. Many people don’t think it should be used because of this. and a supermarket all rolled into one. Hmmm. you have to look like a Western person. the majority of that English content available is in American English. Practice 4 M: For over seven decades now. In the early 20th century. They’re all tiny. the United States. but others were dead wrong. It is indeed an incredibly convenient thing to have in your home. All those tiny objects are out in the same area of space. Illness from germs found within hospitals is the fourth leading cause of death in America. Most of the time. But sunlight can also keep people from getting many diseases. so the mystery remains unsolved. Then again. It can even do this after passing through glass. I see this as a real danger. For this reason maybe Pluto should just be called a comet instead of a planet. It is now possible for someone to sit at home in front of their computer and shop or chat or even play interactive card games without ever meeting another person face-to-face. Let’s look at both sides of the nuclear power question. If true. But. Clearly.that is. you ask? Well. A fez is the traditional red felt hat worn by Turkish men in the past. it’s not uncommon to get millions of hits for any given search. And those two reasons were basically what drove the spread of English after World War II. we’re not sure if Columbus did reach Iceland. The only evidence is in Columbus’s diary. it seems they can’t make up their minds. Maybe we should reconsider our new idea that sunlight is harmful. people don’t actually die from skin cancer. But if you search in English. Why are some scientists now changing their minds about Pluto’s classification as a planet. this is not the first time Turkey has outlawed a fashion to change its image. a movie theater. but we have to know how to use it. People also recover faster in hospitals where there is more sunlight. Now when I say it comes at a price. It can harm us if we’re not careful. Women in head scarves give the people of Turkey an old-fashioned or uncivilized image. It’s like having a newspaper. but nobody is calling those things planets. Despite all of this new evidence. Those are real problems. people can forget that at the other side of that computer screen is a real person with real emotions. a television. So this strange. hospitals with more sunlight have fewer germs. Or maybe you think of health problems like muscle strain or eye strain from staying up all night playing games online. though. Transcripts 665 . Business and Hollywood are probably the reasons that first come to mind. there’s a lot more English content online than content in other languages. there are still lots of people who want to keep Pluto as a planet. Because there is a machine between them. These are some good reasons for using it. The Internet isolates users outside of or away from society. And in fact. they forget the human behind those messages in the chat window. Nuclear power is very inexpensive to make and doesn’t create any air pollution. So way out at the edge of our solar system are all these other objects in space about the same size and shape as Pluto. Many facts in the diary were accurate. Skill B Practice 1 M: American English has become so ubiquitous --. a lot of those things seem to fit our definition of comets. Hospitals with less sunlight have more germs. “To be civilized. And speaking of that. Practice 2 W: Sunlight can be a medicine. did Columbus follow their directions? Some historians assert that Columbus visited Iceland 15 years before he sailed to America. But that convenience comes at a price. something none of the other planets have.” And in fact. A more serious problem that I would like to discuss is the social problem of the Net. widespread --.for several reasons. Now. Practice 3 W: The Net is the most amazing invention of our lifetime. it’s not just Pluto’s size and shape that make it look like a comet. As more and more people get connected online. The question is. called the Kuiper Belt. and many other countries followed. It’s true that sunlight may cause skin cancer. the Turkish government made it illegal for men to wear a fez in public. One important reason why some countries were slow to develop nuclear energy is that it’s very dangerous. Practice 3 W: Russia was the first country to make nuclear power for everyday use. an encyclopedia. Practice 2 M: We now know that the Vikings sailed to North America from Iceland about 500 years before Columbus reached the continent. you know that you’re lucky if you get a couple of thousand hits. There is one main reason for not using it. scientists have been telling us that Pluto is a planet. He wrote of a voyage in 1477 to a place that might have been Iceland. they say maybe it isn’t. Sunlight can kill germs or bacteria that cause sickness. The waste is a deadly poison. most of you probably think of problems or dangers related to the content of the Internet. One famous writer who studies Turkish politics says head scarves tarnish the modern image of Turkey. it’s likely he heard the people there tell stories about this land to the west. This might have given him the idea to explore that land. There’s also only a very small amount of waste left after it’s made. and it is possible that he even saw Viking maps of it. a telephone. Pluto has a tilted orbit. Without face-to-face contact. they disconnect with society. As this writer once said. In fact. a mailbox. Have you ever done an Internet search in a language other than English? If you have. however.

almost all public money went to the military. Who'd like to begin? Chapter 2 Skill A Practice 1 W: Experts used to say that people had to exercise vigorously for any health benefit. They argue that there are better and safer ways to make crops resistant to natural enemies and to reduce chemicals in the land. Nuclear waste will break down and finally become harmless. more products from farms will only provide more food to already rich countries. Doctors have found that physical changes occur in the body even with very light exercise. As things turned out. Practice 4 M: Some people say dinosaurs died out gradually because Earth changed slowly. such as bio-natural farming. Doctors and health trainers now say you should focus on taking your time while exercising. In this study. The cost of living was so high that many could not pay their rent. is that it’s not more technology that we need. This will also make you want to wait longer before you exercise the next time. we’re going to look at the opposite side of the issue. Also. Practice 2 M: OK. Umm. Let’s see.we’ll be discussing which side of the argument you agree with and why. and that helped them lose more weight. one problem environmental groups mention is that farming is already too technological. called craters. So we’ve read about some of the merits of GM. genetically modified. that is.ummm. In fact. but more natural ways of farming. That means any dinosaurs that weren’t killed by floods or the explosion after when the Earth was hit were killed by cold weather and lack of food after all the plants died. Decay in morals and values had. no real affect on the fall of Rome. The faster you exercise. Others say that a sudden change killed them all at once.you know the old saying. environmental groups don’t think the higher quantities and better quality achieved by genetically modifying foods are necessary. Now comes the fun part --." Practice 3 M: You should have read one side of the space exploration debate already --. Similarly. giant clouds of steam and dust probably flew up into the atmosphere. So. but now many of them are changing their tune. money was needed to improve life in cities.. They worked hard and lived in small crowded apartments. Furthermore. they ask. crops cause problems in farming and that they are unnecessary.. They believe GM crops make farming too scientific for farmers’ regular abilities. and to decrease consumption. Today. we see Rome had two serious problems affecting daily life and the economy --. If a huge rock from space hit the Earth here. More taxes were raised in cities to pay the new troops and conditions there kept getting worse and worse. we'll discuss bio-natural farming in more detail next class. The waste has to be buried in very durable boxes.Accidents can happen while handling this waste. though. researchers looked at women who walked a certain distance quickly versus women who walked the same distance slowly. plants. especially when you’re not in good shape to start with. the sooner you’ll want to quit. they also believe that taxpayers’ money would be better invested in trying to solve these issues. poor conditions in cities and over-spending on armies.. the poor get poorer.you’ve read how some believe decay in morals and values led to the fall of Rome. the rise in world population could be slowed by better handling global issues in agriculture. These physical changes are actually healthy changes for the body! For example. in their opinion. Such impacts could have changed the weather quite suddenly. They have also found clues that suggest some dinosaurs were killed suddenly. Natural crops look fine and taste better. they believe that more could be invested on developing the Earth's natural resources as well as on programs to increase recycling and reusing. poor Romans became angry and refused to defend the Empire. Why. Using photos of Earth taken from space. As one can guess. the doctors found that the slow walkers actually lost more weight than the fast walkers! The difference seemed to be that slow walkers spent more time walking because they found it stimulating. should the threat of over-population make it necessary to try and colonize other planets? Instead. where objects from space have hit the Earth. They were basically walking for enjoyment. opponents of space exploration contend that we should deal with world problems here on Earth before thinking about space. conditions in cities never improved. Environmental groups believe GM 666 Transcripts . "The rich get richer. This probably made the Earth a very dark place for a long time. Naturally. most Romans were poor and life in the cities was terrible. Ummm. History. we will consider the opposite side. and animals have already been hurt by it. In some places. clean-water management. They can see that many animals have disappeared. This means you can exercise longer. Scientists study the very old bones of animals in rocks. They don’t believe GM foods will feed the Third World --. It costs a great deal to make the buildings safe where nuclear power is created. the government began hiring soldiers from foreign countries. the armies became harder to control and even more expensive to keep. Practice 4 W: OK. To begin with.the side in favor of government spending on exploration. Today.they think GM foods will increase the number of goods in richer countries --. In response. class --. and birth control. These were big issues. but not until it has been in the ground for a very long time. The fast walkers were obviously exercising.to begin. The point the environmentalists are making. foods. Surprisingly. many people. there are huge holes. Of course. that is. however. shows us that the living conditions in cities and too much military spending were bigger reasons for the fall. one study looked at women who walked. The slow walkers were usually just walking with friends and talking. scientists have found a huge crater in the ocean near Mexico.. in comparison. Thus.

this is very good for us. realistic way. I was looking at the university web site. We use “mouse” to describe tiny rodents with long. It has 58 scenes that tell the story of the events leading to the Battle of Hastings in 1066. They’re giving $500 to each registered student organization. Norway rats.well. Embroidery has traditionally been used to decorate clothing and household furnishings such as tablecloths. even when we don’t notice it. In fact. Rat! How about this one? Rat! Mouse! Ah! It’s hard to tell. M: Wow! Let’s do it! What is the web site again? W: It’s the Ohio Union Activities Board. do you? W: Well. Then. 02 Art M: Embroidery is today’s topic. Some of these different rodent species that we call rats and mice are closely related. Hand embroidery has become more of a hobby than a regular occupation. if it’s not already. These glands get water and other materials from our blood.500 more after that! We just have to come up with a special program. etc. it has a straight part. Why can’t we have more plays and art fairs and dances? W: You’re right. pack rats. but as a table covering. I get it. Embroidery designs are usually stitched into a woven fabric. it means a lot more money for things like that. There are many different embroidery styles and stitching techniques. The colors of mustard yellow. we should get our drama club registered. Unfortunately.Listening 01 Campus Life M: We don’t have nearly enough things to do for fun on campus. It starts this year. etc. sweating. but it was originally made not as a carpet. M: Really! How come they have so much money? W: Well. such as wire or leather strands. They’re words common people use to distinguish these two rodents. but if they move to a hot place. putting on heavy clothing to keep warm? But there you are. But did you know about the new student activity fee? M: So what! What’s the good of it? W: Well. So. We use “rat” to describe medium. The glands make a lot more sweat. it can be taken back in again. We know that sweat is mainly water because it feels wet. It goes around in circles. That wouldn’t be very much money for another couple of years. As it dries. Of course. we sweat more. Embroidery has also been used as an art form and for decoration. We call this style Elizabethan embroidery. M: Oh. they’ll sweat as much as two to three liters per hour. we might sweat more. The bottom part is coiled. M: You don’t think our drama club will really get any of the money. too. We all know the salty taste of sweat. In about six weeks. and that’s a good thing. There are many different kinds of mice: house mice. Can you see yourself at the gym working out --. they can’t take as much of it back in again. machines embroider most of our clothing today. When we have very strong feelings. dark brown and off-white can be found in cloth traditionally woven in the region. it moves from the coiled part up to the straight part. 04 Biology M1: W: M2: M1: W: M2: M1: Look closely at this picture. too! Can you see yourself in the winter. There. Now. Then. Inside our bodies are small things called glands. they’re looking for student organizations right now. felt. Body heat comes from moving or from taking in food. you’ll recall. There are many different kinds of rats: kangaroo rats. in honor of Queen Elizabeth. It was made in England in the late 17th Century. So. isn’t it? The terms “mouse” and “rat” are not scientific classifications. That seems to be the most that people can sweat. 03 Health W: We are always sweating. too. The Bradford Carpet covers an entire wall. The carpet shows countryside life in a simple. field mice.5 meters wide. It was made in England in the year 1077. thin tails. when it’s hot or we are exercising --. look at the picture of a sweat gland. every new student at our university pays $15 into the fund. olive-green. French soldiers from the region of Normandy defeated the English army under King Harold. deer mice. It’s coming from other programs at the university. but other rodent species are not related to each other at all! 667 Transcripts . that’s another story. including leather. It was stitched on a canvas --like a painting --. it helps us stay cool. The glands bring in sweat in the coiled part. What is it? Embroidery is needlework in which designs and pictures are created by stitching strands of some material onto a layer of another material. towels and bedding. In the Battle of Hastings. black rats. So. Is it a mouse or a rat? It’s a mouse. A lot more comes out onto our skin. but designs can be embroidered onto many materials. Sandy! How do we officially register our club? W: There’s a form we fill out on the web site. it could. but embroidery could use different materials.lifting weights maybe? How would you feel if you didn’t sweat at all? People who live in cold places only sweat about one liter per hour.or large-sized rodents with long. and plastic. cotton rats.and uses silk thread. M: What do you mean? W: Well. One of the most famous embroidered artworks is called the Bayeux Tapestry --. their bodies change. EM-BROY-DUH-REE. Then. Another famous embroidered artwork is the Bradford Carpet.B-A-Y-E-U-X. of course! That’s why I was looking on the website! M: Good thinking. The Bayeux Tapestry used wool that had been colored with vegetable dyes. It’s 70 meters long and 0. we can ask for $3. So we can do some cool stuff with our drama club! Remember that idea we had to do Shakespeare plays in present day settings? W: Yes. Most embroidery uses strands of thread or wool. if it’s not needed to keep us cool. It would be very hard to get warm! Now. not much sweat reaches our skin when it’s cool. When the weather is hot or if we move a lot. It has salt and some other materials in it. thin tails. It’s the major way that our bodies get rid of extra heat. We sweat different amounts at different times. This tapestry is like a huge blanket.Practice Test --. so our university president is putting in a bunch more money. They use it to make sweat. such as blankets or carpets. But you can embroider anything as long as it is made from an evenly woven fabric and can be held firmly in the hand or in a special embroidery hoop.

my dad is just an editor.Speaking Question 3 M: Wow. or at least. Their bodies are 9 to 11 inches long. I think you will get one. I’m a little worried about the exams we have soon. I just don’t have the time. though. M: I see. Note. when people refer to rats and mice they mean pet rats and mice and pest rats and mice. especially with the exams coming up. My boss wants me to work in the restaurant four weeknights each week. that Norway rats have smaller ears relative to their heads than house mice. I think these scholarships should be based on merit. Can you imagine living in 668 Transcripts . but my mom is a fairly successful dentist. The heads of Norway rats are heavy and chunky. M: Yeah. but they award this kind of scholarship based on the income of the student’s parents. The heads of house mice are triangular. That way you can study each night during the week and keep your job at the restaurant. A species is a group of related individuals that can mate and have babies. Paul.Usually. who came from a land far from Mesopotamia. Humans and horses. Well. Its body and tail are both about three to four inches long. How about you? W: Oh. it’s because of my part-time job. M: Very good. Can anyone think of another reason he might build a great green garden in the middle of the hot dry Middle East? W: To impress and attract people from other cities? Like tourism? M: That’s a good thought. This isn’t true. Even though Norway rats and house rats are different species. about twenty or thirty oarsmen. Indeed. I’m a bit stressed. In fact. I really don’t want to go further into debt with more student loans for next year. however. Norway rats and house mice belong to different species. much larger ones have been found. but I play a lot of sports on the weekend and hang out with my friends. and their tails are seven to nine inches long. from what we’ve studied about the marriages of nobles. why don’t you explain to your boss that you have these exams coming up soon? Maybe you can just work two weeknights. that’s great news. adult house mice are much smaller than adult Norway rats. Hmmm. As described by Greek historians. They both come from a common ancestor that lived millions of years ago. M: I see. belong to different species. not financial need. The descendants of that ancestor evolved into different species. I don’t stand a chance. W: True. who can tell me why Nebuchadnezzar might marry a woman from far away? W: To help Babylon? Like to make powerful friends or trade partners with another area. class. W: I don’t know. these gardens were built by King Nebuchadnezzar for his wife. Question 6 M: Today. Why don’t you ask your boss if you can work on the weekend instead. not on the grades earned by the student. M: Why not? You’re an excellent student. travel the seas. The regular ships were um. In the late 19th century. Miss Andrews. Practice Test --. What do your parents do? W: Well. but what else do you know about them? Most people think these ships were only used to um. huh? Drakkar ships were usually owned by a nobleman because no one else could afford to build one. M: So? All university students are in financial need. these gardens were a show of power-. that’s a great idea. how can we tell Norway rats and house mice apart? First off. how are you? M: Pretty good. So. one reason he had these gardens built was to keep his wife happy and help maintain Babylon’s strong relationship with her homeland. Now. That’s exactly right. Question 4 W: Good morning. archaeologists excavated Babylon and found the base of the garden building to be only 100 by 150 feet. M: Really? That’s a pity. W: Didn’t you hear? They’re not awarding them based on academic performance. the advertising might have carried over to the historians who reported the gardens. This means Norway rats and house mice. Thanks! I’ll say that to him tonight. It’s when I like to relax. Question 5 W: Hey. today we will be talking about the Vikings and their drakkar. what’s this? Class (in unison): Mouse! M1: And this? Class (unison): Rat! a small village by a river and one of those massive ships suddenly appearing in front of you with two hundred Viking warriors? Pretty scary. with pointed muzzles. I don’t like this kind of scholarship. they are related to each other. M: I see your point. W: Not only does this kind of scholarship discriminate against students with wealthy parents. W: Yeah. The biggest one ever uncovered was actually over seventy meters long and was probably owned by a king.a show of wealth that advertised the Babylon way was the right. and 450 to 650 grams for males. They’re awarding them based on financial need. for example. usually about 28 meters in length and had uh. A Norway rat weighs between 350 and 450 grams for females. the powerful way. but it rewards lazy students who don’t work as hard. I don’t know what to do. I know. we’re continuing our series of lectures on the seven wonders of the ancient world with an examination of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. to be honest. that’s a good idea. I’m sure most of you know these ships were used over a millennium ago so the Vikings could raid lands and steal riches. So. I doubt it was for tourism. Like the giant cathedrals built by Christians in Europe. However. or longships. Early reports described the gardens as 400 feet by 400 feet and as tall as 320 feet. but I think it was to impress and attract others. That way you have your weekend free. A house mouse weighs about 30 grams. the drakkar ships could travel along rivers that were only one meter deep. and you still have your job. M: Really? Are you worried about your exams? W: Well. I need that job to buy books and meals. Mary. Now. but someone has to reward lazy students like me. W: Yeah. that sounds like a problem. Um.

eight cases of punctured lungs. Transcripts 669 . Can we trust their diagnoses? The National Council Against Health Fraud doesn’t think so.If it’s performed by well-trained people. but in truth. we don’t know exactly how acupuncture works or why it’s effective. Some studies have shown that acupuncture is safe --. and 26 cases where pain actually increased after treatment. My uncle used it last year for his arthritis. We also don’t know much about the risks involved in acupuncture treatment.Practice Test --. infections. but it wasn’t well known in America until 1971. Hmm. If acupuncture is performed improperly. Doctors vibrate the needles. it’s when they stick needles in your body. today’s topic is acupuncture.. there were 132 cases of fainting. What if it’s not? In a Norwegian survey of 197 acupuncturists. It warns us that acupuncture is a quote-unquote “unproven”treatment based on quote-unquote “primitive”ideas. it can cause many different problems. If you want to try it. Acupuncturists are usually not medical doctors. and hepatitis B. Today. Well. acupuncture has become a popular trend.. Do you all know what that is? W: Yeah. and this relieves pain and promotes healing. when a reporter for the New York Times wrote about how it helped him recover from surgery.000 years.Writing M: OK. People are trying it to cure everything from toothaches to cancer. including nerve damage. the Council suggests you should talk with your family doctor first. M: Correct.maybe it is. He swears it’s the greatest thing since sliced bread. China has used acupuncture for over 2.

Building Skills for the TOEFL iBT Beginning READING ® ANSWER KEY Reading Section / Listening Section / Speaking Section / Writing Section .

(A) Why? Choice A is best because it deals with information already introduced in the reading. 3. (C) 2. (B) 3. Geology is a young branch of science. The passage says that 70% live in cities near the coast. while sentence B only expresses one detail. (B) 4. (A) 1. (C) 2. A group of four musicians in the classical period would most likely play chamber music.Reading Skill A 01 Australia Chapter 1 05 Exposure 1. 04 Television 1. How baseball is different from most sports 02 Biographies 1. (C) 2. (B) 4. (B) 3. 04 Milk 1. (D) 3. 1. (D) 3. while A combines the topics of both paragraphs. a first aid book 05 Pottery 1. (D) 4. will vary 03 Geology 1. something for cuts. (B) Why? The word “transportation” is used as an example of how to use word parts to increase vocabulary. (A) 3. (C) 3. (D) 4. (A) 4. (A) Skill C 01 Learning Vocabulary 1. increasing vocabulary is the main idea of the reading. (C) 3. (B) 3. 03 The United Nations 1. (C) 2. The pronouns “him” and “her” give the clue. (A) 2. (C) 4. (B) 2. (B) 2. (B) 4. It should come after mentioning the secretary. (A) Why? B only states the topic of the second paragraph. Choice B does give information about one part of sunlight. will vary 04 Wilderness First Aid 1. (C) 2. (C) 2. 02 Classical Music 1. (B) 2. (B) 3. (C) 4. the Internet. (B) 4. (A) Why? Choice A could be removed because it does not give us information about the parts of sunlight. (A) 2. 02 Polar Regions 1. medicine for bites/pain. 05 Sunlight Skill B 01 Baseball 1. (B) How and when milk became an important food for people. (B) 4. (C) 4. (D) 3. this leaves 30% of the population. (D) 4. (A) Why? Sentence A expresses the main idea of the paragraph. (B) 2. (C) 2. (A) 3. (B) 2. 672 Answer Key . (D) 4. (B) 2. (B) 3. 03 Chemical Equations 1. (C) 3. choice B would disrupt the coherence of the reading by introducing a new idea. Let it dry 3. (C) 4. Grind it into fine powder. which is the main topic of the reading. (D) 4.

20. express. you = riders/someone. them = dogs. enjoy Skill D 01 Oral Reports 1. (D) 1. true or not. (A) 3. (D) 4. (D) 3. 7. During the night because the air becomes cooler at night and can’t hold as much humidity. (B) 2. them = dogs Skill E 01 Rome 1. and 7 02 Vitamins 1. (A) 4. 18. (A) 2. passionate. Air is heated when it touches the warm earth. myth. them = a small group of friends. 6. will vary 03 Scientific Method 3. (B) 2. (C) 5. (A) (C) (A) (B) (C) modern out in 05 Dogs 1. (A) 4. (B) 3. they = people living in territories 04 Ten-Speed Bikes 1. (B) 2. sentences 8 and 11 03 Territories 1. (A) 3. (B) 3. one = a control. (C) 2. 14. their = the friends’ 02 Air Movement 1. (A) 2. Vitamin A --. They = people. learned. 22. 12. 16. know 02 Guitars Skill Review 01 Pueblo Silver Works 1. (B) 6. They = people. (D) 2. (B) 2. it = the report. intense. (C). ▼ Skill F 01 Literature 1. 15. others = (not important) points. (C) 4. 17. 9. (D) 4. (C) 4. they = people. (C) 2. (C) 3. it = the bike Answer Key 673 . 13. 11. 19. 5. past experience 04 Humidity 1. (B) 3. (C) 4.(B). They = people. (A) 4. (B) 3. (C) 4. sentences 1. (B) 2. Vitamin D --. (B) 4. (D) 3. (D) 02 Oaks 1. major.(D). (A). (D) 3. 24. 23. (D) 4. (C) 4. (C) 2. educated guess. (D) 4. (A) 6. (B) 1. 05 Flamenco 1. (C). (C) 3. they = people. 21. (E) 2. (C) 3. (B) 5. (D) (A) (A) (C) (D) real diary up out 2. 25. (B) 4. 8.Review A-C Vocabulary Review 1. 4. they = dogs. (B) (D) (D) (B) (A) centuries survive up 3. (E) 2. 4. deep emotions. 3. (C) 3. legend. (B) 2. 10.

(G) 3.(B). (F). 14. (E) 2. sentences 3 and 5. 7. (C) (D) 5. (C). 7. (O) 2. 21. 15. (F) 2.(F) 2. (D) 04 Geology 1. (A) 13. (D). (A) 6. Inclined planes --. (D). Misdemeanor --. (D) 6. major 19. (B) 2. 4. (C) 3. (I). (A) (C) (B) (C) (C) intense ancient (S) 3. (B) (A) (A) (D) (B) emotion (S) (S) 674 Answer Key . 23. (C) fine Skill Review 01 Fiction 1. 4.(A). (B) 7.(E) Historical --.(D) Economic --. paragraph 1. (B) 4. sentences 3 and 4 05 Hide Preparation 1. 5. 10. (D) 10.(C). (C) 16. (A) 5. (D). 24. 12.(B) Oceanography --. (A) 3. 17. (D) 9. 11. 10. paragraph 2.03 1.(A). (C) Review A-F Vocabulary Review 1. (C) 4. (A) 3. (B) 9. (C). Physical --. 9. (C). (C) 8. will vary 02 Machines 1. (C) 4. (O) 25. (F). 20. express 22. 8. 6. (B) (D) (D) (A). (B) Levers --. (B). 4. Crime Felony --. 18. (B) (D) 8. 2. (E) (C) 3.

(C) Skill C 01 Breathing 1. (A) 4. 13. (C) 3. (C) 5. 25. 4. (A). (D) 02 Scientific Notation 1. 16. (B). (E) 2. (C) 6. (C). 38. (E) 2. 42. 36. (F). (C) 8. (D) 5. 48. (B) 4. (B) 6. (D) 9. (F). (F) 02 Rain 2 02 Clouds 1. 14. (B) 6. (D) (B) (B) (A) (A) (B) (D) (C) (C) (A) base goal frozen absorb satellite (S) (O) 3. 29. 39. (D) (C) (B) (B). 45. (C) 6. 49. (C) 2. (D) 3. 19. Cirrus --. 22. (B) 5. 18. (E). 7. (A). (B). 7. (B) 1. 4. (C) 3. (A) 2. (C). (G) 03 Elizabethan Theater 1. (C) 3.Chapter Skill A 01 Soccer 1. (A) 4. 24.(E). 6. 50. 33. (D) 2. (B) (C) (C) (C) (D) (C) (A) (B) (A) (B) among distance towers after a while opponent (O) (S) 2. (E). (B) 6. (C) 3. 11. Method 1 --. (C) 3. 40. (A) 3.(B). 30. (D) 5. (C) 5. 15. 21. 28. (C) 5. Cumulus --. (A) Skill Review 01 Map Legends 1. 46. (A) 5. (C). 37. (D) 4. 35. (D) 3. (A) 5. 20. 8. (B) 5. (D) 2. 32. 23.(C). (C) 6. (D). 17. 44. 12. 26. (B) (A) (A) (C) (A) (D) (B) (A) (B) (C) altitude breathe period shallow equation (O) Skill B 01 The Earth 1. (E) 2. 34. (B) 3. Scientific Notation --. 41. 9.(A). (C) 5. (H) 03 Herbs and Spices 1. (C) 2. (C) 6. (B). (F) 2. (A) 6. (D) Review A-C Vocabulary Review 1. (C) 4. (B) 4. (C) 6. (C) Answer Key 675 . Method 2 --. (D). (C) 3. Floating Point Notation --. (A) 4. 5. 31. 27. 43. (B) 2. (D) 6.(B). (C) 4. 10. 47. (D). Stratus --. (D) 4.(C). 10. (D).(F). (H) 03 Space Bodies 1. (E).

(C) 5. 23. (C) 4. Dramatic --. 41. (A) 9. (D) 2. (C) 2. 20. Asteroids. 28. 42. (C) 4. Celebration --. 35. Lyric --. (C). (C) 6.(B). (C) 03 The Renaissance 1.(A). (F) Skill F 01 Evaluating Sources 1. (D) (C) 5. (E) 02 Glaciers 1. (B). (C) 6. 18. Work --. (B) 6. (A) 4.(D). 36. (C) 5. (B) 2.(B). (B) 3. (A) 4. 19. 10. 7. (A) 2. (C) 6. Meteors --. 13. (C) 3. 8.(A). (B) 02 Poetry 1. (C) 5. (A) 6. 33. (H).(A). (A) (D) 8. 5. 38. (E) 2. (A) 6. 9. 27. (A) 4. (D) 5. (B) Review A-F Vocabulary Review 1. 17. (A) 5. (C) 03 Vikings 1. 29. (A) 3. (B) (C) (A) (B) (D) (A) (D) (B) (A) (A) take part victory loft series course (B) Skill E 01 Tennis 1. 49. (F).(B). (A) 4. 6. (B) 5. (E). 31. (A) 1. (C) 5. (G). (B) 3. (D) Comets --. 46. 11. (D) 5. 39. (F) 2. 7. 32.(F). 10. 34. 47.(A). (C) 4. 44. (B). (A) 3. 24. 4. (B) (C) (B) (D) (A) (B) (D) (A) (B) (B) event contests predominantly smash conjunction (D) (A) 2. (C). 50. 4. 48. (B). (A) 6. (D) 5. (A) 3. (A) 676 Answer Key . (E) 03 Tides 1. (B). (A) 3. (C) 3. 43. 45. (D). 21. 15. (C) 2. (C) 2. (D) 2. 22. (B) (A) (B) (C) (D) (C) (B) (C) (D) (D) planet talent rackets stringed reform (E) (C) 3. Asteroids --. and Meteors 1. (C) 4. (A) 3. (G). Secondary --. 30. (E).(E). (B) 4. (A) 6. (D) 6. (C) 3.02 Comets. (G). 12. 40. (F) 2. 16. (D) 6. Narrative --. (I). 26. (F) 02 Succession Skill D 01 History Makers 1. 14. 25. Primary --. 37.

(B) (A) (D) (B) (E). 5. (C) (C) (A) (B) 3. (A). (B) 9. 11. 12. (A) (D) (B) (C) (C). (D) 02 Constellations 1. 4. (A) 2. 7.Skill Review 01 Wild Pigs 1. 8. 10. (D). 10. (B) 6. (D) 9. 5. (F) 2. (C) Answer Key 677 . 12. 8. (D) (D) (A) (D) 3. 4. 11. 7. (C) 6.

(E) 03 Constellations 1. Sample response: 1. (B) 3. Through literature. 02 Evaluating Sources Summary 01 Literature Sample response: 1. we learn about history when we read stories written in the past. 678 Answer Key . which may involve the study of fossils. and their acorns may have been an early human food. 2. (C) 2. (C) 3. The Renaissance was a period of remarkable change. which means the writer gives first-hand information. For a long time. 03 Oaks Suggested answer: This passage explains how to evaluate different sources of information. and economic geology. oak is an important resource for fuel and carpentry. Even nowadays.Chapter Focus A Guided Practice 3 2. we should consider if the source is a primary source. 3. we can learn about the world in three main ways. oaks have been important trees to people. On the other hand. 4. 3. as older sources may have outdated information. First. Next. Art. Finally. (A) Focus B Guided Practice 01 Geology Suggested answer: This passage describes the different branches of geology. 2. philosophy. Last. 3. the writing itself can teach us about the language we use. physical oceanography looks at the oceans and the rocks beneath them. Another point to consider is whether the source is presenting facts or opinions. 02 The Renaissance Sample response: 1. or if the source is a secondary source. 01 Hide Preparation 1. which deals with the search for minerals and fuels. (E) 02 Succession 1. (B) 2. we should look at when the source was written. Second. (F) 2. Oaks were so important in the past for construction that people made myths about them and even worshipped them. Oaks can grow very old and very large. People stopped living for a future life and started living for their present one. (D) 3. the passage describes historical geology. First. we learn about people by reading the experiences of the author. 4. The first of these branches of geology looks at the rocks and land inside the Earth. which means the writer gives second-hand information. and education emphasized the achievements of people. 4. People’s major concern shifted from God to humans.

it describes how the Zuni people 679 . Simple machines like these are useful because they can multiply the force applied to them and they can change the direction of that force. Summary 01 Vitamins Sample response: This passage examines some facts and myths about vitamins and health. and wheels and axles. They first learned this craft from the Zuni and later formed a silver works guild with soldiers from World War II. By using this second method. turquoise became more important than silver in Zuni pieces. Finally. Levers are used to lift and push. in fact. 03 Silver Work Sample response: This passage discusses the silver works of three different First Nations. the passage warns against the belief that people should take a lot of Vitamin A. Finally. 02 The Earth Sample response: This passage describes different ways that the age of the Earth has been calculated. Next. the passage describes Hopi silver works. too much Vitamin A can also cause health problems. scientists have concluded that the Earth is about 4.5 billion years old. It first tells about an older technique that calculated age based on the idea that lower layers of rock are older than higher layers. It first mentions the belief that taking Vitamin C can cure a cold is not true. more accurate. Pulleys are used to lift heavy objects. learned silver working from the Navajo. Another. They learned how to silver work from Mexicans and later added turquoise to their silver jewelry. Wheels and axles are used to turn large wheels. it states that being careful about taking Vitamin D is a good idea because too much can cause health damage.03 Machines Suggested answers: This passage explains three examples of simple machines: levers. It first explains about the Navajo people. pulleys. technique mentioned in the passage is measuring the radioactive particles from rocks. Eventually. Next.

(A) 3.000 songs Size: 9. (A) 3. (D) 2. (A) 3. WEIGHT ROOM 03 1. (A) 2. (D) 4. (A) 2. meats.helps spiders get out of bathtubs (PORTABLE) SEAT --. year of DEATH / Unknown: month of BIRTH.LONG winters. (D) 4. (C) 4. few FOODS have much of it How can we get more? --. (D) 2.1 cm (3. (D) 2. (B) 2. Use POLITE language / Remember the GOLDEN rule 07 1. (A) 4. (C) 4. (D) 3.Listening Skill A Chapter 1 Skill B 01 1.write SENTENCE (USING WORD) and (DRAW A) PICTURE 680 Answer Key . (D) 2. (B) 4.hero ruins his life TRAGICOMEDY . (C) 2. (A). (A) 3. snakes. (D) 3.: -88˚C Only humans there: SCIENTISTS 02 1. (B) 3. LOW or SLOW HEART RATE / Animals that hibernate: BEARS. use INDEX cards / front of card: write (NEW) WORD / back of card: top .lets others know who’s driving LADDER --. (B) 2. (D) 4. (C) 2. (A) 2. (B). Storage: (over) 5. (C) 3. the PERSISTENCE Hunt / Who: the SAN people / What: hunted ANTELOPE / How: ran for as long EIGHT HOURS / too TIRED 06 1. getting more SUNSHINE 08 1. (B) 3.eating FISH. (B) 2. not going OUTSIDE often. enjoyment. (D) 3. (C) 3. (C) 4. State EXACTLY what is needed / Be POSITIVE. REMEMBERING 07 1.unexpected endings 04 1. important aspects of reading: SPEED. need: STUDENT ID CARD / can use these facilities: SWIMMING pool. bottom . (D) 3. name of LOVER 03 1. (C) 4. (C) 3. (D) 2. (A) 2. Also called: SOUTH POLE Was attached to: AUSTRALIA Lowest temp. GYM. keep in DORM ROOM / let them OUT or WALK in the room / give them BATHS or FOOD / take them back to the BEACH 06 1. (A) 4. (A) 4. FROGS 04 1. UNDERSTANDING. (B) 2. (B) 4. (C). SPORT / Ex. VEGETABLES. (A) 3. Why don’t we get enough? --. Parking spaces are LIMITED / Freshmen CAN’T PARK / A LOTTERY determines who can park / Winners must pay MONEY to park 08 1. SLOW BREATHING.6 inches) tall / 5 cm (2 inches) wide 05 1. and grains 02 1. (C) 4. (B) 4. BLUE rays scatter most RED rays scatter least YELLOW rays scatter neither most nor least 05 1.write ENGLISH DEFINITION. (B). Known: year of BIRTH.happy endings TRAGEDY . LICENSE PLATE --. (D) 2. Physical changes: stored energy in fat. Be SPECIFIC. (C) 3. (C) 4. (A) 3. (A) 4. COMEDY . Don’t SKIP meals / Eat when you are HUNGRY / Eat REGULAR meals / Eat fruit.provides a chair to sit on wherever you are 01 1.

(D) 4. (B) 4. 7. (C) 4.Skill C 01 1. (A) 02 1. Determining GRADES / mid-term = 15 PERCENT. (C) 2. 9.(B). (D) Answer Key 681 . No --. (A) 3. (A) 2.(A). (B) 4. (B) 6. CLOTHES 05 1. (A). (D). (B) Skill D 01 1. (C) 2.(A). How many body spots? 787 08 1. Turtles are DISAPPEARING in Mexico. 17. (A) 3. 21. (C) 2. (A) 3. (B) 5. disadvantages --. 13. (C) 3. look up www. 16. (D) 6. (C) 4. (B) (C) (B) (B) (B) fortune continuously (S) (O) 2. (A) 2. (A) 3. (B) 2. (C) 4. (C) 3. 14. 19.(B). 22. (C). (A) (C) (A) (C) (C) multiply (O) (S) Skill Review 01 1. (A) 2. (A) 2. (B) (B) (A) (D) (D) determined specific (O) 3. 4. 11. 03 1. 6. BY LOOM products: BASKETS. What? saying USED TOO OFTEN / How learned? From OTHERS / Example? I LOVE CHOCOLATE. 20. (C) 5. (B) 4. 23. Causes: they LAY EGGS on the beach. Yes --. (A) 4. (B). (B) 2. (C). 24. vegetable fibers. (A) (B) (LINE) SEGMENT (C) POINT Review A-C Vocabulary Review 1. (D) 4. (D) 4. Nova Scotia College of Art --. (B). Development: When? OVER 2.com on the INTERNET 06 1. 15. When? this YEAR / Who? CHOI MIN-SOO / What? machine that LESSENS noise / Why? help people who need QUIET 07 1. advantages --. (B) 2. 18. painted by: DA VINCI / is often: COPIED / has an interesting: SMILE / doesn’t have any: EYEBROWS 04 1.500 YEARS AGO.(B).enviro. (D) 3. 8. final = 30 PERCENT / first essay = 10 PERCENT. 5. 10. second essay = 30 PERCENT / attendance and PARTICIPATION = 15 percent 02 1. (C) 4. 25. 12. (B) 2. Where? CHINA / Method: Uses what? NEEDLES. people EAT/TAKE THE EGGS How to help: call the ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION hotline. were good WEAVERS materials: ANIMAL HAIR/WOOL. (C) 2. (C) 3. COTTON methods: by hand. (A). (B) 3. (B) 3. (A) 3. (B) 4. blankets. (A) LINE 2. wants to TRANSFER / needs her TRANSCRIPT / can get it at TRANSCRIPT OFFICE / will get it in 3 OR 4 DAYS 02 1. (B) 3.(A). (A) 3. read a NEWSPAPER / make a list of EIGHT to ten new words / look them up in a DICTIONARY / write them in your vocabulary NOTEBOOK 03 1. Transcript Office --.

(B). (C) 3. China --. (C) 2. Color --. (D) 4.(A). (A) 2. Woman --. (D) 4. Train Conductor --. Process --. PROFESSORS.(A). how fast? 2. too HOT to visit / once had RIVERS and oceans.(B). (C) 3. 300 km north of ANTARCTICA / Facts: 1500 km wide at equator.(C). ROMAN EMPIRE 4. Category --. STUDENTS. Boarded TRAIN in New York / couldn’t get room on SLEEPING coach / conductor thought Twain was GENERAL MCCLELLAN / conductor gave him room in FIRST class 04 1. (D) 3. (D) 2.(A). Red Card --. (C). Yes --.(C). (A) 3. (A) 3. (B) 682 Answer Key . Why? His body NEEDS MORE OXYGEN / Why? Oxygen CLEANS YOUR BLOOD / How to get more Oxygen? BREATH DEEPLY 06 1. (D) 2. (C). (A) 3. No --. normally --. YELLOW card = warning / RED card = can’t play anymore / Soccer or FOOTBALL.200 km/h. has 12 countries 07 1. (A) 3. Yes --. BUILDINGS 08 1.(A). (D) 2. TV SHOW (George Washington) / INTERNET (too many sites) / VIDEO (professor could recommend one) 08 1.(A). Most important: PERSONALITY / SOCIAL status / Have to do the JOB every day 05 1.(C). Yes --. information about NUMBERS OF PEOPLE / helps GOVERNMENTS / early examples from CHINA. (C) 3. No --.(A). Enjoy meeting people --. Largest --. born in GERMANY / attended university in SWITZERLAND / left GERMANY / moved to USA 05 1. (C). THE BIBLE. (C).(A) 4. (B) / 20th century --.(A). (D) 4. Man --. (D) 2. (C). (B) 4. has many RULES. Where: lies between ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC.(B). (D) 2. basic rule: don’t HURT ANOTHER PLAYER 03 1. Simple ways to EXERCISE / WALK up stairs / Squeeze a TENNIS BALL --.(C). When? NEXT WEEK / Where? STUDENT CENTER / What? students photos of NATURE. (A) 4. has TWO moons 02 1.(B).Strengthens the BACK of your legs 06 1. (B) 3. No --. Rome --. (C) Quiet and thoughtful --. slowly --.(B). (D) 4. (A) 4. (D) 2. (D) 3. public schools are too DANGEROUS / education level is too LOW / freedom to teach RELIGION / can give students ATTENTION 04 1. (B) 3. moon gets TWO WEEKS of night and TWO WEEKS of day 07 1. (B) 4. 19th century --.4. How to REMEMBER things better Give objects THREE qualities DETAIL COLOR MOVEMENT Skill E 01 1.Helps you RELAX / Walk BACKWARDS --.(A).(A) 2.(A).(B). (C). (C) 2.(B) 4.(B). Mark Twain --. (B) 3. (B). (B) 3.(C).(A). (D). once a day it TURNS AROUND / SLOWER than Earth’s. Yellow Card --. (D) 2. The Bible --.(B). Detail --. (B) 4. Smallest --. (D).(A). (D) 2.(B). (A) 2. (D) 4. Movement --. (D).

(D) 2.(B). Dr. has worked as a professor for 18 YEARS / studied WRITING / loves TEACHING 03 1. 14. (D) 3. EVAPORATION. 3 (D). (B) 3. (C). Arizona: GRAND CANYON / New Mexico: ALBUQUERQUE / in A CAVE. (C) 3. 5. 1 (A). 1 (B). 2 (D). 3 (A). 23. 4 (A) 2. sound from THUNDER. 1 (C). lost colonies to AMERICA 02 1. 2 (D). 12. (A). 17. COOL air from storms travels THREE miles ahead of storm 07 1. 3 (B) 2. 4 (A) 2. 19. 4 (B) 02 1.(C). 2 (C). 25. 4. (B) 3. 1 (C). 22. 4 (B) 2. 3 (A) 2. 4 (A) 2. wore HATS WITH LIGHTS 08 1. 6. 2 (A). 3 (D). (B) 3. 9. 2 (B). made colonies in CUBA and PHILIPPINES / Decline: lost wars to ENGLAND and AMERICA. 1 (C). Look for important points --. 21. 2 (A). 7. first appeared in comics 1939 / Robin appeared 1940 / Alfred appeared 1943 / first teamed with Superman 1952 / Batman’s new look 1964 04 1.(B) 5. (B) 4. (C) 3. How: leaks NATURALLY. 15. think about it --. humans spill it when CARRYING ON BOATS / Steps: SPREADING.Skill F 01 1. (C) 4. Chess --. 16. 10. 1 (C). Will SKIP CLASS today / Feels SICK / Might have MALARIA / Forgot to TAKE MEDICINE 06 1. Wait. distance of storm = seconds between LIGHTNING AND THUNDER x 1/3 km / temperature. (D) 4. Underline key words --. (A) 4. 1 (D). thunder travels at 1 KM PER SECOND. 1 (D). 3 (B). Eidetic --. (B) 3. DeGroot --. 3 (B). (C) 4. (B) 3. 8. (D) 3. 4 (A) Answer Key 683 . 3 (B). (A) 6. 2 (D). 4 (B) 2. 1 (C). EMULSIFICATION / Result: HEAVY AND STICKY substance called chocolate mousse 05 1.(C).(A) 5. 11. 18. (C) (D) (A) (A) (C) warning factor cavern campus 2. (A) 4. 3 (D). 20. (D) 4.(A). (B) (B) (C) (B) (B) forced qualities bomb 3. (A) 3. 2 (C). painter scientist INVENTOR / kept notebooks of OBSERVATIONS (OF NATURAL WORLD) / cut open DEAD PEOPLE to learn HOW THE BODY WORKS Review A-F Vocabulary Review 1. 3 (B). 2 (D). 2 (C). 24. (C) 4. 4 (A) 2. 1 (D). (B) 4. 13. (A) 6. (D) 4. (B) (B) (A) (C) (C) realize empire crude Skill Review 01 1. (B) 2. Rise: became rich from COLONIES.

(B) 04 1. 32. 19. (D) 2. (D) 3. (A) 4. (B) 4. 6. (D) 3. (D) 3. 24. (B) 2 Skill C 01 3. 26. (B) 2. (A) 4. 8. (B) 1. (B). (B). (C) 4.Chapter Skill A 01 1. (A) Skill B 01 1. (C) 2. (A) Review A-C Vocabulary Review 1. 34. 16. (B) 06 1. 17. 43. 5. (B) (B) (B) (D) (D) (A) (D) (B) (D) (D) modern superstition represents blood stain (O) (O) 2. (C) 05 1. (D) 3. (B). 4. (C) 4. (A) 04 1. (D) 3. 42. 48. 44. 10. 46. (D) 3. 29. (B) 3. 13. (D) 3. (C) 2. 35. (A) 2. (B) 1. 28. (B) 06 1. (D) 1. (D) 4. (C). (D) 05 2. (D) (C) (D) (A) (C) (A) (B) (C) (A) (B) centuries reason big day instance panic (S) 684 Answer Key . 30. (B) 3. (B) 1. 20. 40. (C) 02 1. (D) 3. (C) 4. (A). (A) 3. 14. (A). 22. (B) 2. 39. (C) 2. (D) 05 1. (A) 03 1. (B) 4. 33. 15. 27. (C) 04 2. (B) 2. (C) 2. (D) 1. 50. (A) 2. (C) 2. 18. (C). (D) 4. 47. 38. (D) 4. 23. (A) 02 3. 21. (D) 4. 41. 11. (D) 4. (C) 03 2. (D) 4. (C) 02 1. (B) 03 1. (B) 3. 45. (B) 2. (D) 4. (C) 1. 36. (D) 2. (B) 4. (D) 4. 7. 25. 31. (C) 3. (B) 4. (B). (D) 4. (C) (A) (A) (C) (A) (D) (B) (A) (B) (B) customs customary omens vessel escort (O) (O) 3. (C) 06 2. 12. (A). (C) 3. (B) 2. 49. (D) 3. 9. (A) 3. 37.

(B) 3. (C) 5. (A) 03 1. (B) 6. balance. Missouri --. (B) 2. (C) 2. (A) 03 1. (B) 05 1. (C) 6. (B) 4.(B). (A). (C) 3. Review Session --. (D) 2. (B) 02 1. (C) 05 1.(A). chemical --. (F) 4. Lecture --. (A) 2. (B) 03 1. (B) 2. (B) 05 1. (B). (B). (B) 04 1. (B) 02 1. (A). (D) 4. (C) 2. (D). (B) 2. (D) 2.(B). (B). (A) 3. (D) 5. (C) 3. (A) 3. (C) 2. (C) Answer Key 685 . (D) 06 2. (C) 2. (B) 04 1. (A) 6. (D) 3.(B). (A) 06 1.(D). (B) 1. (C) 3.(A). (C). (A) 04 1. (D) Skill D 01 1. mechanical --. (C) 2. (C). (C) 3. (C) 03 1.(A). Horse Latitudes --. (B) 2. coordination --. (D) Skill E 01 1. (D) 4. (B) 4. (A) 3. (D). (D) 04 1. (D) 5. (C) 4. heart.(A). (C) 2.(A). (B). (D). (D). (C) 4. (C) 3. (A).(B). (A). (D) 3. (A). (C) 4. (C) 3. (C) 4. lungs --. (B) 4. (D) 3. (B) 5. (C) 4. strength --. (C) 3. (B). (D). (D) 2. (B). (D) 4. (A) 3. (C) 2. (D) 3. (A).Skill Review 01 1. (B). (B). (A). (D). (C). (B) 4. (C) 2. (C) 4. (B). (C) 2. (C) 3.(A). (D) 3. (C) 4. (B) 4. Equator --. (B) 4. (D) 4. (C) 3. (B) 2. (A). (D). (C) 3. (C) 3. (D) 3. (D) 06 1.(C). Shenandoah --. (D) 02 1. (C) 4. (D) 2. (B) Skill F 01 1. (D). (D) 4. (B). (C) 4. (D) 4. (D). (B). Example 2 --. (A). (A) 6. (C) 2. Example 1 --.(B). (D) 02 1. (D) 2. (C).

(A). 28. (C). (C) 3. 24. 48. 30. 15. (A) 5. (A). (C) 3. (C) 4. (A) (D) (B) (B) (D) (A) (C) (D) (C) (B) muscles co-ordination key personalities combination (D) (B) 2. (D) 4. (B) (A) (C) (B) (C) (A) (B) (A) (C) (A) treadmill calm discipline valid mineral (E) Skill Review 01 1. 49. (B). 47. (B). (A) 03 1. 21. (A) 2. 33. (C) 3. (A). 45. 8. 26. 7. 37. 11. (C) 6. 40. (B) 2. (A) 2. (C) 4. (D). (C) 6. 19. 42. 44. 12. 36. (A). 29. 34. (B) 2. (B). 50. (A) 4. (B). (D) 3. 35. 43.Review A-F Vocabulary Review 1. 16. (B). 38. 23. (C) 6. 31. 18. 17. 41. 5. 10. 9. (B) 5. (C) 6. 14. (C). (B). (A) 02 1. 32. 13. 46. 27. 22. (D). 39. (B) 686 Answer Key . (B) 04 1. 25. (B) 5. (C) 5. 4. (D). 6. 20. (C) (C) (D) (B) (A) (C) (A) (B) (D) (B) lift aerobics alert deal with stall (A) (C) 3.

ROOTS.TAIL Sharks use this to change direction...SEGMENT Two lines the same length are.OXYGEN Sharks do not have... Mechanical disintegration or DESTRUCTION freezing. near mountain Atacama Desert = DRIEST desert on Earth Focus B Completing Note Diagrams 1 01 Spain --... CARBONATION.S of FRANCE.POINTS A line with two points is a.SWIM BLADDER Sharks use this to propel themselves.Chapter Focus A Tables 1 3 01 Geometry --.study of. 1.Spanish people brought GOLD AND SILVER from America Spain became RICH Made new colonies: CUBA and PHILIPPINES --....location .. People learn languages Two languages in Quebec..FIN 03 People who speak.1588 .. 2.War with ENGLAND Began to lose POWER --.1490s . rain SHADOW desert. or animals RAINFALL TRADE wind desert. desert = evap>RAINFALL SAHARA Desert.CONGRUENT 02 Causes fish to rise. or hydration REACTIONS with air or water 2. Tables 2 01 Comedy Tragedy Tragicomedy HAPPY ending tragic FLAW in character seems tragic but funny or UNCLEAR ending SHAKESPEARE Ibsen SHAW Much Ado About Nothing GHOSTS Saint Joan Two languages = BILINGUAL From FAMILY ENGLISH Three languages = TRILINGUAL Through STUDY FRENCH 02 Types of weathering Process Caused by 03 Define desert by: Specific types of desert: 1.1898 .... COASTAL desert CHEMICAL oxidation. W of ITALY --. 3. evaporation 3.16th century ...LOST COLONIES in Spanish-American War Answer Key 687 . around equator JUDEAN Desert..MOST POWERFUL NATION in world --.

get water and ELECTRICITY 688 Answer Key . World Bank gives MONEY. ITALY IN 1452 --. can’t BORROW much money B. and SCIENTIST --.most famous inventions: PARACHUTE and WAR TANK 02 White skin Sunburn --------not protected from ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UV RAYS) danger of SUNBURN skin is red because of EXTRA BLOOD increases chance of SKIN CANCER II. build SCHOOLS and HEALTH CENTERS B.02 people looking for faster ways to get INFORMATION a faster way is a BROADBAND connection a VDSL connection has a greater BANDWIDTH gives around 52 MEGABYTES per second 03 Ideology Concerned with --------COLLECTION of ideas forms basis of PUBLIC opinion how SOCIETY works RULES needed to make it work Completing Note Diagrams 2 01 Leonardo da Vinci --.kept notebook OBSERVATIONS OF NATURAL WORLD --. Low-income countries A. INTEREST-FREE CREDIT 03 I. INVENTOR. LOW-INTEREST LOANS.artist. World Bank: helps A.born in VINCI.

report Sample restatement: Five extra security guards are being added to campus night patrols. The woman worries about their teacher canceling classes. Security is being increased on campus because of recent vandalism to school buildings and thefts reported in the dormitories. Assignments will be due in class one week later. damage. Students are urged to report any information about violations on campus to the administration. Step 4 Sample response: The university is adding more security guards to campus night patrols. Step 2 Suggested keywords: serious. canceled. always worried. Then. Reason 1: The woman is always worried. The man says he saw the damage done to some places on campus. canceled. Step 2 Suggested keywords: happy. and that they have an extra week until the professor is back to finish their assignment. extra week. the woman feels glad because she was behind in her work. assignments Sample restatement: The cancellation notice concerns students enrolled in History 102. stolen. The woman explains that two of her friends have been victims of theft. After that. both of next week’s lectures are canceled. She hasn’t read the article yet. For this reason. vandalism.practice 2 They think the added security guards are a good idea.Speaking Skill B Q3 --. administration. lectures. The woman’s friends had things stolen from their dormitory rooms and the woman herself is now worried about being robbed too. He has seen the damage Answer Key 689 . Step 3 Opinion: Step 1 Suggested keywords: History 102. explains the professor is not seriously ill. she worries about the professor and the canceled classes. Brown. They don’t have to turn in the assignment until the professor is back. Step 3 Opinion: Reason 1: Detail: Reason 2: Detail: The woman thinks the canceled classes and the extra week is a good thing. added. The man understands. the man tells her there’s an extra week to finish the assignment. The man. but then hears he’s not seriously ill. Prof. Step 4 Sample response: The woman learns the professor is sick and that classes are being canceled. Students are informed this decision follows recent damage and thefts occurring on campus. Reason 2: The campus is being damaged.practice 1 Chapter 1 Step 1 Suggested keywords: security guards. Detail: Two of her friends have been victims of theft. At first. too. she’s always worried about thieves coming into her room. on August 29th. The woman is happy to hear that. however. good news Sample restatement: The man tells the woman that the professor is sick. She has more time to do the work. The professor is not very sick. The woman states things are serious. The man tells her the professor is not seriously ill. Brown is ill and that he will be absent all of next week. Now. Detail: The man has seen damage to various areas of campus. He thinks the people who did all this should be caught. The decision to do this was made by the university administration. Q3 --. assignment. Both the man and the woman think the added guards are a good idea. should be caught Sample restatement: The man and the woman are talking about the added security guards and how matters on campus are now serious. They are advised that Prof.

they will improve their own abilities at it. Later they were covered with ash. She believes practice at creative writing will help her better understand the books she must read. Q4 --. Pompeii. Although the volcano erupted for over 12 hours. 690 Answer Key . By practicing writing. ash covered the people. By writing literature themselves. Mt. He thinks creative writing will help him become a better writer and become a better student. so the English department made creative writing a required class for graduation. They both agree that adding security guards on campus is a good idea. The woman thinks this is a good idea. Step 3 Opinion: Reason 1: Detail: Reason 2: Detail: Step 4 Sample response: The dean recommended all literature majors should have practice in creative writing. He thinks the creative writing class will make him a better writer and a better student. Vesuvius AD 79 Pompeii people didn’t escape superheated air. Scientists can now reconstruct what happened the day the volcano erupted. analyze. requirement. Step 2 Suggested keywords: Mount Vesuvius.practice 3 Step 1 Suggested keywords: creative writing. Q3 --. volcano. It wiped out the Roman city of Pompeii. people couldn’t escape. they will understand what other writers are doing. superheated air. experience. The woman agrees and adds that any information should be reported. and the man has the same opinion. The man agrees with this. reconstruct Sample restatement: This passage tells about a volcano that erupted and buried the Roman city of Pompeii. The man thinks people doing all these things should be caught. good idea. students Sample restatement: The man explains that creative writing is now a required class for them to take.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested keywords: eruption. because literature is the study of this style of writing. He also doesn’t mind because the class is easy to fit into his schedule. a large city with an advanced culture. Later. writers. Step 2 Suggested keywords: writing. The man explains that the creative writing he has been doing on his own has helped him analyze the literary works he has had to study. He says he’s been doing some writing already and it’s helped him analyze literature. literature Sample restatement: The English department is advising all English Literature majors that creative writing is now a graduation requirement. Scientists discovered that hot air from the volcano killed the people of Pompeii instantly. Few people escaped. advanced Sample restatement: A volcano called Mount Vesuvius erupted in AD 79. The woman thinks this is a good idea. Pompeii. NOT lava. Step 3 Suggested answers: Volcano: Erupted when: Destroyed where: Strange because: People died because: They think that the creative writing requirement is a good idea. wiped out. escape. It will help them understand literature better. producing.done to school property and buildings. They will be better writers. The notice explains that the Dean wants all literature majors to gain experience producing creative writing.

Q4 --. younger Sample restatement: The speaker says that white musicians didn’t like jazz at first. It’s more than ten times saltier than the ocean. When water evaporates. popular. which makes the sea saltier. No rivers go out so this salt is trapped in the sea. Step 3 Suggested answers: The Dead Sea has no living plants or animals. Mineral salts are deadly to fish and plants.Step 4 Sample response: This reading passage talks about the eruption of Mt. Elvis Presley. The Dead Sea has ten times as much salt as the ocean. Originally: played by African-Americans Different because: combined African rhythms and European melodies Who liked it: young people Who didn’t like it: mainstream white America How it became popular: used by popular white singers like Elvis Presley Answer Key 691 . rhythms. combining. incorporating. Vesuvius. It is saltier than the oceans. mineral salt. Q4 --. It contains mineral salt which is deadly to plants and fish. Step 3 Suggested answers: Jazz music went from being considered not real music to being very popular. evaporate Sample restatement: The speaker said that nothing lives in the Dead Sea because it is full of salt. Water evaporation also makes the sea even saltier. salt. Step 4 Sample response: The reading passage says that the Dead Sea has a lot of mineral salt. melodies Sample restatement: This reading passage talks about how jazz music began. First. deadly. It erupted in 79 AD and destroyed Pompeii. became really popular.practice 3 Step 1 Suggested keywords: jazz. Therefore. The salt goes into the Dead Sea from rivers. it leaves behind minerals. reason Sample restatement: The reading passage says that the Dead Sea is a landlocked sea with no living plants and animals. The speaker says that it was strange because even though the volcano erupted for 12 hours. Jazz has changed into many of the popular music forms of today. There are two reasons for the Dead Sea’s saltiness. the sea becomes even saltier. wild. landlocked. trapped. there are no living things in this sea. Later. Rivers carry mineral salts into the Dead Sea. African-American. This music was different or special because it combined rhythms from African music with melodies from European music. One of these musicians. Salt is trapped there because no rivers flow out of the Dead Sea. This salt is deadly to plants and fish so there are no living things in the sea. Step 2 Suggested keywords: white. but some white musicians began incorporating parts of jazz music into their songs. The Dead Sea has lots of mineral salt.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested keywords: Dead Sea. They thought jazz was too wild and it wasn’t real music. Salt is carried into the Dead Sea from rivers. it says that African-American musicians made jazz music. river. people in Pompeii died due to superheated air from the volcano and not lava. When water evaporates. In fact. Rivers flow into the Dead Sea but not out. Step 2 Suggested keywords: Dead Sea. their bodies were covered in ash. people couldn’t escape.

he will have enough time to improve at football. If she takes the class this semester. If she waits. he can improve his grades in a short time.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: Problem: The man wants to spend more time practicing football and needs to spend more time studying. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. so jazz.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Problem: The woman has to take Chemistry 202 to graduate. Second. but she doesn’t like the professor teaching it this semester. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. became popular with younger people. Opinion 2: The woman’s problem is that she needs to take Chemistry 202 to graduate. They thought jazz was too wild and it wasn’t real music. I think the first suggestion is better than the second one. I think the first solution is better than the second one. First. Second. along with rock and other forms. she can catch up very quickly. she suggests that he find tutors to help him with math and science. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. he suggests that she take the class this semester and try to get along with the professor. with a different professor she might get a higher mark. Solution 2: The man suggests taking the class now even though she doesn’t like the professor. which will help him concentrate better in class. became really popular. Second. First. Opinion 2: The man’s problem is that he doesn’t have enough time to practice football and improve his grades in math and science. Also. First. If the man gets up early. The man suggests two solutions to the problem. she suggests that he get up early in the morning for extra football practice. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. Also. The man suggests two solutions to the problem. she needs to learn to get along with teachers and bosses she doesn’t like. Solution 1: Get tutors to help him study Solution 2: Make more time for practice by getting up earlier Step 3 Opinion 1: The man’s problem is that he doesn’t have enough time to practice football and improve his grades in math and science. Second. Elvis Presley. Q5 --. This music was different or special because it combined rhythms from African music with melodies from European music. he can get more sleep. Skill C Q5 --. Eventually. he suggests that she take the class next semester. First. even though she might feel like she’s behind. she suggests that he find tutors to help 692 Answer Key . he suggests that she take the class this semester and try to get along with the professor. The speaker says that white musicians didn’t like jazz at first. If the man has tutors.Step 4 Sample response: This reading passage talks about how jazz music began. The morning exercise will clear his mind. but she doesn’t like the professor teaching the class. If he doesn’t have to get up early. him with math and science. First. Solution 1: The man suggests taking the class in another semester. she won’t be behind. Then. it says that African-American musicians made jazz music. but she doesn’t like the professor teaching it this semester. one of these musicians. so he’ll be rested for football. Step 3 Opinion 1: The woman’s problem is that she needs to take Chemistry 202 to graduate. he suggests that she take the class next semester. some white musicians began incorporating parts of jazz music into their songs. she suggests that he get up early in the morning for extra football practice.

Whales hunt squid. he can take history with his friend and complete both necessary classes in one term. sailors • sailors among first to capture squid • captured squid given to academies or measured • Russians helped understand link between squid and whales B. These two things are sailors and whales. The link between whales and squid has also been better understood thanks to Russian sailors. she suggests that he take one of the necessary classes this term. and the other next term. The speaker says that two things have helped scientists learn more about giant squid. and the sizes of squid can be estimated by measuring parts of squid found in whale stomachs.Q5 --. she suggests that he might be able to take the math class on Tuesdays and Thursdays.measuring parts inside whale stomachs • whales carry cameras to observe squid underwater Sample response: This lecture is about giant squid.hunt squid for food • sizes of squid estimated --. The speaker’s next point is that whales are especially helpful in studying squid.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Engineer in bigger demand than artist • leaders interested in modernization • had a set of skills that leaders wanted Leonardo breakthrough in engineering • explained how machines could be improved or invented • developed modern techniques to existing problems • gave him high profile and put him in great demand Q6 --. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. Second. he will have more time to concentrate on each class and can earn higher marks. Whales can also carry cameras. she suggests that he take one of the necessary classes this term. and the other next term. she suggests that he might be able to take the math class on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Solution 1: The woman suggests the math class might be offered at a different time. A. First. If he is able to take math on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Second.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: How two things have helped scientists know more about squid Answer Key 693 . First.practice 3 Step 1 Suggested answers: Problem: The man has to take a math class and a history class. but they are offered at the same time. I think the first suggestion is better than the second one. First. whales • whales useful --. Step 3 Opinion 1: The man’s problem is that he needs to take a world history class and a math class that are offered on the same days and at the same time. allowing scientists to study squid underwater more closely. he will get to study with his friend. sailors were the ones who first captured giant squid and allowed them to be measured or given to scientific academies. Solution 2: She also suggests that the man take one of the classes in the next semester. If he takes one mandatory class each term. Opinion 2: The man’s problem is that he needs to take a world history class and a math class that are offered on the same days and at the same time. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. Also. Q6 --.

12. 19. (A) (A) (B) (A) (D) kindly check kindly 3.crystal rocks cracking result in many joined columns • not a mystery anymore --. (D) (A) (B) (A) (C) (B) modernize combine (A) 3. 9. (E) 23. 22. engineer 17. (D) (B) (B) (C) (D) absent frustrated violence Q6 --. 11. 17. 14. (C) 14. 4. (C) 24. 12. Sample response: This lecture is about the origins of the Giant’s Causeway. 24. 18. 6. while leaders were looking for scientific ways to modernize. Leonardo the engineer was in bigger demand than Leonardo the artist.Leonardo spent much of his life working as an engineer • worked for powerful leaders and on special projects • all his life. The speaker explains that nobody knew for sure how it was formed until modern geologists provided the real answer. 13. The speaker then explains how Leonardo spent much of his life working as an engineer for powerful leaders and on special projects. Nowadays. 18.practice 3 Step 1 Suggested answers: Main Question: How was the Giant’s Causeway formed? • origin debated until modern geologists gave answer Early Debates: • big debates in 1600s after discovery • theories about its origin started the debates • a lot of different opinions --. 8. Vocabulary Review Review 1 1. 10. 20. (B) 694 Answer Key . 23.just a fascinating geological place Review 2 1. breakthroughs imagine 20. The speaker explains that Leonardo made breakthroughs in engineering. (B) 8. 9. 21. 19. 22. (A) (D) (D) (D) (A) 21. 13. Some people believed a legend that suggested the Giant’s Causeway was made by a giant. (D) 2. 10. Leonardo thus had the set of skills that leaders wanted. The speaker says that for a long time nobody really knew how the Giant’s Causeway was formed. 16. (B) 5. 15. 7. we know the truth about how the Giant’s Causeway was formed. 15. He came up with modern techniques to deal with existing problems. Leonardo was the first to explain how machines could be improved or invented. 4. He explains that many different theories on the Giant’s Causeway’s origin were being debated after it was discovered in the 1600s. (C) (C) (A) (A) (B) enrolled cancellation bury element 2. (B) 11. 7. 5. his engineering in bigger demand than his art Sample response: This lecture is about Leonardo da Vinci’s life as an engineer. Geologists explain that it was formed by volcanic activity in much the same way we see in Hawaii right now. 16. 25. The speaker concludes that all his life.but no one knew for sure Nowadays: • we know the truth • was formed by volcanic activity • lava cooled quickly by water --. 6. 25.

Another reason he regrets this is that spending time with him when he is older may be more difficult. I talked with my brother. A. In fact. I better understood my friend’s point of view during our argument. This is regrettable because. A. it rained heavily the whole three days. innovative ways. Another reason I enjoy writing poetry is because I can think about things in a new way.practice 1 Step 1 C. One reason I enjoy writing poetry is because it lets me create something beautiful. The fact that children grow up quickly is another reason why I regret spending too little time with my cousin when he was young. I spent most of the time lying in my sleeping bag trying to stay warm. We had to walk five kilometers to get help. when he was born. 3.practice 2 Step 1 F.Chapter Skill A Q1 --. so my brother and I have known my friend for many years. Q1 --. Answer Key 695 . In addition. Step 2 Suggested answers: 1. D. when we finally left for home. When I think about things in new. we all grew up together. I often regret the many occasions I could have spent time with him but was preoccupied with something else instead. One reason he regrets this is because he thought he could spend time with his cousin and teach him things. I thought I could spend a lot of time with him and teach him things. The important topic I needed to talk about was an argument I’d had with my friend. We couldn’t hike or swim. 2. In fact.practice 4 Step 2 Sample response: The worst vacation I ever had to endure was a camping trip with my brother and a friend. 3. my brother’s car broke down. Once my cousin is older.practice 3 Step 2 Sample response: The last time I needed to talk about an important topic. Another reason she enjoys doing this is that it lets her think about things in new ways. 2. One reason she enjoys doing this is that it lets her create something beautiful. Q1 --. I do this now without getting paid because I enjoy writing poetry. Step 3 Sample response: One kind of work I would be willing to do even if I never got paid for it is writing poetry. When people create something beautiful. First. I chose to talk to my brother at that time because my brother is very familiar with my friend. B. D. I was no longer angry with my friend. even boring things around my house become inspiring. B Step 2 Suggested answers: 1. E. It is important for older family members to guide and teach younger family members. Because of my brother’s aid. After talking with my brother. F. To top it off. the wet weather made me sick. The speaker most regrets not spending enough time with his cousin. E 2 Step 3 Sample response: What I regret the most was not spending enough time with my cousin when he was young. C. to compound the problem. so we stopped speaking to each other. Then. Q1 --. it gives them a good feeling in their heart. my friend and I had an argument. spending a lot of time with him may be more difficult. One kind of work the speaker does without getting paid is write poetry.

or negative effects are damaging families and children. 4. it is cheaper over time. oral presentations are easier in that they take less time to prepare and put less emphasis on grammar than papers do. so it’s more efficient. 3.practice 2 Step 1 E.Q2 --. 2. The second reason she uses is that the subway reduces traffic on the streets whereas buses increase traffic. Lastly. a subway train can carry many more people than a bus. on the other hand. These days. First of all. Also. not from their parents. while the subway. These bad. A second reason he prefers this kind of assignment is that oral presentations are interesting and education for other students 4. 2. while a subway is clean and efficient. Second. B. This means that children are learning behavior from television. so students can improve their communication skills and develop confidence by speaking publicly as a student. Another reason is oral presentations are interesting and educational for the other students who listen to them. Though a subway requires a lot of money to build. in contrast. Instead of playing sports. so it is more efficient. They burn less fuel than SUVs.practice 1 Step 1 B. Q2 --. In addition. D. increasing the number of buses also increases traffic on the streets. Q2 --. SUVs do not get good gas mileage. which makes them difficult to park. The speaker thinks building a subway is better. Sports cars. First of all. and they’re much easier to park. children just sit at home and watch them on TV. building a subway is better than increasing the number of buses. they are too large and cumbersome. A. A Step 2 Suggested answers: 1. A third reason he prefers this kind of assignment is that oral presentations can help students improve their communications skills and confidence. In my opinion. I would prefer to buy a sports car rather than an SUV. F Step 2 Suggested answers: 1. The first reason she uses is that the subway is cleaner and more efficient than buses. Step 3 Sample response: I’m glad the government is finally going to address the transportation issue. Finally. are fun to drive. 696 Answer Key . First of all. C. Finally. Parents and children just watch silently rather than sharing their thoughts and experiences. D. they don’t get enough exercise. Secondly. You can go fast. The final reason she uses is that the subway can carry more people on it than a bus.practice 3 Step 2 Sample response: I think that watching too much television has produced several bad effects on society. I think they look more impressive than SUVs. buses run on fuel that pollutes the air. the worst effect has resulted in families not communicating much anymore. watching too much television has resulted in lower levels of physical health among children. Step 3 Sample response: I think oral presentations are more beneficial for students than writing papers. I think they’re ugly. C. The speaker prefers oral presentations to writing papers. reduces traffic. Q2 --. In my opinion. One reason he prefers this kind of assignment is that oral presentations are easier.practice 4 Step 2 Sample response: If I won some money. 3. many jobs require oral presentations.

but that’s more expensive.like sulphur c.to fight diseases and insects b. Q3 --. Step 3 Sample response: The speaker talks about organic gardening and using chemicals in gardens. As farming developed in the past.now finest example of 19th C industrial architecture • once thought useless --.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: Lecture topic: using chemicals in gardens a.Skill B Q3 --. better food. today. The reason he doesn’t like the cafeteria is that it is too crowded and there is no place to put his bike. He will not vote for Option 1 because he doesn’t like the cafeteria. These man-made chemicals fight plant diseases and insects more effectively than natural chemicals. we use man-made chemicals .practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: Was building Eiffel Tower a good idea? • At first people opposed to building the Eiffel Tower Reasons for opposing it are now no longer valid • did not destroy Paris’s landscape --. he decides that even with the new fee. plants have chemicals naturally . The man likes this option because it adds several more places to get food.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Man’s choice: Option 2 Reason 1: more variety Reason 2: bad food in cafeteria Reason 3: cafeteria too crowded Q4 --. farmers used other natural chemicals to help plants fight diseases and insects better. he doesn’t have a job. Answer Key 697 . These natural chemicals help the plant fight diseases and insects. He considers using the YMCA. Even though it’s only $3 more. She says that using chemicals is okay if they are used correctly. in past.now very useful for broadcasting Teacher agrees having built Eiffel Tower a good idea.it now represents it • ugly skeletal design --. the gym is still the best bargain. The first factor he considers is whether he can afford the new fee. so farmers can grow plants better today than in the past.prof thinks OK to use in gardens if used correctly Step 3 Sample response: The man’s opinion about the campus food service is that Option 2 is better. The second factor he considers is convenience. and he can play there even if it rains. The gym is close. A nearby high school has basketball courts. This eventually led to farmers using man-made chemicals today. but they are outside and he can’t lift weights there. Q4 --.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Man’s choice: Pay the new fee reason 1: likes to play basketball. lift weights reason 2: gym is cheaper than YMCA reason 3: gym is convenient Step 3 Sample response: The man decides that he will pay the higher fee to use the gymnasium. In the end. farmers used natural chemicals . The professor points out that plants have natural chemicals in them. He prefers Option 2 because he wants more variety. and a less crowded place to eat.

This will solve the woman’s problem because she will worry about the professor seeing her sleep and she will keep active by writing a lot. The man offers suggestions to 698 Answer Key .Possible benefit --.worry about the professor seeing her sleep. Second. I think this is a good suggestion. the woman describes a problem she’s having in her class.know the information from lectures --. This is a good idea.hear other people discuss the books --. rather than destroy. so she will stay awake --. the landscape of Paris. They considered the design to be like an ugly skeleton. 3. Solution 1: read summaries and key passages in books --. In a short time. He can also remember them more easily. he can hear and discuss key points. we see that all those reason are no longer valid.Step 3 Sample response: Parisians were opposed to building the Eiffel Tower for several reasons. Q5 --. It will solve the man’s problem because in short amounts of time he will hear and discuss key points in the readings with others and remember them more easily. They thought the tower would destroy Paris’s beautiful landscape.Possible benefit --. 3.Possible benefit --. save time --. The problem the woman has is that she is bored and falls asleep in class. Solution 1: borrow notes from another student --.write everything in order to stay awake.will get ideas from summaries that he might not get by reading the books himself Solution 2: join the woman’s study group --. One thing the woman suggests is joining her study group that meets for an hour or two every week to discuss the readings. Step 3 Sample response: The man in the conversation tells the woman he has a problem in philosophy class.Possible benefit --.Possible benefit --. Finally.make a friend in class Solution 2: sit in the front row of the class --. He should join the woman’s study group. Step 3 Sample response: In this listening passage. so have good notes from class Step 2 Suggested answers: 1. 2.Possible benefit --. He has no time to read the books for class. the tower has been very useful for broadcasting. First.hear ideas of how lectures relate to information in books Step 2 Suggested answers: 1. She should sit in the front row of the class. She will try harder to stay awake and take more notes. solve the problem.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: Problem: She falls asleep in class. She falls asleep in class. His problem is that he has no time to read any of the books being assigned.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Problem: He has no time to read the books for class. the tower has come to represent.faster. Skill C Q5 --. the skeletal design once considered ugly is now the world’s nicest example of 19th century industrial architecture. One thing that the man suggests is for the woman to sit in the front of the class and try to take lots of notes.Possible benefit --. In the lecture. 2. They also thought the tower would be useless. instead of being useless.Possible benefit --.

Q6 --. 21. 24. 35. 45. 37. The first telescope was made about 1608 by the Italian scientist Galileo. 46. Answer Key 699 .practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Main topic of lecture: Where: When: Why: Other key info: Review 2 1. 14. 44. 42. 17. 37. 49. 22. 42. The professor points out that the Berlin Wall was destroyed in one weekend. Germany after WWII. 22. 10. 39. 33. 25. 16. 7. 34. 14. 19. Since then. the professor talks about telescopes. 45. 38. 26. (B) (D) (C) (D) (C) (B) (B) (A) (C) (A) craftsmen invented axis control decade (E) (C) 2. 9. The main point the professor makes about the Berlin Wall is that it was built to keep people in West Berlin. is in space orbiting the Earth. (D) (C) (A) (A) (C) (A) (B) (D) (A) (C) lenses appeared argued critical oppose (B) (D) 3. 29. 26. 7. Today. and the fact that planets move around the sun. 50. 21. Q6 --. 41. 48. 15. 40. 32. It was built during the Cold War in the 1960s. 34. the professor describes the Berlin Wall. 20. 44. 11. 49. 28. 16. 5. (D) (D) (D) (A) (B) (B) (C) (C) (B) (B) jacked up transportation beneficial regrettable afford (S) (S) 2.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: Main topic of lecture: Where invented: When: Who made first telescope: Why important: Other key info: Vocabulary Review Review 1 telescopes Italy 1608. called the Hubble telescope. 6. such as four of Jupiter’s moons. 19. 6. 12. 28. 36. 25. 5. It helps us learn about the furthest parts of the universe. 8. 40. (A) (A) (C) (A) (D) (A) (C) (C) (D) (A) magnified conclude controversy ancient philosophy (A) Berlin Wall Berlin. saw sunspots. 35. 18. early 1600s Galileo learned about things in space saw Jupiter’s moons. 47. 23. 1950s and 1960s keep people in West Berlin torn down in late 1980s in one weekend Step 3 Sample response: In this lecture. 41. 4. 29. 43. 30. 36. which he used to study the stars. It stood in the city for many years. 17. 24. 23. 18. He soon made a more powerful telescope. (B) (B) (B) (D) (A) (A) (A) (A) (A) (D) SUVs selected optional endure impressive (O) Step 3 Sample response: In this lecture. 9. but people finally tore it down at the end of the 1980s. 10. 12. 38. learned planets orbit sun 1. 31. It helped him discover many important things. 32. 48. 50. 31. 43. 11. a huge telescope. 47. 30. 27. 4. 39. 13. telescopes have become more and more powerful. 15. sun spots. 20. 13. (A) (A) (C) (C) (A) (D) (B) (D) (D) (B) afford convenient fees familiar require (S) (S) 3. 8. 27. 33. 46.

1. a. The professor gave us a deadline. When she stepped off the boat / she immediately ran to her car. He lent a car.men.ol. leave live 4. thorn torn ✔ Step 2 Stress related to content words Sentences 1. They waited over two hours to see him. not play.gical 2.cial . To top it off.fer 10. thank sank 7. peel pill 8. a. sleep slip 3.tiate b.sible 5.spon. 6. When I went to the store / it was closed. a. If I won some money. en. 6. 4. /d/. thigh sigh 4. advan. 3. Beginning next term.tion .tal . When the wedding was over. bi. / it can lead to lung and heart problems / in later life. wheel will 5. in. seek sick ✔ ✔ 2. 5. If a person smokes. / the student fees will increase by 20%.Chapter Focus A 3 9. a.a. I ate the last of the pie. 3. 4. 3. a. a. / the happy couple walked slowly from the church. pre. 7. 2.go.ferable b. a. Step 4 Long and short vowel sounds 1. pre.ronment b. scathe skate 6. Much study and hard work / can lead to a good education / and a bright future. ne.geous 4. a. Sam is reading about the history of Canada. 5. We pray.tion 2. Although we hadn’t finished / we decided to go home. full fool 6.lity 6. a.nefit b. flexi. a. re b. thought taught 3. 8. negoti. responsi. Due to illness.lo. ad. 5. admir. The pretty flowers are growing. be. 6. 1. / Professor Brown will be absent / all of next week. bene.bi. The final test will be two hours long / and will count for 25 percent. ad b.ible 7. bean bin 7. 4.vi.fi. I like rivers.tage 3. bio.ta. 5.vite b. It was raining so hard all day / that they didn’t leave the house. Homework is necessary in school. invi. Focus B Step 1 Stress related to parts of words 1. thin sin ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Step 3 Commonly mispronounced sounds: /l/ and /r/ sounds 1. If the alarm rings / put down your books / and slowly leave the building. / I would prefer to buy a sports car / rather than an SUV.mire b. /s/ 1. Look at that big berry. 2. He feels better than yesterday.ogy b. / when we finally left for home / my brother’s car wouldn’t start. Step 2 Commonly mispronounced sounds: /th/.tion 700 Answer Key . pull pool ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ 2.a.ta. 3. though dough 8. 2.lity 8.van. environ. Focus C 1. 2. 4. flex b. both boss 5.bi. The government’s attempt to raise taxes / resulted in a loss of popularity. on Sundays.

Main idea: Who discovered the Americas? .existing RULES at universities Con: Muslim women.women UNCOMFORTABLE without head scarves Step 2 Problem with head scarves: IMAGE . .he wrote in his DIARY about visiting a land similar to Iceland in 1477 .Supporting idea: In the past. 701 .Supporting idea: Muslim women and some professors don’t support banning head scarves.Supporting idea: The Vikings had the first village in North America.old-fashioned. However. Lecture: .Main idea: Did Columbus learn about North America in Iceland? .opened the door for European SETTLEMENT Step 2 Question: Did Columbus learn about North America in ICELAND? Pro: .Main idea: The problem with head scarves is that it gives Turkey a bad image.Supporting idea: Many of the diary details were wrong.he might have learned about North America from the VIKINGS in Iceland Con: . SOME politicians and MOST universities are in favor of RULES or laws BANNING head scarves in class. . uncivilized image.Supporting idea: Columbus’s voyage in 1492 was more important because it led to European settlement of North America.modern image --. Practice 2 Step 1 Issue: Vikings: Who DISCOVERED the Americas? . and it is the only evidence that Columbus visited Iceland.Main idea: The article describes the issue of banning head scarves in class in Turkey. UNCIVILIZED .image of head scarves --.Supporting idea: In his diary. . Step 1 Issue: BANNING head scarves in class Pro: Some POLITICIANS in parliament. Some PROFESSORS . .no other EVIDENCE that Columbus went to Iceland Step 3 Reading: . Turkey banned another fashion that seemed old-fashioned.HISTORIANS say his voyage in 1492 was more important . This issue is similar to one in the past when the GOVERNMENT in TURKEY outlawed MEN from wearing the FEZ in public.Supporting idea: The image of head scarves gives an old-fashioned.proposed law .Writing Skill A Practice 1 Chapter 1 Those who are against HEAD SCARVES argue that they give Turkey a bad IMAGE.look like a WESTERN person Another example of OUTLAWED fashion: the fez .Supporting idea: Some politicians in parliament and most universities support banning head scarves. Muslim women and some professors are AGAINST such rules and laws.arrived five HUNDRED years before Columbus Columbus: .had VILLAGE in Newfoundland . some people in TURKEY WANT to ban head scarves IN CLASS. .TRADITIONAL hat for men . Step 4 According to the reading.banned in EARLY 20th century Step 3 Reading: . Columbus describes a 1477 voyage to a place like Iceland. Most UNIVERSITIES . the fez. . Women wearing head scarves give Turkey an OLD-FASHIONED or UNCIVILIZED image.details about Iceland in his diary were WRONG . Lecture: .

shaped like a SPHERE . the professor says in her lecture that the Internet also causes SOCIAL problems. The reading also says that using the internet too often can cause HEALTH problems. . There are some websites that CHILDREN should not see. Lecture: . Columbus opened the door to European SETTLEMENT. 702 Answer Key Practice 4 Step 1 Issue: Is Pluto a PLANET? . Even though the VIKINGS got there first.RESEARCH information .forget EMOTIONS of others online Step 3 Reading: . CHATTING/COMMUNICATING with people all over the world.SIMILAR to objects from KUIPER BELT . They may also forget about other people’s EMOTIONS online because they don’t see those people FACE-TO-FACE. She says people may become ISOLATED from society. You can do lots of things on the Internet. Step 4 The INTERNET is an amazing INVENTION. dishonest people may use the Internet to steal money or even steal your personal INFORMATION.some SCIENTISTS are changing their minds Pro: .fits definition of COMET . there is not enough EVIDENCE to prove that this happened.Supporting idea: Yes. The Vikings had only one VILLAGE in Newfoundland. such as RESEARCHING information. They think he learned about North America from the people there. .don’t have FACE-TO-FACE contact . Some HISTORIANS believe that Columbus visited ICELAND before he went to America.Main idea: Although the Internet is an amazing invention.Main idea: There are both pros and cons to the Internet.is tiny . communicate.Supporting idea: Pluto has a thin atmosphere.Step 4 Did Christopher COLUMBUS really DISCOVER the New World? We know that the VIKINGS reached NORTH AMERICA 500 years before Columbus arrived in 1492.has a MOON . and it has its own moon. . However. someone could steal personal information.ISOLATES people from SOCIETY . watching movies. Also. and using a computer too much is bad for health. .has a thin ATMOSPHERE . However.has a TILTED orbit Step 3 Reading: .been called a planet since 1930 Step 2 Problem with Pluto’s CLASSIFICATION Evidence that it is “not a PLANET” . . because Pluto had enough gravity to form a sphere like a planet.Supporting idea: Bad points are that children can get inappropriate information.SHOP from home Con: Children can access INAPPROPRIATE information Someone could steal PERSONAL INFORMATION Can be bad for your EYES and BACK Step 2 CONVENIENCE of Net comes at a PRICE . .COMMUNICATE with people all over the world . many HISTORIANS say that Columbus’s VOYAGE to North America was more important. you may find bad things online.Supporting idea: Internet users can become isolated. and shop online.physical problems and SOCIAL problems Main problem of Net .Supporting idea: People forget the emotions of people they communicate with online.Supporting idea: Good points are that people can research. too. it has some bad effects. and SHOPPING. as the reading points out. Practice 3 Step 1 Issue: The PROS and CONS of the Internet Pro: Can: . On top of all this.Main idea: Is Pluto a planet? . but you should be careful how you use it.

Step 2 A. Should it be called a PLANET? On one hand. Step 5 A. In addition to American movies.a lower number of not in English --. American English is what is used TO PRESENT INFORMATION ON MOST WEBSITES.Supporting idea: Pluto doesn’t seem like a planet because it is similar to other objects in the Kuiper Belt. has enough GRAVITY to form a SPHERE. which is different than other planets. Step 6 1. American businesses and Hollywood are two key factors that ARE DRIVING THE SPREAD OF ENGLISH BOTH IN THE PAST AND TODAY.in other languages paraphrase: People get a lower number of hits for searches in other languages. America did more to increase the use of English as an international language than any other country. and it looks like a comet. English on the Internet is also driving the spread of English today. It also has a TILTED orbit. 2. 2 B. Two IMPORTANT factors DRIVING the spread of English both THEN and NOW are business and Hollywood.Main idea: Scientists want to change the classification of Pluto. 1 C. Skill B Practice 1 Step 1 Main idea: Americans have been the driving force behind the spread of English in the 20th century. . which is different than all of the other planets.most online content --. 1. 1. 2 Answer Key 703 . Step 3 Factors driving spread of English: • Business • Hollywood • INTERNET . 2. B.Lecture: .fewer HITS for searches not in English Practice 2 Step 1 Main idea: It’s a fairly new idea that sunlight is actually harmful.Supporting idea: Pluto has a tilted orbit. One reason that American English is so widespread today is because Americans were the driving force behind the spread of English in the 20th Century. . majority of online content in English synonyms: majority --. . 2. On the other hand.MAJORITY of online content in English . Typically. Step 2 A. It orbits a star.MILLIONS of hits for SEARCHES in English most ENGLISH content available in American English Step 4 A. THE LARGEST AMOUNT of the INFORMATION ON THE WEB in English is PRESENTED in American English. Pluto is similar in size to other objects in the KUIPER BELT. Although Pluto has been called a planet since its DISCOVERY in 1930. and books that can be found almost everywhere. maybe it is time to change Pluto’s CLASSIFICATION. Sample answer: In the 1900s. information on the Web paraphrase: Most of the information on the Web is in English. B. music.websites. the reading passage says Pluto has several characteristics SIMILAR to a planet. has an ATMOSPHERE. and has a MOON. the lecture explains that Pluto looks more like a COMET than a planet. fewer hits for searches not in English synonyms: fewer --. Step 4 Some scientists are thinking about changing the CLASSIFICATION of Pluto.

strong and reliable boxes are required. Sunlight kills germs that cause sickness. B.more sunlight ➝ people recover FASTER Step 4 A. 2. 704 Answer Key . 2. Sample answer: Splitting an atom produces a vast quantity of heat and energy. Sample answer: The belief that sunlight is dangerous is a change in our way of thinking. A lot of illness that can be life threatening CAN ACTUALLY BE STOPPED WITH LIGHT FROM THE SUN. Step 6 1. Step 3 How sunlight helps us: A) Prevents illness B) Kills BACTERIA .mistake/mishap happen --. Perhaps animals are wiser about sunlight than we are because they are active only at special times. Sunlight kills germs and bacteria.bacteria sickness --. and animals have been HARMED BY NUCLEAR POWER. it isn’t usually FATAL.strong/reliable needed --. LIGHT FROM THE SUN can actually STOP or cure a lot of ILLNESSES that can be LIFE THREATENING. 2. synonyms: germs --.illness/disease paraphrase:Sunlight kills bacteria that cause illness/disease. 1.required/necessary buy --.get well faster --.HOSPITALS with more sunlight have FEWER germs . TREES. The cost is very high TO MAKE NUCLEAR REACTORS SAFE.more quickly paraphrase:People get well more quickly in hospitals where there is more sunlight. so it can keep people from getting sick. B.dispose of underground/put in the earth paraphrase: To dispose of the waste underground. Step 2 A. 1 B.hospitals without much SUNLIGHT have MORE germs . accidents can happen synonyms: accident --. Step 3 Reasons for not using NUCLEAR power: A) waste is deadly POISON B) ACCIDENTS can happen C) high cost for SAFETY . durable boxes needed to bury waste synonyms: durable --. Step 6 1. Scientists can use nuclear power to generate electricity. 1. The main reason for not using nuclear power is that the waste is poisonous. BUT SKIN CANCER ISN’T USUALLY FATAL. Even though RAYS from the sun can sometimes HARM people by GIVING THEM skin cancer. recover faster synonyms: recover --. large amounts of heat and energy are created. Making the ATOMIC ENERGY PLANTS safe IS COSTLY. plants. 2. 1. Step 5 A. 2 C. Practice 3 Step 1 Main idea: When atoms are split. Step 5 A. HARM has already been DONE to MANY people. and animals. B. 2. many people. B. 1. 1 C.takes LONG time to break down Step 4 A. Already.occur/take place paraphrase: Mishaps sometimes take place. 2. It’s true that sunlight can cause CANCER.B.DURABLE boxes needed to bury waste .

we learn information from our parents. some dinosaurs killed by floods or explosion synonyms: floods . causing dinosaurs to die out OVER TIME.rising water. I learn better by doing than by reading. One thing I learned by doing was how to install programs on my computer. Then I put the CD in my computer. Suddenly killed when object from space hit the Earth synonyms: suddenly . These are both important things to know when you learn to do something new. scientists can see that many animals from the past have disappeared. it can be confusing. Step 6 1. When we are children. from colleagues.some dinosaurs killed by FLOODS or explosion . If you do not already know. I also learn what happens when I make that mistake. When I make a mistake. It seemed like they were written in a foreign language. They do not want to make any mistakes. I did not really understand the instructions. I pushed buttons and clicked with my mouse. Personally. Skill C Practice 1 Step 2 We learn new things all the time. rock from outer space hit . Although we are all learning all the time. I read the instructions for how to install it. While one idea claims that gradual changes on Earth caused dinosaurs to die out. 2. tidal waves explosion . One THEORY that SOME RESEARCHERS believe is that a change caused the dinosaurs to die SUDDENLY. Step 2 A. From bones found in rocks. 2. Some people disagree with my point of view. 1 C.blast. Now. Very gradual changes on Earth cause dinosaurs TO DIE OUT LITTLE BY LITTLE.comet. The thesis statement of this essay is “Personally. extinguished object from space . B. I installed the program without the instructions at all. Some people learn by reading. people learn in different ways. They say they have to read the instructions to learn how to do things. I think it is OK to make mistakes. Step 3 Dinosaur extinction: • suddenly killed when OBJECT from space HIT the Earth • Clue = CRATER in ocean near Mexico • After Earth was hit: .slammed into. from our friends. The topic sentence of the body paragraph is “One 705 Answer Key . or even from younger people. 1. The first time I got a new program for my computer. Others learn by doing. I learn not to do it that way again. Step 3 1. we learn things from older people. or from teachers in school. Others argue that dinosaurs disappeared AT ONCE BECAUSE SOMETHING CHANGED SUDDENLY. another idea is that something hit the Earth and killed them all. That the Earth CHANGED very slowly.some dinosaurs died because of COLD WEATHER or no food Step 4 A. Sample answer: Gradual changes on Earth is one possible cause of the dinosaurs’ disappearance. is one IDEA. 1 B. 2. smashed into paraphrase:extinguished all at once when a rock from outer space slammed into the Earth B. extreme heat paraphrase:some dinosaurs wiped out by tidal waves or blast Step 5 A. 1. I learn better by doing than by reading.all at once killed .Practice 4 Step 1 Main idea: One theory argues that gradual changes on Earth made the dinosaurs die out.” 2. This is a simple thing if you know how to do it. I know how to install any program on my computer.wiped out. When we are adults.STEAM and dust flew into ATMOSPHERE .

In the weeks that followed. 3. Do you prefer to spend your free time outside or inside? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. so she introduced us to her family and told us to ask her if we ever needed anything. The sample the writer gives to support the thesis statement is how the writer learned to install computer programs. Two sentences in the conclusion restate ideas previously mentioned in the essay. The writer does present an idea from the other side in the conclusion. I remember the first summer we moved in. The examples the writer gives to support the thesis statement are how her neighbor invited them to swim at the pool and how her neighbor took care of her house while her family was away. Two qualities that make a good neighbor. or help out. Do you think automobiles have more benefits or disadvantages? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. I learned the one thing as important as having a good neighbor is being a good neighbor yourself. whenever a neighborly thing should be done. Step 3 1. Since then. 4. 4. 2. People sometimes complain that their neighbors are difficult. Now. Question 3: When was the last time you had to interact with someone much older or much younger than you? Was this a good or bad experience for you? Describe the situation and your interaction using specific details. but we have never had any problems with our neighbors. important. The thesis statement of this essay is “Two qualities that make a good neighbor. the weather was hot and she invited our kids to swim with her children at the pool. Also. whenever she and her family go away. But I also learned a valuable lesson from these neighbors. I think our neighbors are good because they have been friendly since the first day we moved in. you also need to be a good neighbor. then. . Our neighbor offered to collect the letters from our mailbox every day and to make sure our house was OK.” Step 4 1. Indeed.thing I learned by doing was how to install programs on my computer. This personal experience is about the qualities of good neighbors. making mistakes is useful for learning too. 3. The main idea of the conclusion is that to have good neighbors. Practice 2 Step 2 It’s important to have good neighbors. we like our neighbors a lot and we think that our neighbors like us. are friendliness and helpfulness. then.” Step 4 1. Most people realize that having good neighbors is very 706 Answer Key Skill D Thesis Statements Step 1 Question 1: Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. we help them in the same way and keep an eye on their house. Before leaving for summer vacation. our children and hers have become good friends. 2. The topic sentence of the body paragraph is “Our neighbors are good neighbors because they are friendly and helpful. One of our neighbors saw that we were new. Question 2: The automobile has done a lot to improve modern life. I am lucky to have very good neighbors where we live. we were worried about leaving our house empty for two weeks. they always cooperate. Other people prefer to spend their free time indoors. The writer states that some people read to learn so that they don’t make mistakes. Our neighbors are good neighbors because they are friendly and helpful. On the contrary. This essay takes the side of learning by doing is better than learning by reading. The main idea of the conclusion is that even though learning by doing leads to mistakes. are friendliness and helpfulness.” 2. It has also caused many problems for modern society. I was lucky to have kind and helpful neighbors with whom we quickly became friends.

(D) (C) (C) (A) (C) inventions isolated nuclear remain 2. 4. 15. people can get sick from it. 17. I would study music because I love listening to the piano. ( 3 ) If the water is polluted or not taken care of well. 12. 10. 19. Step 2 Question 1: experience Sample thesis statement: I learned how to play tennis by playing with my friend rather than by reading about tennis. I could see the various parts of a traditional Japanese funeral service. 10. 12. 19. 11. Question 3 ( 1 ) A special gift I received is a book of poems from my friend. 9. 23. 16. ( 2 ) When I complain about a product or service in writing. 14. 20. (A) (D) (D) (B) (B) encyclopedia contact gradual 3. Include specific details and reasons in your essay. ( 2 ) The book of poems from my friend was special because she wrote the poems herself.Question 4: When was the last time you received a gift of money? What did you do with the money. The Funeral. (B) (B) (B) (A) (D) cultural readily (B) (C) 2. 8. (D) (D) (B) (B) (A) campus (D) (E) Topic Sentences Step 1 Question 1 ( 2 ) One film. 21. 25. 24. Question 2 ( 3 ) After a day or two. Question 3: opinion Sample thesis statement: The best way to travel is by yourself rather than with a tour guide. 9. 6. ( 1 ) If I have to complain about a product or poor service. 13. 13. Question 2: opinion Sample thesis statement: If I could study a subject that I have never studied before. Question 4 ( 1 ) I think the company should use the money to protect the environment. 18. ( 1 ) I have learned a lot about Japanese culture by watching Japanese movies. 7. 23. I can plan the things I want to say. 7. ( 2) It is more important for the company to protect the environment because we need the environment to live. 24. 22. save it or spend it? Explain what you did and why. 8. 21. 15. I can read my letter again and change things that are too emotional or are not clear. 17. 11. (A) (A) (B) (A) (A) convenient couple sudden Answer Key 707 . ( 3 ) One of the poems was about the first time we met. I prefer to complain in writing. 5. showed me several interesting things about Japan. 22. ( 3 ) In The Funeral. Review 2 1. 20. 18. Question 4: experience Sample thesis statement: One time in my life when I went through a stressful change was the time that I started my first job. Vocabulary Review Review 1 1. 4. 25. (A) (D) (D) (A) (C) cuisine rewarding (A) 3. 14. 6. 16. 5.

(1) This contradicts the statement in the reading that people have to breathe hard and sweat when they exercise. This does not necessarily mean 30 minutes of hard exercise at the gym. it is vital that it make you breathe vigorously and produce sweat. Furthermore. In the study. GM crops grow bigger. You simply need enough of these short breaks to add up to 30 minutes over your day.slow walkers lost more weight why? they exercised longer because talked with friends • weight trainers say focus on taking your time when exercising Step 3 Lecture • Light exercise more effective • People walking slowly saw better results than those who exercised intensely Reading • Need vigorous exercise • A person needs to increase their heart rate significantly Step 4 The speaker says that even light exercise can lead to physical changes in the body. GM crops can better resist various insects. Whatever the activity is. diseases. less for poor Step 3 Lecture • GM foods cause unnecessary problems in farming • Farming too technological with GM farming • GM farming will only provide more food for already rich countries Reading • Many advantages to GM foods • Resists insects and diseases better • Can help feed more people • Has higher nutritional value Step 1 Research has shown that just 30 minutes of exercise a day is enough to keep most people healthy. always look perfect. Step 2 • light exercise can lead to physical changes in the body . Step 2 • environmentalists believe GM foods cause problems in farming . women who walked slowly lost more weight than women who walked fast for exercise. Other advantages include easier shipping and longer shelf life in stores. All these advantages are so important that most industries agree GM foods are now necessary. You have to get your heart working significantly harder than when you are resting.study of women who walked .make more for rich.make farming too technological . Practice 2 Step 1 Genetically modified (GM) food has many advantages. In agriculture. (4) In other words.Chapter Skill A Practice 1 2 This indicates that the length of time exercising is important. the speaker describes a study of women who walk. This allows safer use of the land and the chance to feed more people because farms can produce more than before. It could be 10 minutes of brisk walking during a lunch break or any other short break during your day that you can think of. (3) 708 Answer Key . and have high nutritional value. for example.better way to make crops resistant is bio-natural farming • higher quantities and better quality of crops not necessary . (2) As an example. and weeds without so much use of chemicals. not how hard the exercise is. it is better to exercise slowly for a longer period of time than to exercise quickly just to sweat more.

The reading also says GM foods look better and that more can be grown. If we look seriously at this problem. it is clearly stated that opponents doubt these claims. argue that more foods are not needed in rich countries and. (4) In summary. and birth control . In the lecture. The reading explains that we can colonize other planets and find resources on asteroids. clean-water management. If we don’t explore other planets we may run out of resources Step 4 The lecture presents arguments opposed to space travel. Both citizens and soldiers lost their traditional beliefs. and weeds.Step 4 The lecture tells us that environmental groups do not think GM foods are needed. we can see it is foolish not to consider the possibilities that space can offer. (1) in contrast. (2) in brief. the lecture shows that GM foods have no real advantages and that more natural foods should be grown instead. Practice 4 Step 1 The fall of Rome was due to a decline in morals and values.resource problem ➝ spend money better way to develop Earth’s resources or on programs to increase recycling and reusing. not on space Reading • Space exploration necessary • Natural resources available on other planets. The discipline of Romans did not continue near the end of the Empire and the armies were difficult to control. opponents of space exploration argue that we should solve our problems in the here and now and not in space.population problem ➝ better way to deal with issues in agriculture. can be found elsewhere on other planets. though. Environmental groups. for example. too. In contrast. Our planet will soon run out of resources. The reading. Practice 3 Step 1 Space exploration is a necessary investment for our future. (1) On the other hand. Roman leaders showed moral decay too. This will soon become a major problem. (3) but opponents say we could find ways to develop resources here or even recycle more. (3) moreover.terrible living conditions . Step 2 • Main reasons for fall of Roman Empire .government hired foreign soldiers Answer Key 709 . that natural foods look good enough and taste better. and decrease consumption Step 3 Lecture • Space exploration not necessary • Global problems should be tackled first • Money should be spent on problems here on Earth. They contend.000 prostitutes. Natural resources. then we will pay a high cost in the future. Populations are growing rapidly. emperors like Nero and Caligula were well known for holding parties at which everyone drank and ate so much they became sick. The real danger is that if we fail to invest in these possibilities now. like minerals.most Romans were poor . Other planets can be colonized. They seem to believe that the Earth has enough resources to sustain us. or even asteroids. as long as we use them wisely. (4) In short. there lived approximately 32. the lecture claims that bio-natural farming can do the same thing (2) and in ways that are better for the environment. In Rome. presents reasons why space exploration is urgently needed and even necessary to ensure our future survival. that our problems do not make space travel necessary and insist that governments should focus on better managing our problems here instead.too much military spending . Step 2 • Government should deal with problems on Earth before thinking about space . diseases. the written passage lists advantages to using GM foods. For example. it says that GM plants resist well against insects.lived in small crowded apartments . moons. Roman cities were also dangerous due to a high rate of violent crime.

because. D Conclusion: A. however. B Body: B. 41. B. One place. I think Therefore. C. E. 31. A. 36. though In my opinion. A. D Practice 3 Step 3 Transitions: Transitions: Transitions: However. 13. we can conclude that moral decay did not actually lead to the fall of Rome. 19.000 prostitutes lived in Rome. What's more. however. Of course Furthermore. A Conclusion: B. F. In the past. the text says 32. C. 22. while. also. Secondly. C. (D) 11. However. 10. B Conclusion: E. (4) Therefore. C Body: E. Finally. but the lecture makes it clear that no improvements to living conditions in cities made Romans refuse to fight. B Body: D. though First of all. 37. 16. (A) 5. In addition. the lecture explains many Romans could not even pay rent. (C) 18. Practice 2 Step 2 Transitions: Transitions: Transitions: In this way. (B) 14. The text (2) also suggests soldiers lost their values. (C) 2. D. As well as Introduction: E. B. and. 39. and In fact. (B) 21.Step 3 Lecture • Claims poor living conditions and military spending caused the fall of the empire • Romans had no money and so became angry and refused to defend the empire Reading • Moral decay caused the fall of the empire • The army became undisciplined • The cities became violent with high crime rates Step 4 The lecturer says moral decay did not cause the fall of Rome. A. (3) In addition. This contradicts the text. environmental performed damaged feelings encouraged resistant (D) (D) (C) (D) (B) (A) (B) (B) (C) (D) 32. 7. B. and. A. C. 35. A. (A) 9. D. 25. B. A. (D) intelligence consistently responded measured possibilities relieve Skill B Practice 1 Step 2 Transitions: Transitions: Transitions: For example. (C) 26. (A) 15. (D) 20. For example. C. and. F. the lecture shows that problems in cities and more spending on armies were bigger crises than moral decay. whereas. In conclusion. E. (A) 27. A Vocabulary Review Review 1 1. However Introduction: C. and For the above reasons. (A) 24. so Introduction: E. the lecture explains how hiring foreign soldiers made armies expensive to maintain. 33. resulting in higher taxes and even more problems in cities. (C) 23. (A) 12. 40. D. 3. so. In this. (C) 17. (C) 29. In short. (B) 30. 28. (B) 8. 34. 4. 42. D. C. and. On the other hand. C 710 Answer Key . D. (1) For example. D. (B) 6. which states moral decay was the main reason. 38.

(B) 6. (S) Review 2 1. 31. (B) (C) (A) (D) (A) (A) (C) (D) (C) (D) 32. 41. (C) 30. 49. 47. restful nearby (O) (S) 44. 17. 8. 44. (C) 18. 5. 33. (E) 50. (S) 48. 11. (O) 50. 46. (A) Answer Key 711 . 16. 23. 36. 49. 45. (D) 21. (C) 24. 19. 46. 37. 38. (D) 12. 14. (A) 9. 20. pace 47. 34. 25. 42. (C) 15. 28. 10. (D) 3.43. 29. 4. 22. (B) crowded improve response foolish troops hire operation 48. (A) (D) (B) (B) (B) (C) (A) (A) (D) (A) economy rent refused hiring government guidance regular genetically (C) (B) 2. (B) 27. 26. 13. 45. 7. 40. 35. 39. 43.

2. Stephen and Sarah got married in May of last year. then these fun pastimes are a great idea. they hope everything will have been/will be organized and they are looking/look forward to living in their new home. there comes greater excitement. which is also good for your health. (A) 9. But with higher risk. thinking about something different or doing something active can help your mind to focus on something else. (B) 3.Chapter Focus A Exercise 1 2 2. 1. One of the best ways to reduce stress is to take up a hobby. like me. (A) 6. The Dublin Spire is over 120 meters in height and was completed in January 2003. 10. Many people enjoy sports like baseball and soccer. you have to pay more with these activities. We had a great time. He likes Spanish culture. Of course. Either way. with sports like these it is important that you are educated properly about them. the spire was eventually able to be finished. 2. Both of them work very hard. it was one of the best times of my life. In a few weeks. We made a promise that sometime in the future we would return and do it again. While I was traveling through Germany. They both work in the same hospital. he believes that one day he might return to Spain and start a family there. so we decided to travel together for the rest of the holiday. it is important to have an activity or hobby to help reduce the stress in your life. but they are usually worth the extra cost. If you want your life to have more entertainment. Because his girlfriend is Spanish. John will/is going to move back to England in May because he misses his family. The pleasure is far greater than with normal. They have been looking for a house for over nine months now. (B) (B) (B) (A) 2. 4. The risks involved are far greater than in regular sports. They have been married just over a year. and Dublin’s tallest structure was finally completed. Other people prefer physical exercise or sports. and he loves the food also. Yesterday. However. after all of the furniture has been bought. This can improve your circulation. then he plans to return to England to teach in a university. Stephen is a doctor and Sarah is a doctor. Some people enjoy bringing some action and adventure into their lives. Some people have a collection of certain objects or items. Dublin City is home to the world’s tallest sculpture. I had just finished university and I decided/had decided I wanted to see some more of the world. Exercise 2 1. having studied it for many years. 712 Answer Key . but some also enjoy high-risk activities such as sky diving and paragliding. At home. To prevent this. Of course. John has lived in Spain for over six months. It was amazing to see so many different cultures in such a small area. 7. It was so much fun. I met some people who. When I traveled around Europe. When the structure was first being built in 2002. too. and have little time for organizing their new house. They have decided to move in next month. John speaks Spanish very well. As a result. they hired a decorator to buy all the furniture and decorate the house. sometimes work-related issues can remain in a person’s mind. (B) 5. there were delays because of bad weather. (B) 8. when the strong winds had passed. Focus B Exercise 1 1. He moved here shortly after finishing university. they finally found a house that they really liked. were from America. (B) Exercise 2 1. together. everyday sports. His plan is to live in Spain for a few years in order to improve his Spanish.

11. IC 16. 10. 13. 16. I really like steak. ➠ Nancy works quite hard. Focus D Exercise 1 One of the two sentences below is a fragment. 14. I wasn’t impressed. too. A lot of information are on the Internet. It is too late. too. IC 6. Simon jogged to the park. 15. The children was curious about many of the animals in the zoo. ➠ After the marathon. ➠ I really like steak. too. A number of students has failed the exam. 9. look have rescue catch is think 2. While walking to class. has need prays escape arrives 3. Each evening. 11. 10. C 13. IC 4. C 5. But doesn’t work as hard as Cindy. And stayed there for an hour. they were all thirsty. appears is have disagree worry Answer Key 713 . ➠ It is usually warm in summer. I really want to go back to America. The Philippines have a population of over eighty-six million people. IC 12. After the marathon. IC 8. Chicken. Underline the fragment and change it into a complete sentence. ➠ The question was easy but I didn’t know the answer. 6. the couple take a walk along the beach. they was all very relaxed. 1. The question easy. I wasn’t impressed. One thousand dollars are a lot of money to earn each week. It too late. I saw Ann last week. Tara has a young daughter. 7. 8. 9. ➠ I saw the soccer match on television. C 15. It is usually warm in summer. IC 9. ➠ You can’t enter the competition. Sometimes. 6. ➠ Simon jogged to the park. as the menu was not impressive. We decided to leave the restaurant. He have the answer to the question. 4. Nancy works quite hard. ➠ Now that I am in Spain. ➠ Tara has a young daughter. Now that I in Spain. Her name Jessica. Saw the soccer match on television. who never arrived. Each nation have donated food and supplies to help with the problem. After the day in the park. I like chicken. I really want to go back to America. Hungry. The nurses waited over an hour for the doctor. IC 7. All of this food are healthy for you. IC 3. Sometimes stormy as well. but she doesn’t work as hard as Cindy. IC 14. 3. C 11. C 2. IC 10. They were hungry. Exercise 2 1. 5. 12.Focus C Exercise 1 IC 1. they were all thirsty. 2. 7. 4. Watching certain television programs are a good way to educate children. 8. The janitor had finished cleaning by the time we arrived. I didn’t know the answer. ➠ I saw Ann last week while I was walking to class. Brian and I am deciding where to go on vacation. 5. Her name is Jessica. Some of the builders are going to return to work tomorrow. and he stayed there for an hour. it is stormy as well. too. You can’t enter the competition.

The woman also suggested applying for the loan. When the opera was over. C 9. He is often depressed. C 3. everybody left. My grandfather liked study new things. It was a pity the service wasn’t. 15. When the rain stopped. we took a lot of photographs. His final solution was to sell the house. F 7. There is also so much unhappiness. Walking to the subway station time consuming. Many countries in South America have excellent soccer teams. The meal in the restaurant excellent. 13. C 8. It is impossible to finding an answer for that question. So much suffering in the world. C 13. I usually take the bus. To review the project again was suggested by the director of sales. too. We decided to do some extra work over the weekend. I saw him to selling tickets for the raffle. Though I waited over an hour for my friend. she never arrived. One theory is the universe exploded billions of years ago. too. CS 5. When the crowds started arriving. F 2. They agreed that hiring a detective might solve the problem. The easiest solution was that replace the broken part with a new one. I decided to study harder. Often. IC 5. 16. CS 16. C 7. Patrick had worked hard for years he deserved a raise. C 10. RO 8. CS 10. the sun finally came out. Ireland. I usually take the bus. RO 15. I knew that finishing the job would be more difficult than to starting it. he doesn’t sleep until three in the morning. F 12. F 11. IC 11. 14. F 3. They didn’t want spend more time there than was necessary. The tour was not very successful we didn’t enjoy it. So too. we didn’t want work hard. Of all the days of the vacation. CS 13. The horse that won the race was not necessarily the best. the theater director started to relax. C 4. Focus E Exercise 1 IC 1. He decided working there was a bad idea. CS 6. When we went to London. the audience stood and clapped in approval. He sometimes quiet and moody. RO 4. IC 2. Saturday the best. There is also so much unhappiness. Switzerland is a beautiful country. Didn’t help me. Exercise 2 CS 1. The town had never looked so clean. It was a pity the service wasn’t. He is often depressed. Worked so hard to tidy it. ➠ He is sometimes quiet and moody. After the movie ended.12. ➠ There is so much suffering in the world. IC 12. We asked the government develop the school facilities. John works so hard. ➠ Walking to the subway station is time consuming. 714 Answer Key . IC 15. The builder did a bad job on my house I didn’t pay him. I asked my friend to help me with my resumé. Such as Brazil. Was very unhappy with the results. They realized that waiting another day would put them behind schedule. IC 14. ➠ John works so hard. CS 9. Often doesn’t sleep until three in the morning. IC 6. F 14. C 16. ➠ The meal in the restaurant was excellent. As it was Saturday.

In order to meet the deadline. We lost that particular game. 8. however. We began our vacation in Paris. ➠ (that) Dave and Casey agreed that they would share the prize money. he is the best chef. 4. They had two choices. 4. 2. I was very hungry. 9. but I don’t seem to be improving. they had to work on Saturday. It was raining heavily. 2. They decided that they would sell the house. ➠ (to) He expected her not to flunk the course. We can go to the theater or go to the beach.Exercise 2 1. 10. ➠ (to) Everyone expected the company to change ownership. 15. 7. Dave and Casey agreed to share the prize money. He won the cooking competition. Everyone expected that the company would change ownership. He is a fantastic lecturer. we traveled around the rest of Europe. so they are going to a restaurant this weekend. but we won the whole competition. 6. They won an expensive meal for two. I take cooking lessons. Kim asked that the manager give her an extra day to finish the project. ➠ (that) They knew it was unacceptable that they complete the project three weeks late. He enjoys neither the theater nor the opera. 7. The heavy storm kept us from going out. 13. 10. They knew it was unacceptable completing the project three weeks late. ➠ (to) In order to properly repair the computer. He expected that she would not flunk the course. I spend a lot of time studying French. ➠ (to) They decided to sell the house. therefore. 5. 3. they had to work on Saturday. Andrea realized to paint the wall would take too long. they have never been to a game. I should take the photographs. so we sat watching TV all day. and I also started a yoga class. They could quit. I have the most experience with cameras. 16. therefore. ➠ (to) Kim asked the manager to give her an extra day to finish the project. 3. Focus F Exercise 1 1. you should call Tim. you should call Tim. These days. I had no money to buy food. Then. 6. however. 12. ➠ (that) In order that they meet the deadline. 11. We agreed to spend a week in Greece. ➠ (that) Andrea realized that painting the wall would take too long. In order that the repairs for the computer be done properly. Answer Key 715 . I encourage my students to read first. they can practice speaking. 8. or they could work twice as hard. he often arrives late for class. ➠ (that) We agreed that we would spend a week in Greece. but I had no umbrella. 5. They are big soccer fans. 9. then. however. 14.

Although it sounds dangerous. thousands of people pay money to do this. A two-bedroom apartment there can cost around 2000 euros per month. Ireland can cost you around three euros. as much as we complain about prices. However. Additionally. the same cup of coffee in Buenos Aires might set you back only seventy cents. For example. a cup of coffee in Dublin. enjoy the “rush” from roller coasters. London. each year. Paris is also very expensive.Exercise 2 1. Quite a difference! These days. 716 Answer Key . there must be something special that makes people want to jump. but it may cost only 600 euros in Buenos Aires. whereas the same CD may sell for up to 20 euros in Dublin and London. therefore. On the other hand. flying into the sky. others may want to test how brave they are. and Moscow. Some cities are a lot more expensive to live in than others. Skydiving is a very exciting sport. they put on a parachute and jump out of a plane. therefore. Imagine climbing into an airplane with a bag on your back. We can see. for example. and then jumping out of the airplane. Either way. the most expensive cities to live in are Tokyo. What is it that makes people want to do this? Is it the excitement or the fear and danger? Some people. 2. a music CD in Buenos Aires sells for around seven euros. that some cities have it worse than we do.

(E) 14. Finally. I believe forcing only men to serve is discrimination. With this time. (C) (D) 5. (B) 9. They can also improve their health by exercising all the time. Norway rat --. First of all. (C) 22. (B) 9. (B) 11. I enjoy eating seafood. so I could do many outdoor activities. Answer Key 717 .(B). (A) 24. 1 (A). Every day it was sunny and clear. 4 (A) Speaking Question 1 The best vacation I ever had was a trip to Hawaii. (A) 6. I think men can learn a lot from serving in the military. (A). (C) 5. It is not fair to men. House mouse --. Crystals 13. (A) 19. (B) 12. Second. In addition. forcing men to serve in the military is the better policy. Question 2 Sample response 1: In my opinion. the army would be too small to protect the country from attack. (F) 3. (A) 18. (D) Art 7. (A) 8.(C). the government takes away that freedom. there is a wide variety of seafood available. The first reason I enjoyed this trip was the beautiful weather. Hawaii has many lovely parks and beaches. (D) (D) 11. (C). 17. (D) Listening Campus Life 1. (D) 2. 1 (D). 3 (C). (C) Biology 19. (B) 21. For instance. (D). (D). (C) 20. Second. men often make business contacts in the military that help them in the future. (A) 24. I believe in freedom of choice. 2 (D). I really liked Hawaiian food. (D) (B) (B) (C) 15. Bradford --. (A) Proprietorship --.(A). By forcing someone to serve. (C) 21. Finally. (C) 23. (C) 22. (B) 17. (C) (E). Another reason I enjoyed my trip was all the beautiful scenery. 10. 4 (B) Health 13. (B). (C) (B) 8. (A) 2. (B) 15. 23. (C) 16. (C) 18. Bayeux --. 12. If men weren’t forced to serve. (C) 6. (D) 16. allowing men to choose to serve in the military is the better policy.(C). (D) 10. Sample response 2: In my opinion. (C) 3. he could be studying or working or preparing for his future.(B). 20. 7. 3 (C). Because Hawaii is an island.Practice Test Reading Businesses 1. they learn discipline and how to work in a group. Partnership --Corporation --. (D) 14. 4.(A). First of all. it is very important for a country to have a strong military. when a man serves in the army. he loses time that he can never get back. They should be treated equally with women. 2 (B). (C) 4.

The man suggests two ways for her to deal with the problem. she might get too stressed to perform well in class. I think this is the best idea. the professor talks about why the gardens were probably built. Question 6 The lecture provides information about the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The woman says that she likes to relax and hang out with her friends on the weekend. This way. Sample response 2: In this conversation. Last. In addition.Question 3 The Ministry of Education announced a new scholarship to help students who don’t have a lot of money. but I think her job and education are more important. she will have more time to study and earn high grades. she believes that because the scholarships are not given based on academic performance. his second suggestion. but she will still have time to relax and see her friends on the weekend. she details how drakkars were usually about 30 meters long with about 25 oarsmen. In sum. These ships were very long and strong. They were used to transport up to 150 warriors on raids all across Europe. The speaker mentions that the drakkars were actually often used for travel on small rivers rather than just on the sea. She is worried about having enough time to study for exams while working at a restaurant four nights a week. The woman disagrees with this scholarship. the woman describes a problem she has with work and school. the woman describes a problem she has with work and school. 718 Answer Key . In particular. so she would be able to get one. By showing how powerful and prosperous Babylon was. it was showing that its way of life was the right one. She is worried about having enough time to study for exams while working at a restaurant four nights a week. she would like the scholarships to be awarded based on grades. they reward lazy students who don’t work as hard to earn high grades. she mentions that the largest drakkar ever found was about 70 meters long and was probably owned by a king! Question 5 Sample response 1: In this conversation. she believes that the scholarship discriminates against students whose parents are wealthy. called drakkars. First. The gardens were probably meant to improve relations with her homeland and thereby maintain the queen’s home country as an ally. In my opinion. her mother earns a lot of money. that she ask to only work two nights per week. The man suggests two ways for her to deal with the problem. After she finishes university. she will get a better job and have a lot of time for her friends. In fact. She also explains that noblemen usually owned these ships. A second reason may have been to impress people with Babylon’s power and to convey its wealth and might. Second. If she didn’t have time to relax. is better. First. Question 4 The reading talks about Vikings and their ships. so the woman will not be able to get the scholarship. he suggests that she only work on weekends. One reason the king in ancient Babylon probably built the Hanging Gardens was to please his wife. This way. the Vikings could raid smaller villages.

Answer Key 719 . They can be exposed to new music and art. Without friends. For example. then. He states that it is safe if it is done by a well-trained doctor. there are no side effects associated with acupuncture. Task 2 Moving to another country can be a difficult process. and customs. Importantly. The lecture. the new resident must speak the language of the new country. A new resident must adapt to the customs of that country in order to feel comfortable around other residents. such as high blood pressure. they will not have the opportunity to succeed. For these reasons. If he or she is uncomfortable around other people. a new resident will not enjoy an active social life. Learning new customs can teach a person new ways of thinking about life. However. I think that part of the joy of life is learning about new cultures. Their social life will be poor. which will limit their chances of enjoying their time in a new place. they will not be able to communicate. They can try to follow the customs of the new country or keep the customs of their former country. language. have found that acupuncture can help treat certain medical problems. too. which helps the patient feel better. In order to fully take advantage of this opportunity. and knee problems. and even had their pain get worse after treatment. In addition. in school or business. pain. it is also very rewarding. Such new ideas can help people solve problems in new and different ways that they might not have thought of without trying to adapt to the new culture. First. it is important to be socially active and have good friends. While I think it is important for everyone to be proud of his or her heritage. For example. Finally. The acupuncturist then vibrates the needles by hand or with electricity. he states that some patients fainted. the new resident must follow the customs of the new country. the National Health Council does not recommend acupuncture. got their lungs punctured. Each country has its own food. The reading suggests that acupuncture may change some chemicals in the brain. it concludes that acupuncture can work well in conjunction with normal health care. Similarly. New residents to a country should take advantage of their chance to do this. Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medical procedure in which metal needles are put into important points on a patient’s body. it will be difficult to make friends. I also believe it is important to adapt to a new country. New residents to a country have a choice. The speaker casts doubts on the effectiveness of acupuncture to treat medical problems. more serious negative health effects such as infections and hepatitis B have been documented.Writing Sample Responses Task 1 The topic of both the lecture and the reading is acupuncture. Finally. Some studies in England and the US. focuses on the dangers of acupuncture. in contrast. people usually leave one country for another country because of the opportunity for a better life. In conclusion. If they cannot communicate with others. though. This helps the patient’s body. I believe that all the benefits of following the customs of a new country certainly outweigh the difficulties involved. to lead an enjoyable life. Though adapting to new languages and customs can be difficult. It states that we do not know exactly why acupuncture works. he cites statistics that show it is not always safe. If they do not.

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