Petersons.com/publishing
Check out our Web site at www.petersons.com/publishing to see if there is any new information
regarding the test and any revisions or corrections to the content of this book. We’ve made sure
the information in this book is accurate and up-to-date; however, the test format or content may
have changed since the time of publication.

About Thomson Peterson’s
Thomson Peterson’s (www.petersons.com) is a leading provider of education information and advice, with books
and online resources focusing on education search, test preparation, and financial aid. Its Web site offers
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For more information, contact Thomson Peterson’s, 2000 Lenox Drive, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648;
800-338-3282; or find us on the World Wide Web at www.petersons.com/about.
© 2005 Thomson Peterson’s, a part of The Thomson Corporation
Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.
Acknowledgments:
Head Writer: Drew D. Johnson; Contributing Writers: Maria Hong, Cameron Scott,
Teresa Diaz, and Keith Cox.
Editor: Wallie Walker-Hammond; Production Editor: Alysha Bullock; Manufacturing
Manager: Judy Coleman; Composition Manager: Gary Rozmierski; CD Producer:
Carol Aickley; CD Quality Assurance: Jeff Pagano and Viral Modi.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein
may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or
mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, or
information storage and retrieval systems—without the prior written permission of
the publisher.
For permission to use material from this text or product, submit a request online
at www.thomsonrights.com
Any additional questions about permissions can be submitted by e-mail to
thomsonrights@thomson.com
ISBN 0-7689-1431-0
Printed in the United States of America
10

9

8

7

First Edition

6

5

4

3

2 1

07 06 05

Contents

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12
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1 22
ABOUT
THIS TOOL KIT
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Your
Tools
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vii
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23456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789011 2
23456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789011 2
INTRODUCTION
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About This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 12
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12
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About the Sidebars in This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 12
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2
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12
PART
I: UNDERSTANDING THE SAT
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1 22
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12
Chapter 1: Straight from Jersey, It’s the
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2
New SAT! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
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2
1
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1 22
Chapter 2: Standard Test-Taking Tools for
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1
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2
Standardized Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 1
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1 22
PART
II: DIAGNOSING STRENGTHS AND
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1
WEAKNESSES
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Chapter 3: The Diagnostic—Test Driving the
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2
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2
New SAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24 1
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2
1
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2
Diagnostic Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30 1
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2
1
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1 22
PART
III: REVIEWING THE SECTIONS
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Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of
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Words You CAN Win . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74 1
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2
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1
Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 1 2
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2
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2
1
Chapter
5:
The
Ultimate
Word
List
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Chapter 6: The SAT Writing Section—Where
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2
Grammar Rules Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 1
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Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 1 2
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2
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Chapter 7: Math Section—Enough Said . . . . . . . . 263 1 2
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2
Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 1
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12
PART
IV: TAKING THREE PRACTICE TESTS
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Chapter 8: Preface to the Practice Tests . . . . . . . . 370 1 2
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Practice
Test
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Answers and Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 1 2
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2
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2
Practice Test 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 1
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2
Answers and Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 1
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1
Practice Test 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 1 2
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2
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2
Answers and Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576 1
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1
Chapter 9: A Final Word—Whew!. . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 1 2
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2
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v

About This Tool Kit
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9
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9
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Your Tools
9
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9
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Peterson’s Ultimate New SAT Tool Kit provides the complete package you
9
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9
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need to score your personal best on the SAT and get into your top-choice
9
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9
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college. Unlike any book previously published, this tool kit contains many
9
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9
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features that used to be available only to those who purchased expensive
9
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9
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test-prep classes.
9
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9
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9
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e-Tutoring
9
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9
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Use
the
CD
to
go
on
line
to
register
for
one-on-one
math
help
from
a
live
9
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9
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expert whenever you need it. Tutoring is offered using an on-line
9
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9
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whiteboard
shared
by
you
and
the
tutor,
which
allows
you
to
communicate
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9
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with one another in real time. However, if you prefer, you can submit your
9
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9
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math question in writing instead and receive a written answer within 24
9
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9
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hours.
9
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9
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The free tutoring offered with this product is limited to 30 minutes,
9
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9
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although
you
may
purchase
more
time
if
you
need
it.
A
written
response
to
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9
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a submitted question counts as 20 minutes. The tutoring service is available
9
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9
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for
six
months
from
the
date
you
register
on
line.
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9
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9
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Note: The e-tutoring service offered to purchasers of this 2005 edition will
9
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9
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expire
on
January
1,
2006.
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9
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This service is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week for most of the
9
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9
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year. During the summer the service is available from 9 a.m. to 1 a.m.
9
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9
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Eastern Standard Time. Due to low demand, the service is not available
9
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9
during several holiday periods, including Thanksgiving, Christmas, Easter,
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678
9
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Labor Day, and Memorial Day.
9
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9
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9
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9
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9
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1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
vii

About this Tool Kit

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9
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9
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9
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Remember, to register for this service, you will need the CD that
9
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9
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accompanies
this
book.
You
will
also
need
to
refer
to
this
book
to
provide
9
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9
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the access code when prompted.
9
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9
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9
9
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Essay Scoring
9
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9
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The
CD
that
accompanies
this
book
allows
you
to
write
1
practice
test
essay
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9
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on line and receive a score on it, which approximates your performance on
9
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9
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the essay in the actual SAT. In addition to a score, you will also receive
9
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9
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constructive feedback on your essay, including tips to improve your score.
9
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9
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With this tool kit, you get scoring for 1 practice test essay. If you wish, for a
9
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9
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fee, you may obtain scoring information and feedback for additional
9
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9
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practice
essays
you
write
on
line.
9
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9
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9
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To
register
for
the
essay-scoring
service
you
need
the
CD
that
accompanies
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9
9
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678
this book. In addition, you will need to refer to this book to provide the
9
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9
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678
access code when prompted.
9
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9
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9
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Note:
The
scoring
of
the
1
essay
is
offered
free
to
purchasers
of
this
edition
9
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9
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and this offer will expire on December 31, 2005.
9
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9
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9
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The CD
9
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9
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There are 2 full-length practice tests for the SAT on the CD-ROM that
9
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9
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accompanies
this
book.
These
tests,
along
with
the
3
full-length
practice
9
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9
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tests in this book, provide a total of 5 simulated tests you can incorporate
9
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9
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into
your
test-prep
plan.
Since
the
actual
SAT
is
a
paper-and-pencil
test,
be
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9
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sure to go through at least one of the tests printed in this book. (The CD
9
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9
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version
will
automatically
time
your
test
and
compute
your
score.)
9
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9
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The
Flash
Cards
9
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Vocabulary flash cards are bound into the back of this book. Separate these
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at the perforations to create a deck of 216 SAT vocabulary flashcards to
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help you expand your vocabulary. While no questions on the SAT will
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9
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specifically ask you to provide definitions of any words, building a better
9
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vocabulary will improve your performance on the SAT, especially the
9
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9
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Critical Reading and the Writing sections.
9
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viii 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9
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www.petersons.com

Introduction
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About This Book
9
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9
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Most colleges require applicants to take the SAT, the standardized test that’s
9
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9
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been around for decades. If you haven’t already taken an SAT, you may
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9
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have taken the PSAT, which is like the SAT’s cousin. Both tests are primarily
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timed multiple-choice tests that cover math and English skills. Your SAT
9
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score is an ingredient colleges add to the mysterious soup known as the
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admissions
process.
In
this
respect
the
SAT
is
like
salt,
since
almost
every
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soup uses salt to some degree or another.
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Sometimes
your
SAT
score
is
a
big
factor
in
your
selection,
and
sometimes
it
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isn’t. There’s no way to tell one way or the other, but all you really need to
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know
is
that
a
good
SAT
score
helps
your
chances
of
getting
into
a
college.
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You might think it’s unfair that a single standardized test has such an impact
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on your chances of getting accepted, and you’re not alone. Other people
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have questioned why a single exam given one morning could matter as
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much as twelve years of schoolwork and grades. The debate about the
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merits of the SAT has gone on for decades, but one thing hasn’t changed.
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The
SAT
is
the
only
standard
measure
that
colleges
can
use
to
compare
one
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potential student to another. Every high school is different, so an A in
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algebra
from
Lawrence
High
School
might
mean
something
different
than
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an A in algebra from Pennington Prep. Even the algebra classes themselves
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might
cover
different
topics,
so
it’s
impossible
to
say
which
A
student
is
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better at algebra. But the SAT is a standardized test, which is supposed to
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mean that a math score of 590 equals a score of 590 equals a score of 590
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no
matter
where
you
come
from
or
when
you
took
the
test.
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This is the practical reason that colleges like the SAT. It makes wading
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through a mountain of applications much easier. For instance, some public
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schools will let students enroll if their SAT scores are over a certain number.
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Sometimes the SAT score is combined with GPA to help decide automatic
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1

Introduction

Note

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enrollment. At very competitive schools, having a high score gets you into
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the
pile
of
applications
that
is
examined
first.
You
still
might
not
get
in
to
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that school, but a high score gives you a better chance than a lower score
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would.
SAT
scores
help
admissions
people
slice
the
mountain
of
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tions into smaller piles, and this makes their tough job a little easier.
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What
Does
SAT
Stand
For?
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The SAT is such a well-known test that most people refer to it by its
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initials.
There’s
a
reason
for
this.
For
most
of
its
life
the
letters
S.A.T.
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stood for Scholastic Aptitude Test, and people referred to the test by
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name or initials. Since 1993, however, the College Board—the
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organization that administers and controls the test—has taken to
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referring
to
the
test
only
as
“the
SAT.”
The
reason
for
the
change
lies
in
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the middle letter “A.” It used to stand for aptitude, but the College
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Board
doesn’t
want
the
SAT
to
be
thought
of
as
an
aptitude
test
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anymore. (Aptitude tests are supposed to test intelligence or a person’s
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ability
to
learn.)
The
College
Board
doesn’t
want
to
change
the
name
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of
its
most
famous
product,
either,
so
the
SAT
is
still
the
SAT.
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This
Isn’t
Your
Parents’
SAT—
It’s
Not
Even
Your
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Older Brother’s SAT
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A
new
version
of
the
SAT
debuts
in
2005.
All
the
known
details
of
the
new
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SAT are covered starting in the next chapter, but here are the main changes:
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1. A new section, Writing, will be introduced. Writing will be given its
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own
200–800
score,
so
there
are
now
three
sections
in
which
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students will get a 200–800 score. (Mathematics and Critical
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Reading
are
the
other
two
sections.)
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2. There is an essay, which will be graded by professional readers.
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Since
readers
will
be
needed,
the
cost
of
the
SAT
is
increasing
by
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roughly ten dollars, give or take a buck. The essay will count as 30
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percent
of
your
Writing
score.
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3. Analogy questions will no longer be used on the new SAT. If you
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never learned how to do analogies, you don’t have to start now.
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A new version of any test puts all test-takers at a disadvantage. Previous
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versions of a test can often give you a good idea of what to expect. You
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don’t
have
that
option
with
the
new
SAT.
Even
so,
there’s
no
need
to
freak
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out. Just because the new SAT is different doesn’t mean that it’s harder or
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that
it’s
been
completely
created
from
scratch.
Let’s
use
the
Writing
section
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as an example. Even though this section is new to the SAT, the question
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1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

2

www.petersons.com

Introduction

Note

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types are not unique by any means. The same type of multiple-choice
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grammar
questions
that
will
appear
on
the
new
SAT
can
be
found
in
many
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other standardized tests. Similar questions appear on the SAT II: Writing
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test,
the
Stanford
Series
of
standardized
tests,
as
well
as
some
state
exams
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like Texas’s TAKS. Many state exams also require an essay, so for many of
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you the idea of a graded essay won’t seem like it came from the moon.
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Basic elimination strategies can be found in Chapter 2, while
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section-specific strategies (Math, Critical Reading, and Writing) can be
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found beginning in Chapter 4.
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The new SAT differs from the old one, but in the end it’s just another
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version
of
a
standardized
test.
As
with
all
standardized
tests,
the
key
to
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success is to know what to expect on the exam so that you can prepare for it
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ahead of time. The book you have in your hands, Peterson’s Ultimate New
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SAT Tool Kit, can help you do just that. Included in this book are general
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test strategies, specific question strategies, and a great deal of the factual
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9
knowledge you will need to get a good score. There are also three sample
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tests with explanations, as well as an early diagnostic that will give you an
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idea of how you might do if you were to take the new SAT without
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preparing. We can give you the vital information, skills, and strategies
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necessary
to
blow
the
SAT
out
of
the
water,
“new”
test
or
not.
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The
Peterson’s
Approach
to
the
New
SAT
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Some students only want a decent score on the SAT, while others are
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shooting
for
a
great
score.
This
book
takes
these
different
goals
into
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account. Throughout each of the main three subject-review chapters, there
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are “Take It to the Next Level” sections that cover harder material. People
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bucking for a 7001 on all sections will want to pay attention to these
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tougher problems. Others might want to focus on the basic knowledge and
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not worry about hard topics that may or may not even appear on the new
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SAT. The book gives you the flexibility to make this decision for yourself.
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This book is divided into three main parts. The first part gives you the
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details
of
the
new
SAT,
the
basic
strategies
needed
to
master
it,
and
a
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diagnostic test to give you an idea of what you need to work on. Chapters 1
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and
2
cover
general
test-taking
strategies
and
give
you
a
Big
Picture
idea
of
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the new SAT. You’ll learn what changes were made and why, and get
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information
that
will
help
you
approach
the
test
with
the
right
mental
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framework.
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9 3
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1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

Introduction

Note

Alert!

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After learning about the new SAT, you will take a diagnostic test. This exam
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is
based
on
the
new
SAT,
and
should
give
you
a
rough
idea
of
how
you
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would fare on the actual exam. You can take the results of your diagnostic
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and
use
them
to
tailor
your
approach
to
the
middle
chapters
of
this
book.
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Chapters 4 through 7—the middle part of the book—cover the Reading,
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Writing,
and
Mathematics
portions
of
the
test,
respectively.
These
chapters
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provide you with the basic facts every test-taker should have. More
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important, they give you a clear picture of the techniques needed to handle
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each question type effectively.
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Finally, the last part of the book is devoted to three full-length practice tests
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(with explanations). We suggest you hold off on taking these practice exams
9
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9
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until
you
cover
all
of
the
material
in
the
book.
The
tests
will
allow
you
the
9
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chance to try out the techniques and strategies discussed in Chapters 1–2.
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By
the
time
you
are
finished
with
all
three
practice
tests,
you
will
have
a
very
9
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9
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good idea of what taking the new SAT will be like for you. You will also
9
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know
what
techniques
and
strategies
you’ll
need
in
each
section.
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Combining factual knowledge with a sound strategic approach is the best
9
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9
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way
to
score
well
on
any
standardized
test,
not
just
the
new
SAT.
This
book
9
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9
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will
provide
you
with
the
facts
and
strategies
you
need
to
succeed.
The
first
9
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9
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step is to learn about the new SAT, covered in the next chapter.
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About
the
Sidebars
in
This
Book
9
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Throughout
this
book
you’ll
encounter
four
different
iconic
symbols.
(Flip
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through this book, and you’ll see oodles of each one.) Here’s what these
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symbols are and what they mean:
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9
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This
sidebar
warns
you
about
a
common
blunder
or
testing
trap,
9
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9
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trick,
or
ploy
that
might
trip
you
up
during
the
test
if
you’re
not
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9
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careful.
9
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9
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9
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9
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This
sidebar
signals
information
that,
although
isn’t
a
“need-to9
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9
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know” fact, you might find interesting and that rounds out your
9
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knowledge of the topic at hand.
9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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4

www.petersons.com

strategy. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 This sidebar signals a reference to a concept or other informa9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tion located elsewhere in the book. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 5 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 .Introduction X-Ref Tip 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 This sidebar signals a tip. or fine point related to the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 topic or example at hand.

.

PART I Understanding the SAT Chapter 1: Straight from Jersey. It’s the New SAT! 8 Chapter 2: Standard Test-Taking Tools for Standardized Tests 14 PART I .

It’s the New SAT! 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Whenever SAT scores are released. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 even if they have no reason to feel that way. the following scene happens somewhere 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in America: A student with average grades gets a high score.” What are the differences 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 between these two test-takers? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sometimes the only thing that separates a good test-taker from a poor one is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a feeling of confidence. the less mysterious the test will be. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 So how do you gain confidence and reduce anxiety? For starters. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Format of the New SAT 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Total Time: about 3 hours and 45 minutes 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Scoring: There will be three scores from 200–800 in the areas of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Mathematics. Critical Reading.Chapter 1 Straight from Jersey. Good test-takers feel confident about their chances. and Writing. which is graded on a scale of 0 (low) to 6 (high). and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 feeling that pressure during the test can cause you to rush problems and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 make careless mistakes. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 8 . you should 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 learn everything you can about the format of the new SAT. while a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 straight-A student does not do as well as she wanted. you’ll realize that the SAT is not really that different from 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 other standardized tests you have taken. Poor test-takers are often 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 nervous and anxious. The Writing score will factor 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in your essay score. Once you learn all 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 about the test.” while the straight-A student 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 either had a “bad test day” or “didn’t test well. The more you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 know what to expect. There’s a lot of pressure surrounding the SAT. Usually the first 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 student is described as a “good test-taker.

The other section 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 contains an essay prompt.com/testprep. probably divided into two 25-minute sections. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and the other one is 20 minutes. This prompt will ask a very broad question like.Chapter 1: Straight from Jersey. Reading Com9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 prehension passages on the SAT are still long (500–800 words). Analogies have been eliminated from the new test. Two sections are 25 minutes long. the 25-minute sections contain five-choice 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 multiple-choice questions. while the 20-minute section requires student9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 produced responses. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 These are the facts about the new SAT at the time this book was 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 printed. but at least you know what to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 expect in each section and for the whole test in general. it’s still about reading a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passage and then answering questions about it. Any new updates about the test format can be found at 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Peterson’s Web site at: www. but the new 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 SAT will have shorter passages as well. Sure. The questions in the Mathematics sections are 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 short-answer and fill-in-the-blank type problems. the SAT is still important. and scientific 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 calculators are the ones to use. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Understanding the basic format of the test should reduce some anxiety. As you might expect. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 as long as they are not the super-brainy calculators that can surf the ‘Net 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and do your laundry for you. All sections consist of five-choice multiple123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choice questions. This site will 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 keep track of any changes that might give you more information about 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the new format. but 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sentence Completion problems will still make an appearance. These “paragraph-length” passages 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 will be around 100 words. You can avoid this pitfall by memorizing the test format you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 just read. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Critical Reading also has three sections. The total time for 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 this section is 50 minutes. It’s the New SAT! Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sections 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Mathematics has three sections—two 25-minute sections and one 209 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 minute section. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The Writing portion of the SAT is the big new wrinkle. and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you will learn more about each type starting on page 14. Whatever the length. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Many kids show up to take the SAT knowing only that it’s a timed test that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 can mess up their chances of getting into college.petersons. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . Typically. graphing. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There are three different types of multiple-choice grammar questions. Calculators are allowed. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 “What is the importance of education?” in order to give you a lot of leeway 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to decide what to write. these 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 kids are pretty nervous about the exam and likely to make careless errors 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 once it starts. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 One section uses multiple-choice questions to test your grammar skills. Four-function. Your essay score is factored into your overall 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 200–800 score in a way that has not yet been revealed by ETS.

In another sense. Educational Testing Service—the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 company that writes the SAT questions—uses the sample section to “test” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions for future SATs. but it would be a foolish 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 maneuver on your part. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In one sense. So the sample section does help ensure equanimity between tests from 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 year to year. 20 minutes. medium. so you have to approach them all 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 as if they count. The sample section also means that you will have to answer a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 bunch of questions that will have no impact on your score. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Knowing that there is a sample section won’t translate directly into a higher 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 score. Having to expend mental energy 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 on problems that do not count is a bad thing. There’s a difference of 35 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 minutes that’s unexplained. But which one? You could guess. since only three count toward 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 your score. though. this “sample” section helps ensure some fairness in future 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 SATs. then you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 know that one of them is the sample section. but it does help you understand the SAT testing process better. But earlier. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 10 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www.com . It 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 all depends on your point of view. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 This works out to three hours.Part I: Understanding the SAT 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The Mysterious Section 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The new SAT should take: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 70 minutes Math 1 70 minutes Critical Reading 1 60 minutes Writing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 5 200 minutes. Whenever you start to feel anxious about the test. for you at least. In the back of your mind. we stated that the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 total testing time is about three hours. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 review the facts in this file until you calm down and realize that the new SAT 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 is just another test.petersons. though. That levels the playing field from one SAT to the next. The results help ETS to identify and discard 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions that are bad and determine which questions are easy. Before you dash off to the computer and check 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 out some Web conspiracy sites. There will be a Section 9. You need to tackle every section as if the questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 are real. if you have four math sections. containing only “sample or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 experimental” questions. For example. Place 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 this in your rapidly growing “Knowledge is Power” file on the SAT along 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with everything else. that’s 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a good thing. There’s no way 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to tell which section is the sample section. or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 hard. 45 minutes. decreasing the chance that one SAT will be much harder than 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 another. it is a waste of time that uses you as a guinea pig. you should know that the eight SAT sections 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 described in the chart are the eight sections that will count towards your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 score. you know that one of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sections will not count toward your score. And.

when the SAT first was introduced. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sometimes different standardized tests will have different sample 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sections. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The New SAT Is More about Mastery of Subject Skills than 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Aptitude 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The changes to the SAT might allow it to become more than just a college 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 admissions test. so the person next to you might get a sample Math section 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 while you’re stuck with a sample Writing section. since this is already being done 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with other standardized tests. This allows ETS to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 test a greater number of sample questions. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Some Reasons the SAT Changed 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The SAT Has Always Changed 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Like fashion. and some of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 them have a direct impact on how the new SAT will look. TAKS in Texas.Chapter 1: Straight from Jersey. These exams—such as the MCAS in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Massachusetts. The next big 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 change might be to a computerized SAT. It’s the New SAT! Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The sample section could be in Math. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 So the new SAT is poised to be more of an achievement test than an aptitude 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 test. and FCAT in Florida—are designed to see 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 how well students have mastered their state’s learning objectives. of course. Classrooms today are very different from the high school 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 classrooms of America in the 1920s. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 It will also help your cause if you understand why the SAT has changed. To illustrate this key difference. If 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the SAT kept the exact same form every year. the field of education has trends and fads. The new 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 SAT is going to be like these tests. So the test is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 constantly being tweaked or modified to remain topical. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There are a host of reasons why the SAT changed formats. Some educational 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ideas get hot while others get pushed to the back of the closet next to the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 parachute pants. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 At this point. A biology aptitude test would ask questions to see how well a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 11 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . since it will try to accurately gauge how 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 well students meet some basic learning standards. some time in the future the new SAT could be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 used to see how well students have mastered a basic curriculum of math and 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 English. or Writing. it would run the risk of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 becoming outdated and irrelevant in about a decade. Critical Reading. Theoretically. imagine a high school biology 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 textbook. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 As it now stands. you should have a good idea about how the SAT has changed. many states require high school students to take a state 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 standardized test in order to graduate. Both of you get the same 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 eight sections that count.

and it’s true that it 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 will have some different questions and sections. so they 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 remain to test your achievement level in vocabulary.com . 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The new SAT is going to be more of an achievement test. In theory. Jill Student would not have to know 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 biology beforehand. while students 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 who did not know biology would probably score poorly. but it’s still primarily a test 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of high school math and English. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sentence Completion problems are a form of vocabulary question. you’ll be given 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 straight algebra problems like: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 12 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. The same holds true for the Math section.petersons. The aptitude test is like an intelligence test. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Analogy questions were a standard aptitude question. That won’t change. Students 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 who had read the material would likely do well on this test. Instead of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions designed to see if you could master algebra. 2. A writing portion can 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 now be added because grammar is an important subject you should have 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 learned. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The proposed shift from aptitude to achievement does a good job of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 explaining why the test has changed the way it has. a talent. and there’s a good reason for this. You can’t have a grammar aptitude test. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 These are basic literary terms that most high school English students are 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 required to know. New SAT reading 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passages might contain questions that ask you about metaphors or similes. The question would be designed to see how well she 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 could learn biology. the two 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tests will be similar. so they’re gone. A balance between 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the old and new versions is necessary so that older SAT scores can still be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 compared to the new scores.Part I: Understanding the SAT Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 student could learn biology. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 aptitude—1. In contrast. since grammar is not 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 intuitive. an inherent ability to learn. At the end of the day. regardless of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 introduction of “paragraph-length” reading passages. the new and old SATs are 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 both standardized tests of basic math and English. But you can have a grammar achievement test that tracks how 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 well students know their grammar rules. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 All of this doesn’t mean that the new SAT is going to be a radical departure 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 from the previous version. Fundamentally. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a biology achievement test would test the material in the textbook. quickness in 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 learning or understanding.

what is the value of x? If. The CD that accompanies it will provide you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with two additional practice tests. and exponents. It’s the New SAT! 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3 5 =144. These skills are 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 achieved in a high school algebra class. What’s needed is a firm knowledge of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 how to manipulate variables.Chapter 1: Straight from Jersey. radicals. x 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) 4 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) 12 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) 36 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) 144 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) 1728 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There’s not a lot of aptitude here. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The transformation from an aptitude test to an achievement test obviously 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 affects the way you should prepare for the new SAT. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Since the framework for understanding the new SAT is in place. This book provides you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with three entire practice tests. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 You should have a pretty good idea of what the new SAT is about by now. the next 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 step is to learn some general strategies to help you on the test. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 13 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 .

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 screwdriver.collegeboard. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3. but you always need the essential 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 items at some point. and pliers of test preparation. In order to be eligible to take a test with extended time 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 periods. a number of conditions must be met.html.com/disable/students/html/indx000. They are the basic tools that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 every good test-taker should carry in his or her test-prep utility belt. so there’s no point in worrying about it. More 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 specific tools are needed for certain jobs. The fact that the test effects your college admissions hopes. These usually have to do with special conditions regarding 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the test-taker. The mysterious. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. unknown factor of the exam. a good test-taker comes up with 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 clever ways to use these tools in order to complete a task well. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There are circumstances under which extended test-taking time might 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 be granted. the last chapter has addressed 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 number 1 and helped reduce your anxiety about the test. The timed nature of the test. That 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 leaves number 3. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 14 . which means that as you answer each 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 problem TIME IS RUNNING OUT! 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Let’s look at the points above. Like a good carpenter. visit the College Board Web site at: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 http://www. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Pacing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There are three major ways in which the new SAT can cause anxiety: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1. There’s nothing 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you can do about number 2. If you feel you might 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 qualify for one of these exams. This problem can be solved by pacing. Hopefully.Chapter 2 Standard Test-Taking Tools for Standardized Tests Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Think of the general test-taking strategies in this chapter as the hammer.

you’ve done yourself little good. It sounds easy. it’s a good idea to flip through a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 section at the beginning and glance at each of the passages. the middle third are medium. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 but it doesn’t apply neatly to every section. If the question is testing you on negative exponents. First. You would get the same 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 score as someone who got the first (easy) question right and missed the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 really tough problem at the end. they rush through the early questions in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 order to have more time to answer the harder questions at the end. You could stare at some of them for three hours and still not come 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 up with the right answer. There will be some passages that are tougher or longer than 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 others. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 problem is that most people are stuck with the idea that they must answer 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 every question. then it’s unlikely you’ll solve this 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 problem in the regular manner. medium. but in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 practice good pacing is harder to accomplish than you might think. and you don’t 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 know how to handle negative exponents. the hard problems are hard for a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reason. The first third are easy. then it’s a tough question. You can also start 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with the passage that has the most questions attached to it. This may still be the case on the new SAT. For the Critical Reading sections. and you can expect a nice progression from easy to hard. since there are three 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 distinct question types. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Previous SATs have had questions that progress in order from easiest to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 hardest. rushing through the easy and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 medium problems often leads to careless errors. A lot of this depends on you. although at this point there’s no definitive word from ETS or the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 College Board about this. and the final 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 third are the toughest problems. Whatever you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 do. don’t believe that you must start with Question 1 and answer every 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question in order. You don’t get extra credit 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 for the harder questions. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 multiple-choice Writing section might be different. The bottom line is: Whether or not a question is tough 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 often boils down to your personal opinion. If you find a question tough. To achieve this. You might want 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to start with the passage that’s closest to your interests. Second. The situation is a little different in the Critical 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Reading section as well. so if you miss the first question and get the last 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question right.Chapter 2: Standard Test-Taking Tools for Standardized Tests 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Pacing is the deceptively simple idea that you should give yourself an 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 adequate amount of time to attempt every question. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There are many pitfalls with this plan. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 15 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . This is especially true with some achievement 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tests. since everyone has strengths and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 weaknesses. or hard test 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question. You should take charge and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answer the questions in a way that works best for you. but the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passages do. The Math sections are the best 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 fit. Each group of similar questions might go from easy 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to hard. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 You might be wondering what constitutes an easy. The questions don’t vary in difficulty.

You don’t want to spend any more time on it. you don’t want to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 spend too long on any problem. You can take extra time on the second pass. the goal is to answer all the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions that do not pose too much difficulty. mark it for later and move on. This will give you time to go over the section and check your 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answers. On every 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 practice section you take in this book. take a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 qualified guess and move on. You want to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 look for easier problems before spending more time on difficult ones. either. Use the two-pass system and see how many easy questions you 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answer after you leap over that first hard problem. pacing is impossible if you can’t tell the time. but sometimes it won’t. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 As you might expect. Therefore. What should you do? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 16 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The second pass is where you go back and tackle the harder problems that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 were giving you grief. work on refining your pacing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 approach. you will finish your second pass with about three minutes 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 remaining.Part I: Understanding the SAT Tip 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 A standard pacing technique is the “two-pass” method where you go 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 through a section twice. you want 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to spend at least 20 seconds on every question. non-beepy digital clock. since there’s no 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 guarantee that there will be a clock in plain view when you take the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 real exam. but you don’t 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 want to leave it blank either. Sometimes the extra time on the second pass 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 will help you solve the problem. spend a minute on a problem. since there might be simpler 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 problems after it. suppose you come to a problem on the second pass and still can’t 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 figure it out.petersons. Many of you probably do it a bit naturally. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 though. Use the opportunity to make sure you didn’t fill in the wrong oval 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 somewhere or make some other simple mistake. since you don’t want to cut 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 corners and answer something too quickly. that you check the list of approved 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 timers from The College Board. Make sure. On the first pass. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 best plan is to use a small. If you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 stare at a problem for two minutes and still cannot get anywhere. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Now. Students who are good 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 pacers give themselves the best chance to answer the greatest number of 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions correctly. On the first pass.com . and if you can’t 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 wrangle an answer in that time. though. there’s no point in spending ten minutes on a single question. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 That explains pacing. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Ideally. However. Again.

So if you can eliminate even a single answer 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choice. This is a typical one question-one solution 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 problem. or you don’t. Either you have the right fact 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in your head. The only problem is that it is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 surrounded by four incorrect answer choices. Part of the problem lies in the “one question-one solution” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 idea that is fixed in people’s minds. but you do increase your chances on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 scoring higher over the course of the whole test. the correct answer is given to you for every 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question. But if you can eliminate even a single answer choice and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 then guess. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 With a multiple-choice test. let’s first talk about multiple-choice tests and the mistake behind the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 “one question-one solution” concept. Still. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Suppose your history teacher stood in front of the class and asked. POE is one of the first things 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to be jettisoned. You might not 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 guess correctly on every problem. This often discour9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ages students from being aggressive with their guessing. and you must 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 search through your brain to come up with it. The guessing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 penalty does negate points if you are simply taking a one-in-five stab at 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a question. every time. you have ways of getting the correct answer other than 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 simply pulling the right fact from your head. the law of averages should translate into more points over 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the course of the whole test.Chapter 2: Standard Test-Taking Tools for Standardized Tests Tip 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Process of Elimination 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Using the process of elimination (POE) is probably not a new concept to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you. Once the pressure gets cranked up. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Yet six out of eight sections of the SAT consist of multiple-choice problems. “Who 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 won the naval Battle of Tsushima in 1905? Write your answer down on a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sheet of paper. you should take a guess on that problem. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Even though people understand POE. The idea is that you can eliminate some answer choices that you know 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 are wrong and then take a guess from the remaining choices. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Who won the naval Battle of Tsushima in 1905? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) The United States 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) Japan 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) Russia 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) Mongolia 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) China 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 17 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . since all the answers are 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 there in front of you. It’s already there. and it’s what you often experience in school. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There is a guessing penalty for incorrect answers.” There’s only one answer to this question. that doesn’t mean they actually use it 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 on the test. Before jumping into an SAT example of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 POE.

believing that there is only one way to answer it. try some POE. both 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of which are pretty good. but otherwise the question is the same. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you can’t pull the correct fact out of your head.Part I: Understanding the SAT 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 It would be great if you could pull the right fact out of your head. but you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 probably know some U. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Here’s an SAT math question from earlier. finding the correct 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answer will NOT be as easy as simply looking at the numbers in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question and picking an answer choice that has the same number. so it’s unlikely that (A) is the answer. but you took different paths to get there.com . theoretically. It’s down to three choices. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you know geography. more 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 difficult questions in a section. so 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you can eliminate (C). isn’t it? Choice (D) 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 can be crossed out. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 girl next to Bill actually knew that the Japanese defeated the Russians at the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Battle of Tsushima. so he picked (B) because it’s the first letter of his name. However. you should walk away with the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 knowledge that there is always more than one way to tackle an SAT 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 problem. You 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 might not know much about the history of the other four countries. or look over the other choices and search for 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 faults. The person next to you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 was named Bill. history. All three of you got the right 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answer. (B) and (E). 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Take a guess at this point.S. The United 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 States wasn’t at war in 1905. the path you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 take doesn’t matter on a multiple-choice test. 5 144. The question number is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 important. The number 24 has been placed 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in front of it. If 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you get nothing else from this section. Choice (A) can be crossed out. so she picked (B) also. but it is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 not the end of the world if you can’t. since it shows that this is one of the later. and. On a tougher question. and a naval battle during a time when our 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 nation was at peace would stick out a bit. All that matters is marking in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the correct oval. That leaves two remaining choices. and POE can help you do that. you’ll realize that Mongolia is a landlocked nation. what is the value of x? If x = 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) 4 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) 12 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) 36 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) 144 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) 1728 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 18 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. you can go a bit 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 further and say that the word “Tsushima” does not sound very Russian. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3 24. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Say you had it down to two choices and picked (B). 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 It’s doubtful a landlocked country would have a navy. Many students mistakenly get 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 discouraged at this point. At this point.petersons. Take a qualified guess and move on.

if you find yourself unsure of how to proceed on a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question. If you have to guess. which would be fine. On easy questions. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Others might pull out their calculators and figure out what the square root 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 144) is. You of 144 ( = = 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 could pick (B) if you’re willing to forget that freaky exponent above the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 variable x. cross these choices out and then pick 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 from the ones remaining. Choice (C) can 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 be eliminated. It has been placed there as a trap for students looking for 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a quick answer. Your goal is to separate the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 correct answer from the four impostors. which means that (B) is probably not the right answer 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 either. Keep in mind that mathematicians aren’t allowed to forget 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 things they don’t like. you must understand why choice 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) is there. Choice (D) is out. choice (C). But the whole problem is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 filled with exponents and square roots. But on a hard question. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Many of you might stop and take a guess right here. so if you can eliminate any choices. There are other 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 POE techniques for the Math. Take a guess from the two remaining choices. just be sure to move away from 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the one-problem one-solution mindset. The answer is (E). 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 This is just one way you can use POE on a math problem. Any 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 numbers that appear in the question itself are very likely to be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 incorrect. so the answer will not be found by 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 simply multiplying the two numbers you do have together. snap down to the answer choices. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you are on the right path. For now. Also. Instead. In general. and Grammar sections. since it just takes the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 number 144 from the question itself and places it in the answer choice. many times the correct answer can 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 be found very simply. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Using POE in the Reading section is often about looking for the bland while 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 eliminating the spicy.Chapter 2: Standard Test-Taking Tools for Standardized Tests Alert! 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Let’s look at the answer choices. Reading. Keeping this rigid idea around does 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 no good. which is answer (B). the opposite is true. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 if you multiply 3 144 you get 36. It works out to 144 5 12. correct answers are: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Vaguely positive and upbeat 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Vaguely worded 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • A nice paraphrase of what was written in the passage 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 19 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 To earn your new SAT merit badge. and they’ll 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 be discussed throughout the book.

and they show the difference 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 between a likely answer and an unlikely one.com . However. Since it would be hard to prove that every single facet of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the theory was wholly original. choice (E) can be eliminated for being too 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 extreme. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Using POE on the Math and Reading portions of the SAT is a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 straightforward process. or controversial. choice (D) uses the phrase “some basis in fact. You can cross it out.petersons. people devoted to learning 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 new truths. Take choice (A). 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 vaguely worded answer that doesn’t say anything too radical or controver9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sial. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Choices (E) and (D) provide a good contrast. If you had to choose between (B) and (D). All you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 need to do is peruse the answer choices and get rid of the answers that are 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 negative. radical. are unwilling to accept new ideas. is it? It claims that scientists. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 It doesn’t matter that you have no idea what the “experiment” is.” That means if only one 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tiny. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) the old popular belief actually had some basis in fact. and the answers are similarly bland 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and noncontroversial. Saying this would make 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 it hard to prove. It means that if you can find a single thing that has 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 basis in fact. So the reading passages 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 are on safe. and answers that consist of numbers exactly 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 like those in the question in the SAT Math section. This radical. This means choice (D) is a nice. Choice (C) can be crossed out for the same 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 anti-educational stance.Part I: Understanding the SAT 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The SAT is taken by bazillions of students each year. This statement is not 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 very pro-education. noncontroversial topics. in many instances you can look 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 over the answer choices and eliminate any that are too negative or strongly 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 worded. saying only that it has some basis in fact makes it 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 much easier to prove. You will find and can eliminate extreme answer 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choices on the SAT Reading. In contrast. With this in mind. completely based in fact. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The experiment described in the third paragraph helps the author 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 prove that 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) the scientists are unwilling to accept new ideas.” It 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 doesn’t say it was totally. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) the new theory was wholly original. anti-education 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 stance is not going to be the right answer on a national standardized test like 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the SAT. then answer choice (E) 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 would be incorrect. claiming the theory was “wholly original. you have some basis in fact. Using POE in the Writing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 20 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. Choice (E) uses strong 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 wording. tiny part of the theory was NOT original. and the College Board 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 can’t afford to be controversial or edgy in any way. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) mainstream opinion had little effect on people’s feelings 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) educators were not interested in the subject. choice (D) would be your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 best guess.

If you think there is an error.” You are given a sentence with an underlined 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 portion that may or may not contain a grammatical error. which is an exact copy of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 original underlined phrase. These individuals 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 might fall for the very. your goal is to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choose the answer that corrects the grammatical mistake. All you need to fix the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentence is the past tense. Many incorrect choices in the multiple-choice portion of the SAT 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Writing section are based on the idea that “grammar is hard. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 We were hoping to catch the opening act of the concert. since cause is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 present tense and the troubles happened in the past. (D). and we use the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 right word even when we can’t explain exactly why that word is right. which is choice (C). but car 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 troubles cause us to be 30 minutes late to the show. and (E) are all filled with many small 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 words and they sound impressive. If you think 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 there’s no error. most of us are better at grammar than we think. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Yet although POE is not as helpful on the Writing section. So if 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you don’t know the exact answer to a grammar problem you should always 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 trust your ear. The other choices 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 21 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . so the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 hard-looking answer must be correct. Choices (B). extremely complicated 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answers are often incorrect and should be eliminated using POE.” Very few Americans—and this 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 includes some English teachers—truly believe that they are good at taming 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the seven-headed monster known as English Grammar. very complicated answer simply because they believe 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 grammar is difficult and complicated. The second problem deals with the fact that the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Writing portion of the test is very new. The tense of the verb cause is incorrect. caused. and it will guide to the right answer more often than not. you pick choice (A). 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Remember. or at least complicated. so trust your ear and 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 eliminate choice (A). This makes it impossible to spot any 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 common incorrect choices that appear time and time again. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 This sentence probably doesn’t sound right to you. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) cause us to be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) are causing us to have been 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) caused us to be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) will be causing us to be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) are having to cause us to be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 This is one of the new SAT question types known officially as 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 “improving sentences. it still can be 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 used. and there’s no way to use the process of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 elimination on an essay. One is that half of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Writing section is an essay.Chapter 2: Standard Test-Taking Tools for Standardized Tests Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 section is not quite so helpful for two main reasons. But none of them 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 are the right answer. However.

Part I: Understanding the SAT 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 create complicated verb tenses by using have. and then take 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 your best guess. having. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 22 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www.petersons. With POE. you won’t always get the right answer. if you find yourself struggling on a tough grammar problem. will. you’re 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ready to take the diagnostic test in Chapter 3. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Therefore. but over 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the course of the whole SAT you will increase your chances of scoring 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 higher. and -ing. but 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 grammar isn’t always that complicated and wordy. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 cross out one or two of the most complicated answer choices. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Now that we’ve reviewed some of the most basic test-taking strategies and 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 considered how they apply to the three main sections of the new SAT.com .

Part II Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses Chapter 3: The Diagnostic—Test Driving the New SAT 24 PART II .

Improving your weaker points will translate to a higher score on the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 real test. nothing more. it doesn’t count. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. There are four reasons for this: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 You should know the basic format of the test and understand the idea behind 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 pacing and process of elimination. No matter how you do on the diagnostic. Really. and others you have a lot of trouble with. and then freak out. Simply put.Chapter 3 The Diagnostic— Test Driving the New SAT 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 At this point. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 24 . and then focus on shoring up your knowledge in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 these areas. it’s a good idea to 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 take a sample SAT at this point. you want to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 determine your weak points. You can determine your SAT strengths and weaknesses. You’ll get a rough idea of how you might do if you were to take the real 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 new SAT without studying anything. There will be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 some sections you ace. This 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 knowledge can be used to fine-tune your study plans. don’t do as 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 well as they had hoped. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Points 3 and 4 are there for a reason. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 4. It’s just a practice test. in chapters 4–7. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 Before diving into the subject-review sections. it doesn’t count. giving you an idea about your 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 relative SAT strengths and weaknesses at this one moment in time. you should have a good general idea about what the new SAT is like. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The diagnostic is like a photographic snapshot. You can then 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 use this information to help guide your studying. Some people take a practice test.

and every morsel was used to create a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 test that closely resembles the real SAT in as many ways as possible. You might not be able to take 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the whole SAT in one shot. This sounds like torture. but you should still try to take each section 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 under timed conditions. The College Board has released some morsels of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 information about the new SAT. along with decades of experience in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 test-preparation field. while taking the whole test on a Saturday is ideal. Here are some of the kinds of questions you can ask about each 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 particular section. Timing yourself on the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 diagnostic gives you a chance to work on your pacing. turn to page 72 and check 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 your answers. so getting 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 some practice at doing this really does a great deal of good. Use the results to formulate a study plan that best suits 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you. so remember to use 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the two-pass system for every section. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 but you don’t get to do that on the real test. but you will be amazed at how 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 much this can help prepare you for the real test. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Quiet on the Set 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 You should try to take this diagnostic under actual SAT conditions. The result is a diagnostic exam that will give you 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a very good—but not perfect—idea of what it will be like to take the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 new SAT. Ideally. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 When you finish the entire diagnostic. It would 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 be nice to get up during a section and chat with your friends on the phone. Then you can take the exam exactly as you will 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 take the real SAT. Most students aren’t used 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to getting up early on a Saturday morning and taking a long test. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 25 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 However. you will block out three 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 hours of time on a weekend morning in a place where you won’t be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 bothered or interrupted.Chapter 3: The Diagnostic—Test Driving the New SAT Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Where Did We Get This New SAT? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 We made this practice test up. many people 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 have such busy lives that this is impossible. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Information about the relevant SAT II tests was also included in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 creation of this diagnostic. but that doesn’t mean we just took a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 wild guess. This will give you an accurate idea of the time you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 have to answer the questions in each section.

Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Questions to Ask Yourself about 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Your Critical Reading Diagnostic Score 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1.” you should go back and look at the problems you 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 missed. Slow down. To correct this. You are probably going too fast and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 picking wrong answers that look great but are actually traps meant to snare 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 people in a rush. How did I do on the Sentence Completions problems? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 26 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 4. make it a point to go through every subsequent Reading 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 section and start with the passages you like the most. Did I do better or worse on the two-blank problems? If you did worse 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 on the two-blank problems. but overall it will help you answer more problems 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 correctly. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3. but missed questions on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the longer passages. Looking over the techniques described starting on page 87 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 will help you correct this approach. If there is a big difference. How many questions did I answer on the first pass? How many of these did 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 I get correct? If you missed a lot of questions you thought you answered 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 correctly. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 so they end up answering questions about it correctly. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 6. This could mean that you are skimming through the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 longer passages too quickly and not spending enough time on these 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 problems. If this is the case 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with you. your problem is one of speed. How often did I use POE when forced to make an educated guess? If the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 answer is “never. There might not be a big difference between 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the two question types. and don’t worry so much 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 about speed. Think about the answer choices and decide if there were any you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 could have eliminated for being too extreme. take the time to do the work needed (like 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 looking back in the passage for the right answer).com . 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 b. How much time did I have for the second pass? Did I have enough time to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 review the section? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 5. This might mean you skip reading one passage and just guess 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 on those questions. there 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 might not be any passages that you like. Was I better at Sentence Completions or the Reading questions? You can 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 look at being “better” as either having more correct answers or a greater 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 percentage of correct answers. you might be looking at both blanks at the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 same time. you would want to spend more time on these 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passages. spend some extra time on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the question type you had trouble with. Which passage did I enjoy reading the most? How well did I answer 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 those questions? Most people pay more attention to subjects they like.petersons. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. Did I do better or worse on the longer passages? Suppose you answered 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 many of the paragraph-length questions right. but there should be some 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 subjects that you hate less than others. Of course. How did I do on the Reading passages questions? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a.

The multiple-choice Writing section is only approximately 25 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions. you need to look over those problems. Look over this section in two ways. Grab some scratch paper and some Number 2 pencils. Were your mistakes in the easy. Unplug/turn off the phone. For example. look 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 at where your mistakes occurred. you can also look to see if there is any particular 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 subject—like geometry or algebra—that you are having trouble with. Get out your timer. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3. and then attack the hard questions with some 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tough work and a sprinkling of educated guesses. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sometimes this is not easy to determine. Start the Diagnostic. Remember that the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 best way to improve your math score is to eliminate mistakes on the easy 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and medium problems. Even so. get most of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 medium problems correct. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The Writing section is the hardest one to diagnose. Just ask nicely and understand that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 any criticism you receive will help you to write a better essay for the real 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 SAT. medium. This person could be a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 teacher. You can always take 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 your essay and ask someone to review it for you. over 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 three Math sections you should be able to look at the problems you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 missed and spot a pattern if there is one. First. not get more hard questions correct. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. It is likely that you are going 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 too fast or not doing enough work on these problems. Your score will 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 increase if you make no errors on the easy problems.Chapter 3: The Diagnostic: Test Driving the New SAT Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 You should ask similar questions for the other two sections. or one that you have the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 most trouble with? Modify your study plans accordingly. the section has three 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 different question types. or do you have trouble with verbs? Again. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 or hard section? If you have more than two wrong answers in the easy 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 section. so it won’t be as easy to determine if there’s a pattern to your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 mistakes. so look to see how well you did with each question 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 type. since there are few SAT 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions that draw on concepts from only one math area. a fellow student. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 27 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . or a parent. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 this information can help you modify your study plans to shore up any 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 weak areas. Solving 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 most questions requires knowledge of several subjects. Is there a question type you are strongest at. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 4. do all 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 your mistakes concern pronouns. Second. look over 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 your incorrect answers and see if there’s a connection. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 When you’re ready to take the test: 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 For Math. For Math.

Answer Sheets 1 A B D E C O O O O O 6 A B D E C O O O O O 11 A B D E C O O O O O 16 A B D E C O O O O O 2 A O B D E C O O O O 7 A O B D E C O O O O 12 A O B D E C O O O O 17 A B D E C O O O O O 3 A B D E C O O O O O 8 A B D E C O O O O O 13 A B D E C O O O O O 18 A B D E C O O O O O 4 A B D E C O O O O O 9 A B D E C O O O O O 14 A B D E C O O O O O 19 A B D E C O O O O O 5 A B D E C O O O O O 10 A B D E C O O O O O 15 A B D E C O O O O O 20 A B D E C O O O O O 1 A B D E C O O O O O 7 A B D E C O O O O O 12 A B D E C O O O O O 17 A B D E C O O O O O SECTION 2 A B D E C O O O O O 8 A B D E C O O O O O 13 A B D E C O O O O O 18 A B D E C O O O O O 2 3 A O E O 9 A O E O 14 A O E O 19 A B D E C O O O O O 4 A B D E C O O O O O 10 A B D E C O O O O O 15 A B D E C O O O O O 20 A B D E C O O O O O 5 A B D E C O O O O O 11 A B D E C O O O O O 16 A B D E C O O O O O 21 A B D E C O O O O O 6 A B D E C O O O O O 1 A B D E C O O O O O 9 A B D E C O O O O O 17 A B D E C O O O O O 24 A B D E C O O O O O 2 A B D E C O O O O O 10 A B D E C O O O O O 18 A B D E C O O O O O 25 A B D E C O O O O O SECTION 3 A O E O 11 A O E O 19 A O E O 26 A B D E C O O O O O 3 4 A B D E C O O O O O 12 A B D E C O O O O O 20 A B D E C O O O O O 27 A B D E C O O O O O 5 A B D E C O O O O O 13 A B D E C O O O O O 21 A B D E C O O O O O 28 A B D E C O O O O O 6 A B D E C O O O O O 14 A B D E C O O O O O 22 A B D E C O O O O O 29 A B D E C O O O O O 7 A O E O 15 A O 23 A O E O 30 A B D E C O O O O O 8 A B D E C O O O O O 16 A B D E C O O O O O 1 A B D E C O O O O O 8 A B D E C O O O O O 15 A B D E C O O O O O 22 A B D E C O O O O O 2 A B D E C O O O O O 9 A B D E C O O O O O 16 A B D E C O O O O O 23 A B D E C O O O O O 3 A B D E C O O O O O 10 A B D E C O O O O O 17 A B D E C O O O O O 24 A B D E C O O O O O 4 A O B D E C O O O O 11 A O B D E C O O O O 18 A O B D E C O O O O 25 A B D E C O O O O O 5 A B D E C O O O O O 12 A B D E C O O O O O 19 A B D E C O O O O O 26 A B D E C O O O O O 6 A B D E C O O O O O 13 A B D E C O O O O O 20 A B D E C O O O O O 27 A B D E C O O O O O 7 A B D E C O O O O O 14 A B D E C O O O O O 21 A B D E C O O O O O 1 A B D E C O O O O O 7 A B D E C O O O O O 12 A B D E C O O O O O 17 A B D E C O O O O O SECTION 2 A B D E C O O O O O 8 A B D E C O O O O O 13 A B D E C O O O O O 18 A B D E C O O O O O 5 3 A O E O 9 A O E O 14 A O E O 19 A B D E C O O O O O 4 A B D E C O O O O O 10 A B D E C O O O O O 15 A B D E C O O O O O 20 A B D E C O O O O O 5 A B D E C O O O O O 11 A B D E C O O O O O 16 A B D E C O O O O O 21 A B D E C O O O O O 6 A B D E C O O O O O SECTION 1 SECTION 4 B O B O B O B O C O C O C O C O D O D O D O D O B O B O B O B O C O C O C O C O D O D O D O D O E O 28 B O B O B O B O C O C O C O C O D O D O D O D O .

Answer Sheets SECTION 1 A B D E C O O O O O 5 A B D E C O O O O O 6 2 A O B D E C O O O O 6 A O B D E C O O O O 3 A B D E C O O O O O 7 4 A B D E C O O O O O 8 9 A B D E C O O O O O 13 A B D E C O O O O O 10 A O B D E C O O O O 14 A B D E C O O O O O A B D E C O O O O O 11 A B D E C O O O O O 15 A B D E C O O O O O A B D E C O O O O O 12 A B D E C O O O O O 16 A B D E C O O O O O SECTION 7 For Questions 1–13: Only answers entered in the ovals in each grid area will be scored. You will not receive credit for anything written in the boxes above the ovals. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 29 .

Achilles learned the arts of war and 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12eloquence (A) Phthia from Phoenix. than Homer describe Achilles’s 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) childhood as different than Homer’s 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 Iliad. Peleus’s father was 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122Patroclus. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) Aeacus 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) Chiron 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) Zeus 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 30 . king of the Myrmidons of Phthia in 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 throne as going unchallenged. one of the great works of the ancient 12The 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1Greek description. Achilles was the son of 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 (C) succession to the Myrmidonian 122Peleus. According to 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Homer. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122Thessaly. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 and father and not Phoenix and 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1the son of Zeus himself. poet Homer. According to the passage. Mark the letter of your choice on your answer sheet. The story of the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Chiron. You will not have to use 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 outside knowledge to answer the questions—all the material you will need will be in the passage 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 itself. while Chiron (a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) Patroclus 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12Centaur) taught him music and medicine. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) primary instructors as his mother 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1according to the legend recounted in the Iliad. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12childhood of Achilles in Homer differs from 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) childhood in more detail than does 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1that given by later writers. then answer the questions that come after them. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 The answer to each question may be stated overtly or only implied. His paternal grandfather Aeacus was. In some cases. relates the story of Achilles. The passage makes clear that writers other 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12passage. you will be asked to read two related passages and answer questions about 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 their relationship to one another. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12Questions 1–2 are based on the following 1. Homer tells it.Diagnostic Test Section 1 20 Questions j Time—25 Minutes 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Directions: Read each of the passages carefully. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12As (B) closest friend as not being Patroclus. Achilles was brought up by his mother 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12in Phthia with his cousin and intimate friend 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 2. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1Homer.

It is amazing to think that until 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 is the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the introduction of skyscrapers in the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 twentieth century.” touches on foreign 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 pyramids of Egypt’s Nile basin still evoke 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 affairs. The pyramids prove that the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 related to the Treasury. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 which. the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 addressed to “My Lords. Theories about extrater.” discusses financial issues 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (5) majesty. his explanation strikes 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) a newly proposed bill to readjust 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (30) many as being very plausible. The first. so 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the Treasury 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 he does not provide an eyewitness 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) business growth in urban settings 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 account. even from the twentieth-century 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 point of view.” outlines the proposed 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 a knowledge of practical mechanics 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 legislation for the session.” 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 Line Even though thousands of years have 12 itself is divided into three sections. A 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) foreign debt 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Sicilian. Even so. In this passage the author. a historian. to “My 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 Egyptians of that early day had attained 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Lords and Gentlemen. House of Commons 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 (15) It has sometimes been suggested that 7 (C) Parliament replying to a speech of 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 these mighty pyramids. to the “Gentlemen of the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 awe and wonder at their magnitude and 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 House of Commons. The massive blocks of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 31 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 at the opening of a new parliament or session. Which of the following might be included 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ing. According to the passage.7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 (E) House of Commons replying to the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (20) restrial help have been put forth to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 inquiries of the House of Lords 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 explain the Egyptians’ accomplishment. The third. these ancient pyramids (A) sovereign speaking to the Parliament 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ranked as some of the tallest manmade (B) House of Lords addressing the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 structures ever built. in the third section of the “king’s speech?” 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 A saner assessment of the conditions can 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) trade relations with France 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (25) be found in the writings of Diodorus. or the “king’s speech. Diodorus lived centuries after 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) the appointment of a new head of 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the Great Pyramids were constructed. but have absolutely no basis in truth.DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 “The Address” is an English parliamentary Questions 5–10 are based on the following 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 term for the reply to the speech of the sovereign passage. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Diodorus explains the building of the 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 pyramids by suggesting that great 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (35) quantities of earth were piled against the 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 side of the rising structure to form an 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 inclined plane. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 passed since their construction. The second. “The Address” 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (10) lightly. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 speech of the sovereign. argues 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 There are certain formalities that distinguish that the construction of Egypt’s pyramids is 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 this stage of parliamentary proceedings. The 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 readily explainable. speak to an (D) Parliament addressing the English 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 almost miraculous knowledge on the part 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 public 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 of their builders. built as they are the sovereign 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 of great blocks of stone. is not to be spoken of 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 3. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 education spending 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 In his famous World’s History 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 written nearly two thousand years ago. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 These theories make for good storytell4.

7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 does not mean Diodorus is not an 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) illustrate the imprecision of ancient 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 important source of information on the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 historians. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the traditions of their country. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 as Diodorus suggests. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 doubtless.petersons. Ancient historians were not as 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 instrumental in the construction of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 fastidious as contemporary historians in 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the pyramids. supplemented with the aid of ropes. and 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) a marked advance in the use of sand 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 that. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 pulleys. notwithstanding the size of this host 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 materials in ancient construction. without the aid of any (D) hardier 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 other kind of mechanism or occult (E) more elusive 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(75) power. The author uses Diodorus’s writings 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Of course.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 stone used to build the pyramids were 5. He says that as much as 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) a mechanical failure since they are 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 120. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 6. Using simple (A) more stable 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 human muscle aided by basic tools. 7 construction of the pyramids. rollers. and place in 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 could be replaced with 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 position the largest blocks that were used 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122(70) to construct the pyramids. perhaps 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) the supreme expression of the Egyp7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 even upon written records no longer 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 tian exaltation of their pharaohs. (A) a great feat of engineering. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 construction of the largest pyramids. We need 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) argue that the building of the not doubt that he is generally accurate in 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(60) pyramids is explainable in terms of his outlines of the methods used to 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the technologies available to the construct the pyramids. The word “saner” line 24.000 people were employed in the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 losing their original shape. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(55) recording numbers and figures. With the help 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of workers.com . But this 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) help date the building of the pyramids. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 undoubtedly move. These same human hands could. It is clear from the passage that the author 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 then dragged up this slanted surface. these workers could 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 changing the meaning of the sentence. such tasks still required 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1(50) twenty or more years to complete. elevate. based. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 32 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 www. without 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of the inclined plane. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1(45) preserved. workers numbering in the tens of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) argue that the obelisks were the most 7 thousands. these (B) more articulate 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 workers could even raise the most (C) more reasonable 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 gigantic obelisks. and levers. on reports made to him by (B) easily reproducible with current 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Egyptian priests. who in turn drew upon 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 technologies. views the Egyptian pyramids as 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122(40) Diodorus gives us certain figures. Imagine a host of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ancient Egyptians. Their combined weight and 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 difficult of the ancient structures to strength could be applied to the task and 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1(65) build. remove all trace of 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the debris of construction and leave the 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 pyramids and obelisks standing in weird 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 isolation. as if sprung into being through 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(80) a miracle. we must not place too primarily to 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 much dependence upon such figures as 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) argue that the Egyptian priests were 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 these.

On 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 author of the passage addresses EXCEPT 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 October 27. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 9. governmental systems of these 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 At very early ages we children were taken 7 civilizations. He was a big. The author’s attitude towards the hypothQuestions 11–20 are based on the following 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 esis that the construction of the pyramids passage. every one 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ing the credibility of Diodorus that the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 (5) of us was born on Manhattan Island. these other ancient civilizations. and 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) mysterious since we know of no com34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (30) with the possibility of much wrath 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 munication between the Egyptians and 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 against a bully or an oppressor. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 My father. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 My father was particularly interested (D) explainable by use of the technolo7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 in a lodging house for underprivileged gies we know they possessed. He never 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 10. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 those who needed help or protection. New York City. He combined 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 after the pyramids were constructed. (10) strength and courage with gentleness and 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) Diodorus does not provide mathgreat unselfishness. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) stated indecision 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Line Sometime around 1644. As 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 writing of priests’. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 direct evidence of their building 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 with his heart filled with gentleness for 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 techniques. he com34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 bined insistence on discipline. cowardice. and he did an technologies. was 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) Diodorus’s work was written centuries 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the best man I ever knew. powerful man. 1858. and he died when he was 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 forty-six. now New York City. tolerate in his children selfishness. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 years to complete. All of the following are problems regard34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 For the next seven generations. (15) stand that the same standard of clean 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) Some of Diodorus’s descriptions are living was demanded for boys as for girls. yet he 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 construction of the Egyptian pyramids the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (20) was the only man of whom I was ever 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 author would most likely view the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 really afraid. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 is unexplainable is one of The following excerpts have been adapted from 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) tentative acceptance an autobiography of Theodore Roosevelt. Based on the author’s beliefs about the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 physically punished me but once. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 boys and in getting the children off the (E) explainable by reference to the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (35) city streets and out on farms in the West. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 building of other pyramids by ancient 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 My father worked hard at his 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 civilizations as 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 business. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) Diodorus’s history was based on the idleness. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 33 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 immense amount of charitable work (B) unexplainable since we do not have 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 himself.DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 8. I was born at No. He would not 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ematical detail. He was interested in every (A) explainable by undiscovered 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (25) social reform movement. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 exaggerated. which was based we grew older he also made us under34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 on oral history. With great love and patience. an 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) firm denial American president from the early twentieth 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) mild skepticism century. Klaes Martensen 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) exclusive allegiance 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 van Roosevelt came from Holland to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 New Amsterdam. Theodore Roosevelt. 28 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) Diodorus’s work took over twenty 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 East Twentieth Street. or untruthfulness.

but sweet7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 boy. and soon afterwards 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 big . I 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) got a thrill from his power 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 had been a clumsy and awkward little 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) was physically large. . I that lay ahead for my generation of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (85) began to write a natural history. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(40) who had been sent from New York out especially in my own home. Now I do not 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12(55) anything that could give me wholesome mean that this training was by any means 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 pleasure or help to develop me. . 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 rected by other teaching. I was. But I still 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 West by my father. From the sentence beginning “He was a 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1(65) this to my father. But such teaching. the Governor of the big world. but I 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 could not even see the letters.petersons. my two cousins and I of the man lay in thus making the best of 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 promptly started what we ambitiously himself—that he should be honest in his 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (90) called the “Roosevelt Museum of dealings with others and charitable to the 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(50) Natural History. and a good deal of it had been due 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 tempered 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122(70) to the fact that I could not see. it can be inferred 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 got my first pair of spectacles. been taught that socially and 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 unscientifically and in simplified spelling. and later moved his business to join with others in trying 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 up to a bookcase in the back hall.com . The 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) had a great deal of money 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 recollection of this experience gives me a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) was provoked by weakness 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 keen sympathy for those who are trying 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) could be frightening when he had 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 in our public schools and elsewhere to 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 good reason to be remove the physical causes of deficiency 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(75) in children.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 with him to help at the lodging house. My to make things better for the many by 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 father and mother encouraged me curbing the excessive development of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (95) warmly in this. under a hopeless disadvancence in a riot of lawless business 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (100) individualism which would be as tage in studying nature. all bad. which 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 that Theodore Roosevelt’s father 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 opened an entirely new world to me. It was Americans. I had. I spoke of 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 11. I realized it when one day destructive to real civilization as the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 my friends read aloud an advertisement lawless military individualism of the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 in huge letters on a distant billboard.” The collections were at unfortunate. I owed more than I can 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Alaska under me was one of these boys (80) express to the training I had received. At once. but that it was no part of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 first kept in my room. had much to learn if I were to become 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 While still a small boy I began to take really fitted to do my part in the work 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 an interest in natural history. Not Dark Ages. I was very 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(60) near-sighted. means acquies7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 while a boy. as they always did in individualism in a few. if not cor7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 Quite unknown to myself. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 www.” (lines 27–28). consciously or uncon7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(45) written down in a blank book wholly sciously. who are often unjustly 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 blamed for being obstinate or unambi7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 tious. industrially pretty much the whole duty 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 After that. By the time I left college and entered 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 When I was President. 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 only was I unable to read the sign.

The word “ambitiously” in line 48. paragraph 7. Roosevelt’s ultimate purpose in the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 father’s successes 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 passage is to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) the insignificance of Roosevelt’s 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 collection (A) provide an explanation for having 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) Roosevelt’s love of adult vocabulary ideas that might otherwise seem 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 contradictory 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 14. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) Individuals have a moral duty to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 13. “curbing” most 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) was an expression of genius 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 nearly means 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 15. Which of the following best describes 16. In line 94. It can be inferred from the passage that 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Roosevelt’s tone in the passage? which of the following was a lesson 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Roosevelt learned from his father? (A) genuine 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) somber (A) It is especially important for men to 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) adamant have strong morals. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) Children who struggle in school (A) the strength of Roosevelt’s desire to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 deserve patience and compassion. strive to their highest possible level 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 paragraph 5 primarily serves to convey of achievement. become an important man 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) Intellectual pursuit is more important (B) the young age at which Roosevelt 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 than sport. planned to found a museum 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) Roosevelt’s admiration for his 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 17. The purpose of paragraph 5 is to show (B) demonstrate that he is an average 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 that Roosevelt’s interest in natural history American 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) celebrate his father (A) was an outgrowth of his love of 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) justify his establishment of a school reading 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 for underprivileged boys (B) was unschooled and naïve 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) explain his shift from natural (C) was a precursor to his passion for 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 sciences to politics politics 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) was rigorous from the outset 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 18. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) reactionary (B) Society must have safeguards to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) self-important protect the poor. Roosevelt includes the detail about the (A) supplanting 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 governor of Alaska in order to emphasize sidetracking (B) 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) curtailing (A) how successful his father’s program 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) spurring was 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) condemning (B) how connected his father was 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 politically 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) how far west they sent the boys 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) how humble the governor’s back34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ground was 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) how generous Roosevelt was as 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 president 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 35 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 12.

com . (B) his teachers had been very insistent 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) Roosevelt would later conclude that on the value of the individual 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 individual success was not as (C) his desire to be successful was an 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 important as his father thought. The author includes the phrase “con7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 expressed as sciously or unconsciously” (lines 85–86. The main idea of paragraph 7 can best be 20.petersons. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Do not proceed to the next section until time is up. unconscious attempt to please his 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) Roosevelt would later decide that father 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 government has to limit individual (D) he had been taught in a variety of 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 profit to protect the poor.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1219. 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 paragraph 7) to emphasize that (A) Roosevelt would later reject the idea 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 that all business dealings must be (A) he was still too young to have a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 honest. ways 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) Roosevelt had established all of his (E) his mentors were not heartless 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 important views by the time he 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 finished college. concrete understanding of these 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) Roosevelt had concluded that opinions 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 individual enterprise was ruthless. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 36 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 STOP www.

34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Notes: 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1. All of the numbers used are real numbers.Section 2 21 Questions j Time—25 Minutes Reference Information 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Directions: Solve the following problems using any available space on the page for scratchwork. Each figure lies in a plane unless the instructions say otherwise. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2. assume that it has been drawn 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 accurately. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Mark the letter of your choice on the answer sheet that best corresponds to the correct answer. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 The sum of the measures in degrees of the angles of a triangle is 180. If a bolt machine makes three bolts every 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 x5 5 seconds. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 The measure in degrees of a straight angle is 180.w A 5 bh V 5 .wh V 5 pr h c 5 a 1 b Special Right Triangles 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 2 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2s r 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2x w r s x 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 c h h h b 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 w 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 s 2 b 3x a 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 A 5 pr 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2 2 2 2 C 5 2pr A 5 . You may use a calculator. how many bolts will the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 machine make in ten minutes? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 2 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 3 (A) 100 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) 4 (B) 160 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) 5 (C) 240 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) 6 (D) 360 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) 600 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 45 60 30 37 45 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . You may use the figures that accompany the problems to help you find the solution. Unless 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the instructions say that a figure is not drawn to scale. If 3(x 1 y 1 z) 2 y 5 3z 1 2y 1 12 then 2.

7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 22 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) decreased by 5 percent. 2p 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) =10 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 E. 1)? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3p 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 2 C. What is the distance between P (3. Which of the following numbers is a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 multiple of 3 and 9? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 Circle O in the above figure has a diam1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 127 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 eter of 6. If the central angle formed 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 231 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 measures 60°. 2) and 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 B. What is the area of a right triangle with 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 one side of length 6 and a hypotenuse of 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 length 10? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 20 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 24 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 30 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 36 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 If the measure of ∠A is 50°. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 4 (E) increased by 10 percent. p 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Q (0. 7.com . For 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 values are outside the range of f(x)? 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the entire year. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 38 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 www. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 2 (D) increased by 5 percent. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 0 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) did not change. 3p 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 11 (D) = 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 (E) 4 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 9. what is the length of the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 267 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 intercepted arc? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 684 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 775 p 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 A. A stock’s price went up 25 percent in the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 first half of a year and then went down 20 2 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 then which of the following 6.petersons. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 2 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 5. the price 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 24 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) decreased by 10 percent. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 2 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 3 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 D. what is the 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 48 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 value of y? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 8. If f(x) 5 3 2 x 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 percent in the second half of the year.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3. (A) 40 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 50 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 80 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 85 O 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 100 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 4.

how 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) 2.25 many different possible routes are there? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) 4 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) 10 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 9 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) 16 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) 24 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 36 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 39 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . There are three routes from 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 and the area of A is sixteen. There are four routes 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 area of B? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 from Verona to Galson.25 from Stuben to Galson. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 with y classrooms. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 In the figure above if AC is 3x 1 7. Each classroom has 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 z desks. The perimeter of a square is 20. what is the = 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 length of the hypotenuse of the triangle? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 11. If a driver is to go 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) 0. Tejanos. only passing 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 1 through Tejanos and Verona once. Which of the following correctly 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 expresses the number of desks in 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the school? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) x 1 yz 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) y(x 1 z) 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) xyz 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 In the figure above the line is tangent to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) x(y 1 z) 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the circle. What is 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the shortest distance between opposite (A) =2 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 corners? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) =3 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 5 (C) 3 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) 5=2 (D) =10 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) 8 (E) 5 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) 5=3 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 14. In a certain school there are x halls each 13. x4 2x  5 x4 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) 10 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 12.DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 10. What is the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Tejanos to Verona. and the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) x 1 y 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 radius of the circle is 5. If m∠a is 45° degrees. There are three routes from Stuben to 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 If in the figure above A and B are squares. what 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 is CD? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 6 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) 3 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) x 1 3 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) x 1 6 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 15.

.288 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 24. how many 7 (A) 360 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 different 4-digit numbers that only include 7 (B) 306 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 p. If x is the set of positive even integers 0 to 7 (C) 6 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 100 inclusive. 12 .Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12Questions 16–18 refer to the following 19. If 9A6B9 is a palindrome. what is the 13th term in this sequence? 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 122A34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 palindrome is a positive integer that reads the (A) 156 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12same forward as it does backward. what is the value of B? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 54 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 3 (E) 104 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 4 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 21. zero (C) 3. and n are distinct digits. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 40 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 STOP www. . (C) 3636 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 could they possibly form? (D) 26336 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 3663 (A) 8 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 30 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1217. Also. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 elements in y are subtracted from the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1218.024 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12cannot be the first or last digit of a palindrome. Which of the following is a palindrome? 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 20. 6. For instance. If p. q.petersons. and the (E) It cannot be determined. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12definition. (D) 12.com . (B) 892 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12662 is a palindrome but 2626 is not. and y is the set of positive (D) 9 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 odd integers 0 to 100 inclusive. but always uses all three.576 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 16. What is the difference between the next elements in x the total difference is 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 greatest and next smallest palindrome in 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 0 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 relation to 4554? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 1 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 20 (C) 25 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 22 (D) 49 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 200 (E) 50 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 220 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 322 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Do not proceed to the next section until time is up. and n. If 3. is a geometric sequence. and 3A43 is a 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 36 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 palindrome. q.

No error. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2. The following questions test your knowledge of the rules of English grammar. and she missed her connecting flight. though often used as a 1. would be 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 A B A B C 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 postponed on account of bad weather. There will be no change in any parts of the sentence that are not underlined. If there is no error. generally defined as having a definite 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 D C 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 No error. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 D C D 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 No error. as well as 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 word usage. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 4. Thomas had. Choose the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 letter underneath the error to indicate the part of the sentence that must be changed. beginning in the early decades of the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 E D 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 twentieth century. is 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 B C B 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 late. No sentence contains more 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 than one error. It is likely that the first day of the race. stated that Alicia 7 originally set for September 20. pick answer choice (E).Section 3 30 Questions j Time—25 Minutes 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Identifying Sentence Errors 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Directions: Mark the letter of your choice on the answer sheet that best corresponds to the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 correct answer. Modern art. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 3. in the past. Some sentences are correct. Mrs. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Notes: 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 E E 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 41 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . was a more natural speaker than him. Any errors that occur will be found in the underlined portion of the sentence. word choice. and idioms. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 E 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 4. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 5. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3. 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Many of the employees thought that filing C D 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 lectures at Princeton. the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 E 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 C 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 6. they met after one of his 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 10. including the speakers.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 5. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 A B D E 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ready for the second half of the conference 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 which was going to be held 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 C 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 in the main amphitheater. 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No error .com . A B 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the paperwork was more time consuming 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 E 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 C 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7. one of the great physicists company would not be in compliance. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 A D 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of the last century. The report unambiguously stated that 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 No error. Enrique Fermi. studies on the topic of biodiversity 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 A A B 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 structure of the DNA molecule and in aquamarine settings have raised 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 C 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 concerns related to the rising levels of set into motion the modern study of 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 D B 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 genetics. A B 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 in respect of the new regulations. No error . No error.petersons. Recent. was a good friend of No error. 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 B E 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Albert Einstein. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 9. In 1953 Watson and Crick unlocked the 8.

DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Improving Sentences 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Directions: 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1. If you believe the underlined portion 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 does not contain any errors. and punctuation. Choice (A) repeats the original underlined portion. (D). choose the answer choice that corrects the original mistake. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3. As the team of geologists began their 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 town into two portions. ago in ancient Greece with Plato’s 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Academy. The following questions test your knowledge of English grammar. The Cours Mirabeau. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 4. There will be no change in any parts of the sentence that are not underlined. it became really 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 most clear to them that previous dating 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) planted with double rows of plane7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 schemes of the canyon formation were 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 trees 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 inaccurate. descent into the canyon. Every sentence contains a portion that is underlined. had 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 unclear how many people had bought its inception over twenty-four centuries 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 tickets. With all the receipts in hand. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 11. as an academic discipline. sentence construction. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 5. If the sentence contains an error. a wide thoroughfare academically 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 planted with double rows of plane-trees 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 and bordered by fine houses. select answer choice (A). (C). Philosophy. divides the 14. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) was not unclear 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) was clearly (A) as an academic discipline 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) was clear (B) a discipline which is academic 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) was not unclearly (C) as a discipline academically 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) wasn’t unclear (D) as a discipline for the academic 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) as a discipline which is practiced 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 12. word 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 choice. and (E) contain alternative phrasings of the underlined 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 portion. it was not 13. Any errors that occur will be found in the underlined portion of the sentence. (B) which has been planted with double 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) it became really clear rows of plane-trees 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) it became really clearer (C) that was planted in the past with 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) it had become really clear double rows of plane-trees 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) it had become clearer (D) with double-rows of plane-trees 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) it became clear which were planted in the past 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) in the past was planted with a double 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 row of plane-trees 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 43 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . If you 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 believe there is an error. one of these alternate phrasings will correct it. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Answer choices (B). word usage.

migrating along the southern 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) to listen well route to the milder climates of 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) being a goodly listener Mexico. it stopped the Great Depression and the Second 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 relaxation World War. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) establishment—under pressure from (B) Franklin Delano Roosevelt was an 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 government regulators—stopped.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1215. and he was president 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) establishment. and then grouping together 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 44 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 www. He was president during 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 relaxation the Great Depression and the Second 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 World War. under pressure from America. he was president during the 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 government regulators. stopped the also the Second World War. was president during the (B) goose migrating along the southern 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Great Depression and the Second route to the milder climates of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 World War. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was an 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 from government regulators stopped the important figure in twentieth century 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 relaxation of standards for earning a America. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) establishment under pressure from 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 government regulators stopped the (A) Franklin Delano Roosevelt was an 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 relaxation important figure in twentieth century 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) establishment. Large numbers of geese migrate along the (D) Franklin Delano Roosevelt was an 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 southern route to the milder climates of important figure in twentieth century 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Mexico grouping together to form super America: president during the Great 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 flocks. he was president during the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 medical license. Mexico and grouping together 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) geese migrate along the southern 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 18. It is vital for success in college both to 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 route to the milder climates of 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 employ good study skills and being a good 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Mexico and group together 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 listener in class lectures.com . under pressure from important figure in twentieth century 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 government regulators. grouping together 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) to listen good (E) geese. the important figure in twentieth century 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 relaxation America. The medical establishment under pressure 17. and 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 government regulators. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 relaxation (C) Franklin Delano Roosevelt was an 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) establishment. under pressure from during the Great Depression. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) geese migrate along the southern 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) being a good listener route to the mildest climates of 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) listening well Mexico. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1216. Depression and the Second World 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 War. stopped the America. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) geese migrate along the southern 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) Franklin Delano Roosevelt was an 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 route to the milder climates of 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 important figure in twentieth century 7 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Mexico grouping together 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 America.petersons. Great Depression and the Second World 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 War.

The following questions test your knowledge of paragraph and sentence construction. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 formative thing to the budding poet. Select the answer that best reflects the rules of English grammar and proper essay and 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 paragraph writing. While 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (5) works: his familial relationships and his there. This rough draft contains various 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 errors. Louisiana. Komunyakaa 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 enlisted in the United States Army to 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 employs his childhood experiences in his 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 (15) begin a tour of duty in Vietnam. Project was going to be a scientifically 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 fruitful endeavor. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 These questions will focus on paragraph organization and development. Komunyakaa 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the eldest of five children. The following passage is a rough draft of an essay. nity provide fundamental themes for 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 several of his volumes. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Questions 21–25 refer to the following passage. Other questions will ask about the paragraph itself.DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 19. He is 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 High School in 1965. or overall structure. Thompson 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 imperial lineage to the pre-history of did not think that the Houghton space 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ancient Japan. To this day. Yusef Komunyakaa 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 After graduating from Bogalusa’s Central 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 was born in Bogalusa. the Yamato clan can trace its 20. he started writing.7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 45 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 word usage. an 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (10) a young man also proved to be a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 African-American poet. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 3. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 The following is the first few paragraphs of an 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Military service during when he was 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 early draft of an essay on Yusuf Komunyakaa. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Line On April 29 1947. Unlike many of his colleagues. Read the rough draft and then answer the questions that follow. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 4. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2. As a correspon. (A) its imperial lineage 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) did not think that the Houghton (B) it’s imperial lineage 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 space Project was going (C) their line of imperialism 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) did not think the Houghton Space (D) they’re imperial lineage 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Project was going (E) their imperial lineage of the Ya34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) did not think the Houghton space mato clan 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 project would be going 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) did not think that the Houghton 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Space Project would be 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) did not think that the Houghton 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Space Project will be 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Improving Paragraphs 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Directions: 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1. sometime 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 maturation in a rural Southern commubetween 1969 and 1970. Some questions will focus 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 on specific sentences and ask if there are any problems with that sentence’s word choice.

What is the best way to revise the first 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) After leaving the army in the early 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 sentence of the first paragraph? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1970s. He was awarded the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the budding poet. his 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) Military service as a young adult also 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 attempts to write creatively—mainly 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 proved formative to the budding 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(35) short stories—had been unsuccessful. Which of the following sentences would 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 newspaper. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) Change the comma after “1947” to a (C) While leaving the army in the early 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 semicolon 1970s. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1975. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) Military service when as a young 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1(25) Komunyakaa enrolled at the Univer7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 adult proved to be really formative 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 sity of Colorado and received a B. While at Colorado. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) Insert a comma after “29” (D) Because he left the army in the early 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) Change the capitalization of the 1970s. The work7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 for the budding poet. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 24.com . notes the author. in 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 for the budding poet. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) Omit the comma after “1947” (B) Since he left the army in the early 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) Omit the comma after “Bogalusa” 1970s. Which of the following is the best choice 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 to replace the word “undiscovered” in the 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 second sentence of the third paragraph? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 (A) basic 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) nascent 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) complex 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) unusual 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) waxing 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 46 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 www. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1(30) shop.petersons. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 transitional phrase to place in the begin7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ning of the third paragraph? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1221. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 word “April” to “april“ (E) On account of his leaving the army 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 in the early 1970s. The Southern Cross. he discovered 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) Although a young adult. Komube the best revision of the first sentence in 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122(20) nyakaa mastered a journalistic style the second paragraph? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 which he would later use in poetic efforts (A) Military service during young 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 to assess objectively his time spent 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 adulthood also proves formative for 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 engaged in warfare. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Bronze Star for his work with the paper. Even 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ness was really important to his 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 though he had long been an avid reader 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 formation as a budding poet. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 had tried numerous times to write short 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 stories but he had never felt that he had 23. Which of the following is the best 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 succeeded in this task. He 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 poet.A. military 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 his undiscovered abilities as a poet in a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 service proved to be really formative 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 creative writing workshop. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of poetry and a lover of literature.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 dent for and later editor of the military 22. was the first 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) Military service during his youthful7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 chance he had to write for himself.

with a broad 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) revised to. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) Millenia ago 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (10) and this disaster.000 inhabitants. Burma. and in 1810 was estimated 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) Once upon a time 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 to contain 170. caused a decline in the prosperity might be revisable because it 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of the city. The essay would be stronger if the last mile in length. It suffered 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) does not flow with the previous 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (15) severe calamity from an earthquake. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 celebrated temple. “He had tried numerous 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 town. At each corner stood a 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 sentence were solid brick pagoda about 100 feet high. now overgrown with 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 jungle.000. The third sentence in the first paragraph 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1823. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Amarapura was also laid out on 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 much the same plan as Ava. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (30) lofty pillars of gilt wood. “the old city. roughly five miles farther 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) contains vague pronoun references 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (20) north. and is the junction for 7 The following is a short piece on Amarapura. together with the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 removal of the royal court to Ava in 27.” 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Questions 26–30 refer to the following passage.” 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (35) and a large square citadel. The town 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 in the past” would best be replaced by 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 was founded in 1783 to form a new 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (5) capital about six miles to the northeast of (A) A long time ago 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Ava. In 1827 its population was 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) has subject-verb disagreement 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 estimated at only 30. It increased rapidly in size and 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) Formerly 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 population. show it to have been a square 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (25) with a side of about three-quarters of a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 47 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . with a bastion at each 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 never felt successful at it. The ruins of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the city wall. The remains of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) moved so that it became the second 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the former palace of the Burmese 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 sentence of the paragraph. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 The most remarkable edifice was a (A) omitted entirely. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 monarchs still survive in the center of the 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 (D) revised to. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Line Once in the past the capital of the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Burmese kingdom. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (40) It has a station on the Rangoon1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 Mandalay railway.” 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 corner. It was finally abandoned in 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) contains too many numbers and 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1860. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ferry. Amarapura is now a 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 26. a 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the line to Maymyo and the Kunlong historic Burmese city.DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 25. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 sentence 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 which in 1839 destroyed the greater part 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) is very long 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of the city. “He had tried numerous 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 moat. but in 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) In the past 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 that year the town was destroyed by fire. adorned with 250 (B) split into two smaller sentences. when king Mindon occupied 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 figures 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Mandalay. the walls being 7000 feet long and 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 times to write short stories but had 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 20 feet high. The Burmese now refer to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 Amarapura as Myohaung. The opening words of the passage “Once 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 suburb of Mandalay. During the time of its prosperity 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 times to write short stories but never 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Amarapura was defended by a rampart 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 felt that he succeeded in this task.

The entire rough draft suffers from the 30. The walls were 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 royal court are not delineated 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7000 feet long and 20 feet high with 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) No mention is given to Amarapura’s 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 a bastion at each corner. high. with 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 a bastion at each corner. with 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 walls being 7000 feet long and 20 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 feet high.com . 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) Amarapura was defended by a 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 rampart and a large square citadel 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 with a broad moat. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) Amarapura was defended by a 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12229. a 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 broad moat. rampart and a large square citadel The word “edifice” in line 28 could most 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 with a broad moat. with a broad moat. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) place (C) Amarapura was defended by a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) location rampart and a large square citadel. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Do not proceed to the next section until time is up. walls measuring 7000 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 feet long and 20 feet high with a 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 bastion at each corner. had a bastion at each 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 corner. Which of the following is the best way to 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 fact that revise the sentence in the second paragraph 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 shown below? (A) the town of Ava is repeatedly 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 mentioned. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 48 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 STOP www.petersons. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) Amarapura was defended by a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 rampart. but its overall imporDuring the time of its prosperity Amara7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 tance or relationship to Amarapura pura was defended by a rampart and a 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 is never explained. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) construction site with a broad moat. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 current state. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) the city of Mandalay is never 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) Amarapura defended itself with a 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 described in sufficient detail 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 rampart and a large square citadel 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) the rituals of the ancient Burmese 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 with a broad moat.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1228. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) no explanation is given for why the walls being 7000 feet long and 20 feet 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Amarapura waned in importance. large square citadel. Amarapura. The citadel walls 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 reasonably be replaced with 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 were 7000 feet long and 20 feet high 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) structure and had a bastion at each corner. with a bastion at each corner. the walls being 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) architect 7000 feet long and 20 feet high. a large square citadel.

7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) defunct 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) exiled (A) irrelevant. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) inept 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) disciplined 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) controlled 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) stressed 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) restrained 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 A Þ B Þ C Þ O E 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 O Þ O O Þ 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1. These choices represent words or phrases that have been left 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 out.indispensable 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) overpopulated (D) concrete.common 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) deserted (B) complex. Choose the word or phrase that. . . . would best fit the meaning of 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the sentence as a whole.practical 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 49 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . labeled (A) through (E).unpredictable 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) extinct (C) salient. recently a 2. Though thought __________.Section 4 27 Questions j Time—25 Minutes 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Directions: Each sentence below has either one or two blanks in it and is followed by five 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 choices. diminished size of more modern comput. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Example: 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Canine massage is a veterinary technique 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 for calming dogs that are extremely __________.valuable 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) essential. .7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ers has made them far more __________. . if inserted into the sentence. The most __________ factor in the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 small number of living lingis terracotis computer revolution was size: the greatly 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 organisms were discovered.

and forms. . 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) vulgar. the artist saw her 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 __________ in fact. . . and ultimately 7 (E) disingenuous 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the scientists were __________ in their 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 4. The specks of paint were small. The __________ play was __________ 10. .comprehensible (C) conscientious.upbraided (B) enforcing 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) infinitesimal. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 establishment still often view these (A) enthusiastic about 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 treatments as __________. teacher became __________ when the 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 students expressed frustration with the 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) bland.noticed (D) rejecting 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) ignominious. but they still were 7 work as __________ new techniques 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 __________ by the inspector. . .unsuccessful 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) cultivated (C) laborious. .petersons.anathema 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 assignment. members of the modern medical situation in the past.victorious 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) appropriated (E) problematic. . Maintaining the integrity of the soil (D) surreptitious 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 specimens was __________. nearly many of her critics. the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 even to its author. . 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 passing ships and impeding trade.triumphant 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) menaced (B) challenging.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) straightforward.com .heated 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 50 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 www. . .defensive 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) crafty. attacking eign particles.irritable 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) inarticulate.rejected (E) employing 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 6.understanding 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) volatile. . . Though many traditional forms of 7. .inundated 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) arraigned (D) vexing.fearsome (B) serene.offensive 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) heinous. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) prideful of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) dubious (D) leery of 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) dogmatic (E) nonchalant about 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) ineffective 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 8. The Barbary Pirates __________ the Strait attempts to keep the soil free of for7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of Gibraltar for centuries. . who later disavowed it.irreverent 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) impatient.detected (C) precluding 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) inestimable.ignored (A) undermining 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) microcosmic. . since many 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) terrified of 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 have not been tested scientifically.maladroit (A) impassive. .reticent 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) disclaimed 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 9. Although normally __________. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) minuscule. Thomas was __________ the business deal 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 medicine have been practiced for centusince he had been swindled in a similar 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ries. . . . Though considered a traditionalist by 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 5.

disgusted 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) panache. it is just as difficult 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 laptop or the desktop. The other night I was at the 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) struggled 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (5) Engineers’ Club. .DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 11. her speech at the press club was Questions 16–27 refer to the following passage.prioritize 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 began there and I have brought some of (D) rejected. to put them 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 away and take them out again once in a (A) promised.charmed 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12. the customer 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 do not care whether you deserve the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 __________ between purchasing the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 compliments or not. .” a speech 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) florid 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 in which he discusses receiving compliments. . Though the author’s prose was natural 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 and fluid. two characteristics with which he 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 __________ many adoring fans. Clark Gable.controversial (B) sanctimony. . The __________ between the politicians 15. . (A) rapprochement. . but few in the better. Twain also won great acclaim as a 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) elegant humorist in his own day.accosted 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) tedium.satirize 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 The first one of these lies—I wrote 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 them down and preserved them— I think 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 they are mighty good and extremely just. .ingratiated 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) rift. . . . there it was all 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) vacillated 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 compliments. and none of them deserved. . 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 to take them. (E) proclaimed. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Line It is very difficult to take compliments. I 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 13. When in England I said that I (B) eschewed.ideological 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) tension. They were 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) vied 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 complimenting him there. (15) a collection of compliments. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 It is one of Hamilton Mabie’s compli7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (25) ments. 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 halting and __________. The stronger the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ments in education. I 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 electorate believed the candidate would think I have lost so much by not making 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 __________ these goals. He said that La Salle was the first 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 51 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) protracted 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 They say that you cannot live by bread 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (10) alone.complex (D) acumen. savvy. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 This is an excerpt from Mark Twain’s speech 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) condescending 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 entitled “Compliments and Degrees. The candidate’s platform __________ 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 I do not make any pretence that I 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 greater fiscal responsibility and improve7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 dislike compliments. and enjoyed the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) determined 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 sufferings of Mr. . the legendary movie actor. but I can live on compliments. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 originated with a deeply __________ piece was famous for his __________ and social 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 of legislation.uphold 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 would start to collect compliments.cultivated 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) argument. and I can manage to digest them. . 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 14.abhor 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (20) them along. .visceral (C) earnestness. . 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) stilted 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 Widely considered one of America’s greatest 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) Intricate novelists. Caught in indecision.critique 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 while.meaningful (A) obtuseness. Carnegie. and I (C) advocated.

she was about to go. and 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 have them ring true. he 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122(65) has never been in jail.” 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 There’s one thing I want to say about 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 that English trip. When 7 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 no ladies there. It was my not even say “Thank you. and in pink. a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 can be proved that my fame reaches to humorous paper which is appreciated by 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Neptune and Saturn. the 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12(55) lectured in a log schoolhouse. Anyhow. Only the miners 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 were there. but deep entered the diningroom of the building. It broke me all up. there ought to be a little cer7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (90) usual to wear the black gown. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (85) down he is as vain as I am. “My child. who protested. and the other is. which had in 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (95) Now here is a gold-miner’s compliit my cartoon. I have no use for a hat.” She 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 into their boot-tops and with clay all replied. I 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 world. One is. I have They didn’t know me. they never will again. So I 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 itself to pay compliments gracefully and put it on. it would have been money in command there. I 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 don’t know why. with their breeches tucked hardly got acquainted with you. Howells where those men get together who have 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 had been granted a degree at Oxford. It’s an art by itself. not to say of the universe. it is a talent by my American democracy far enough.” That is one of the 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (105) beautiful incidents that I cherish.” Then there was that meditating 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 had found that three other men wore silence for a while. I don’t do that with any woman. “You know I’ve got to go. If that had been published at the did not put it on until she asked me to. He had been years. been running the paper for over fifty 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 whose gown was red. holding in her hand a copy of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 not a red torch.petersons. and ultimately of the solar England was at a dinner given in the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (80) system. I wasn’t famous then. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(35) W. You know how modest and privilege ever allowed a foreigner. and he had lamented that there came a beautiful little girl dressed 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(50) he had been one of the black mass. I could 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ment. I said. If it building of the Punch publication. (70) with the Queen of England with my hat 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 light. that will satisfy all Englishmen. Howells spoke of me as first of The happiest experience I had in 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Hartford. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(30) time that I issued that book Life on the Then she told me to put it on. the previous week’s paper. and they selected a miner. and navigate it for the whole on. I thought I had carried 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (75) my pocket. It is forty-two years old.com . 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (100) you are not going to leave me. I tell you. I 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 retiring Howells seems to be. never did have. and it’s a 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Mississippi. and out of a closet 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 bright gowns. and 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 introduce me. and when the toastmaster said: “Just a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 upon inquiry had been told that it was 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 minute. I only 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 know two things about him. They wanted someone to never let me come in here before.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 one to make a voyage of the Mississippi. We were about to begin dinner 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(45) invited to an exercise at Columbia. saying: “I don’t know 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 anything about this man. One thing that I regret 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 52 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 www.” That was the 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 introduction to an audience to which I prettiest incident of the dinner. they 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122(60) over them. Mr. was that some newspapers said I talked 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 but Mark Twain was the first to chart. D. It was the greatest 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(40) even me. There were delight of all that wonderful table. Later he emony.

34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) the difficulty of listening to others (B) a truly fine compliment can have 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 complimented deservedly. sooner. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) indignantly insist that he is better at (E) the drabness of the other gowns. (A) the importance of the role Mr. D. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 successes with his past struggles. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Carnegie. and well-timed compliment. monetary value. wish. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 which the engineers complimented (D) if Mr. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) Twain prides himself on the univer34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 18. In lines 32–34. (A) Twain thinks the compliment is 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) difficult to receive well but easy to excessive. When Twain says of compliments. (A) Mr. compliments. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) mournfully compare his present (C) the garish hue of the gown. (C) Twain thirsts for greater and greater 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) often grossly exaggerated. Twain’s response to W. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) sardonically depict loving compli34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 21. The phrase “red torch” lines 51 is used to 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ments as a noble act. The word “sufferings” in line 6 refers to 19. (D) the colorfulness of the ceremony. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) earnestly encourage the audience to Howells played in the ceremony. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 17. Howells’s 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 compliment in paragraph 4 suggests that 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) always profoundly flattering. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) an important social function. (E) it is distasteful to think of compli1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ments in economic terms. (B) Twain believes every compliment 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) easily recorded but remembered only should be met with another. Howells’s 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 him. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 compliments. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 with difficulty. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 receiving compliments than Mr. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) the difficulty of receiving compli(C) he would pay money to be able to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ments well. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 53 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . “The 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 sality of his themes. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 emphasize 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) adamantly maintain that one can live 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 off compliments only with difficulty.DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 16. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 come up with great compliments for (B) the flamboyance of Mr. more copies would have been 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) the difficulty of devising false sold. The passage as a whole indicates that 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Twain thinks compliments are 20. and I can manage to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) Twain has little regard for people 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 digest them. make such a fine compliment 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) the hardships he had overcome.” he means to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 who pay him compliments. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 stronger the better. Mabie made both an eloquent 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Carnegie. Mabie had praised the book 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 him. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 give well. for himself. the author implies that 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) the physical illness which ailed Mr.

7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 famous. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) indifference to what the Queen 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 wanted. 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) demonstrate that children also enjoy 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1223. The author includes the little girl’s remark 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 closely means in the last paragraph in order to 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) elderly (A) show how young the girl really was. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 introduction lines 62–66 to (E) emphasize what a special occasion it 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 was.com . 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 26. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 by the Queen. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) writer reflected on the reception of 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) bold patriotism in a foreign setting. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) was too moved by the gesture to 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) provide a contrast with how the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 speak. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 intentions. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Do not proceed to the next section until time is up. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) mild affront at having been ordered 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) comedian performed his routine. “retiring” most 25. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) novelist spoke on the issues his latest 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) bashful humility in the Queen’s 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 novel addressed. This speech would best be compared to a American democracy far enough” (lines 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 speech in which a 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 74–75) is best described as 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) politician spoke on her platform. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 presence. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Queen of England welcomed him. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) was flattered. In line 41 of paragraph 4. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) humble (B) criticize the hosts for not allowing 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) aloof her to stay. the author conveys 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) illustrate what a backhanded 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 that he 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 compliment is. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) was flustered that his presentation 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1224. but forgot to say thank 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) show the nobility of the miner’s 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 you. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 he was received before he became 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) was taken completely off guard. had been interrupted. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) couldn’t help laughing at the hosts’ 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) provide a humorous example of how 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 surprise. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 54 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 STOP www. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 her writing. Twain relays the anecdote of the miner’s his work. In lines 95–96.petersons. (A) show how a spontaneous compli7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ment can be the best kind. The underlying sentiment in Twain’s 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 remark that “I thought I had carried my 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 27. 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) journalist offered personal reflections 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) self-satisfaction at having proved a 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 on her career. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 point to the Queen.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1222. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) lethargic (C) reveal that he can pay pleasant 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) arrogant compliments in conversation.

What was the original class size? 5 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 16 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 11 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1 B.Section 5 21 Questions j Time—25 Minutes Reference Information 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Directions: Solve the following problems using any available space on the page for scratchwork.w A 5 bh V 5 . 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 The sum of the measures in degrees of the angles of a triangle is 180. assume that it has been drawn 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 accurately. Unless 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the instructions say that a figure is not drawn to scale. Each figure lies in a plane unless the instructions say otherwise. (B) 18 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 25 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) 20 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 48 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) 22 C. 25 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 E. You may use the figures that accompany the problems to help you find the solution. A class has x students. Four students join 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the class and the class size increases 20%. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 5 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) 24 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 D. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Notes: 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1.wh V 5 pr h c 5 a 1 b Special Right Triangles 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 2 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360. 7 6 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 A. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1. If 5=x 1 14 5 20 then x equals 2. 900 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 45 60 30 55 45 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2s r 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2x w r s x 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 c h h h b 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 w 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 s b 3x a 2 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 A 5 pr 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1 2 2 2 2 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 C 5 2pr A 5 . You may use a calculator. All of the numbers used are real numbers. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Mark the letter of your choice on the answer sheet that best corresponds to the correct answer. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 The measure in degrees of a straight angle is 180. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2.

5 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) j 1 30 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 2 . 9. 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 What is the probability of picking out a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 red marble on one random try? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 A. 8 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) j 1 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 23 . x . 3. If 3x 5 12 then 32 1 x 5 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 x 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 1 (A) 6 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 be less than but greater than ? 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3 5 (B) 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 36 (A) 9 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 108 (B) 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 144 (C) 6 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 4 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) an infinite number 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 56 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 www. x . 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 5 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 B. 3 then which of the following 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 these numbers? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 is true? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) j 1 9 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 28 . A bag of marbles contains 6 red marbles. x . If j is an integer divisible by 2. If |x 2 5| . 8 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 5 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 8. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 8 green marbles.petersons. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 2 5 (D) = 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 5=3 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7. x . (B) 3 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 5 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 5 5 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 E. For how many integer values of x will 5. 6. 8 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) j 1 36 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 5 . x . 6. and 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 what is the next integer divisible by 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 4. and 10 black marbles.com . 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 4 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 C. What is the value of x? 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 2 2 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 D. 2 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) j 1 24 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 22 .Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3.

2 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 2. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 where k is a positive integer. 2 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) 1. 2) and 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 13. If y is a multiple of x by a factor of k. 5 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 57 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 x 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 3x 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 5 3k B.DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 9. 2) lie on a line with a 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 slope of negative one. and x . (x 2 y)(y 2 x) 5 k 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ~x 2 y! 5 k 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 E. If a best fit line were fitted to the scatter7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 y 2 x ~ ! 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 plot above. 5) 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the area of the left over tiles be in square 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) (2. 4) 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) 54 2 7p (E) (3. p) and B (p. 3 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 2. 5) 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 into the largest circle possible. If Jorge cuts each tile 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) (0. 8)? 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 inches square each. In a coordinate plane. 2(x 2 y) 5 2k 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 D. If 2 5 (8) then x 5 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) negative 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) 24 (B) nearly 0 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) 23 (C) 0. y 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 then 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 y 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 5k A. which of the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 following could be values of p? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) 1. What is the midpoint between P (4. what will 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) (2.5p 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) 12(9 2 p) 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 14.05 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) 2 (D) 0. 5) 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) 6(9 2 p) 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 9(6 2 p) 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) 54 2 13. its slope would be 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2x 21 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 12. 11. 6) 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 inches? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) (3. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 y 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 C. if distinct points A 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (2.50 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) 3 (E) about 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) 4 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 10. 4 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 2. Jorge has 6 square tiles that are nine 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 Q (0.

what is the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 volume of the cylinder? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 120p 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 140p 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 160p 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 180p 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 200p 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 58 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 www. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 5 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 D. C. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 relative prime of 27? 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 24 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 35 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 45 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 54 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 60 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1216. then what is the area of the base of the (A) 64 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 pyramid? (B) 78 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 92 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 3=2 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) 110 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) 9 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) 128 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) 18 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 2 (D) 25 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 6x 1 16x 1 10 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1217. and the 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 measure of angle a is 60°. If the solid can be cut in half. 2 A. A rectangular solid has a height and width 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of 4. 5 0 then x 5 If 3 2 (E) 36 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 x 2 4x 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 19.com . 1. Which of the following numbers is a 18. across 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 its length. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 B. 5 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 21. 2.petersons. 6 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 If the area of the sector is 6p. what The above figure is a pyramid with a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 is the volume of the original solid? square base. such that two cubes result. 3 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 E. 2 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 4 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3. 22.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1215. If the height of the pyramid is 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 4.

22). 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 What is the y-intercept of IlO1? 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 D. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 400 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 B. 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 C. What is the probability that a 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 second dart. One dart is thrown ran1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 domly at the board and lands in one of the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 sectors. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 20 B is at (22.DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 20. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 equal sectors. l1il2. A circular dart board is divided into 20 21. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 59 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 STOP . and C is at (2. 23). A is at (23.5 10 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) 4 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Do not proceed to the next section until time is up. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) 20. will 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 land in the same sector? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 A. 21). also thrown randomly. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 19 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) 23 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1 (B) 22 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 E. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 380 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 1 In the figure above.

ranking as a bureau. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12beginning over three millennia ago. and it is (C) Hindu algebraists definitely influ. In addition to the commis7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 sioner. sioner in charge. a chemist. Read each passage. 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12The question of whether the ancient Greeks 1. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12much discussion.7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12very likely that an exchange of produce would 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 enced the Greeks more than vice versa. with a commis7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122ancient Greeks. a feat not attained by the 1862. and a superintendent of experi7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 mental farming. basing your answers on what is stated or implied in the 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 passage and any introductory material provided. the creation of a forestry 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 department in 1877. there was a statistician. It was first established as a department in 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122negative numbers. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12few ancient texts of Hindu mathematics. Hindu 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 dates its rank as an executive department from 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122algebraists solved complex problems involving 1889.Section 6 16 Questions j Time—20 Minutes 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Directions: Each passage below is followed by a set of questions. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122to some basic algebraic equations were influ7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) the Hindu algebraists were influ34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1enced by the Greeks. but attained 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1case because Greek notation is employed in a 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 greater successes. This is thought to be the 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 enced by the Greeks. In 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) Greek algebraists definitely influenced 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12certain respects it appears that Hindu solutions 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the Hindus more than vice versa. Mark the letter of your choice on the answer 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 sheet that best corresponds to the correct answer. There is no doubt that there (B) Hindu and Greek algebraists were 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12was constant traffic between Greece and India equally influenced by one another. Even 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122so. it is certain that the Hindu algebraists were 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 The United States Department of Agriculture 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12far in advance of the Greek algebraists. then 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 answer the accompanying questions. The passage argues that 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12borrowed their algebra from the ancient 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) the Greek algebraists were more 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12Hindus or vice versa has been the subject of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 advanced than the Hindus. The bureau’s scope was 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 initially somewhat limited. an 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 entomologist. and the establishment of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 60 . 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12be accompanied by a transference of ideas. but its work was 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 gradually enlarged by the appointment of a 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 botanist in 1868.

The passage describes the United States 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 is the Tuvian tree. genus. the principal not reach a large size. Under favorable circum34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Department of Agriculture as 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 stances Tuvian trees will grow to a height of 40 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) becoming more bureaucratic through or 50 feet. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) was a decision made by the future 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Secretary of Agriculture himself. S. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) meant the department could hire a 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 chemist and an entomologist. the Tuvian tree pos34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) becoming more specialized in 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 sesses the major characteristics of the Alder 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 experimental farming through the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 genus: the large wedge-shaped leaf. They are geographically 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 official being designated Secretary of Agriculdistributed throughout the north temperate 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ture. One of the rare 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 exceptions to the small size of the Alder genus 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2. zone of South America. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 61 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . with a seat in the president’s cabinet. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the early twentieth century. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 explicitly answered in the passage? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) narrowing its scope of operations in 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 the late nineteenth century. It can be inferred from the passage that (B) Do plants other than the Tuvian tree 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the U. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) made the Department of Agriculture 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 a part of a different branch of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 government. Other than size. and the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) growing in political clout through 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 production of large seeds. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 Tuvian tree in the Alder genus grow? 7 (B) earned the department a seat on the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) How large is a Tuvian tree? president’s cabinet. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) growing in size through the late 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 4. In 1889 the department species of shrubs and trees. which stretches along 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the Andes southward to Chile. Department of Agriculture in the Alder genus produce sap? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 becoming an executive department 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) How large are other plants in the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Alder genus? (A) was beneficial for the farmers of the 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) Where do plants other than the American Midwest. most of which do 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 became an executive department. Which of the following questions is not 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 nineteenth century. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 secretions at the base of the plant.DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 agricultural experiment stations throughout the The Alder genus of plants comprises a few 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 country in 1887. (A) What are the characteristics of leaves 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 of plants in the Alder genus? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 3. dwarfing the other members of its 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 the late nineteenth century. the saplike 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 late nineteenth century.

It had long 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 anced brain “biles. but the exploration of 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 some four decades ago. Just as outer space holds vast 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 promise of neuroscience. Neurons are the basic cellular 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 that depression was the result of imbalbuilding blocks of the brain. we were told of the great 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 tists. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122(30) neurogenesis augurs an astounding 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (25) and like him. His theory might sound crude 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1(25) recent research has shown that the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (20) to modern ears. the founder of medicine in 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 neuroscience is the progress already made 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ancient Greece. such 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 less idea of how or why these remedies 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. so also the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 brain ailments from Alzheimer’s disease (5) 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 human brain holds great promise for 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 to depression.” In that illustrious decade of brain 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 heroes are not astronauts but neuroscien7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 investigations. but 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 brain biles. The great strides 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the Brain” has ended.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12Questions 5–16 refer to the following passage. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 depression extends at least as far back as 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 One example of the promise of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Hippocrates. He prescribed herbal oral 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122(20) with neurogenesis. The end of 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(10) expanses to be explored. they address 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12the (40) could increase memory or even heighten notion of progress in the field of neuroscience. Like him. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 These exciting possibilities remain. but also holds the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12The possibility of enhancing the abilities of following two passages discuss neuroscience. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 122the healthy brains. we have only a vague sense 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 potential for medical application. shrouded in mystery like 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1Line When NASA put a man on the moon the brain itself. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Line The 1990s were the “Decade of the This new frontier is the brain. We have even 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 sights on the myriad neural diseases.com . 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 and treatment regimes are much in 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 including neurons. and brain diseases 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 made in neuroscience in the last decade 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 have not. But the “Decade of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 vast uncharted domains. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 our powers of perception. such as sight. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(15) and the promise of future discoveries 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (10) Depression is a good case study in the 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 make neuroscience arguably the most 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 progress of neuroscience. Our increasing 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 advance of Hippocrates. for 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12Passage 1 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the present. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12(5) humanity again has entered into a new 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Passage 2 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 frontier: the exploration of inner space. Specifically. The history of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 important scientific field of our time. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of how these chemicals alter the balance 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Researchers are already setting their 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of chemicals in the brain. and its 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Brain.petersons. but we should not be so 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 human brain has an incredible ability to 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 quick to suppose that our understanding 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 generate all kinds of new brain cells. it was heralded. neural diseases. In the last decade. we 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 understanding of the processes of 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 prescribe oral remedies for depression. was just 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 human exploration and discovery in its 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 around the corner. the growth of new 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (15) remedies for depression and theorized 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 neurons. a new frontier of (45) the inner space of our brain has begun 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 human endeavor began: the exploration in earnest.” The herbal treatbeen dogma in neuroscience that adult 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 ments were thought to help balance the brains could not grow new neurons. 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of outer space. New neural drug regimes 7 study of the brain. There are various 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122(35) The advancement of neuroscience 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (30) explanations for why oral treatments— 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 does not just anticipate the elimination of 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 from the earlier tricyclics to the iconic 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 62 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 www. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 work when they do.

support the author’s claim that 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) the importance of neuroscience. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) has important political implications. Neurogenesis is important to the argu7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ment of Passage 1 primarily because it 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (A) the spatial dimensions of the brain. neuroscience has made important 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 according to NASA. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (40) neuroscience the harbinger of the end of 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) defensive about the moral value of 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 mental illness and brain disease. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 general optimism about scientific 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 advances. charted territory. Prozac—are beneficial 7. we need 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 such advances. (A) markedly less enthusiastic than his or 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (35) For the most part. The word “dogma” in line 23 of Passage 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) seeks to explain something we know 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 most closely means 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 virtually nothing about. the author’s attitude toward 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 to the depressed patient. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 embrace of scientific advances. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 important scientific field of our time” (E) poetically extends the metaphor of 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 because it the brain as the new frontier. The author of Passage 1 believes that relatively undeveloped before the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 neuroscience is “arguably the most 1990s. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) is the only science primarily devoted (E) tangential consideration. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 quality of human life. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 to understanding how humans work. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Before we scientists can declare 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) clinical and objective. 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) can tell us more about the origin and 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 (C) anathema. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) demonstrates that neuroscience was 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 6. but none of the enhancing normal brains is 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 explanations are ultimately satisfactory. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (D) the importance of pursuing more (B) disproves the suggestion in the first 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 than one kind of scientific inquiry at paragraph that the brain is “un34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 once. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) the relation of brain research to (A) provides concrete evidence to 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 astronomical research. advances.” 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) the comparable importance of (C) provides a contrast to the view that 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 neuroscience in the present to space neuroscience will enhance our 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 exploration in the past. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 63 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) has the potential to improve the (A) strongly held belief. (D) loosely held tenet. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 fundamental grasp of how these medica34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 (B) indicative of his or her unconditional 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 tions work. NASA is mentioned in the first paragraph 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 of Passage 1 to illustrate 8. perceptions. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 to have a better grasp of the whys and 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) skeptical. 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 meaning of life. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 5. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 9. in contrast to his or her 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 wherefores of our discoveries. (B) question of faith rather than intellect. neither doctors nor her response to possible cures for 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 pharmaceutical researchers have a 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 diseases. In Passage 1.DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 1990s medication.

For Passage 2. The authors of Passages 1 and 2 would be 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 effects of medical treatments. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 most likely to agree that 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) more methodical understanding of 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 how current treatments work.com . 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) deeper consideration of the side 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 14. The author of Passage 2 suggests that real ing the specifics of the different oral 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 progress toward curing mental illness and medications. like the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) moral opposition other 1990s antidepressants. 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) neuroscience has made no progress 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 since Hippocrates’s time. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) today’s methods are far more 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 technologically sophisticated than 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Hippocrates’s. tions for brain-related conditions. which of the following best 13. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 brain disease should be characterized by a (D) Prozac represented a drastic shift in 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 approach from the earlier medica(A) firmer notion of what causes various 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 tions. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 approaches primarily suggest that 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) the discovery of neurogenesis will 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 have practical applications. The author probably calls Prozac an 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 describe the author’s attitude toward “iconic 1990s medication” primarily to 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 neuroscience? convey that 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (A) hopeful expectation (A) the importance of Prozac. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) Prozac is particularly overrated as a (B) decreased reliance on oral medica7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 treatment for depression. (B) neuroscientists will soon find a cure 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 for Alzheimer’s disease. (A) oral remedies for depression are 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) neuroscientists are the appropriate 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 unlikely to work.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1210. 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) modern doctors’ claim to balance 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 chemicals they don’t understand is 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 unconvincing. The author compares Hippocrates’s 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) Alzheimer’s disease is a more 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 approach to depression with modern 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 important disease than depression. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 people to search for a cure for 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (B) doctors suffer from depression as 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Alzheimer’s disease. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 proaching problems.petersons. was 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) begrudging acceptance more about hype than effectiveness. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) moderate anticipation (B) Prozac is indicative of the develop1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) forceful rejection ments of the 1990s.7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 11. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 much as their patients. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (C) the author is disinterested in discuss. (A) the last decade saw breakthrough 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) greater sense of creativity in apdevelopments in neuroscience. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1212. illnesses. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 64 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 www.

34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (E) too focused on the importance of 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases.DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 15. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (C) What recent advances have been (B) overly critical about the state of 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 made to treat Alzheimer’s disease? neuroscience prior to the 1990s. 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Do not proceed to the next section until time is up. Which of the following questions is not 16. The author of the second passage would 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 answered by either passage? probably describe the author of the first 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 passage as (A) How does the discovery of neurogen34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 esis promise treatment for brain (A) too simplistic in his or her assump34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 diseases? tion that theoretical discoveries and 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (B) Which developments made the 1990s practical applications go hand in 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 an important decade for neuroscience? hand. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 65 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 STOP . 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (D) What aspect of brain functioning do (C) unaware of the complete lack of new 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 antidepressants affect? neuroscience research. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 (E) How is the development of neuro(D) not attentive enough to the practical 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 science likely to affect healthy developments neuroscience research 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 people? has already made possible.

All angle measurements can be assumed to be positive unless otherwise noted. 4 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O Þ O O Þ O O 4 Decimal → 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Answer: or 4/9 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O O point O O O 9 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O Þ O O Þ O O O 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O O O O O O O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 122Write answer → 4 / 9 O O O O O O O O 7 12in34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 boxes. 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 2. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12Enter your responses to questions 1–13 in the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Answer: 1. 1 . 0 . 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O O Þ O O Þ O Þ O ← Fraction line 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O O O 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O O Note: You may begin your answer in any col. 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 4. 4 1 . The figures are drawn closely to scale unless otherwise noted. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 3.4 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12special grids provided on your answer sheet. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 / . but it is not required. 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 66 / / . . 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Þ O O O Grid in → 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O O O ⎨ 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 • Writing your answer in the boxes at the top result. / . All figures lie in the same plane unless otherwise noted. Leave blank any columns O O O O 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O O O ⎪ not needed. . 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12Input your answers as indicated in the directions 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12below. space permitting. O O O O 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of the columns will help you accurately grid 7 O O O O ⎪ 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O O O 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 your answer. 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 . . Drawings that accompany questions are intended to provide information useful in 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 answering the question. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 • Only fill in one oval in each column. / . 0 0 0 . You will 7 ⎩ O OÞO 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 only receive credit for an answer if the ovals 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 are filled in properly.Section 7 13 Questions j Time—20 Minutes 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12Directions for Student Produced Responses 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Notes: 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1. . Either position is correct.7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O O ⎧O 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 umn. All numbers used are real numbers.

If (3x2 1 6x 1 4)(2x 1 4) 5 ax3 1 bx2 1 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 cx 1 d. rately as possible. 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 must be gridded as . how many were sold in May? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 67 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 / . If 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 acceptable. .2.7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 • There are no negative answers. . A fair six-sided die has a number on each 5. . not 3 .3333 . Five lines intersect at one point forming 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 ten congruent angles. Decimal answers must be gridded as accu. Car sales in County X jumped 10% from 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 May to June. 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 2 / / . 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 what is the probability of rolling a prime 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 number? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 2. . .3333 . 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 • Never grid in mixed numbers. If the die is cast. . 3 3 3 1 / 3 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 O Þ O O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 O O O O O O Þ O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Þ O O O Þ O O O O O O O 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O O O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 O O O O O O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 O O O Þ O O O O Þ O O O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 O O O O O O O O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O Þ Þ Þ O O Þ O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 O O O O O O O O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 O O O O O O O O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 O O O O O O O O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1. The answer 0. Decimal Accuracy 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 just grid in one of them. If in June 220 cars were 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 sold. . / .333. If f(x) 5 x 1 2 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 6. . it will be read 3 1 / 5 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 1 31 Acceptable ways to grid 5 . 7 O Þ 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 as . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .DIAGNOSTIC 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 • If a problem has several correct answers. What is the sum of 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 the measures of two of those angles? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 3. . 3 O O O O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 5 5 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 O O O 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 .33 are not 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 3 must be gridded as 16/5 or 3. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 side one through six. . 5 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 is gridded. The answer 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 1 Less accurate values. what is the value of b for all 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 If the radius of the above circle is 8. such as . . = 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 values of x? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 what is the hypotenuse of the triangle? 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 x then f(3) equals 4.

7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 5 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 value of a? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Do not proceed to the next section until time is up.petersons. lines l and m are 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 perpendicular and are tangent to the circle. 0) (8. If 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 2a 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 2 6 .com . what is a possible 2a . of the paint required to 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 paint ten rooms each with 600 square feet 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of wall space to be painted? (disregard 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 dollar sign in gridding in answer) 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 10. 11. The variable a is an integer. what 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 2 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 integer. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 What is the value of b? 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 In the figure above DABD is congruent to 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 8. What is the 7 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (0. If a gallon of paint covers 400 square feet 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 of wall space and costs $4. what is the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 cost. and m∠B 5 60. and 7n . 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 68 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 STOP www. n . The average (arithmetic mean) of four 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 distinct positive integers is 45. what is n? is the perimeter of DABC? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 9. b) 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 greatest possible value of one of those four 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 integers? 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3 3 3 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 If b4b4b2 5 8 then what does b equal? 12. If AD 5 3. in dollars. If n is an integer whose cube root is an DCBD.50.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7. 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 m 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 In the figure above. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 (0. 0) 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 13. 23.

Explain the reasons behind 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 how you completed the statement. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 69 ➠ GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Because of technological advances. Develop your point of view on this statement and be sure to support 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 your stance with sufficient details. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Consider the following statement.Section 8 Essay Time—25 Minutes 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 Directions: Think carefully about the statement below and the assignment that follows it. the world is becoming ___________. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12 Assignment: Write an essay in which you complete the preceding statement.

com .petersons.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 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34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 When you are finished with your essay put your pencil down until the 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 time allotted is over. 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 71 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 STOP .

C 14. C 16. C 26. B 17. E 16. B 15. B 11. A 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7. E 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12.petersons. A 19. E 9. A 18. or some 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 other person knowledgeable about formal essay writing to review your essay and provide 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 feedback on ways in which your essay is commendable and on areas where it could be improved. E 20. A 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 9. A 5. C 2. C 13. A 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Section 8 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Essay 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 As you might expect. answers will vary. C 12. E 6. B 5. C 12. D 7. politely ask a teacher. A 20. E 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 2. B 5. D 2. 4 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 8. D 7. B 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 14. C 17. D 19. E 13. A 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 11. D 3. D 21. D 8. C 17. B 18. 72 9. E 30. D 27. 5. B 9. E 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 23. 1 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 2. D 25. C 12. C 7 24. C 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3. If possible. D 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 6. E 29. E 7. E 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 4. D 15. C 2. C 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 11. A 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 5. A 14. A 13. D 15. A 1. C 9. B 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Section 6 Section 7 Section 5 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Math Critical Writing Math 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1. E 5. E 10. D 16. D 9. D 13. D 16. B 16. C 12. B 6. C 7. 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Or.com/satessayedge for scoring and review of your essay. D 10.com . B 11. E 5. A 16. A 10. C 20. B 21. B 19. B 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 9. C 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 13. C 25.petersons. B 3. E 1. A 3. 18 6. 200 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7.5 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 3. D 4. B 20. 6. D 1. B 22. E 14. C 13. C 1. B 4. 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 72 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 Answer Key www. C 21. C 19. D 20. B 12. C 6. E 17. D 6. E 4. A 27. B 4. A 2. C 14. A 8. C 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 10. 4 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 13. B 22. A 15. 24 10. C 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 15. B 24. D 8. A 28. A 4. A 23. 2 5. C 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 10. B 14. D 2. 0. 11 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 12. fellow student. A 17.5 or 1/2 8. B 1. A 19. 67. D 3. E 10. B 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 8. A 7.Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 Critical Reading Math Writing Critical Reading 7 12234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 1. B 11. A 11. B 18. A 6. D 15. 174 4. E 18. E 18. C 8. you can go to www. C 26. D 3. or 7 7 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 7 1 34567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 11. D 21.

PART III Reviewing the Sections Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section— A Game of Words You CAN Win 74 Chapter 5: The Ultimate Word List 147 Chapter 6: The SAT Writing Section— Where Grammar Rules Rule 193 Chapter 7: Math Section—Enough Said 263 PART III .

For now. the new Critical Reading (CR) section is made up of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 following three sub-sections: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Sentence Completions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Paragraph-length Critical Reading: Short reading passages (100 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 words approximately) and corresponding questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Reading Comprehension: Long reading passages (500–800 words) 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and corresponding questions 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In this chapter. which is something that will help you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 throughout the rest of your life. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 To review. most of the section 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 remains the same. but it is doubtful 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that this will be the last time you ever face a reading comprehension 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question. we’ll take a close look at each of the question types you’ll see 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in the Critical Reading section and offer strategies to use when faced with 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the real thing at test time.Chapter 4 Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The Critical Reading section on the new SAT was known as the Verbal 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 section on the old tests. They’re the same animal—just different sizes. the focus remains on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the SAT. In fact. Please note. the College Board added spunky paragraph-length critical 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 reading passages (approximately 100 words) with corresponding questions. It is still composed of reading passages (500–800 words) 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 followed by questions. following the reading guidelines here might just make you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a better reader on the whole. To replace the analogy 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Think of these passages as Chihuahuas and the 500–800 words passages as 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Great Danes. Sentence completion problems are still around but 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 analogy questions are no longer part of the SAT. though. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 74 . this chapter focuses on reading 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 comprehension questions as they appear on the new SAT. Although the name has changed.

the more comfortable you’ll be with the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 kind of subjects you’ll encounter on the exam. if you are able to clear your schedule and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 focus solely on the new SAT. the backs of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 cereal boxes . and current events. slowly. There are some simple and potentially entertaining 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 activities you can do to help boost your reading fluency. you might want to open this book six months ahead of when 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you plan to take the test. and consistently to achieve the best results. It’s like one-stop shopping for readers.” so they present a nice change of pace if you find 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 yourself tired of working multiple-choice questions. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The newspaper is a great. Many people are schedule-phobic. Read books. Why? The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 more experience you have reading about stuff like science. social issues. . CD covers. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 but it can be mentally tiresome.” reach for 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 something other than the latest issue of Bubblegum Pop Weekly. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 humanities. all-in-one resource for pumping up your reading 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 prowess. It will allow you to cover all the information at a nice pace and then 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 take the SAT while your preparation is still fresh in your mind. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Without a doubt. Read whatever you want. two months is probably a good amount of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 time. On the other hand. In contrast. if you are a member of four different charities and three 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sports teams. Web sites. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 How soon you start studying depends on how many other activities you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 have going on in your life. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 but if you want to gain an advantage over your “test-mates.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win Tip 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 A Leg Up on Reading Comprehension 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Preparing for the Critical Reading section is similar to preparing for a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 marathon—work early. and then stick to that schedule—“plan.” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Don’t fret if you’re just cracking open this book two weeks before you face 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the test for real. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Activities to Increase Your Reading Comprehension 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1. providing texts in different 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 75 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . even if you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 read gossip rags and monster truck magazines. anything you read makes you a better reader. The goal is to work through this book on a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 consistent basis so. The same is true if you have a job that requires you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to work a lot. the activities below are not so 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 dully “test-preppy. The drill stuff is necessary. . These are most 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 helpful when mixed in with the drill-and-practice methods most people 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 focus on when thinking about test preparation. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Figuring out how much time you need to prepare effectively might 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 require you to make a schedule. but 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 it is very helpful if you can devote a specific number of hours each 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 week to studying.

petersons. Even if you think you read enough novels in your language 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 arts class. Get Classic! 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 While you read whatever you can get your hands on. a cover story might be 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 informational. If you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 cut out television a few weeks before the test. there 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 are hundreds of books the College Board will choose from. you’ll 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 expose yourself to new information and practice reading different types of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 texts similar to those in the CR section. Of course. not 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 against you. you can also console yourself 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with the fact that there are always reruns. Choose a local or national newspaper and make a point to read 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 one or two articles from it everyday before checking e-mail or surfing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the Internet. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3. but hey. don’t leave out good 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ol’ literature. it never hurts to read a book or two on your own. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. an article from the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 business section may reveal a cause-effect relationship. Seeing them often in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 different contexts will increase your comfort level and skill for the real thing 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 later. reading comprehension and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 vocabulary development go hand in hand. this is not just any test. an editorial will express an opinion. A natural part of improving your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 own reading comprehension is also increasing (augmenting) your working 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 vocabulary. If you read 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 an article from each newspaper section on a daily or weekly basis. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Regardless of what you read. but alternating 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 your reading workout between simple periodical fare and more substantial 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 novels touches on all of your “reading muscles” with equal weight. To get your lexicon (stock of words that you know) into shape 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 for the SAT. Hey Stripling. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Another way to work reading into your daily schedule is to do it 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 online. covering different topics. like watching 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 television or shopping with friends.com . and purposes. The new SAT 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 will include literary fiction passages for the first time ever. Augment Your Lexicon 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 When it comes to preparing for the CR section. incorporate one or more of these verbal activities into your 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 test-preparation routine. make it a habit. For example. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 76 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. A working vocabulary is exactly that—it works for you.Part III: Reviewing the Sections Tip 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 formats. perspectives. You may need to shift your 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 schedule and cut out some of your preferred pastimes. and a movie review 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 will analyze a film with a critical eye. All of these types of articles are 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reflected in the reading passages you’ll see on the test.

Studying word parts is a great way to 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 maximize your time and effort on vocabulary development. which does its best to include words 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that tend to appear frequently on standardized tests. For example. “Weeping Willy. try to come up 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with a definition of the word on your own by looking at the context and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 comparing your definition to the real thing at a later time. hear it.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Keeping Track of New Words 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 To really know a word. You could write the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentence: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 My cousin is so lugubrious we should call him. you have to activate your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 memory by connecting the new with the old. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Study the Roots. You can use this 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 process to answer sentence completion and reading comprehension 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions. A simple 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 way to accomplish this is by making up sentences using the new vocabulary 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 words. Suffixes. These sentences should apply to you in some way. You have to see it. There is also 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the Ultimate Word List (Chapter 5). 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 Learn Words Directly through Word Study 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There are lots of great SAT vocabulary books available if you want to take 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the direct approach to vocabulary study. Some titles include Get Wise! 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Mastering Vocabulary Skills and Ultimate Word Success. Knowledge of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the root words of Latin. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 However. Greek. In this case. prefixes and suffixes. and Prefixes 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Some vocabulary study books emphasize the study of word parts. it’s easy to open an online dictionary and type in the word. If you read 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 online. bases. mentally connect 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the new word with stuff you already know or have experienced. and use it all in context. Pause 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to look up any unknown words you come across while you read. and you have a 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 cousin named Willy who’s always sad and depressed. such as 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 roots. how do you do it? How do you move a new word from your mental 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 desktop to your long-term hard drive? Well. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 But. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 suppose you’ve just encountered the word lugubrious.” 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The word lugubrious and its meaning are now attached to something that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 already existed in your mind. and French will help you recognize those 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word parts in other SAT words and will increase your vocabulary simply by 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 77 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . if you don’t want to interrupt your reading flow. You 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 could also jot it down to look up later. which just happen 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to be published by the same company that publishes this book. experts say you must encounter it and use it in more 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 than one instance.

com . For example. The directions will look something like 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 this: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Directions: Each of the following questions consists of an incomplete 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentence followed by five words or pairs of words. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Check out the numerous free online sites that offer word games. the greater the chance of encountering unknown words. In previous years. Choose that word 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 or pair of words which. and your recall 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of the initial encounter of the word might be enough prior knowledge 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to help you answer a question correctly when you see the word again 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 on the test. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sentence Completion: More than Meets 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the _______ 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 One of the best tricks to help you be comfortable and save time on the SAT 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 is to familiarize yourself with the directions for the Sentence Completion 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (SC) section before you take the test. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 which means “badly. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 best completes the meaning of the sentence as a whole. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 vocabulary-building activities and crossword puzzles for other ways to play 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with words and build your lexicon. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Word Play 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Another way to boost your vocabulary is to do some crossword puzzles. but 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 aren’t sure of the exact meaning. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 You’ll begin to increase your vocabulary just by reading.petersons. The odds are 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 78 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. you should be able to more easily infer the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 meaning than if you had no prior knowledge of the root. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 You’ll learn to see words in new contexts and exercise your synonym 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 replication skills which are handy and necessary for taking the CR section. it’s better than never. when substituted for the blank space or spaces. If you know a root word and recognize it in a SAT word.” you can safely guess that malevolent has a negative 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 meaning. Even if 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you’ve only seen the word once. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 the questions in this section were organized from easiest to most difficult 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and they appeared in groups of approximately 10 questions. They’re just a sentence with one 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 or two missing words followed by five answer choices. even if you’re 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 too lazy to stop and think about words you don’t know. if 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you come across the word malevolent and recognized the Latin root male.Part III: Reviewing the Sections Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 association. The more you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 read. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sentence completions are no great mystery.

The missing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word’s location in the overall structure of the sentence also provides a clue 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to the meaning of the missing word. With SC 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions. Before learning more about these double-blank delights. but 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 aren’t. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 probability that the new SAT will have sentence completion questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sprinkled throughout a section exits. a radical departure from the old. You may understand all of the words in the sentence but have 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 trouble with the hard words in the answer choices. It’s just a slight 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tweaking. and 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you must follow these clues to determine the missing word. On the other hand. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sentence completion questions focus on two things: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1. If 1 minute goes by 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and you’re still looking for the word. The words that do appear offer clues to the missing word. If you have a good idea of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentence’s meaning and recognize all the words in the answer choices. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 79 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 “Sentence logic” describes the way the sentence is organized—its building 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 blocks—and the main idea of the sentence. Try spending about 1 minute on every 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 practice SC question on the first pass. Where a word appears in relation to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 other words in a sentence is known as context. Understanding the sentence’s 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 logic means you’re looking at both the structure and the meaning.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win Tip 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 good that the questions in this section will still be ranked from easiest to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 difficult on the new exam and that they will also appear in a group. but not understand the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentence. Remember that the new 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 test is not. Do you understand the basic logic of the sentence? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Pacing is important on the SAT. the word that does not appear is often critical to the meaning of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the sentence. in all sections. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you can identify the structure and meaning of each sentence. you’ll find 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the best words to complete it. Vocabulary is an important part of this 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 section. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 SC questions with two blanks compound the task by requiring you to also 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 determine the relationship between the two words that should be there. skip over that question and come 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 back to it later. but it is slight. you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 may know the meaning of all of the answer choices. Combining points 1 and 2 above will provide you with the best 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 chance for success. let’s first 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 look at the basic steps you can use to answer an SC question. Do you know the meaning of words in the sentence and answer 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choices? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you may find you need only 30 seconds to answer. Context plays a huge part in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 figuring out what word goes where.

some sentences state an opinion 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 or viewpoint. For example.” You then look at the answer choices 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and spot the word lugubrious. Sometimes the right answer will simply be a difficult synonym of 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the word you imagined. What’s important is that you had the right 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 idea.com . since the goal is to capture the right meaning. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 is a tough vocabulary word that means “extremely sad or depressing. You don’t have to use a fancy word 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to make your prediction. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Read through the sentence again with your own word(s) inserted to get a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 basic idea of what the sentence needs to make it logically plausible and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 grammatically correct. of a sentence 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 completion sentence. judged 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the clues. or gist. and still others compare and contrast (to name 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 just a few types).” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There’s your answer! It doesn’t matter that you didn’t come up with the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word lugubrious to start with. Compare Your Word with the Answer Choices 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Look at all five answer choices and pick one that most closely matches the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word you inserted on your own.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Basic Steps for Answering a Sentence Completion 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 Question 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1. Make Up A Word that Would Fit In Each Blank 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Look at the stem sentence and think of the type of word that would best 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 complete it WITHOUT looking at the choices. Make a prediction based on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 what you infer from the stem sentence. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3. suppose you read a sentence. For example. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 80 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. which you know from earlier in this chapter. make note of: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Clue words that tip you off to the structure of the sentence and the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 words that will best fit in the blanks. Read For the “Gist” of the Sentence 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Every sentence has a purpose.petersons. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Punctuation that helps with emphasis and word choice 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In any SC question. use the sentence structure to help spot the type of word 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you’re looking for. not 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the exact word. and decided that the missing word meant “sad” or something 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 along the lines of “really depressing. Eliminate choices that contrast with your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 prediction. You must understand the main point. and you used that correct meaning to find the correct answer. others inform. When reading. Read the sentence to get a basic understanding of what it 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 is about.

then more than one answer choice may seem to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 work. you see that the sentence is basically contrasting an artist’s 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 earlier work to his later work. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Every question will have its own context-specific clue words that you can 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 use to find the right answer. Here’s an example: 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 [5] Unlike his earlier paintings. The sentences and choices are 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 deliberately close in meaning in order to make sure you read carefully and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 closely. General/inference clues. Some sentences may also be written in a way 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that allow you to maximize the context of the sentence in order to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 determine (or at least begin to determine) the meanings of words that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 should go in the blanks. which attracted lukewarm response and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 were considered ______. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Contrast/Antonym Clues 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Contrast/antonym clues indicate a change or contrast between one thing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and the other. The question here is number 5. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In this SC question. This is done to simulate an actual SAT 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sentence Completion section with ten questions ranging from easiest 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to hardest. his mid-career retrospective has received 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 praise for its energetic originality and complexity. original. your job is to think of the opposite of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 81 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 All practice questions in this SC section will have a number in front of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 them ranging from [1] to [10]. This is no unlucky coincidence. If you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 miss these subtle clues. Since the artist’s later work was considered 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 energetic. but that’s pretty normal for a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 one-blank-only medium question. meaning that should be of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 about medium difficulty. Definition/explanation clues 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The most frequently used context clues for SC questions will come in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 form of: 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1. Contrast/antonym clues 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. your first clue is the first word of the sentence.” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 As you read on. Rather 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Use clues within a sentence to determine the context of that sentence. Looking at the answer choices. you can see 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that some of these words are tough. and complex. “unlike. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Let’s take a closer look at these common SC clues.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win Alert! 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Put Things into Perspective—or Context.

his mid-career retrospective has received 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 praise for its energetic originality and complexity.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 those words to fill in the blank. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 With one of these possible words in mind. or simplistic would seem to fit in the blank. insipid. bland. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and you can feel good about picking it because you anticipated it—or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 something like it—would be in the answer choices. These often come with helpful punctuation in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 form of colons or semicolons which break the flow of the sentence and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 indicate elaboration of some kind. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 bland. which of these words is close in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 meaning to boring. usually on the missing word. It’s there to catch students who didn’t get the fact that the word 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 unlike created a contrast between the artist’s new work and his old. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) hypocrite 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) dilettante 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) martinet 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) martyr 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) sycophant 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 82 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. Some contrasting words might be boring. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Definition/Explanation Clues 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sometimes you’ll see an SC question that actually defines or explains the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word you’re looking for. but 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 are not among the answer choices. she always 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 insists that her students follow her classroom procedures without 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 exception. which attracted lukewarm response and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 were considered ______. It’s your answer. The 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 structure is loosely based on a common dictionary format. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 [5] Unlike his earlier paintings. Crumb has long been considered a __________. Choice 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A). you can zero in on the best 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answer choice can be done by eliminating words that don’t match your own 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 idea.petersons. unoriginal. which presents 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the word followed by a colon and its explanation.com .” so it is the opposite of what you’re 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 looking for. bland or simplistic? Answer choice (C) is a positive 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word that means “original” or “new. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) insipid 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) laconic 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) novel 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) prudish 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) profuse 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The words boring. and simplistic. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 [8] Mrs. has similar meaning to boring and unoriginal. So.

someone very strict about rules. But then you look down at the answer choices and find five 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 words you’ve never seen before. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 You’ll have to draw on your prior knowledge of the sentence’s key words 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and how you’ve seen them used in the past. You might approach a sentence. Crumb as a pretty inflexible 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 person. “someone who makes sacrifices to further a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 cause. Equipped with this description. Words or phrases will not be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 immediately clarified in these SC questions. This illustrates how your knowledge of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 vocabulary plays an important part in your overall reading score. which can be used in a variety of contexts and aren’t bound to a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 particular subject or topic. Crumb is a martinet. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Hard SC problems can have some tough words in the answer choices. and you must also be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 aggressive and take a guess or two about the missing word. and then come up with 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a good word. You can eliminate choice (D) right off the bat.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In this question. keep learning vocabulary! 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 It turns out Mrs. based on the description of Mrs. you can bet that the answer won’t 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 be martyr. Looking at this context. you can see how the semicolon breaks the sentence between 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the missing word and its explanation. which means. know that there are still techniques 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you can use to answer an SC question even if you don’t know what some of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the answer choice words are. because it’s your job to infer 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 their meanings and relationships to each other and the sentence as a whole. and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 this can be a bit frustrating. These absent words are often forms of verbs or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 adjectives. Careful reading is key here. you have to rely on your own powers of inference—the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ability to piece together meaning from contextual clues in the sentence and 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 what you already know or can deduce. the missing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word should be something that indicates strictness and unwavering 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 attitude. Making inferences can be tricky. decipher the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 clues well enough to divine the sentence’s meaning. The process is complicated by the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 types of words missing. These techniques will be covered later in this 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 chapter. because the process 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 involves combining evidence you see in the sentence in combination with 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 your own experiences and knowledge. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 83 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . You might guess 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 wrong at first. Before 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you snap your Number 2 pencil in fury. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In these instances.” since that doesn’t make any sense whatsoever given the sentence’s 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 setting. Until then. but taking charge of the question will lead you to the right 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answer more often than not. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Inference/General Context Clues 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Another aspect of answering sentence completions involves your ability to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 make inferences.

since the word destructive means 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 something negative. but you don’t need to know what it means. or depressing. You can 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 infer that it’s not a good method. and it wasn’t positive. Having prior knowledge of the fishing term bycatch 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 could help you here. it’s got a ton of clues. hit them out of the park. gushy-gushy nature of this sentence. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Words like and make things easier since they continue the flow of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentence. The word Unlike in the previous example on page 82 is one word 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 84 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. scary. Answer choice (A). It might be a word 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 like dangerous. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 which tells you that one thing caused another—due to this. like the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word and in the following sentence: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Everyone on the tour was thrilled by the grand and __________ palace. The first word clues are Due to. You know that it’s a grand 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 palace. These words sometimes reinforce the way a sentence is going. simply from the way it’s used as an 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 example of destructive fishing. Words that change the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 direction of a sentence occur more often than words that continue the flow.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 [4] Due to destructive fishing practices. that is the result. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 For such a small sentence. too. The word after and is going to keep 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 up the positive. The last clue comes at the end—decline. such as bycatch. steep. or it might be an adjective that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reinforces the word decline. you can see how inferring meaning comes from the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 clues plus your own prior knowledge. since it’s a simple way to make a sentence tougher to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 decipher. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The next clue is the phrase destructive practices.petersons. but 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 exquisite is the less common word. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 This makes sense. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) steep 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) temperate 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) voluminous 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) erratic 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) halting 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 With this SC question. and the cause/effect pattern of this sentence. This is the actual cause of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 something. Think of something 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 like magnificent or exquisite. the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word you’re looking for should be something negative. So based on your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 knowledge of these words.com . certain seafood 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 populations are in __________ decline. reinforces the severity 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of the decline. You won’t get too many of these on the softball SC questions on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the SAT. They mean roughly the same thing. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Clue in to Clue Words 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sentence completion questions will often contain some type of signal or key 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word. and it’s the best answer of the lot. and that everyone was thrilled. but when you do. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Usually a decline indicates something negative.

9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 [4] Although no bigger than a bottle cap. including the pages of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 this book. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The following words are all clue words that either continue or change the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 flow of a sentence. but then 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ended up being energetically original. you’ll find them everywhere. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) keen 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) malodorous 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) strident 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) subtle 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) reticent 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Step 1: Decode the Sentence for Meaning 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Don’t worry about whether you’ve ever heard of a coqui frog before. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 but until while 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 however so unlike 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and for before 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 although because never 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 despite still even though 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 unfortunately but therefore 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 regardless not as a result 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 actually by contrast due to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 after 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Look for these words whenever you read and you will see them in action. “The sentence deals with a little frog that makes a noise that sounds 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 like a household appliance. (I confess that I am a big fan of however. you should have a fairly good idea of how to approach a SC 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 problem. All 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you need to know about this little fellow is the kind of noise it makes.) If you spend time 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 learning how they work on non-SAT sentences. You saw how the artist started out as insipid. it will help you whenever 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you encounter them on an SAT sentence completion question. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 changing the context of a sentence faster than a speeding bullet.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that changes the flow. If you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 wanted to restate the sentence in your own words.” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 85 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . you could say something 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 like. Once you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 start looking for them. Here’s a sample question and step-by-step discussion of proper 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 strategy in case you are a little fuzzy about anything. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 By now. the coqui frog emits a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ________ screech as loud as a vacuum cleaner. Review the words and determine for yourself if each 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word is likely to change the flow or continue the flow.

it can be as loud as a vacuum cleaner. and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 malodorous basically means “bad smelling. just noisy. what would it be? Say 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the sentence aloud in your mind. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Step 2: Supply Your Own Word 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you were to supply your own word for the blank.” to belt out sound. Taking all these clues 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 into account. that’s your answer.petersons. or “unwilling. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Choices (D) and (E) don’t work either. could work. and an unpleasant sound at that. noisy. Something subtle is something that’s hard to notice. because they just plain don’t 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 make sense.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Now. Which of these choices best 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 match your imagined word? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Choice (A) wouldn’t work. Vacuum cleaners 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 are typically pretty loud. irritating screech as loud as a vacuum cleaner. you didn’t find 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the right answer so much as cross out all the wrong answers and pick the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 86 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. you’d have to go on to the other choices before making a final 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 selection. The clue word although signals a contrast 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 between the appearance of the frog and what it can do. what you’re looking for is a word that shows how loud. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Some possibilities: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Although no bigger than a bottle cap. In this case. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 So. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 annoying.” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Choice (C). and if you were unsure about its 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 meaning. because the frog isn’t stinky. strident. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Doing this can help activate your brain into substituting appropriate words 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to complete the sentence.com . Adding the fact that this tiny creature’s call is being 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 compared to a vacuum cleaner’s noise means it can’t be pleasant. Because everything else has been 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 eliminated for good reason. You’re looking for 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a word that deals with sound. especially 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 if it’s compared to a vacuum cleaner. A screech is an unpleasant sound. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Step 3: Compare Your Word(s) to the Answer Choices 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Look at the choices to see which word(s) works. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Choice (B) is out. and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 annoying. focus on any clue words. How 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 many vacuum cleaners purr like a kitten? Other contextual clue words are 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 screech as loud as. The question is asking for an adjective that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 describes the quality of the sound the coqui frog makes. including “blank” for the blank space. the coqui frog emits a harsh. and the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 frog doesn’t seem reticent.” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Neither definition is what you are looking for. strident. it’s back to choice (C). this frog can be. since keen can mean “sharp” or “sensitive. Even though the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 frog is super small.

linked together by the continue-the-flow word and. since it shows how using good 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 technique can help you get a right answer even if you don’t know what a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word means. .Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 only answer remaining. It’s a curse since you have to figure 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 out the relationship between the two words in the pair before determining 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 which answer choices will most logically complete the sentence. Use 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 clues in the sentence and try to figure out which words best fit in the blanks. it’s all about relationship. If your choices 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 were: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 hot. How do the missing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 words relate to each other? Do they compare and contrast? Do they 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 establish a cause and effect? Are they synonyms or antonyms? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 With two-blank sentences. It’s a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 blessing since both words have to work in the sentence.cold wet. This means you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 should follow the same basic steps you did with a one-blank problem. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you do know the relationship between the two missing words.humid 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The answer would have to be the words wet and muggy. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 With these SC questions. They’re 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 related. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Although there are two blanks. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There are no clues in the sentence to tell you how the weather is. there are two things to remember: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The weather this afternoon was __________ and __________. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Blankity-Blank: Sentence Completions with 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Two Words Missing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 A sentence completion with two blanks is both a blessing and a curse. That’s good. However.muggy dry. The other two 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choices contain words that are opposite in meaning. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Sometimes you’ll find clues in the pair of missing words in the answer 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choices rather than in the sentence. . . these are still SC problems. Figure out the relationship between the pair of words. To describe this. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 87 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . which can make 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 eliminating some answer choices easy. Both words in the answer choices have to work in the blanks. and you know from the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word and that the two words have to be similar in meaning. think of this sentence 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 about the weather.

generate your 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 own words to fill in the blanks: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Despite Nikolai Tesla’s contemporary status as a great. smart. Basically. . you can use POE to help you eliminate 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choices that are half-great. half-bad. what would 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 they be? To do this. Despite signals a contrast between the way people think 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of him now (contemporary). Both 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 words will be adjectives describing that contrast. All too often. . which we know is not such an 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 impossible feat. Since Tesla’s status has changed for the better.petersons. The relationship between the two blanks is one of contrast.spurious 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) laudable. So wireless communication back then may have seemed as wacky a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 concept as sending a man to the moon. . people’s attitudes toward 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Tesla have changed as a result of technological advances in the wireless 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 communications industry. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) admirable.com . unbelievable. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Looking at the relationship between these missing words. people in the 1800s initially considered his ideas about 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 wireless communication highly __________.licentious 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) talented. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 off-base. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Remember. either. so the words will have 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 opposite meanings. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 innovative.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 [9] Despite Nikolai Tesla’s contemporary status as a __________ 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 scientist. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you work one blank at a time. the sentence deals with a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 change in people’s perception and attitude toward Tesla over time. and people in 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the 1800s initially. scientists were still working on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 getting electricity up and running. In the 1800s. the first 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word should be one indicating a positive attitude about his reputation. contemporary.plausible 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) frivolous. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you were to predict what words that might fill in the blanks. people in the 1800s initially 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 considered his ideas about wireless communication highly wacky. and wires were a big part of making this 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 happen. students working a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 two-blank SC problem pick an answer that has one word that works great 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 88 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. . The clue 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 words that indicate this transition are despite. impossible. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 second blank is negative in connotation. respected scientist. since Tesla’s own contemporaries 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 were skeptical about anything so ahead of its time. use your understanding of the sentence’s logic and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 meaning. More specifically.prescient 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 First read for the gist of the sentence. . both words need to work in their respective blanks equally well. clever. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The best way to attack a two-blank SC problem is to go one blank at a time.farcical 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) loathed. and the way people in the 1800s initially 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 thought of him in his own day.

you give yourself an 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 advantage on every two-blank question. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) talented. Tesla 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 isn’t loathed today. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 so you are looking for a word along the lines of great. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) laudable. Prescient 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 means “to have foresight. since you want a word that is close in meaning to wacky or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 unbelievable. but not now. respected. off-base. you have to look at choice (E). you would still have a one-in-three chance of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 getting it correct now that (B) and (D) are crossed out. If you had no idea what was in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 second blank of this problem. If you do. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Think of these as a pair of shoes—both should fit equally well in order 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to balance out the sentence’s logic. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 first words of these pairs could all work.prescient 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Choices (B) and (D) are definitely out.spurious (B) frivolous. and (E) require some closer inspection. Your next choice is farcical. (C). 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 By using POE and working one blank at a time. Frivolous doesn’t make any sense. start with the first blank. his 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ideas in his heyday may have seemed frivolous. since they positively describe 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Tesla’s status. you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 could still take a guess. Move on to the second word in each pair and compare them 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to your predictions for the second blank.” Someone who is prescient is someone who is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 89 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . . 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 which means “ridiculous. If you don’t know 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 any of the vocabulary words in the remaining three answer choices. Before choosing (C).farcical 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 . even if they’re not the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 most spectacular pair. choices (A). They do this because they 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 don’t look at each blank individually. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Guessing aside. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) admirable. innovative.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 even though the second word is not a good fit. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 clever. . but on 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a hard problem they’re pretty good. So choice (C) might 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 work. so choice (A) can be eliminated. you will end up with an 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answer that has two words that work in the sentence. (The order is not really 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 important.” based on the word farce.licentious (D) loathed. smart. he’s actually respected. unbelievable.plausible 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 . Which word most closely matches 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 wacky. Odds of one-in-three might not sound great. Also. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 For this sample question. and you can start with the second word if you want that to be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 your “thing.”) You want a positive adjective to describe Tesla’s reputation. or impossible? Plausible is the opposite of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 impossible. .

Connotative meanings are more 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 emotional and suggestive. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 For instance. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 As the example shows. (E) wouldn’t work. That’s why working one blank at a time and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 using POE is such an important strategy for these problems. and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 stingy would be negative. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you didn’t know the meaning of plausible. you can use the “connotative vibe” of that word to generate your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 own possible synonyms while eliminating those from the answer choices 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that don’t make sense.petersons. they can be 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 positive or negative. chances are thrifty would be positive. and connotative to the “gut reaction” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 response you have to the word. So. two-blank SC problems often contain a high number 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of difficult vocabulary words. The positive and negative 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 meanings of words are based in their denotative and connotative meanings. If you do this.com . Denotations tend to be more neutral. whereas a word’s denotative meaning is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 literal. although they are very close in meaning. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The Positives and Negatives of SC 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Thinking in terms of positive and negative can help narrow down answer 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choices when you’ve maxed out other techniques. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 90 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 Use the fact that denote and dictionary both start with the letter “d” to 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 link those two concepts together in your head. you may have inferred 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 what it means since that word has been used twice already in this 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 chapter. people thought 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 those ideas were ridiculous. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you should be able to eliminate some answer choices and then take a good 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 guess. Tesla was ahead of his time if he was able to come up with 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 wireless communication. The best answer is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choice (C). but according to the sentence.Part III: Reviewing the Sections Tip Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ahead of his time. If you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 can determine whether the missing word is supposed to be positive or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 negative. Because of the subjective nature of connotations. If you were to give a positive or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 negative sign to these words. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Connotation and Denotation 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Every word has at least one denotative and connotative meaning. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 easiest way to remember which is which is to connect denotative to a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word’s dictionary definition. the word thrifty conjures up specific ideas and associations in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 comparison with those for the word stingy.

you can’t safely bet that your choice will be correct. Read the sentence again to see whether the blank or blanks 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 should be filled by a positive or negative word. However. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 91 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . two shorter separate passages. however. You have 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to try some of the other sleuthing methods offered here in this chapter. All of these 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 variations will then have five to thirteen questions after them. look at the answer choices and eliminate those that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 don’t match the positive/negative connotations of your projected answer. you should have already gone through the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 basic steps for answering a SC question. It makes sense to learn 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 about these lengthier passages first. and can help you get closer to the right answer on certain 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 SC problems. You may have one very long 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passage. You can even write a minus 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sign (2) or a plus sign (1) in the blanks to represent the type of word that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 should go there.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 To use the plus/minus method. such 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 as looking at the roots/word parts while making connections between 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 words you know and similarities you see in the answer choices. using positive/negative will never be considered the world’s 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 greatest technique. Now. and there are three answer choices with positive 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 connotations. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 but also have completely different meanings. The passages 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 themselves will range from 500 to 800 words. of answer choices that may seem positive or negative. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Be careful. and then move on to the morsel-sized 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (100-word) reading passages. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 To be honest. it is yet another tool you have at your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 disposal. These passages take the most time to read. or two paired passages. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Reading Comprehension: So Many Words. There’s a passage composed of several paragraphs 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 followed by several multiple-choice questions. including coming up with your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 own answer. So 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Little Time 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Most of your time on the Critical Reading section will be spent working on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the longer reading passages. and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 they have the most questions attached to them. If you’re looking for a word 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that is positive. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The Long Reading Comprehension Passages 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The Reading Comprehension section of the SAT is typical of most 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 standardized tests.

but there are others. For example. a question that relates to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the first sentence in paragraph 1 will appear first in the set of questions that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 follows that passage. and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 comparative arguments. rhetorical devices. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Understand the point of view. They will be crafted to more closely reflect the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 types of reading and critical analysis you’re already doing as part of your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 high school coursework. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The passages themselves will come from a range of fields: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Natural Sciences 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Humanities 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Social Sciences 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Literary Fiction—this is new! 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The questions after each passage are NOT arranged by difficulty. too. since you will be tested on how 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 carefully and keenly you read in a short period of time. you also need to: 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Figure out the meanings of words in context. Not only must you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 understand what’s happening in the passage. You’ll also be asked to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 infer meaning based on stated details. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Those are the main items. the CR section tests your reading fluency. Most questions will also include a reference to a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 specific paragraph or line number that corresponds to the passage. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 relationships among parts of a text. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Isolate and connect details.com . rather 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 than the last one. It wants to see how 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 well you can read for the details. cause and effect. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In a nutshell. and message of a text. which is one of the more complex 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tasks of reading. Instead. That 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 means that the first question may be the most challenging to answer.Part III: Reviewing the Sections Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 This long reading comprehension passages make up a section that is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 appropriately named Critical Reading (CR). 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Determine the author’s perspective. meaning. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 92 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. the questions are arranged in rough chronological 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 order as they relate to the passage. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reading passages are designed to measure your ability to identify genre.petersons. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Determine the main idea.

but probably only on a dare. The most obvious purpose is to read to answer the questions. but note the word analyzes. expect to encounter dry writing about bland 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 topics.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The directions for this section are quite simple and to the point. since it can cause 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 your mind to wander in search of better things to think about. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 As you read. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Every passage will have a brief italicized introduction before it. linked together. The purpose of this passage is to analyze the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 story. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and the individual paragraphs hold the details that support that main idea. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Here’s an example passage introduction: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The following passage analyzes one of Eudora Welty’s short stories. a descriptive essay. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 You don’t need to know who Eudora Welty is. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Each paragraph. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 “What kind of argument does the author make about this story?” This 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 point. There 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 93 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Often the main idea is connected to the author’s purpose or perspective. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 which is a word you do know. randomly choosing answers to put 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 yourself out of your misery. You want to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 figure out the author’s thesis. Such bland safe writing can be a chore to read. Worse. or purpose. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 but it’s doubtful. or reading with a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 purpose. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The way to avoid this trap is to practice active reading. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and what the overall idea might be. Instead.” It could be done. then look and see what details support this 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 controlling idea—what evidence is there in the passage to back it up. a journal article. ask yourself. is basically the main idea of the passage. This means the author will be critical. try to decipher the author’s main purpose for writing the text. Don’t skip 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 this! It can offer clues about the author’s purpose and possibly the main idea 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of the passage. you first want to actively search for the overall idea of the passage. They will 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 look something like this: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Directions: Answer the questions below based on the information in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the accompanying passage. it will often flat out tell you the type of passage 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 it is—an excerpt from a novel. you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 might groan and jump to the questions. Knowing this. forms the whole picture of the passage. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Getting Into the Act of Active Reading 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 It would be hard to describe the content of reading passages as “exciting” or 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 “riveting. Besides clues. To 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 do this. You might find a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passage about some historical figure or current trend that you’re really into. a speech.

give information or inform. It may include facts. Armed with this knowledge. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The basic intent is to expose the reader to new ideas. Make notations or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 underline key points as you read. statistics.petersons. with lots of supporting details. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There is a great deal of overlap between actively reading a CR passage 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and creating your essay for the Writing section of the SAT. describe. What you can do is come up 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with a “main idea” word. any unfamiliar technical words will 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 be defined in the margins of each passage. However. you won’t be thrown by an 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 excerpt from Hemingway. followed by an articles about erosion and the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Grand Canyon—a juxtaposition (good vocabulary word!) that could 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 happen on the new test. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 because some paragraphs make their point at the end or combine several 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentences to get the idea across to the reader. which is quite different from 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 expository writing. though. phrase. You can use those notes later when delving back into 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the passage to answer specific questions. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 which means they were very information-based and fact heavy. These passages may also include 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 more specialized vocabulary. and the SAT essay 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 readers will be analyzing your essay the same way you judged the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reading passages. For the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reading passages. When you get to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the essay section in Chapter 6. you are analyzing existing writing to understand 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 how the main idea and supporting details fit together. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Using your pencil is another quality of active reading. The new 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 SAT will include passages of literary fiction. often with the intent to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 persuade or argue. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Expository Writing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Expository writing is used to explain. or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 quotations as evidence to support a view. or sentence for each paragraph and jot it 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 down in the margin. the SAT’s reading passages were strictly expository nonfiction. the process will be reversed. Each paragraph should have its own main 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 idea. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Underline these if you see them. research findings. This isn’t a failsafe method. You will be 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 creating the main idea and supporting details.com . Fiction: Types of CR Passages 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In the past.Part III: Reviewing the Sections Tip 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 will only be one central idea in each passage. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 94 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Reading actively will help you trace the development of an argument over 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 several paragraphs. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Fact vs. usually conveyed in a topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph.

. Cause-Effect 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reaction” effect of because. since. this led to. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 NOTE: Paired 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 compared to passages may 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 show contrast9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ing views on a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 topic. conse9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 effects. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 for example. Think about how Author describes Description 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 characteristics are the description a topic through 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 supports the main examples. . now. chronological or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 finally.. Author traces a Problem9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 problems first and therefore. topic. resulting 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 are offered. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the causes and therefore.or. effect. cause. nevertheless. similarly. events. thus 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 95 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . Chronology 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to the author’s before.. differences 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 discussed but. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 this led to. as. second. then. however. during. thus 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Identify the because. only..then.. so 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 then. or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 either. . yet. not long Author lists Sequence/ 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sequence connects after. listing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 idea features or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 characteristics 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Note how the on (date). aspects of a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 unless. until numerical order 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Look for opposites/ Author discusses despite. not more issues. conseproblem and its Solution 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 see what solutions quently. as well as. . if .Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Textual 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Pattern Description Signal Words While Reading . . so.but Comparison9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 contrasting sides also. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 accordingly. quently. similarities or Contrast 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of the topics although. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 otherwise. concepts in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 purpose first. since.. if123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 . so solution 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that. while. on about one or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the other hand. as a result. as a result. when. nevertheless. nevertheless. meanwhile. after. so. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 accordingly. facts. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Note the “chain Author lists cause..

9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Literary Fiction 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 A literary fiction passage is like a story. If a reference line number is not given. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 96 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 usually in the form of line or paragraph references. the passages may be very descriptive or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 introspective rather than action-based.com . The passages could be from a short story or from a novel.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Expository writing from three of the four fields—natural sciences. There is a beginning. Even 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 though they will be narrative in nature. and the humanities. These patterns will 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 apply to the passages you’ll see from three of the four fields: natural 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sciences. middle. mark it in the passage. Note any words that suggest the type of pas9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sage. Read the Italicized Introduction 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 This can often clue you in to the author’s purpose and attitude 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 toward the subject. such as on a character’s decisions or motivations. described in the chart on page 95. Since a timed test is not a perfect world. Read the Questions Next 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 People debate back and forth about whether you should read the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passage first or the questions first. and the pas9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sage’s overall main idea. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. the kind of argument the author might make. a question connects to a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 detail or issue in the passage that will change or develop through a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 series of paragraphs. Read the questions before diving 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 into the passage. The questions will ask you to reflect on and evaluate 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 some aspect of that passage. Most likely the selected passage will 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 come from somewhere deep within the source novel or story. usually in that order unless the author gets all “artsy” and start things at 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the end. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Basic Strategy for Tackling all the Long Critical 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Reading Passages 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 You can approach any text in the same way. In a perfect world. you have 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to cut corners wherever you can. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you come across something in a paragraph that connects to a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question. You can underline key words in the question 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 stems and keep them in mind as you read. social 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sciences.petersons. The questions will direct 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you to the part of the passage that you’ll need to help answer them. and an 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 end. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 just as you would the author’s purpose in an expository passage. or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 textual patterns. then 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you can use your notes to go back to the passage and double-check 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 what the best possible answer may be. Often. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1. and the humanities—will usually fall into one of these formats. you would 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 read the passage at your leisure and respond at length to any 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question asked. social sciences. with just a simple 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 italicized blurb before it.

but answering them last gives you the added advantage of having 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 97 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Once you answer all the questions. simply because the answers to the other 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions can help give you a good idea as to the overall picture of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the text and a better chance at answering the question correctly. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you’re also reading to get the gist of the passage as a whole. you may need to answer 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the other questions first. and others will relate to both passages together. and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 might not be relevant to any of the questions. These views may be related. (Keeping Questions In Mind). The goal is to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answer questions. If you come across a question that deals with the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 general tone or summary of the passage. while the second 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passage focuses on how grape jelly is made. Be mindful that since these questions are 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 arranged chronologically. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 either. You should have the questions in mind. Don’t 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 mull over every little detail. Paired passages give you two different views 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 on a related topic or theme. stop reading. At the same time. These are commonly known 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 as the paired reading passages. Both passages talk about 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 pb&j sandwiches. Think of it as 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 mentally jogging. but 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 occasionally two passages will appear together. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 4. those on both passages may not necessarily be the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 hardest. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 first passage talks about the history of peanut butter.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3. Move on to the next 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passage and repeat the four steps just described. since that will just slow you down. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Skimming the passage means reading with big but fast eyes— 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reading as quickly as you can while still understanding the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 material. Skim the Passage. Some questions will pertain to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a specific passage. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2gether 4ever: The Paired Passages 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Most reading passages you encounter will be stand-alone essays. Answer the Questions As You Skim the Passage 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Skip harder questions and come back to them after answering the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 easier ones. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 or they may connect or support one another. they may contrast. but they have different views about the same topic. but not lazily strolling. not read the passage. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Imagine two passages praising peanut butter and jelly sandwiches. Then move on to the questions 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that refer to both passages. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Definitely answer all the questions on the first passage first and then answer 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 all the questions about the second passage. You’re not sprinting. and keep a 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 lookout for details that relate to those questions.

“How are the two passages related to each other?” “Do they 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 contrast viewpoints. but you should handle them as you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 would any other stand-alone RC passages.com . 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 98 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. marked by 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Comprehension the use of line or paragraph references. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Reasoning These questions include identifying cause and effect. there are three categories of questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 following the critical reading passages: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Question Description 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Vocabulary covers vocabulary used in a specific context in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in Context passage. These problems typically require 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 some work to answer.petersons. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Literal deals with supporting details and ideas. and follow9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ing the logic of an argument. If you don’t have a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 great deal of time to spend on the dual passage questions. The only real difference is the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 dual-passage questions. Another way to state this 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 is to say. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 making inferences. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If the dual passage questions seem tough to you. evaluat123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ing the author’s assumptions and purpose. “Don’t rush through easier problems in order to have more time to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 work on difficult. and there are better ways to earn points than 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 spending large amounts of time answering them. recognizing implications. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 You can then answer all the one passage questions first. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Paired passages may look strange. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Extended requires you to synthesize and analyze information.” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Critical Reading Question Types: Seeing the Forest 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 for the Trees 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 According to the College Board. Before tackling these problems it helps to ask 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 yourself. involved questions. look them over 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and see if you can take an educated guess. simply save the paired 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passages until the end and answer all the other questions in the section first. Every question counts the same. or do they agree?” Understanding the similarities and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 differences between the two passages will help you answer the question 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 about both passages. Most of the questions in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 this section will be in this category.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 thought about the passages more by responding to them individually with 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 their own questions.

This should give you sufficient 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 context to understand the meaning of the word. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 more comfortable you get using them. along with the lines 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 above and below it. and this is why it’s important for you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to try strategies and techniques on all the sample questions you encounter in 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 this book. you’ll get a chance to see them in action 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in connection with the sample passage on page 106. Another good way to state this is to read the sentence 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 before the word occurs. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Vocabulary-in-Context Questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Vocabulary-in-context questions are very direct. the more opportunities you find to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 use them. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Think of your own word or phrase to replace the one in question. the easier 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 it will be for you to use them on the real SAT. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 With your substitution in mind. the sentence the word occurs in. The better acquainted you become with the strategies. The words usually have more than 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 one meaning. Most strategies are recyclable. They ask you about the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 meaning of a vocabulary word within a specific context in the passage. They 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 include a line reference and five choices. which can make the questions tricky. and the test-makers will intentionally 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choose a word with shades of meaning that are dependent on the context of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the sentence. especially if the line is the first sentence in a new 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 paragraph. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The fact that you use the same strategy on RC vocab questions and SC 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 problems illustrates an important point. What’s important to 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 remember is that the most obvious definition of the word is not necessarily 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the best choice. and then the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentence after the word occurs.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There are variations of these question types that we’ll break down further. you can apply techniques similar to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the ones used to answer a sentence completion question: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Reread the line containing the word or phrase. read through the answer choices and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choose the one that best matches your own word choice. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 99 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 After learning about each of them. The key is context. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Vocab-in-Context questions will look something like: 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The word trifling in line 5 could best be replaced by 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In line 53. the word inculcated means 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 When faced with a vocabulary question. The process feeds on itself.

The answers can 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 help with this. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Answering other comprehension questions might involve rereading and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 understanding the passage. . because they ask you to paraphrase the highlighted phrase. and then figure out 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 what the author meant—the intention behind the expression. Use them to fact check against what was actually stated 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in the passage. these questions are similar to vocabulary-in-context 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions. Some questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 will focus on textual details. (Recycling at work again!) The phrase can 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 be translated into more common words with more obvious connotative 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 meanings. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Literal comprehension questions can look like: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In line 5. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Phrase/Expressions questions will look like: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In context. A common 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 phrase or expression is framed in quotation marks or italicized. nail-biting experience (line 23) suggests that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The phrase back on his feet (line 49) most nearly means 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 To solve these questions. In some cases. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The last three sentences in the passage provide— 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 To answer these questions. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Literal Comprehension Questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Literal comprehension questions can be the most straightforward and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 easiest of the types of questions you’ll see in this section. . but skimming can be your best tactic with literal 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 comprehension questions. and you’re 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 asked to either interpret its meaning or decide how or why it is used by the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 author. so to speak. the author’s techniques. Some of the answers to these are literally located 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 within the passage. the animal described is a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 All of these factors support the author’s point of view except— 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The author’s point about the role of the media is made mainly 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 through . you have to first interpret its meaning. use your notations and any key words in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question that direct you to a specific part of the passage. apply the same techniques you used to solve the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 vocabulary-in-context questions. and details that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 support the main idea. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 100 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. and other answers are paraphrases of actual lines. In 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 other situations. If only part of the answer applies.petersons. then it isn’t a good choice. such as its organization.com .Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Phrase/Expression Questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Chances are good that you’ll see at least one of these questions. Others will involve the technical aspects of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passage. too.

9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Symbol An object that stands for The rose represents 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 something else love. Brushing up on the most 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 popular literary terms is a good idea for two reasons—familiarity will make 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 it easier to deal with these types of questions and can save you time. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Irony Statement that says one The roses lasted 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 thing but means the opposite much longer than 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 their love. These should be terms you’ve seen before in your English or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 literature classes. such as simile. their definitions. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of like or as 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Personification A type of metaphor. outrageous She wore so much 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 exaggeration used for effect makeup she had to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 use a chisel to get it 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 off. The more 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 obscure or unusual terms won’t be included. and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 examples of each. personification. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Tone The attitude created by the The author’s tone 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 author. there will be some questions containing literary 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 terminology. It gives The rose spoke of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 inanimate objects or abstract love. Use the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 following chart as a reference for literary terms. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 terms into a single 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 expression 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 101 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . indicated through can range from 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 optimistic and joyful word choice 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to pessimistic and 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 depressing. and metaphor. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 combines a pair of contrary beautiful disaster. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Oxymoron Type of paradox that Sweet sorrow. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ideas human characteristics 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Hyperbole Extreme. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 use of the words like or as 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Metaphor Comparison without the use Love is a rose. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Literary Term Definition Example 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Simile Comparison of two different Love is like a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 things or ideas through the blooming rose.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Literary Terms Questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 On the new SAT.

the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 literal meaning. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Paradox Contradictory statement Youth is wasted on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that seems absurd but the young. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 They can be about a variety of things—the author’s purpose. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Allegory Any writing that has a In Dante’s Divine 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 double meaning—the first Comedy. or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 thing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 Parody A work that mimics the Don Quixote is 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 manner and characteristics Cervantes’s parody 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of a particular literary work of a medieval 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in order to make fun of romance. make learning the term a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 priority and learn it well so it doesn’t become your Achilles’ heel. and a character Beatrice 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 second more symbolic/ represents both the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 conceptual meaning actual woman Dante 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 knew and his 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 concept of divine 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 revelation. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you name it. Simile. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 102 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Literary Term Definition Example 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Mood The atmosphere or tone of a The mood is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 literary work connected to 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 emotions—how the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reader feels when 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reading the passage. and personification are easier to recognize than 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 some of the others simply because they are so pervasive in speaking and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 writing inside and outside of a literature class. (Ah ha! 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Allusion!) 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Extended Reasoning Questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 A lot of extended-reasoning questions will have the word “author” in them. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 those same features.com . 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Standardized tests Allusion Reference to a mythological. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reveals a truth 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Brushing up on these terms is the best way to arm yourself for literary terms 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions.petersons. tone. Biblical person. metaphor. What they’re really asking is for you to make inferences in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 order to answer the question. place. or can be a person’s 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Achilles heel. opinion. If you can’t readily come up 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with an example for a particular term in the chart. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 literary. historical.

incredulous tone. and consider the author’s purpose 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and attitude. or the reader. In these situations. Unfortunately. you have to infer meaning by 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 reading between the lines. you’re interpreting the tone of some9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 one’s voice along with what is said. Answering these questions is very much like 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answering SC problems. Tone/Attitude Questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Tone questions will ask you to figure out the author’s attitude toward a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 subject. “You did what?” Think about how this phrase would sound 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 after you told your teacher that you just melted down the lab because 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you were napping. depending on your level of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 preparedness and familiarity. Now think about how those same words would 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sound after you told your science teacher you just figured out a way to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 travel faster than light. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Usually when you interpret tone. incorporating the other bits and pieces of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 information you gleaned while reading. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 For an example of how voice affects tone. Since the range of these 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions is larger in scope than in the other two question categories. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Following are some variations of extended-reasoning questions: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1. These questions could also involve a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 character’s attitude. The first statement would have an angry tone. in written work you can’t 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 actually hear the author read aloud the passage to figure out how he feels 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 about it. the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 major question stems you’re likely to see are discussed here so you can zone 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in on those that are more challenging or sneaky. since once again you have to find clues that will 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 lead you to the correct answer. a character. it involves words said aloud in tandem with 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the word choice. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 while the second utterance would have a bewildered. You have to analyze the connotative and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 denotative meanings of words. consider a science teacher 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 saying. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 One trick when answering these questions is to disregard answer choices 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that repeat something that was mentioned explicitly in the passage. The clues for an extended-response question 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 are found in the passage sentences. You’re 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 looking for what is not said. since literary fiction passages will undoubtedly involve 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 characters and their motivations or feelings. rather than what is. so all you can do is look carefully at the words the author uses.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 You have to draw a conclusion or make an assumption based on what is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 implied in the passage. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 103 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . In other words.

. If the purpose is very 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 informational. you just 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 have to be a careful reader. If the question addresses a larger portion of the passage or the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passage as a whole. Regardless of how 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 emphatic an author may seem about the topic at hand. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Although there’s no trick to answering these questions. keep in mind what the author said that gave you an 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 impression of how he/she feels about his/her topic. The attitude can be linked to the purpose. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Questions of this type might resemble: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In the third paragraph. Actually. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There are no hard-and-fast correlations between purpose and attitude. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. then the author’s attitude may be neutral. If the question refers to a specific sentence or 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 paragraph. can help you identify clues such as 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 word choice and supportive details to determine whether the author’s tone 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 is critical versus comical. .com . but 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 knowing that one influences the other. and try to categorize it as positive. especially if you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 can’t figure out how he feels one way or the other about the topic at hand. Probably the best tactic for solving these problems is to read the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question and come up with your own answers.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Example of tone/attitude questions: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The author’s description of the tenement conditions in lines 47–53 is . the author mentions faded roses in order to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 emphasize which point about the main character? 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 104 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Which best describes the author’s view of the rights of teenagers? 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Being prepared for tone/attitude questions is easier if you think about the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 author’s attitude as you skim. concentrate on the connotative meanings of the words in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentence. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 or neutral. just as you would for the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions about main idea and author’s purpose. the right answer is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 usually not the most radical or extreme of the choices. Author’s purpose questions involve asking you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to figure out why the author made the decisions he or she made in writing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 something in the passage.petersons. the correct answer 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 will never be extreme or worded so strongly as to make the author sound 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 too wacky or irrational. . negative. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The character’s attitude toward the changes in her hometown since the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 hurricane can best be described as one of . Especially note if the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tone changes throughout the passage. . for instance. since that’s prime material for a juicy 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question. Author’s Purpose or Intent Questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 You might think that you have to be a mind reader to figure out what the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 author really means or suggests by saying something.

and thus what he or she implies by certain statements 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 throughout the passage. then go and look at 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the answer choices. then main idea or focus questions are often 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ripe for the plucking. On the other hand. you can 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 immediately tell that you’re not looking for a specific fact or statement in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the passage. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The passage as a whole is most concerned with 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you like. pick that answer and move on. . 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 With any variation of this type of question. and use that to guide your process of elimination 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with the answer choices. Main Idea or Focus Questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you’ve been actively reading. look back 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 at the first and last sentences. They’ll ask you to state the main idea that you’ve been 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 searching for while skimming through the passage. you can skip these questions and answer the others first. since those may provide a clearer picture 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of how an idea was introduced and then concluded in that particular 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 paragraph. These questions may 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 deal with the main idea of the whole passage. since 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 those can help you come to a conclusion about the main idea or theme by 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 examining the passage’s details. If your main idea is stated in some form in the answer 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choices. Instead. . Think about what the author is advocating 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 overall in the passage. Often the italicized introductions to the passages 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 provide more information than you might think about the author’s 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 perspective. if you feel you’ve done 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a good job at determining the main idea of the passage. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3. you’re supposed to make an inference about the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 author’s intention—the message behind the words. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 105 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . or ask specifically about the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 main purpose of a single paragraph. From this. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Main Idea/Focus questions start out like: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The primary focus of this passage is on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The primary purpose of this passage is 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Both passages focus primarily on .Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win Tip 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The information in lines 27–31 suggests that the author is very 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 concerned about 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In the second example. the key word is suggests. the answers that seem the most 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 extreme are likely to be wrong. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If a question asks for the main idea of a specific paragraph.

Bathing also played an important role in the lives of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Greeks. After you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 take a shot at answering each question.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Watch out for answer choices that are partially correct.com . this 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (5) trend in relaxation and rejuvenation has its roots in an ancient 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and well-perfected form of bathing. So. their love of cleanliness. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The following passage is excerpted from a popular journal of humanities.petersons. the growing 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 trend in spa vacations in tandem with the burgeoning number of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 day spas sprouting up throughout metropolitan areas will soon 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 make them as ubiquitous as other traditional retreats. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Line Initially considered an indulgence for the affluent. These choices 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 mention smaller ideas or issues from the passage. The founders of this growth 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 industry were none other than the Romans. read through the explanations for 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 them. dating 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 back to early Egypt. it was 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 during the heyday of the Roman Empire that bathing was 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 elevated to a level of sophistication and complexity yet to be 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (20) replicated in even the most elite and fancy resorts. reading 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 actively while you skim can help keep these diversionary choices out of your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 line of vision when concentrating on the big picture of a passage. Yet. pinpointing any question types that you need more practice on. circa 1700 B. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 There will be distractor-like choices which may include an aspect of the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passage’s main idea. Read 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 through this passage and then answer the questions that follow. although scant physical remains exist 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (15) today. but are too narrow if you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 really step back mentally and think about everything the passage is about. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The art of bathing has been practiced for centuries. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 106 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. historians assert that Egyptian palaces 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 contained bathing rooms. supported with archaeological evidence of bathing rooms 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 located in the palace of Knossos. again. who merged together 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 their mastery of intricate engineering.C. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and their desire to dominate and convert conquered subjects to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (10) their favored lifestyle through the establishment of bathing as a 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 necessary pastime. but just miss the mark a little. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Applying the Four-Step Process to Critical 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Reading Passages 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Now it’s time to put your skills and strategies to work all at once. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Directions: Answer the questions below based on the information in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the accompanying passage. Yet.

9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (40) reflecting the fashionable obsession with hairless bodies. Post exercise. The air and water remained a constant 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 high temperature well above 100 degrees Fahrenheit. the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 frigidarium. which 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 was seen as a prerequisite to entering the baths. In this cold room. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 themselves. women usually swam or tried their hand at 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (30) a more feminine pursuit called Trochus. the tepidarium. the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 equivalent to today’s locker rooms. After 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 having one or more of these “spa treatments.” bathers would 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 submerge themselves in tepid. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 107 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . heated by 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the ingenious under floor heating system called the hypocaust. sweat. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Other steam rooms. While men 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 engaged in more vigorous forms of exertion. such as the sudatorium or laconicum. a game involving rolling 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a metal hoop with a hooked stick. bathers would commence their 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 cleansing practices by immersing themselves in cold water. and oil from the body. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The most noteworthy feature of the baths involved a series of 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (35) rooms with controlled air and water temperatures. such as lifting 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 weights or wrestling. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Scholars still marvel today at the effectiveness of this brilliantly 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (50) efficient furnace system below ground that transported water to 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the appropriate pool while drawing hot air underneath the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 flooring and through its hollow-brick walls.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The intricate and systematic ritual of Roman bathing is most 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 revealing via the architectural structure of the baths. or thermae. the apodyterium 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 allowed bathers space to change and prepare for bathing. Beyond each thermae’s entrance was usually an open 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 courtyard. The first in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the sequence. was a place for 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 further bathing preparation. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The hottest room in the bath’s labyrinth contained a large 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 pool approximately three feet in depth. lukewarm water. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Depilation was also available for those more hirsute bathers. a slave would use a metal instru9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ment called a strigil to scrape dirt. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (60) closing their pores and leaving refreshed. In this courtyard. called a palaestra. visitors 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 would exercise to elevate body temperatures and perspire. since no actual documents remain that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (55) outline the order in which each room was used in the baths. may 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 have diverted bathers on their path to the final destination. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The actual order of bathing activities has been a contentious 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 topic among scholars. The calidarium served to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (45) create a very steamy atmosphere to open the pores and release 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 toxins from the body. which could be considered the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (25) forerunner to a modern gymnasium. or warm room.

The elaborate mosaics and frescoes that adorned the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 floors and walls of many bathing rooms stand as further cultural 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (75) and architectural evidence of how the baths were revered for 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 their form and function in ancient Roman society. and often whole families would come to socialize and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 recreate while attending to their personal hygiene. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (70) The societal significance of these baths is also mirrored in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 their opulent decoration and extensive statuary. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) separated.petersons. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) elevate their body temperatures. many of which 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 were plundered over time for use in later structures and monu9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ments. The word merged in line 7 most nearly means 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) enhanced. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) emphasize other cultures that practiced the ritual. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) explain why bathing is an important ritual. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) scrape their bodies with a strigil.com . According to paragraph 3. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 3. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) connected. the author’s inclusion of the history of bathing 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 primarily serves to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) discuss the evolution of an ancient practice. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) establish a basis/context for the rest of the passage. and a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 source of public entertainment. Baths were often the nexus of social interaction. The bathing complex often 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (65) included a performance area where local entertainment from 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 juggling to philosophical oratory was offered as icing on the cake 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to the overall experience. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) combined. after entering each thermae. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) compare ancient practices to modern methods. Food and drink were available to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 purchase. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 acting as a community center. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 108 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. In paragraph 2.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The function of Roman baths served much more than to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 cleanse the body. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) play games such as Trochus. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) exercise in the open courtyard. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) compressed. bathers 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 would 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) change into their bathing clothes. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 2. fitness and health facility.

the phrase icing on the cake (line 66) means 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) extra food. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) an explanation of the topic’s importance. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 109 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) the ancient ritualized process of Roman bathing. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 5. The information in the last paragraph provides 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) a summary of the points made earlier. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) the architectural and cultural significance of Roman bathing. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) required activity. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) an additional aspect of the main topic. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) explain the importance of the final bathing room. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) a reason for the significance of the topic.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 4. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) open performances. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 (C) the significance of bathing to the Romans. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) amusing bonus. In context. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) pretentious. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 7. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) enthusiastic. In paragraph 5. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) admiring. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) the evolution of bathing over time. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) colloquial. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 8. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) a context for why baths were used. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) offer other alternatives to the bathing sequence. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) refute the bathing sequence outlined by scholars. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 6. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) show the complexity of bathing structures. the author’s description of the underground furnace 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 system is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) didactic. The information in lines 56–60 primarily serves to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) illustrate the debate about the bathing sequence. The primary focus of this passage is on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) the similarities between modern-day spas and ancient baths. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) free dessert.

The background information about Egyptians and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Greeks helps establish a context for why the passage details Roman baths 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 instead of their predecessors’ versions. After thinking of the answer on your 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 own. This question involves asking you to sequence events 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in the order mentioned in the passage. This question asks you to determine the purpose of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the historical background about bathing in relation to the passage as a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 whole. rather than keeping them separate. yet close together. you have to think 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 about what the majority of the passage discusses. rather than being blended together. since the paragraph men123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tions other cultures that also believed bathing was important. so choice (B) is wrong. However.com . Choice (D) is 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 irrelevant. the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 purpose of this information goes back to supporting the rest of the passage. Choice (C) is the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 antonym of the word’s meaning.Part III: Reviewing the Sections 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Explanation of Questions and Answers 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Question 1: Vocabulary-in-Context 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is B. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Choices (A) and (E) don’t make sense in this context. but it’s not the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 purpose of that paragraph. To find a synonym for merged that fits the context. but it doesn’t mention why. The Romans combined those con9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 cepts. because they didn’t 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 improve upon these things or compact them together. To see how this connects to the whole passage. Literal Comprehension 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is C. and choice (C) is specific only to women. Choices (B) 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and (D) are similar. compare your answer to what happens next in the paragraph. go back to the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 actual sentence in the paragraph. The paragraph states that bathing was impor9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tant. You can see how merged is used to show 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 how baths joined together three different elements considered important to 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the Romans—engineering. choice (C) is the best answer. yet (D) has connotations of three separate things placed 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 side by side. So.petersons. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Question 2: Author’s Purpose/Intent. cleanliness. Choices (A). according to the passage. and converting/controlling their sub9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 jects. since the paragraph doesn’t make comparisons between the past 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and the present. So B is the best replacement word. From 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 lines 25–27. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 which is about the development and importance of Roman baths. This is a perfect example of a vocabulary-in-context 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 question. so that can also be eliminated. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 110 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. even though the last sentence makes reference to contem9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 porary spa resorts. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Choice (A) is true in general about the content of paragraph 2. and (E) occur after the initial 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 exercise. you can see that after entering the thermae. The passage is not just 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 about the history of bathing. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Question 3: Literal Comprehension 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is B. It’s mostly about the layout and use of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 baths by the Romans. Choice (E) is partially correct. too. (D). “visitors would 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 exercise to elevate body temperatures” before changing for the baths. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 correct answer is choice (B).

since you’re looking for an 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answer that supports. the ideas in this 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentence support the first. since lines 56-60 point out other bathing rooms. B and E are not supported in that specific 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 paragraph. To answer this. That sentence mentions other rooms that were a part of the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sequence. since the author is not trying to moralize 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 nor does he use very informal language. look back at the sentence. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In terms of the other choices. To answer this one. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Question 6: Phrase/Expression 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is D. The complexity of the bathhouses comes from the passage as a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 whole. So. the ideas already mentioned in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 paragraph’s previous sentence. Although the author is very positive about the furnace system.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Question 4: Author’s Tone/Attitude 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is D. The author’s attitude seems very 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 complimentary and flattering. but the words “may have diverted” suggest that the author is not 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sure about when bathers used these rooms or not. Read the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 111 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . you’re concentrating only on one 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 part of the passage—the description of the hypocaust. which sounds like the author thinks as highly of this system as the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 scholars who “marvel” at it even today. The line referred to in the question is the next sentence in 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the paragraph. and only the purpose of the final bathing room is discussed. the best match 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 is choice (D) 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Choices (A) and (E) don’t match. The first sentence in the paragraph states that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 scholars aren’t exactly sure in what order the ancient Romans used the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 bathing rooms. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 but don’t offer up a different bathing sequence that may have been used. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Choice (D) is the opposite of what you want. Choice 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) is partially accurate. offering examples of what is mentioned in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 previous sentence. This question asks you to determine the author’s 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tone for a specific paragraph. Scanning the answer choices. This question is a variation of a vocabulary-in9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 context question. since 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 enthusiastic has connotations related more to excitement than to admira9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tion and respect. you have to look back at the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 words the author uses to describe the furnace. not negates. the adjectives 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 “ingenious” and brilliantly efficient” are used to describe the furnace 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 system. In lines 48–50. The correct answer is (A). 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choice (B) is not as close to the author’s tone as is choice (D). Even if the author seems a little 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 formal or pretentious in other paragraphs. This question asks you to look at how one sentence 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 supports or explains another. which is the effect created by the adjectives used in lines 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 48–50. so choice (C) is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 incorrect. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Question 5: Literal Comprehension 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is A.

but the passage concentrates 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 more on the layout and use of the bathhouses. so 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the best answer is choice (B). but is not revisited. The paragraph doesn’t summarize any of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 other points made. since the only reference to 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 food is in the next sentence. The evolution of bathing is referred to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 early in the passage. Did you forget to go back 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 112 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. The last paragraph raises the social importance of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the baths by mentioning the tile work and other art Romans used as 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 decoration in the baths.petersons. like (C) and (E). You’re 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 obviously doing things like actively reading and going back to find the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answer in the passage correctly. To answer this question. but they 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 are not the larger focus of the passage.” Looking at the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 answer choices. You 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 should’ve come up with something like “interesting benefit. Choice (E) is redundant. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Other choices.Part III: Reviewing the Sections Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentence with that phrase missing. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 and therefore doesn’t make sense if substituted for the phrase in question. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Question 8: Main Idea/Focus 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is D. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you had no problems answering any of these questions. and substitute your own answer. Choices (C). 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Choice (E) only includes part of what the passage is about. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Bathing is definitely significant to the Romans. so choice (A) can be eliminated.com . The juggling and other entertainment discussed 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 is not mandatory to watch. If you missed some questions. (D). you’ll see how the middle 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 4–5 paragraphs discuss the ritualized process of Roman bathing. so choice (B) is wrong. This is the first time it is discussed in the passage. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If you look at the passage and simply count up the number of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 paragraphs devoted to each answer choice. and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) don’t make sense if you think about what they are really saying. since modern-day spas are only 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 mentioned in the first paragraph. the closest in meaning to the phrase used in context is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choice (D) Choices (A) and (C) don’t make sense. What does the author focus on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 most? The best answer is choice (D). so that’s not a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 good choice. use this 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 opportunity to learn from your mistakes. so choice (B) can also be eliminated. appear in single paragraphs. so you can 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 eliminate choice (C). and only toward the end 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 refers to the cultural and social importance of the baths. you have to think about 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 what the majority of the passage is about. you should feel 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 good about your chances on the long SAT reading passages. Look over the questions you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 missed and determine where you made the error. Choice (A) is wrong. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Question 7: Literal Comprehension 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is B.

” which 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 translates as. Answer the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in the passage. These paragraph-length passages are 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 approximately 100 words long. the reason behind an author’s word choice. “reading isolated paragraphs closely and carefully. The directions will look similar to this: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Directions: The passage below is followed by questions based on its 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 content. Take the time to practice 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 these techniques. specifically asking about the significance of a particular phrase. you will have to make inferences. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Paragraph-Length Critical Reading: 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Pint-sized but Feisty Passages 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The College Board didn’t leave you empty-handed when they eliminated the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 analogies. the test now contains “snack-sized” versions of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 longer critical reading passages. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Types of Questions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Questions here will be similar to those for longer CR questions. They’ll cut 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to the chase. as 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 well as the author’s purpose or attitude. since the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 directions clearly state that you should answer the questions on the basis of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 “what is stated or implied” in the passage. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The College Board refers to these questions as “discrete reading. you don’t 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 have to rely on experiences or knowledge outside of what is stated in the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passages. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Although these compact passages are indeed shorter. For these questions. However. your “critical eye” as a reader will have 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to be all the more aware of the stated and inferred meanings of the content. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Internalize the directions for the short reading passage section to save 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 time.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to the passage to find the answer? Did you have a clear picture of the main 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 idea when you finished skimming it? 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Learning new techniques can take some time. Because they are so short. they aren’t completely 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 harmless. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the contextual use of a word. since they will give you your best shot at a good score on 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the real SAT. the only test that matters. Instead. you’ll 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 113 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . All you need to know to answer the questions will be within the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passages themselves.” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 One thing to remember is that unlike the sentence completions. followed by two to four multiple-choice 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 questions in the same format and style as those for the longer reading 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 passages. and everyone is going to miss 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 a question or two during the learning process.

Part III: Reviewing the Sections

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definitely make inferences to help pinpoint the answer. Since the passages
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are
short,
the
College
Board
wants
to
see
how
well
you
can
make
smart
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assumptions rather than recall information.
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Some
potential
question
stems
are:
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• The author most likely mentions the faded wallpaper in order to...
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• According to the passage, it can be most reasonably inferred that . . .
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• According to the passage, Welty aimed to convey through her
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writing
.
.
.
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• The reference to the “aging population” (line 3) primarily serves to
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emphasize
.
.
.
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Dealing
with
the
Passages
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To answer these questions, apply the same process as that used for the
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longer reading passages, EXCEPT for skimming. Skimming will be your
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9
downfall with these questions. Since you have so little to work with in terms
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of words, every word will count. Don’t memorize the paragraph, but
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definitely read it both line by line and for its overarching idea.
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Keep in mind the following things when reading these short passages:
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Follow
the
author’s
reasoning
carefully.
Notice
the
style,
the
author’s
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attitude, and the tone.
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• When answering the questions, do so based on what is either stated or
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implied in the passage. Just because an answer choice is true on its
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own doesn’t make it a correct answer. Example: “Life is not easy.”
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We’d all agree that this is a true statement, right? Well, it may be
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easier for some, but we won’t get into that. Even though you may feel
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that this is a true statement, if it is not stated or implied in the passage,
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then
it
is
not
the
right
answer.
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Try these.
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Passage 1
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Line American artist James McNeill Whistler may be best known for
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his 1871 painting of his mother seated in a rocking chair, but
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very few know of his talents beyond the canvas—that of an
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exhibition
designer.
His
monochromatic,
spare
approach
initially
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(5)
threw stuffy Victorian gallery-goers, who were accustomed to
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darkly
draperied
rooms
cluttered
with
wall-to-wall
artwork,
into
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a tizzy. Dictating the décor of his exhibitions down to the wall
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114 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9
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www.petersons.com

Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win

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color and flower vases may seem beyond the norm for an artist,
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but
his
nutty
micromanaging
tendencies
actually
caused
a
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(10)
constructive ripple effect on exhibition design, which evolved
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into
standard
practice
for
museums
and
galleries
today.
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1. The use of the phrase “threw . . . into a tizzy” (lines 5–7) primarily
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serves to
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(A) show a contrast between their expectations and the actual
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experience.
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(B)
suggest
that
Victorians
didn’t
like
change.
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(C) introduce a controversial form of gallery exhibition.
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(D)
question
a
contemporary
method
of
art
display.
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(E) challenge the way exhibitions were displayed then.
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2. The author’s tone throughout the passage is
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(A) critical.
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(B) playful.
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(C) mocking.
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(D) sentimental.
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(E)
detached
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1.
The
correct
answer
is
A.
The
Victorian
reaction
to
Whistler’s
form
of
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exhibitions
was
in
stark
contrast
to
what
they
had
previously
experienced
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and therefore expected when going to see art. That’s Choice (A). Choice B is
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incorrect,
because
it
makes
too
big
of
an
assumption
about
Victorian
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attitudes. Choices C, D and E are incorrect because they don’t make logical
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sense.
The
last
three
choices
all
have
words
in
them
that
relate
to
the
overall
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passage,
but
these
words
are
not
used
in
the
proper
“context.”
That
word
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gets around, doesn’t it?
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2. The correct answer is B. The overall attitude the author conveys is positive
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and humorous in tone, through the use of words such as “tizzy” and
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“nutty.” The author is not critical but complimentary of Whistler, so choice
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A
is
wrong.
The
author
seems
involved
in
the
subject,
so
choice
E
is
out.
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Choices C and D are not supported by the words the author uses to describe
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Whistler’s
impact,
so
those
are
also
incorrect.
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As you can see, it’s really just like the long reading passages, only (1) the
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passages
are
shorter,
and
(2)
the
questions
focus
on
inferences.
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9
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9
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9
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9
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9 115
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1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

Part III: Reviewing the Sections

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Passage 2
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Line “For all serious daring starts from within,” Eudora Welty stated
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in her autobiography’s conclusion. A self-proclaimed “sheltered”
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writer,
her
stories
dared
to
capture
a
vividly
evocative
view
of
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human life via her zealous imagination. Her form of storytelling,
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(5)
steeped
in
description
paired
with
the
bittersweet
truth
of
human
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9
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nature and experience, continuously caused critics and admirers
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alike to query Welty’s muse, especially considering her simple,
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quiet life in Mississippi. Yet this understated woman ventured
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often into settings rich with life’s beauty and pain while docu9
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(10)
menting the Great Depression in photographs for the WPA
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during the 1930s.
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3.
According
to
the
passage,
Welty
aimed
to
convey
through
her
writing
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(A) an appreciation of human nature.
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(B)
an
inventive
yet
accurate
portrait
of
life.
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(C)
a
readily
accessible
story.
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(D) life’s hardships during the 1930s.
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(E) strategies for vivid description.
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4. The author mentions Welty’s job as a WPA photographer to suggest that
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(A)
her
work
influenced
her
craft.
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(B) photography was her first passion.
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(C)
storytelling
is
based
in
the
visual
realm.
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(D) documenting life is a dual process.
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(E)
her
daring
nature
grew
from
photography.
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3. The correct answer is B. The passage states that Welty strove to combine her
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imagination with the reality of people’s lives. Choice A only contains one
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aspect of what Welty strove for in her writing. C and E are incorrect because
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the passage doesn’t indicate either of these assumptions. D is incorrect
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because it is too narrow and specific. Although Welty may have drawn upon
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her
experiences
as
a
photographer
in
the
1930s
when
writing,
there’s
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nothing in the passage that says her writing reflected only one time period.
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4. The correct answer is A. The author asks the reader to make the connection
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between how Welty’s writing was influenced by her work experience
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without
coming
out
and
saying
so.
Choice
B
is
not
supported
in
the
passage,
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9
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so it is incorrect. Although choices C, D and E may seem true, they have no
9
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relevance
to
the
question,
and
should
be
eliminated
as
wrong
answers.
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9
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116 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9
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www.petersons.com

Take It to
the Next Level
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What Makes for a Tough Sentence Completion
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Question?
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Most
of
the
19
sentence
completions
you’ll
encounter
on
the
SAT
will
be
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9
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no-brainers
for
you.
One
feature
that
makes
for
a
no-brainer
question
is
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easy vocabulary. Another feature that makes for a “gimmee” question is a
9
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short, simple sentence—an easily understood statement that doesn’t take
9
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too many twists or turns as it goes. Here’s an example of the kinds of
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straightforward, easy-to-understand sentences and answer choices that
9
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you’ll find in comparatively easy sentence completion questions:
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1.
Many
stage
actors
are
intimidated
by
the
__________
of
drama
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critics,
whose
reviews
can
determine
the
fate
of
a
play
in
a
single
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night.
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(A)
tastes
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(B) power
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(C) expertise
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(D) criticism
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(E) reviews
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The correct answer is (B). Of the five word choices, the one that it makes
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most sense to be intimidated by is power. And this word makes perfect sense
9
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in
the
context
of
the
sentence:
The
ability
to
determine
the
fate
of
a
play
in
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a single night is a good description of a certain type of power. Just for the
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record,
here’s
why
none
of
the
four
wrong-answer
choices
can
compete
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with
(B):
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(A) It makes no sense to be intimidated by tastes, so you can easily
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eliminate (A) without even considering the second part of the
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sentence.
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117

Part III: Reviewing the Sections

Note

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(C) Although it might make sense to be intimidated by someone’s
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“expertise”
(knowledge
or
skill
gained
from
experience),
this
kind
9
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of intimidation doesn’t make as much sense as choice (B), when you
9
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consider
the
second
part
of
the
sentence
as
well.
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(D) It makes no sense to be intimidated by “criticism of drama critics,”
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a
phrase
that
suggests
that
it
is
the
drama
critics
who
are
being
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criticized.
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(E) This choice provides a completion that results in the redundant, and
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very awkward, use of the word “reviews.”
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No knowledge of rocket science is needed to handle questions like this
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9
one! And, believe it or not, you’ll find some SAT sentence completions
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to be even easier! Don’t worry, we won’t waste any more time in this
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lesson
on
no-brainers.
From
here
on,
we’ll
handle
only
the
tougher
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questions.
9
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To crank up the difficulty level of the drama-critic question you just looked
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at,
the
test-makers
might:
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• Use more advanced vocabulary (in the sentence as well as the
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answer choices)
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Provide
“runner-up”
answer
choices
that
require
closer
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judgment calls
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Add
a
second
blank
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Here’s a souped-up variation on the drama-critic question, made tougher in
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all three ways:
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2. Friends of the theater have long decried the __________ of big-city
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drama critics, whose reviews can determine the __________ of a play
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in
a
single
night.
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(A) tactlessness. .popularity
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(B)
callous
indifference.
.outcome
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(C) incisive judgment. .attendance
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(D) disingenuousness. .success
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(E) unfettered sway. .fate
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118 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9
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www.petersons.com

Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win

Note

Take It to the Next Level

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The correct answer is (E). To handle this more difficult version of the
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question,
it
helps
to
know
that
the
word
decry
means
“to
discredit
or
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criticize.” It wouldn’t make much sense for “friends of the theater” to
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discredit
or
criticize
a
drama
critic’s
“incisive
judgement.”
(The
word
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incisive in this context means “keen or sharp.”) So, you can at least
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eliminate choice (C), without even considering the second blank. But the
9
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remaining
four
choices
for
completing
the
first
blank
all
make
sense
as
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characteristics of big-city drama critics as seen by friends of the theater. (Of
9
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course,
it
helps
to
know
that
disingenuousness
means
“insincerity”
and
that
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unfettered sway means “unconstrained influence or power.”) So, you’ll
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need to consider the second blank.
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Choice (B) doesn’t make sense for the second blank. It’s the playwright, not
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the critic, that determines the outcome of a play. Therefore, you can narrow
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your choices to (A), (D), and (E), all of which make sense for completing the
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second
blank.
(A
drama
critic’s
review
can
determine
a
play’s
popularity,
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success, or fate.) But of the three choices, (E) makes the most sense when
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you
consider
the
completed
sentence.
Regardless
of
which
word
(popular9
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ity, success, or fate) you use to complete the second blank, the second part
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of
the
sentence
provides
a
better
description
of
unfettered
sway
than
either
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tactlessness
or
disingenuousness.
In
other
words,
with
(E)
the
sentence
as
a
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whole is more consistent and cohesive.
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If
you
were
paying
attention
to
the
analysis
of
the
preceding
question,
you
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9
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noticed some pretty subtle distinctions between the best answer choice and
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the others. That’s exactly how many of the toughest sentence completion
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questions earn their stripes. By tuning-in to these subtleties, you’ll be ready
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for the toughest completions the test-makers can dish out.
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Test-makers have another way to boost the difficulty level of sentence
9
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completions: they construct longer, more complex sentences that
9
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contain
“signpost”
words.
These
words
connect
the
sentence’s
parts
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9
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together to form a cohesive whole that makes sense with the right
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completion.
We’ll
examine
the
test-makers’
four
favorite
types
of
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connections, and their signposts, later in this lesson.
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9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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9 119
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1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

Part III: Reviewing the Sections

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Strategies
for
Sentence
Completion
Questions
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Here you’ll learn some strategies that you can use for handling sentence
9
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completion questions. But first, attempt each of the following “tougher
9
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than
average”
sample
questions.
Then,
carefully
read
the
explanations,
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9
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which reveal some of these strategies.
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3. Sleep researchers now view sleep as involving degrees of detachment
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from the surrounding world, a __________ whose rhythm is as
9
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unique and as consistent as a signature.
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(A) realm
9
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(B)
progression
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(C) science
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(D) restfulness
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(E)
condition
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The correct answer is (B). The sentence as a whole seems to suggest that
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sleep is a dynamic process involving a series of different stages defined by
9
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degree of detachment. Notice that the purpose of the second clause is to
9
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describe, or restate, what sleep is. This observation is key in getting to the
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correct answer. The missing word refers to “sleep,” so perhaps a word such
9
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as state or condition might occur to you as a logical completion. Choices (C)
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and (D) make no sense as characterizations of sleep, so eliminate them.
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Notice
also
that
“rhythm”
is
mentioned
as
a
feature
or
trait
of
the
missing
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word (“__________ whose rhythm . . .”). To describe a “realm” as having a
9
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rhythm
makes
no
sense,
so
eliminate
(A).
You’ve
narrowed
the
choices
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9
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down to (B) and (E). Read the sentence with each word in turn. Ask yourself
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which
word
is
more
appropriate
and
effective
in
conveying
the
thrust
of
the
9
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9
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sentence—that
sleep
is
a
dynamic
process
involving
a
series
of
different
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9
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stages. The word progression clearly drives home this notion more
9
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pointedly
and
effectively
than
the
word
condition.
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4. African-American legislators today not only __________ their
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constituencies
but
also
serve
as
proxies
in
the
democratic
process
for
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all African Americans; yet the records of some of them __________
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their
struggle
to
extend
certain
ideals
to
encompass
all
citizens.
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(A) serve. .describe
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(B)
abandon.
.affirm
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(C)
promote.
.criticize
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(D) represent. .belie
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(E) influence. .discredit
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120 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9
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www.petersons.com

Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win

Take It to the Next Level

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The correct answer is (D). Notice that the sentence changes direction
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midway
through.
This
change
is
signaled
by
the
key
word
yet,
which
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provides a clue that the second part of the sentence sets up a contrast or
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contradiction
to
the
first
part.
The
words
“not
only
.
.
.
but
also”
are
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9
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important clues that the first blank must complement the phrase “serve as
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proxies . . . .” (Proxy means “substitute.”) A negatively charged word such
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as
harm,
ignore,
or
disagree
with
would
make
no
sense
in
the
first
blank;
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however, a word such as serve, represent, or aid would fit nicely. The
9
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meaning
of
the
second
clause
should
reflect
a
contrast
to
that
of
the
first
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9
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one. Therefore, a word such as ignore, de-emphasize, or trivialize would
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make sense here. Here’s a good paraphrase of the sentence that shows the
9
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idea that it is probably trying to convey:
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In doing their jobs, these legislators have helped (aided) all African
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Americans, yet the records of some of them don’t reflect (they ignore)
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the
efforts
of
these
legislators
as
a
group.
Now
analyze
each
answer
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choice to see how effectively it conveys these ideas:
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(A)
Served
fits
nicely,
but
describe
fails
to
establish
the
necessary
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contrast between the two parts of the sentence. Eliminate (A).
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(B)
Abandoned
doesn’t
fit,
because
it
doesn’t
complement
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“served as proxies. . . .” You can eliminate (B) even without
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considering the second word (affirm).
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(C) Promoted and criticize each seem to make sense in context,
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and together they set up a sense of contrast between the two
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clauses.
So
(C)
is
in
the
running.
However,
it
is
the
goals
or
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9
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interests of a constituency, not the constituency itself that an
9
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elected
representative
promotes.
So
promoted
sets
up
an
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9
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improper idiomatic expression. What’s more, for the word
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criticize
to
establish
a
clear
contrast,
the
first
clause
should
at
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9
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least
suggest
the
opposing
notion
of
approval,
but
it
doesn’t.
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9
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Even though the “flavor” of criticize is in the right direction,
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9
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it
is
not
a
perfect
fit
in
the
context
of
the
sentence
as
a
whole.
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9
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(D) Represented fits nicely. If you don’t know what belie means,
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perhaps you can guess based on its root lie (falsehood),
9
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9
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which provides the sort of contrast between the two clauses
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you’re looking for. To belie is to misrepresent or contradict.
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For example, a smile belies sadness. Similarly, a biography
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can belie the struggle described in the sentence, perhaps by
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mis-describing it as an easier effort than it has in fact been.
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(D)
appears
to
be
a
logical
answer
choice.
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9 121
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1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

Part III: Reviewing the Sections

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(E) Influenced establishes a different meaning for the first clause
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than
the
one
you’re
inferring.
But
influenced
does
make
some
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9
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sense in the first clause. Discredit makes sense as well and
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sets
off
the
necessary
contrast
between
the
two
clauses.
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9
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However, this version of the sentence inappropriately dis9
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9
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credits a struggle, while it makes better sense to discredit the
9
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9
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strugglers.
You
can
eliminate
(E)
based
on
this
defect
alone.
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9
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What’s more, although the word influence makes sense in
9
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9
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context,
it
doesn’t
establish
the
close
parallel
in
ideas
that
the
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9
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correlative phrases “not only . . . but also . . . “call for. (D) is
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9
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better in this respect.
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9
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Strategies
9
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9
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If you read the explanations for the preceding two questions, you already
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9
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picked
up
some
valuable
ideas
for
gaining
a
tactical
advantage
on
SAT
9
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9
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678
sentence completion questions. Here, you’ll review those ideas, and pick up
9
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9
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some
additional
ones.
These
strategies
will
help
you
gain
insights
into
9
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9
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sentence completions so that you can handle them efficiently, while
9
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9
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avoiding
the
kinds
of
blunders
that
average
test-takers
might
make.
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9
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1.
First
try
to
understand
the
sentence,
paying
9
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9
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particular
attention
to
“signpost”
words
9
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9
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and phrases that connect parts of the
9
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9
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sentence
together.
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9
9
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Initially, read the sentence in its entirety, without worrying about how to fill
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9
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678
in
the
blanks
yet.
Try
to
get
a
feel
for
the
topic
and
the
“thrust”
of
the
9
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9
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678
sentence.
Ask
yourself
about
the
point
the
sentence
is
trying
to
make.
Pay
9
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9
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678
particular attention to key, or “signpost,” words that indicate any of the
9
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9
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following:
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9
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• A contrast (pointing out a difference, contradiction, or distinction)
9
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9
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• A similarity (pointing out how two things are analogous or otherwise
9
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the same)
9
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9
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9
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A
restatement
(paraphrasing,
describing,
or
clarifying)
An
effect
9
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9
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(pointing out a conclusion, consequence, or result of a cause or
9
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9
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influence)
9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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122 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9
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www.petersons.com

Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win

Take It to the Next Level

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9
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9
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“Signpost” words can tell you where the sentence is going. Is it continuing
9
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9
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along
one
line
of
thought?
If
so,
you’re
looking
for
a
word
that
supports
9
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9
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678
that thought. Is it changing direction in midstream? If so, you’re looking for
9
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9
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678
a
word
that
sets
up
a
contrast
between
the
thoughts
in
the
sentence.
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9
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9
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Words that signal blanks that go
Words that signal blanks that
9
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9
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with
the
flow:
shift
gears:
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9
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and
but
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also
yet
9
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9
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consequently
although
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as a result
on the other hand
9
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9
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thus
in contrast
9
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9
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hence
however
9
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9
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so
nevertheless
9
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9
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for
example
9
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9
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9
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Question
3
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9
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The sentence as a whole seems to suggest that sleep is a dynamic process
9
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9
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involving a series of different stages defined by degree of detachment.
9
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9
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Notice that the purpose of the second clause is to describe what sleep is.
9
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9
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This observation is key in getting to the correct answer.
9
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Question 4
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In reading this sentence, you should have noticed that it changes direction
9
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9
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midway through. This change is signaled by the keyword yet, which
9
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9
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provides
a
clue
that
the
second
part
of
the
sentence
sets
up
a
contrast
or
9
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9
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contradiction to the first part. You can bet that this structural clue will be
9
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9
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crucial
in
determining
the
best
answer.
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9
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2. As a starting point, complete the sentence with
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your own words before looking at the answer
9
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choices.
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Filling in the blank(s) with your own words first will help get your mental
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wheels turning and get you into the question. If you use this approach,
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you’ll
have
a
much
easier
time
spotting
“sucker
bait”
answer
choices
(and
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9
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you’ll see plenty of them in sentence completions). If the question includes
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two
blanks,
be
sure
that
your
two
“home-grown”
words
make
sense
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considered together.
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9
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9
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9
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9 123
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1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

Part III: Reviewing the Sections

Alert!

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Question 4
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The
words
“not
only
.
.
.
but
also”
provided
clues
that
the
first
blank
must
9
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complement the phrase “served as proxies . . . .” The word aided fit nicely.
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Since
the
sentence’s
second
clause
should
set
up
a
contrast
to
the
first
one,
a
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9
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word such as ignore made sense. With these two words, you’ve made
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overall sense of the sentence, and you can eliminate conflicting answer
9
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choices.
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9
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3.
Don’t
waste
time
trying
to
make
sense
of
answer
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choices that don’t fit.
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For
any
sentence
completion
question,
you’re
bound
to
find
at
least
one
or
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two choices that make little or no sense in the context of the sentence. Clear
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those away first, so that you can focus your attention on the viable
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candidates. If the sentence contains two blanks, you can eliminate any
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answer choice in which one of the words considered alone makes no sense.
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Question 3
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The
correct
answer
must
make
sense
as
a
characterization
of
sleep.
Choices
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(C) and (D) obviously make no sense, so you can easily eliminate them.
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Since
it
makes
no
sense
to
describe
a
“realm”
as
having
a
rhythm,
you
can
9
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9
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also eliminate choice (A).
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Question
4
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You can eliminate choice (B) because abandon doesn’t make sense in the
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first
clause.
You
don’t
even
need
to
analyze
the
second
word
(affirm).
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4. Don’t stop short of considering each and every
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answer choice.
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Okay, you’ve thought up your own answer first, and one of the five choices
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looks perfect. Should you select it and move on, without considering the
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others? No! Remember: The qualitative difference between the best and
9
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9
second best answer can be subtle.
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Keep in mind that filling in the blanks with your own words is only a
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starting point. Don’t expect to find your answer verbatim among the
9
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9
choices because most SAT sentence completions are not that easy. For
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9
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example, in question 3, if you were filling in the blank yourself
9
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(without
the
aid
of
the
answer
choices),
what
word
would
you
use?
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9
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The missing word refers to “sleep,” so perhaps a word such as state or
9
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condition
might
occur
to
you
as
a
logical
completion.
While
choice
(E)
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9
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provides the word “condition,” another choice turned out to be better.
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9
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124 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9
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www.petersons.com

Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win

Take It to the Next Level

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Question 3
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If
choices
(B)
and
(E)
were
switched,
you
might
have
been
tempted
to
select
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9
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(B) without considering other choices. But you’d have been wrong!
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9
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Question
4
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Choice (C) seemed to fit okay, but if you selected it and moved on without
9
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9
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considering
later
choices,
you’d
have
missed
the
best
answer,
choice
(D).
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9
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5. Don’t choose an answer to a dual-blank question
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just because one of the words is a perfect fit.
9
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As often as not, one word that fits perfectly is paired with another word that
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9
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doesn’t fit well at all. When it comes to dual-blank questions, this is the
9
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9
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test-makers’ favorite trap. Don’t fall for it!
9
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Question 4
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The
word
serve
in
choice
(A)
is
a
perfect
fit
for
the
first
blank;
yet,
(A)
is
not
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9
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the correct answer choice.
9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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6. Don’t choose an answer just because it contains
9
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9
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a
tough
word.
9
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9
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Expect to encounter some tough vocabulary words in later sentence
9
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9
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completion
questions.
But
don’t
choose
an
answer
just
because
it
includes
a
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9
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difficult
word.
By
the
same
token,
don’t
rule
it
out
for
this
reason.
That’s
9
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9
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not how the test-makers design sentence completions. Instead, try to take
9
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9
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your
best
guess
as
to
what
the
word
might
mean
(perhaps
it
looks
a
bit
like
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9
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a familiar word). A reasoned guess is better than an unreasoned one, right?
9
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9
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Question 4
9
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The word belie happened to be part of the best answer; but that’s just the
9
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9
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way this question turned out. Don’t generalize from this single example!
9
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9
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7. Choose between the best choices by checking
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9
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for
idiom,
usage,
and
awkwardness.
9
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9
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Don’t forget that the test-makers are covering not just overall sentence sense
9
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9
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but
also
word
usage
(whether
a
word
is
used
properly)
and
idiom
(how
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9
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ideas are expressed as phrases). If you’re having trouble deciding between
9
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9
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choices, check for these two problems, and eliminate any answer choice that
9
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9
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makes
any
part
of
the
sentence
confusing
or
awkward.
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9
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9
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Question 4
9
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Both (C) and (E) contain subtle usage and idiom problems that distinguish
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9
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them from the best answer choice (D).
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9 125
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1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

and should learn to recognize: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Contrast 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Similarity 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Restatement 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 • Cause and effect 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Not every tough sentence completion question will illustrate one of 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 these four connections. one part of a sentence contains an idea that 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 contrasts with. Yet another feature that makes for a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tougher question is a sentence with a complex logical structure.com . signpost words are included to connect the sentence’s parts 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 together to form a complete idea that makes sense (assuming the right 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 words are used to fill in the blanks. but most will. Here are the types of connections 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 that you’re most likely to encounter. we’ll 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 focus on the test-makers’ four favorite types of connections and the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 “signpost” words used for each type.Part III: Reviewing the Sections Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The Test-Makers’ Favorite Sentence 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Connections 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Earlier in this lesson. or is opposed to. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) illness 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) war 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) youth 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) marriage 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) convalescence 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 126 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The test-makers are rather predictable when it comes to how they construct 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 complex sentences that contain “signpost” words.) For the remainder of this lesson. you’ll begin to recognize certain patterns in how parts of 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the sentences connect together logically.petersons. we looked at how advanced vocabulary and subtle 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 distinctions between best and second-best answer choices can make for 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 tougher sentence completion questions. In this kind 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 of sentence. Whereas Wordsworth wrote his best poetry during __________. an idea in another part of the sentence. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Contrast 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In a sentence fitting this pattern. Yeats 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 wrote some of his finest poems when he was over 70-years old. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Here’s an example: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 5. Once you see enough of 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 these sentences.

9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Here are some other “signpost” words used to signal a Contrast connection: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 although however on the other hand 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 but nevertheless unlike 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 by contrast nonetheless yet 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 despite 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 For the sentence involving Wordsworth and Yeats. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Similarity 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In a sentence fitting this pattern. the first part of the sentence tells you 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 something about Wordsworth that should contrast with what the second 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 part of the sentence tells you about Yeats. In other words. Some you’d use to introduce the first part of the 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sentence.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win Take It to the Next Level Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is (C). one part describes something that is similar 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to something described in another part of the sentence. as in this variation: 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Wordsworth wrote his best poetry during __________. if so. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Wordsworth must have written his best poetry when he was young. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) were reluctant to play 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) marveled at 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) were intimidated by 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) were anxious to master 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) misunderstood 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 127 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 .” isn’t it? Without this word. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The single word “Whereas” makes all the difference. where). 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 you couldn’t make the Contrast connection. Since the second part says that 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Yeats wrote his best poetry when he was old (“over 70-years old”). you could use 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 almost any word from the preceding list instead of “whereas” to set up 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the same contrast. think about 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 how you’d fill in the blank without the word. The 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 only answer choice that provides this contrast is (C). musicians during the time of Bach __________ 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the organ. Here’s an example: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 6. If you doubt this. others you’d use to introduce the second part of the sentence. It tells you that a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 contrast is coming. What is there about the sentence that tells you to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 look for a contrast? It’s the word “Whereas. the technical wonder of its day. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Try each one to see if it fits (and. Just as musicians in the 1970s were amazed by the powers of the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 electronic synthesizer. and Yeats wrote 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 some of his finest poems when he was over 70-years old.

“marveled at. so it’s the best answer choice.” provides the similarity. Since the sentence indicates that 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 musicians of the 1970s “were amazed by” the synthesizer. endanger9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 ing. and there are no connecting words that signal 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 anything but restatement. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Restatement 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In a sentence fitting this pattern. most people resent intrusive government rules. . and the longer phrase as 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 its definition. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Here are some other words and phrases that act as Similarity “signposts”: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 as like similarly 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in the same way likewise 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Try redrafting the sentence about synthesizers using each of these signposts 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 instead of the words “just as. the words for the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 blank should express something similar about the reaction to the organ. .petersons.divided 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) investment. In this sentence.com . defines or clarifies 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 what is said in another part of the sentence. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 128 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. Here’s an example: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 7.emotional 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) regulation. The first part is much 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 briefer than the second. As you read the sentence as a whole. . What provides the clue for this connection? In this sentence. the words “Just as” tell you that the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 two parts of the sentence are describing similar situations. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 musicians during Bach’s time reacted to the organ in the same way that mu9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 sicians in the 1970s reacted to the synthesizer.” You’ll notice that some words work only to 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 begin the first clause. . Public attitudes toward business __________ are somewhat 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 __________. A dictionary might separate the entry from its definition 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 with a colon. whereas others work only to begin the second clause. yet they 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 expect government to prevent businesses from defrauding. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Think of the brief phrase as a dictionary entry. In other words. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 there are two keys: the semicolon and the syntax. you get the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 distinct idea that the second part is intended to elucidate (clarify or explain) 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 the first part. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) ethics.skeptical 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is (D).ambiguous 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) leaders.confused 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) practices. here a semicolon serves a similar purpose. Only 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 choice (B). or exploiting the public. one part paraphrases.Part III: Reviewing the Sections Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is (B). .

(Notice the keyword “yet. (B) and (D) work best.) So. (A) and (C).” 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 “confused. and you’ll find out which three work. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 As you just saw. the attitude described is self-contradictory in that the same person 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 typically has conflicting expectations when it comes to government rules for 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 business. For the first blank.” and “ambiguous” all convey the general idea that the public 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 wants two things that don’t go together very well. “divided. Choices (A). work okay for the first blank. the second part (following the semicolon) describes in some 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 detail the public’s attitude about government rules for business. As you can 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 see.Chapter 4: Critical Reading Section—A Game of Words You CAN Win Take It to the Next Level Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In this sentence. you 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 want a word that describes what the second part of the sentence also 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 describes. the sentence as a whole has 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 to do with “business regulation.” which signals the contradiction. while “practices” is a bit too vague. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 129 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 . the semicolon without a connector word might provide a 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 wordless warning that a Restatement might be taking place. Try redrafting the sentence with the addition of each 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 marker in turn. the rules laid down by government 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 for business.” that is. Choice (D) appears to be the best fit.) Try 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 starting with the second blank. which often mark Restatement connections: 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in fact in short that is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 in other words namely 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Three of these markers could easily be inserted into the sentence about 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 business regulation to strengthen the signal that a Restatement is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 taking place. the 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 best answer choice is (D). Two other choices. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 But “ethics” is a bit too specific. (You 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 already eliminated choice (C) based on the second missing word. You’re looking for a word that accurately 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 captures the public attitude. look for 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 these keywords and phrases. Also.

“advantages” is an apt expression of this natural effect. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 produces. the phrase “have .Part III: Reviewing the Sections Note 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 Cause and Effect 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 In a sentence fitting this pattern. one part describes something that causes. it 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 would be a good guess that an incumbent candidate is the current 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 office holder. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 To understand the preceding sentence. it helps to know that an 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 “incumbent politician” is one who is already in office. So. put another way.com . (A more effective and clearer phrase is “receive 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 contributions.” and a “challenger” is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 typically a person who goes up against a current title holder.”) So. Even if you 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 don’t know what “incumbent” means. as he would like. . or result. or as 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 little. on this count as well. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (A) propensities 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (B) expenses 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (C) contributions 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (D) budgets 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 (E) advantages 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 The correct answer is (E). contributions” is 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 an awkward idiom. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 significant “contributions” or “budgets” wouldn’t necessarily be logical. what effects would be caused by the power and 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 recognition of public office? One natural effect would be to make it easier to 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 run for reelection. Or. 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 130 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789 www. When waging election campaigns against challengers. .” What precedes this phrase describes the effect. the power and recognition of public 9 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 9 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890